WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensitive diagnostic methods

  1. Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes. PMID:23876671

  2. Local Sensitivity and Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Vasnev, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we confront sensitivity analysis with diagnostic testing.Every model is misspecified, but a model is useful if the parameters of interest (the focus) are not sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying assumptions. The study of the e ect of these violations on the focus is

  3. The sensitivity of clinical diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onde, M E; Ozge, A; Senol, M G; Togrol, E; Ozdag, F; Saracoglu, M; Misirli, H

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the sensitivity of various methods for the clinical diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A total of 147 randomly selected patients with diabetes mellitus and 65 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated by various clinical (the neuropathy symptom score [NSS], the neuropathy disability score [NDS], vibration perception thresholds [VPTs], Tinel's sign and Phalen's sign), laboratory (fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels) and electro-physiological (nerve conduction studies, H-reflex and F-wave measurements) methods. In the patient group, 8.2% had an abnormal NSS, 28.5% had a positive Phalen's sign, 32.6% had a positive Tinel's sign, 42.8% had an abnormal VPT and 57.1% had an abnormal NDS. Significant correlations were found between electro-physiologically confirmed neuropathy and the two provocation tests and abnormal VPTs. In conclusion, assessment with a complete neurological examination and standard electrophysiological tests is very important for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the prevention of morbidity in patients with or without symptoms.

  4. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a participatory disease surveillance method for highly pathogenic avian influenza in household chicken flocks in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, M; Priyono, W B; Kim, L M; Brum, E

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a disease surveillance method for diagnosis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in household chicken flocks used by participatory disease surveillance (PDS) teams in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. The Government of Indonesia, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, has implemented a PDS method for the detection of HPAI outbreaks in poultry since 2006. The PDS method in Indonesia utilizes both a clinical case definition (CD) and the result of a commercial rapid antigen test kit Yogyakarta 55611, to diagnose HPAI outbreaks, primarily in backyard chicken flocks. The following diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were obtained relative to real-time reverse transcription-PCR as the gold standard diagnostic test: 1) 89% sensitivity (CI95: 75%-97%) and 96% specificity (CI95: 89%-99%) for the PDS CD alone; 2) 86% sensitivity (CI95: 71%-95%) and 99% specificity (CI95: 94%-100%) for the rapid antigen test alone; and 3) 84% sensitivity (CI95: 68%-94%) and 100% specificity (CI95: 96%-100%) for the PDS CD result combined with the rapid antigen test result. Based on these results, HPAI outbreaks in extensively raised household chickens can be diagnosed with sufficient sensitivity and specificity using the PDS method as implemented in Indonesia. Subject to further field evaluation, data from this study suggest that the diagnostic sensitivity of the PDS method may be improved by expanding the PDS CD to include more possible clinical presentations of HPAI and by increasing the number of rapid antigen tests to three different birds with HPAI-compatible signs of same flock.

  5. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  6. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-11-02

    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  7. The sensitivity and efficacy method of PIK3CA exon 9 E545A as a high diagnostic accuracy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PIK3s are lipid kinases. Mutation in the exon 9 and exon 20 determined as a predictive factor in anti-HER-2 therapy. In some countries, such as Singapore, China, and Peru, PIK3CA exon 9 E545A was reported to produce the highest rate of mutation. In this research, we developed and optimized PIK3CA exon 9 E545A detection methods with intercalating dye SYBR Green I based on the Tm Shift approach by using prepared recombinant plasmid pGEMT-easy PIK3CA exon 9 and PIK3CA exon 9 E545A. Recombinant plasmid was used due to the limited number of samples. Methods: Recombinant plasmid was prepared based on manufactured procedures, and this process was then followed by Tm prediction with Poland software, Tm Shift SYBR Green I development, and its characterization (reproducibility, repeatability, sensitivity, qPCR efficiency, and qPCR amplification, respectively. Result: A method for PIK3CA E545A detection based on TM shift SYBR Green I has been successfully developed. The melting temperature for PIK3CA exon 9 was 78.1 ± 0.1 °C, while that for PIK3CA exon E545A was 80.20 °C. The Tm of mutant was the same as that predicted using Polland Software. The reproducibility of the methods was high, with the coefficient values for inter and intra assays were below 10% with a high sensitivity at 1%, while R2 0.99 and PCR efficiency was 97.75%. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate that the PIK3CA exon 9 E545A detection method has a good sensitivity and efficacy assay, which proves that the method has a high diagnostic accuracy in breast cancer. Keywords: SYBR Green I, PIK3CA E545A, Breast cancer, Real time PCR, Recombinant plasmid

  8. Evaluation of laboratory diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) is very laborious, and stool ... Objective: This research was set to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ... 93.1% (MZN to ELISA) with ELISA techniques showing the highest sensitivity at ...

  9. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  10. Diagnostic method and reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, T.S.; Plow, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of an isomeric species of carcinoembryonic antigen and methods of isolation, identification and utilization as a radiolabelled species of the same as an aid in the diagnosis of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are disclosed. 13 claims

  11. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  12. Sensitive Molecular Diagnostics for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Orli; Berkowitz, Anat; Codish, Shlomi; Novack, Victor; Rashti, Aviv; Akad, Fouad; Shemer-Avni, Yonat

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and identification of Leishmania species is highly important for the disease management. In Israel, CL is caused mainly by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica species. We established an easy to handle point of care lesion-swabbing, combined with a highly sensitive multiplex real time PCR (multiplex qPCR) for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Leishmania species. Using three probes: one general for: Leishmania species, and two specific for L major , and L tropica , we screened 1783 clinical samples collected during two years. Leishmania species was found in 1086 individuals, 1008 L major , and 70 L tropica . Eight samples positive for Leishmania species only, were further tested using a second set of multiplex qPCR developed, and were found positive for Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum/donovani (2 and 6 samples, concomitantly). Taken together, the test enabled diagnostics and better treatment of Leishmania infections from the Old World (1078 samples) and the New World (8 samples), and the subtyping of the dominant strains in the region, as well as in returning travelers'.

  13. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Focus on MG Newsletter MG Quarterly Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events 2018 MG ...

  14. Diagnostic Methods for Feline Coronavirus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

  15. Diagnostic herd sensitivity using environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    either at farm or slaughter. Three sample matrices were collected; dust samples (5 environmental swabs), nasal swabs (10 pools with 5 animals per pool) and air samples (1 filter). Based on the assumption that MRSA occurred in all 48 herds the overall herd sensitivity was 58% for nasal swabs, 33% for dust....... In our example, the prevalence of infected pigs in each herd was estimated from the pooled samples of nasal swabs. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of animal prevalence on the probability to detect MRSA in the dust and air samples at herd level. The results show a significant increase...

  16. The need for culture sensitive diagnostic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Limburg-Okken, Annechien G.; van Es, Hans; Sidali, Salah; Kadri, Nadia; van den Brink, Wim; Kahn, Rene S.

    Objective We examine the procedural validity of a standardized instrument for the diagnosis of psychotic disorders in Morocco. Method Twenty-nine patients from Casablanca, Morocco, with a psychotic or mood disorder were examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) an

  17. Drug sensitivity testing platforms for gastric cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Vianne; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Ng, Christopher; Mok, Yingting; Lakshmanan, Manikandan; Yan, Benedict

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer diagnostics has traditionally been histomorphological and primarily the domain of surgical pathologists. Although there is an increasing usage of molecular and genomic techniques for clinical diagnostics, there is an emerging field of personalised drug sensitivity testing. In this review, we describe the various personalised drug sensitivity testing platforms and discuss the challenges facing clinical adoption of these assays for gastric cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Artificial intelligence methods for diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourgnon-Hanoune, A.; Porcheron, M.; Ricard, B.

    1996-01-01

    To assist in diagnosis of its nuclear power plants, the Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has been developing skills in Artificial Intelligence for about a decade. Different diagnostic expert systems have been designed. Among them, SILEX for control rods cabinet troubleshooting, DIVA for turbine generator diagnosis, DIAPO for reactor coolant pump diagnosis. This know how in expert knowledge modeling and acquisition is direct result of experience gained during developments and of a more general reflection on knowledge based system development. We have been able to reuse this results for other developments such as a guide for auxiliary rotating machines diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument

  20. [Extrahepatic biliary atresia: diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauduro, Sydney M

    2003-01-01

    To emphasize the importance of precocious diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia and its direct relationship with the surgical re-establishment of the biliary flow before the second month of life. To discuss several complementary methods with the aim of selecting the ones that present better evidence, and avoiding delays in diagnosis and worse prognostic. Bibliographical researching regarding the period of 1985-2001, in Medline and MdConsult, using the following key words: neo-natal cholestasis; extrahepatic biliary atresia; neo-natal hepatitis. National and foreign articles were also elected based on the bibliography of consulted publications, and when necessary, for better understanding of the theme, opinions emitted in theses and textbooks were referred. The revision of the consulted bibliography led to the assumption that early diagnosis of EHBA and surgical treatment to reestablish the biliary flow up to 60 days of life are fundamental in order to achieve good results. Among several complementary methods of diagnosis, cholangiography by MR, US and the hepatic biopsy are the ones that provide the largest success indexes. The referring of patients bearers of EHBA to centers of references in Brazil, is still made tardily, probably due to lack of enlightenment of the doctors of primary attention, allied to bureaucratic and technological difficulties. The experience in England in relation to the "Yellow Alert" program, allowed that the number of children referred to surgical treatment before the 60 days of life increased significantly. Among the complementary methods, the MR cholangiography, ultrasonography and hepatic biopsy should be used, depending on the technological resources of the diagnosis units.

  1. THE CURRENT METHODS FOR MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF FISH DISEASES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zaloilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The methods of molecular diagnostic (MMD gradually become widespread in modern fish farming. MMD contain a wide variety of specific approaches, each of which has distinct limits of their possible applications and is characterized by individual peculiarities in practical performance. In addition to high sensitivity and the possibility of rapid diagnostics, the main advantage of molecular methods is to determine the uncultivated infectious agents. DNA amplification allows identifying pathogenic microorganisms at very small quantities even in the minimum sample volume. Molecular methods of diagnostic enable the determination of infection in latent or acute phases. These methods allow showing the differences between pathogens with similar antigenic structures. The current literature data on this subject usually show a methodology in the narrow context of the tasks or practical results obtained through such approaches. Thus, a synthesis of existing information on the mechanisms of action and the limits of the typical problems of basic methods of molecular diagnostics are an urgent task of fish breeding. In particular, the following description will more effectively choose one or several approaches to identify pathogens in fish. Findings. This paper reviews the basic molecular methods that are used in the world's aquaculture for diagnosis of various diseases in commercial fish species. Originality. This work is a generalization of data on the principles and mechanisms for the implementation of diagnostics based on modern molecular techniques. For each of the mentioned approaches, the most promising areas of application were shown. The information is provided in the form of a comparative analysis of each methodology, indicating positive and negative practical aspects. Practical value. The current review of modern methods of molecular diagnostic in aquaculture is focused on practical application. Generalizing and analytical information can be

  2. An assessment of diagnostic efficiency by Taguchi/DEA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Mehmet Tolga; Sezen, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new, objective and consistent method for the calculation of the diagnostic efficiency in medical applications. In this study, a hybrid method of Taguchi and DEA is proposed. This method reflects the diversity of inputs and outputs by incorporating the stepwise application of sensitivity, specificity, leveling threshold, and efficiency score. A hypothetical case study is given which involves eight readers of X-ray films in clinical radiology. The selected pairs of sensitivity and specificity yielded two efficient readers. After super efficiency analysis, Reader 6 is found to be the most efficient reader. The paper presents a new, objective and consistent method for the calculation of the diagnostic efficiency in medical applications.

  3. Diagnostic methods for insect sting allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2004-08-01

    This review overviews advances from mid-2002 to the present in the validation and performance methods used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom-induced immediate-type hypersensitivity. The general diagnostic algorithm for insect sting allergy is initially discussed with an examination of the AAAAI's 2003 revised practice parameter guidelines. Changes as a result of a greater recognition of skin test negative systemic reactors include repeat analysis of all testing and acceptance of serology as a complementary diagnostic test to the skin test. Original data examining concordance of venom-specific IgE results produced by the second-generation Pharmacia CAP System with the Johns Hopkins University radioallergosorbent test are presented. Diagnostic performance of honeybee venom-specific IgE assays used in clinical laboratories in North America is discussed using data from the Diagnostic Allergy Proficiency Survey conducted by the College of American Pathologists. Validity of venom-specific IgE antibody in postmortem blood specimens is demonstrated. The utility of alternative in-vivo (provocation) and in-vitro (basophil-based) diagnostic testing methods is critiqued. This overview supports the following conclusions. Improved practice parameter guidelines include serology and skin test as complementary in supporting a positive clinical history during the diagnostic process. Data are provided which support the analytical performance of commercially available venom-specific IgE antibody serology-based assays. Intentional sting challenge in-vivo provocation, in-vitro basophil flow cytometry (CD63, CD203c) based assays, and in-vitro basophil histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release assays have their utility in the study of difficult diagnostic cases, but their use will remain as supplementary, secondary diagnostic tests.

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Proposed "DSM-5" Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential impact of proposed "DSM-5" diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: The study focused on a sample of 933 participants evaluated during the "DSM-IV" field trial; 657 carried a clinical diagnosis of an ASD, and 276 were diagnosed with a non-autistic disorder. Sensitivity and…

  5. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingxia; Wei Kentang; Ye Yunchang

    2002-01-01

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  6. Measuring methods for the TFR plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etievant, C.

    1975-02-01

    The measuring methods in operation or still under development for the diagnostics of the TFR plasma parameters (ion and electron temperatures, electron density, current density are reviewed, the diagnostics of the electrical behavior of the discharge, the neutral gas densities, the impurities and the parameters of the plasma turbulence being also investigated. Actual works are principally devoted to: improving ion temperature measurements by the possible use of the Doppler effect or infra-red incoherent scattering; improving n(e) and T(e) measurement by Thomson scattering; measuring the poloidal field and current density; measuring impurities by X and UV spectroscopy and measuring instabilities and turbulence [fr

  7. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijana Hertl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the world as well as in Slovenia, breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer. Due to its high incidence, it appears to be a serious health and economic problem. Content. Among other, tumour size at diagnosis, is an important prognostic factors of the course of the disease. The probability of axillary lymph node involvement as well as distant metastases is greater in larger tumours. This is the reason that encouraged the development of various diagnostic methods for early detection of small, clinically non-palpable breast tumours. Mammography, however, remains the »golden standard« of early breast cancer detection. It is the basic diagnostic method applied in all symptomatic women over 35 years of age and in asymptomatic women over 40 years of age. Ultrasonography (US, additional projections, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ductography are regarded as complementary diagnostic breast imaging techniques in addition to mammography. The detected changes in the breast can be further confirmed by US-, MR-guided or stereotactic biopsy. If necessary, surgical biopsy and the excision of a tissue sample, after wire or isotope localisation of the nonpalpable lesion, can be performed. Conclusions. Any of the above mentioned diagnostic methods has advantages as well as drawbacks and only detailed knowledge and understanding of each of them may assure the best option.

  8. On some methods of NPP functional diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for NPP functional diagnosis, in which space and time dependences for controlled variable anomalous deviations change are used as characteristic features, are suggested. The methods are oriented for operative recognition of suddenly appearing defects and envelop quite a wide range of possible anomalous effects in an onject under diagnostics. Analysis of transients dynamic properties caused by a failure is realized according to the rules, which do not depend on the character of anomalous situation development

  9. Leak detection by vibrational diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siklossy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities and methods of leak detection due to mechanical failures in nuclear power plants are reviewed on the basis of the literature. Great importance is attributed to vibrational diagnostic methods for their adventageous characteristics which enable them to become final leak detecting methods. The problems of noise analysis, e.g. leak detection by impact sound measurements, probe characteristics, gain problems, probe selection, off-line analysis and correlation functions, types of leak noises etc. are summarized. Leak detection based on noise analysis can be installed additionally to power plants. Its maintenance and testing is simple. On the other hand, it requires special training and measuring methods. (Sz.J.)

  10. Revolutionary diagnostic method using rotating atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, W.

    1986-01-23

    Nuclear tomography, a newcomer in medical diagnostics, has rapidly gained ground and recently achieved a decisive success: Electronic sectional images of the body which hitherto took measuring times of several minutes now can be obtained within only a few seconds. This jump in time has been earned by experts of the Goettingen Max Planck Institute for biophysical chemistry who puzzled out the significant modification of the method, which offers completely new insight to clinical diagnostics. One advantage is that nuclear magnetic resonance imaging - as the method also is called - allows dynamic processes to be made visible, and not only the movements of anatomic structures such as the heart, but indeed also physiological processes such as renal excretion. The other decisive improvement is that three-dimensional images of tissue and organs can be obtained. And on top of it all, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging does not invade the patient's body with harmful radiation.

  11. Revolutionary diagnostic method using rotating atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frese, W.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear tomography, a newcomer in medical diagnostics, has rapidly gained ground and recently achieved a decisive success: Electronic sectional images of the body which hitherto took measuring times of several minutes now can be obtained within only a few seconds. This jump in time has been earned by experts of the Goettingen Max Planck Institute for biophysical chemistry who puzzled out the significant modification of the method, which offers completely new insight to clinical diagnostics. One advantage is that nuclear magnetic resonance imaging - as the method also is called - allows dynamic processes to be made visible, and not only the movements of anatomic structures such as the heart, but indeed also physiological processes such as renal excretion. The other decisive improvement is that three-dimensional images of tissue and organs can be obtained. And on top of it all, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging does not invade the patient's body with harmful radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  13. Sensitivity study of a proposed polarimetry diagnostic on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, H.P.; McCarthy, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    ASDEX-Upgrade currently uses FIR interferometry (DCN, 195 μm) as a technique for measuring line integrated electron density along eight chords of the plasma cross-section. A polarimetry diagnostic based on Faraday rotation using the existing setup would yield ∫ n e B.dl along the same chords which, in combination with the ∫ n e dl measurements, would provide additional information about the poloidal magnetic field. This would be helpful for reconstructing the q(ψ) profile, which is difficult to recover from external magnetic measurements alone. A sensitivity study to determine the effectiveness of adding polarimetry to ASDEX Upgrade is carried out using function parameterization on a simulated equilibrium database, together with a database of randomly chosen density profiles with four degrees of freedom. The robustness of the recovery in the presence of measurement noise and the effects of plasma birefringence are taken into account. (orig.)

  14. The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains--conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills--and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence of significant limitations of adaptive behavior for the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The purpose of this study, which was composed of 125 individuals with and 933 without an ID-related diagnosis, was to determine the ability of the DABS to correctly identify the individuals with and without ID (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). The results indicate that the DABS sensitivity coefficients ranged from 81% to 98%, specificity coefficients ranged from 89% to 91%, and that the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve were excellent or good. These results indicate that the DABS has very good levels of diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sensitivity of lod scores to changes in diagnostic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, S E; Greenberg, D A

    1992-05-01

    This paper investigates effects on lod scores when one individual in a data set changes diagnostic or recombinant status. First we examine the situation in which a single offspring in a nuclear family changes status. The nuclear-family situation, in addition to being of interest in its own right, also has general theoretical importance, since nuclear families are "transparent"; that is, one can track genetic events more precisely in nuclear families than in complex pedigrees. We demonstrate that in nuclear families log10 [(1-theta)/theta] gives an upper limit on the impact that a single offspring's change in status can have on the lod score at that recombination fraction (theta). These limits hold for a fully penetrant dominant condition and fully informative marker, in either phase-known or phase-unknown matings. Moreover, log10 [(1-theta)/theta] (where theta denotes the value of theta at which Zmax occurs) gives an upper limit on the impact of a single offspring's status change on the maximum lod score (Zmax). In extended pedigrees, in contrast to nuclear families, no comparable limit can be set on the impact of a single individual on the lod score. Complex pedigrees are subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing influences, and these are described. Finally, we describe a "sensitivity analysis," in which, after all linkage analysis is completed, every informative individual in the data set is changed, one at a time, to see the effect which each separate change has on the lod scores. The procedure includes identifying "critical individuals," i.e., those who would have the greatest impact on the lod scores, should their diagnostic status in fact change. To illustrate use of the sensitivity analysis, we apply it to the large bipolar pedigree reported by Egeland et al. and Kelsoe et al. We show that the changes in lod scores observed there, on the order of 1.1-1.2 per person, are not unusual. We recommend that investigators include a sensitivity analysis as a

  16. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  17. Diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzon, T.; Mielnik, J.; Gosciniak, W.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility have been presented. In details have been discussed PJ, PK HSG and pelviscopy. These examinations themselves constitute the basic ones in infertility. We turned our attention into technical details and possible mistakes which may occur at the time of performing them, these misinterpretations may lead to absolutely wrong conclusion and diagnosis. Authors have wide experience in performing the discussed examinations and this allows them to share their opinion. Over the years several thousand of PK and HSG examinations have been carried out and also 1000 laparoscopies. (author)

  18. Diagnostic methods of thermal dusty plasma flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in the high-temperature flows of condensed disperse phase (CDP) particles may lead either to an increase of the electron number density n e if the particles assume a positive charge or to its decrease if the charge is negative. The existence of CDP also may effect on optical parameters of the thermal dusty plasma flows, on heat and radiative transfer in the plasma. The entire range of states, from a Debye plasma to a highly nonideal system of charged particles, is realized in a thermal dusty plasma under standard conditions T=2000-3000 K, n e =10 8 - 10 14 cm -3 . The advanced probe and optical diagnostic instruments are needed to study the optical and electrophysical properties of thermal dusty plasma flows. The diagnostic techniques must give the data about such parameters of gas and dispersed phase as temperatures of gas and particles, number densities of electrons, atoms and ions of alkali metals, sizes, velocities and concentrations of CDP particles. It should be noted that number density of alkali metal atoms and gas temperature may be measured by the well known full absorption and generalized reversal methods. This paper describes the probe and optical techniques for diagnostic of dusty plasma flows developed in High Energy Density Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences. The Forward Angle Scattering Transmissometer (FAST) allows measurement of the average size (Sauter diameter), mass number density, and refractive index of particles in the 0.5-15.0 gm size range. The basis of the method is a dependence of the measured extinction of radiation upon an angular acceptance aperture of the photo detector. The FAST instrument allows one to determine the mass density and the Sauter diameter of a polydispersion of particles without a priori specification of the particle size distribution model and exact data about the article refractive index

  19. Diagnostic methods of thermal dusty plasma flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in the high-temperature flows of condensed disperse phase (CDP) particles may lead either to an increase of the electron number density n e if the particles assume a positive charge or to its decrease if the charge is negative. The existence of CDP also may effect on optical parameters of the thermal dusty plasma flows, on heat and radiative transfer in the plasma. The entire range of states, from a Debye plasma to a highly nonideal system of charged particles, is realized in a thermal dusty plasma under standard conditions T=2000-3000 K, n e =10 8 -10 14 cm -3 . The advanced probe and optical diagnostic instruments are needed to study the optical and electrophysical properties of thermal dusty plasma flows. The diagnostic techniques must give the data about such parameters of gas and dispersed phase as temperatures of gas and particles, number densities of electrons, atoms and ions of alkali metals, sizes, velocities and concentrations of CDP particles. It should be noted that number density of alkali metal atoms and gas temperature may be measured by the well known full absorption and generalized reversal methods. This paper describes the probe and optical techniques for diagnostic of dusty plasma flows developed in High Energy Density Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences. The Forward Angle Scattering Transmissometer (FAST) allows measurement of the average size (Sauter diameter), mass number density, and refractive index of particles in the 0.5-15.0 μm size range. The basis of the method is a dependence of the measured extinction of radiation upon an angular acceptance aperture of the photo detector. The FAST instrument allows one to determine the mass density and the Sauter diameter of a polydispersion of particles without a priori specification of the particle size distribution model and exact data about the particle refractive index

  20. High speed manyframe optical methods for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Zorev, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    A complex of active optical plasma and strong ionized shock wave diagnostics is described. The complex consisted of a specially developed high speed manyframe systems of shadow, schlieren and interferometric photography. The comparison of results obtained by a simultaneous registration of investigated object by means of different optical methods allowed us to determine optimal employment range for the methods. The sensitivity, temporal and space resolution of each optical method under conditions of high probe radiation refraction are discussed. The application boundaries of these methods for ionized shock wave investigation were found to depend on the shock wave front width. The methods described were used for the study of laser-produced plasma phenomena, occuring in the experiments on powerful nine-channel laser installation ''Kalmar''. (author)

  1. Transcranial Doppler sonography as diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Đelilović-Vranić

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind the fact that cerebrovascular disease (CVB takes today in medicine, in spite of diagnostic and therapeutic modernisation, the third place of mortality causes in the world (behind cordial and malignant diseases, but in front of depressions, and the second place of invalidity cause (right after trauma as well as the second place of dementia cause (after Alzheimer disease, it urges primary prophylaxis. Developing countries, but before all countries of East and Middle Europe, where is our country, are highly risked areas where CV disease has trend of incidence and total frequency increase. In the neighbouring Croatia today CV disease is at the first place of mortality causes. In the world today 5 million people annually suffer CV disease, in Europe about 700.000, but frequency of suffering on Balkan is about 5 prom. Age of CV disease effecting unfortunately moved towards young age, and today 49% of effected by CV disease are of 46 to 59 years of age. Early detection and treatment of risk factors (before hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, stress and physical non-activities are the first aspect of CV disease prophylaxis. Together with this aspect of primary prophylaxis is early detection of complications of mentioned risk factors on the walls of blood vessels, before all changing in sense of arteriosclerosis, with consequence of disorder of cerebral haemodynamics. With that objective - verification of circulator and total haemodynamic disorders, there is obvious disclose of non-invasive diagnostic methods, and one of them is Transcranial Doppler Sonography(TCD. TCD is method comfortable for patient, reliable and rather precise, dynamic, and can be repeated several times, without side effects and in comparison with others rather cheap.

  2. Sensitivity analysis for publication bias in meta-analysis of diagnostic studies for a continuous biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Satoshi; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2018-02-10

    Publication bias is one of the most important issues in meta-analysis. For standard meta-analyses to examine intervention effects, the funnel plot and the trim-and-fill method are simple and widely used techniques for assessing and adjusting for the influence of publication bias, respectively. However, their use may be subjective and can then produce misleading insights. To make a more objective inference for publication bias, various sensitivity analysis methods have been proposed, including the Copas selection model. For meta-analysis of diagnostic studies evaluating a continuous biomarker, the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve is a very useful method in the presence of heterogeneous cutoff values. To our best knowledge, no methods are available for evaluation of influence of publication bias on estimation of the sROC curve. In this paper, we introduce a Copas-type selection model for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies and propose a sensitivity analysis method for publication bias. Our method enables us to assess the influence of publication bias on the estimation of the sROC curve and then judge whether the result of the meta-analysis is sufficiently confident or should be interpreted with much caution. We illustrate our proposed method with real data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux - correlation between diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Maria das Gracas de Almeida; Penas, Maria Exposito; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa; Lemme, Eponina Maria O.; Martinho, Maria Jose Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    A group of 97 individuals with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was submitted to gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) and compared to the results obtained from endoscopy, histopathology and 24 hours pHmetry. Twenty-four healthy individuals were used as a control group and they have done only the GERS. The results obtained showed that: a) the difference int he reflux index (RI) for the control group and the sick individuals was statistically significant (p < 0.0001); b) the correlation between GERS and the other methods showed the following results: sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 95%; positive predictive value, 98%; negative predictive value, 67%; accuracy, 87%. We have concluded that the scintigraphic method should be used to confirm the diagnosis of GERD and also recommended as initial investiative procedure. (author)

  4. [The diagnostic methods applied in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Alicja; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The systemic fungal invasions are recognized with increasing frequency and constitute a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis improves prognosis, but remains a problem because there is lack of sensitive tests to aid in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses on the one hand, and on the other the patients only present unspecific signs and symptoms, thus delaying early diagnosis. The diagnosis depends upon a combination of clinical observation and laboratory investigation. The successful laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection depends in major part on the collection of appropriate clinical specimens for investigations and on the selection of appropriate microbiological test procedures. So these problems (collection of specimens, direct techniques, staining methods, cultures on different media and non-culture-based methods) are presented in article.

  5. An ESDIRK Method with Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2004-01-01

    of the sensitivity equations. A key feature is the reuse of information already computed for the state integration, hereby minimizing the extra effort required for sensitivity integration. Through case studies the new algorithm is compared to an extrapolation method and to the more established BDF based approaches...

  6. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Vidal Cortinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR has reduced sensitivity.Objectives:In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols.Methods:In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection.Results:Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP. They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43. For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35. Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001.Conclusions:The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of the amer dizziness diagnostic scale (adds) for patients with vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed diagnostic tool, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), to evaluate and differentially diagnose vestibular disorder and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the scale and its usefulness in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of both genders (72 males, 128 females) aged between 18 to 60 (49.5±7.8) who had a history of vertigo and/or dizziness symptoms for this previous two weeks or less were recruited for the study. All subjects were referred by otolaryngologists, neurologists or family physicians in and around Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the first clinic visit, all the patients were evaluated once using the ADDS, following which they underwent routine testing of clinical signs and symptoms, audiometry, and a neurological examination, coupled with tests of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex function, which often serves as the "gold standard" for determining the probability of a vestibular deficit. [Results] The results show that the ADDS strongly correlated with "true-positive" and "true-negative" responses for determining the probability of a vestibular disorder (r =0.95). A stepwise linear regression was conducted and the results indicate that the ADDS was a significant predictor of "true-positive" and "true-negative" responses in vestibular disorders (R(2) =0.90). Approximately 90% of the variability in the vestibular gold standard test was explained by its relationship to the ADDS. Moreover, the ADDS was found to have a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. [Conclusion] This study showed that the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has high sensitivity and specificity and that it can be used as a method of differential diagnosis for patients with vestibular disorders.

  8. Femoroacetabular cam-type impingement: Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of radiographic views compared to radial MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domayer, S.E.; Ziebarth, K.; Chan, J.; Bixby, S.; Mamisch, T.C.; Kim, Y.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the diagnostic sensitivity of 45° Dunn view and cross-table lateral radiographs for the assessment of cam deformity by comparison with radial MRI. Materials and methods: 60 cases with radiographs (38 a–p and 45° Dunn views, 22 a–p and cross-table lateral views) and radial MRI were assessed. Alpha angle measurements were obtained both for radiographs and radial MRI. Statistics included frequency analysis, bivariate linear correlation analyses of MRI and radiograph measurements and cross-table analyses testing for the sensitivity and specificity of radiographs for the detection of an alpha angle larger than 55°. Results: 53.3% had the maximum alpha angle in the superior–anterior aspect of the femoral head–neck junction. Cam deformity was found in 45/60 cases (75%) in radial MRI. Pearson correlation demonstrated the Dunn view was most accurate for the superior–anterior aspect (.772, P < .001). The cross-table lateral views were best suited for the anterior–superior aspect (.511, P < .05). The sensitivity for cam deformity in the Dunn view was 96.4% vs. 70.6% in the cross-table lateral view. Conclusion: The 45° Dunn view can improve the first line of impingement diagnostics. Radial MRI however remains indispensable for pre-operative planning and the evaluation of symptomatic cases without obvious deformity.

  9. Diagnostic Bias and Conduct Disorder: Improving Culturally Sensitive Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizock, Lauren; Harkins, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Disproportionately high rates of Conduct Disorder are diagnosed in African American and Latino youth of color. Diagnostic bias contributes to overdiagnosis of Conduct Disorder in these adolescents of color. Following a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder, adolescents of color face poorer outcomes than their White counterparts. These negative outcomes…

  10. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal, E-mail: invi@montevideo.com.uy; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital ‘Asociación Española’, Br. Artigas 1515, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-08-15

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  11. Application of noise analysis methods in nuclear reactor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.

    1985-01-01

    By statistical evaluation of the fluctuation component of signals from selected detectors, noise diagnostics detects conditions of equipment which might later result in failure. The objective of early diagnostics is to detect the failed integrity of primary circuit components, failed detectors or anomalies of the thermohydraulic process. The commonest method of experimental data analysis is spectral analysis in the frequency range 0 to 50 Hz. Recently, expert diagnostic systems have been built based on artificial intelligence systems. Czechoslovakia participates in the experimental research of noise diagnostics in the context of the development of diagnostic assemblies for WWER-440 reactors. (M.D.)

  12. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  13. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  14. Analysis of Vibration Diagnostics Methods for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kalinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of existing vibration diagnostics methods. In order to evaluate an efficiency of method application the following criteria have been proposed: volume of input data required for establishing diagnosis, data content, software and hardware level, execution time for vibration diagnostics. According to the mentioned criteria a classification of vibration diagnostics methods for determination of their advantages and disadvantages, search for their development and improvement has been presented in paper. The paper contains a comparative estimation of methods in accordance with the proposed  criteria. According to this estimation the most efficient methods are a spectral analysis and spectral analysis of the vibration signal envelope.

  15. Evidence-Based Assignment of Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage (DPL Sensitivity in Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:There are a large number of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma who have normal vital signs and negative abdominal examination when referred to trauma centers. Agreat deal of controversy exists between authorities about screening these patients for emergency explorative laparotomy. Many references have reported more than 90% sensitivity for DPL as a diagnostic method to determine whether intraabdominal injuries were present and emergent laparotomy is indicated or not. This study is for reassignment of this sensitivity according to our own evidence. Methods: All of the patients with abdominal stab wounds and normal vital signs plus negative abdominal examination who were referred to Shohada-e-Tajrish hospital between March 2004 to December 2005, underwent local wound exploration and those confirmed to have peritoneal penetration, underwent emergency laparotomy. In the operating room and prior to surgery, under general anesthesia, DPL was performed. Then DPL results were compared with laparotomy findings and DPL sensitivity was assigned. Results: Of the total number of 34 patients, 8 had a positive DPL and positive laparotomy; 2 had a positive DPL and negative laparotomy; 8 had negative DPL and positive laparotomy, and 16 patients had negative DPL and negative laparotomy. Conclusion: According to our study, DPL sensitivity is much less than mentioned in trauma texts (approximately 50%. So, it is not a valuable tool to discriminate between operative and conservative approaches in penetrating abdominal trauma. We suggest more sensitive modalities. Laparotomy is the most sensitive approach but at the price of a high negative laparotomy rate.

  16. Punction methods of diagnostics and treatment of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Tolstokorov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to study the punction methods role under diagnostics and treatment of different thyroid diseases. The authors of this article present treatment methods of 121 patients with different thyroid diseases. The received results allow to draw a conclusion, that punction methods of diagnostics and treatment of thyroid disease can be used as independent methods of treatment and in a complex with other medication remedies

  17. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  18. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of check valves in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL check valve aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of check valve monitoring methods and techniques. Several check valve monitoring methods are described and compared. These methods include: acoustic emission monitoring, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA), external magnetics. These diagnostic technologies were shown to be useful in determining check valve condition (e.g., disc position, disc motion, and seat leakage), although none of the methods was by itself, successful in monitoring all three condition indicators. The combination of acoustic emission with either ultrasonics or one of the magnetic technologies, however, yields a monitoring system that succeeds in providing the sensitivity to detect all major check valve operating conditions. Other areas covered in the paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues, utility group activities, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  19. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral stones: Accuracy and factors influencing on diagnostic sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Mi; Han, Sang Seok; Chang, Seung Kuk; Joo, Sang Hoo; Lee, Jeong Sik; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To determine the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis in patients with clinically suspected ureteral stones and to evaluate the factors influencing on the diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of ureteral stone. The patients (115 cases) with proven presence or absence of ureteral stones were included in the study. At first, both sided kidney and proximal ureters were examined on each decubitus position and then middle ureters were done if proximal ureters were visualized. On the supine view, distal ureters and UVJ were scanned through the acoustic window of the filled bladder. KUB (20 cases), IVU (62 cases), AGP (7 cases), RGP (3 cases), ESWL (9 cases), CT (9 cases), and patients' history of spontaneous passage of stones (5 cases) were included as confirmation methods. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral stones were calculated and the factors influencing on the sensitivity on the focus of the position and size of ureteral stone, visibility of ureter, the presence or absence of renal stone and hydronephrosis were analyzed. Of 82 cases with proven ureteral stone, 72 cases were revealed on ultrasonography and there was one false positive examination among 33 cases with proven absence of ureteral stone. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 90%. The ultrasonographic detection rates of ureteral stones as correlated with their locations were 83% (24/29), 100% (11/11), 80% (16/20), and 100% (21/21) of each group of proximal, middle, distal ureter, and UVJ stones. Of 61 stones, those as correlated with their sizes, were 82% (37/45) and 94% (15/16) of each group less than 10 mm and more than 11 mm. Those as correlated with the presence or absence of ureteral visualization on ultrasonography were 92% (69/75) and 43% (3/7) of each group. Those as correlated with presence of absence of renal stones were 85% (41/48) and 91% (31/34) of each group. Those as correlated with presence or absence of hydronephrosis were 89

  20. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  1. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the Two Geometry Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichers, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Two Geometry Method (TGM) was designed specifically for the verification of the uranium enrichment of low enriched UF 6 gas in the presence of uranium deposits on the pipe walls. Complications can arise if the TGM is applied under extreme conditions, such as deposits larger than several times the gas activity, small pipe diameters less than 40 mm and low pressures less than 150 Pa. This report presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the TGM. The impact of the various sources of uncertainty on the performance of the method is discussed. The application to a practical case is based on worst case conditions with regards to the measurement conditions, and on realistic conditions with respect to the false alarm probability and the non detection probability. Monte Carlo calculations were used to evaluate the sensitivity for sources of uncertainty which are experimentally inaccessible. (orig.)

  3. Point-of-Care Diagnostic Device for Traumatic Pneumothorax: Low Sensitivity of the Unblinded PneumoScan™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehfeldt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic Pneumothorax (PTX is a potentially life-threatening injury. It requires a fast and accurate diagnosis and treatment, but diagnostic tools are limited. A new point-of-care device (PneumoScan based on micropower impulse radar (MIR promises to diagnose a PTX within seconds. In this study, we compare standard diagnostics with PneumoScan during shock-trauma-room management. Patients and Methods. Patients with blunt or penetrating chest trauma were consecutively included in the study. All patients were examined including clinical examination with auscultation (CE and supine chest radiography (CXR. In addition, PneumoScan-readings and thoracic ultrasound scan (US were performed. Computed tomography (CT served as gold standard. Results. CT scan revealed PTX in 11 patients. PneumoScan detected two PTX correctly but missed nine. 15 false-positive results were found by PneumoScan, leading to a sensitivity of 20% and specificity of 80%. Six PTX were detected through CE (sensitivity: 54,5%. CXR detected four (sensitivity: 27,3% and thoracic US two PTX correctly (sensitivity: 25%. Conclusion. The unblinded PneumoScan prototype did not confirm the promising results of previous studies. The examined standard diagnostics and thoracic US showed rather weak sensitivity as well. Until now, there is no appropriate point-of-care tool to rule out PTX.

  4. Radiological methods for diagnostics of kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is stated that kidney cancer takes one of the leading places in the cancer incidence. Particular attention should be paid to renal cell carcinoma. By means of modern methods of volume visualization it is possible to diagnose small renal tumors, to prognose the process of tumor development and to save organs by surgical intervention.

  5. Diagnostic method of insulin metabolism disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V N; Ehpshtein, E V

    1975-08-25

    The invention is concerned with the medicine. For differential diagnosis in early stages of the disease blood samples are collected, according to the method suggested, 10 and 180 minutes after the indicator introduction, and the blood serum is radiometered prior to protein precipitation.

  6. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL

  7. Serial rotatostereography - A new diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomo, Michinori; Nakanishi, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    In the previous study using cine, a cine film stereoprojector showed the adjacent two frames of cine film simultaneously, such as frames 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4, and so on, consecutively. Because some intracranial lesions require emergency surgery immediately after angiography, a real time display method of serial rotatostereography was necessary. In order to show the consecutive adjacent two frames of a video disc simultaneously, using the same method as with the cine stereoprojector, a video disc recorder (VDR) (VM-1000M) and two video memories (Image Σ) were required. This VDR has the ability of advancing, stopping, and reversing the display of memories. A control unit was manufactured in order to display these memories advancing and reversing continuously. As a result of this continuous semirotation stereo display, the anteroposterior projection was reversed, showing the posteroanterior view during ''reversing mode''. Thus a lead relay circuit was manufactured to prevent this phenomenon. Recording was done using a memory disc recorder (FOM 2200F), which has the ability of recording 10,000 frames per disc. Each frame can also be recorded on imaging film using O · X Multi Camera 400X. Finally, stereoscopic views of cerebral circulation, using a single injection of contrast media and rapid rotation of the gantry, were obtained using two cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) and a stereoviewer (Continuous Semi-rotation Classical Stereo Display Method). Stereoscopic views were also obtained using a single CRT, which displayed the images in a semirotating fashion similar to a oscillating fan head (Continuous Semi-rotation New Stereo Display Method). (J.P.N.)

  8. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogen Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003. However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  9. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... to establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  10. Efficient diagnostic methods for nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, R.

    1997-01-01

    There are systems for operational monitoring of vibrations, valves, solid-borne sound, leaks, and embrittlement. The paper focuses on vibration monitoring of pressurized components and systems in PWRs and BWRs. Other than with conventional systems, the task is not to globally monitor the vibration level, but the frequency-selective information is used as a sensitive information source, the level of vibrations being of secondary significance. The essential feature therefore is the comprehensive and selective scanning of individual frequency components in the recorded vibration spectra, which in some cases can be less than a millesimal millimeter. Upon identification of the various vibration components - from so-called baseline analyses using correlation methods - vibration analysis is done by only one step, comparing a defined reference state with the actual vibration state of the monitored system component. In the event of detected deviations, information on the causes of vibrations - essentially component-related structural resonances - will give the relevant cause-effect relationship. The paper uses some practical examples to illustrate that reliable diagnoses are achieved by the above-mentioned frequency-selective technique. It is important, however, to carry out a sufficiently reliable statistical verification of diagnostic data by means of vibration trending. This is ensured with the digital systems and their high data acquisition rates. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Sensitive molecular diagnostics using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan; McKenzie, Fiona; MacRae, Douglas; Ricketts, Alastair; Dougan, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) is an analytical technique with several advantages over competitive techniques in terms of improved sensitivity and multiplexing. We have made great progress in the development of SERRS as a quantitative analytical method, in particular for the detection of DNA. SERRS is an extremely sensitive and selective technique which when applied to the detection of labelled DNA sequences allows detection limits to be obtained which rival, and in most cases, are better than fluorescence. Here the conditions are explored which will enable the successful detection of DNA using SERRS. The enhancing surface which is used is crucial and in this case suspensions of nanoparticles were used as they allow quantitative behaviour to be achieved and allow analogous systems to current fluorescence based systems to be made. The aggregation conditions required to obtain SERRS of DNA are crucial and herein we describe the use of spermine as an aggregating agent. The nature of the label which is used, be it fluorescent, positively or negatively charged also effects the SERRS response and these conditions are again explored here. We have clearly demonstrated the ability to identify the components of a mixture of 5 analytes in solution by using two different excitation wavelengths and also of a 6-plex using data analysis techniques. These conditions will allow the use of SERRS for the detection of target DNA in a meaningful diagnostic assay.

  12. Diagnostic methods for dental caries used by private dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the preference profiles of various types of diagnostic tools and methods used by private dental practitioners in Ankara for detecting dental caries. Methods: Private dental practitioners, in five districts of Ankara, were provided with questionnaires comprising demographic ...

  13. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  14. Blower door method in radon diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronka, A.; Moucka, L.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of the radon transfer factor is commonly presented as the ratio of the building indoor radon concentration to the subsoil radon concentration. Ventilation and the pressure field over the whole building envelope, which varies in a time over a very wide range even in the same building, poses a major problem. Therefore a new approach based on the controlled conditions determining the soil air infiltration was developed. Radon in soil gas infiltrates into the building indoor environment particularly through cracks and other leakages in the structure providing the building contact with its subsoil. The infiltration is driven by the air pressure difference on the two sides of the structure. The pressure difference is caused by the stack effect and its value ranges from 1-2 Pa in family houses to some tens of Pa in higher buildings. Unfortunately, the pressure difference is very unstable under normal conditions, being affected by a host of parameters such as the height of the building, distribution and geometry of leakages, outdoor-indoor temperature difference, etc. Wind direction and velocity of the wind plays a major role. In our research the blower door method was applied in combination with a monitoring of the indoor radon concentration. The indoor-outdoor pressure difference and the pressure difference at the two sides of the screen shutter of the blower door fan are also measured. The blower door ensures a constant, evaluable air exchange rate. The fan power is regulated to provide a stable pressure difference within the range of roughly 5-100 Pa. This approach provides very well defined conditions allowing us to apply a constant ventilation-constant radon supply model. In such circumstances the dynamical changes of radon concentrations are very fast, and therefore a unique continual radon monitor was applied. The radon supply rate is evaluated from the radon steady state of the time course of radon concentration. The dependence of the radon supply rate on

  15. A rapid, sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for scrub typhus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the performances for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Orientia. tsutsugamushi (Ot using a gold conjugate-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT. Materials and Methods: The RDT employing mixture recombinant 56-kDa proteins of O. tsutsugamushi and the mIFA assay was performed on 33 patients from Fujian and Yunnan province respectively and 94 positive sera (36 from Hainan province and 58 from Jiangsu province from convalescent stages of the patients with scrub typhus respectively and 82 negative sera from healthy farmers from Anhui province and Beijing City respectively in 2009. A comparison of the RDT and mIFA assay was performed by using the c2 test and the P level of ≤0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Among these 94 positive sera from convalescent stages of the illness and 82 sera from control farmers, the specificity of RDT was 100% for both IgM and IgG tests. In 33 cases with scrub typhus, 5 cases were positively detected earlier by RDT than by mIFA for the IgM test, and 2 cases were positive for the IgG test. The sensitivities of RDT were 93.9% and 90.9% for IgM and IgG, respectively. Considering IgM and IgG together, the sensitivity was 100%. The geometric mean titre (GMT of IFA and the RDT assay in diluted sera from confirmed cases were 1:37 versus 1:113 respectively (P<0.001 for IgM test and 1:99 versus 1:279 respectively (P<0.016 for IgG. Conclusions: The RDT was more sensitive than the traditional IFA for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus and was particularly suitable for use in rural areas.

  16. Sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to procedural factors in fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pasciak, Alexander S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The John P. and Katharine G. McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), used to quantify the protective value of radioprotective garments, to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the shape of the scattered x-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios, including interventional radiology and interventional cardiology (IC). Two clinical simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size, while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size, and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy (E{sub avg}) was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affect the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effect on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in IC, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusions: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle.

  17. Fault-tolerant and Diagnostic Methods for Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    to diagnose faults and autonomously provide valid navigation data, disregarding any faulty sensor data and use sensor fusion to obtain a best estimate for users. This paper discusses how diagnostic and fault-tolerant methods are applicable in marine systems. An example chosen is sensor fusion for navigation......Precise and reliable navigation is crucial, and for reasons of safety, essential navigation instruments are often duplicated. Hardware redundancy is mostly used to manually switch between instruments should faults occur. In contrast, diagnostic methods are available that can use analytic redundancy...

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James C; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential impact of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study focused on a sample of 933 participants evaluated during the DSM-IV field trial; 657 carried a clinical diagnosis of an ASD, and 276 were diagnosed with a non-autistic disorder. Sensitivity and specificity for proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria were evaluated using field trial symptom checklists as follows: individual field trial checklist items (e.g., nonverbal communication); checklist items grouped together as described by a single DSM-5 symptom (e.g., nonverbal and verbal communication); individual DSM-5 criterion (e.g., social-communicative impairment); and overall diagnostic criteria. When applying proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD, 60.6% (95% confidence interval: 57%-64%) of cases with a clinical diagnosis of an ASD met revised DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD. Overall specificity was high, with 94.9% (95% confidence interval: 92%-97%) of individuals accurately excluded from the spectrum. Sensitivity varied by diagnostic subgroup (autistic disorder = 0.76; Asperger's disorder = 0.25; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified = 0.28) and cognitive ability (IQ criteria could substantially alter the composition of the autism spectrum. Revised criteria improve specificity but exclude a substantial portion of cognitively able individuals and those with ASDs other than autistic disorder. A more stringent diagnostic rubric holds significant public health ramifications regarding service eligibility and compatibility of historical and future research. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new method for analyzing diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragtrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    AND METHODS: Six women with a diagnostic delay of 6 weeks or more before treatment of gynecological cancer at a specialized regional department (the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Denmark) were included in the study. Maps of existing processes were performed for each...

  20. A New Method for Analyzing Diagnostic Delay in Gynecological Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    AND METHODS: Six women with a diagnostic delay of 6 weeks or more before treatment of gynecological cancer at a specialized regional department (the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Denmark) were included in the study. Maps of existing processes were performed for each...

  1. Modern methods of early diagnostics of juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Y.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of inflammatory diseases of joints is one of the most important issues in the pediatrics. Nowadays the significant attention in this sphere is paid to the search of new accurate criteria of diagnostics. It will help estimate the severity of disease, determine the prognosis, choose the method of treatment and monitoring and evaluate the efficacy of the therapy.

  2. Are the classic diagnostic methods in mycology still state of the art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Bauer, Andrea; Brasch, Jochen; Nenoff, Pietro; Schaller, Martin; Mayser, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The diagnostic workup of cutaneous fungal infections is traditionally based on microscopic KOH preparations as well as culturing of the causative organism from sample material. Another possible option is the detection of fungal elements by dermatohistology. If performed correctly, these methods are generally suitable for the diagnosis of mycoses. However, the advent of personalized medicine and the tasks arising therefrom require new procedures marked by simplicity, specificity, and swiftness. The additional use of DNA-based molecular techniques further enhances sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, and reduces the diagnostic interval to 24-48 hours, compared to weeks required for conventional mycological methods. Given the steady evolution in the field of personalized medicine, simple analytical PCR-based systems are conceivable, which allow for instant diagnosis of dermatophytes in the dermatology office (point-of-care tests). © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and

  4. A sensitive new microculture method for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Uzun, Soner; Bagirova, Malahat; Durdu, Murat; Memisoglu, Hamdi R

    2004-03-01

    A sensitive microcapillary culture method (MCM) was developed for rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The MCM is superior to the traditional culture method (TCM) as determined by the smaller inoculum size, the higher sensitivity for detection of promastigotes, and the more rapid time for emergence of promastigotes. With lesion amastigote loads from grade III to 0, the positive rates and the periods for promastigote emergence were 3-4-fold higher and faster with the MCM than with the TCM, e.g., 83-97% positive in 4-7 days versus 20-40% positive in 15-30 days (P = 0.0001). The higher Pco(2) and lower Po(2) and pH presumably encourage a rapid amastigote-to-promastigote differentiation and/or the survival or growth of the latter. This MCM has the advantage of simplicity, and may be suitable for diagnostic use and for parasite retrieval in many other endemic sites where parasites are known to be difficult to grow.

  5. Rapid and sensitive detection of Yersinia pestis using amplification of plague diagnostic bacteriophages monitored by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V Sergueev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, has caused many millions of human deaths and still poses a serious threat to global public health. Timely and reliable detection of such a dangerous pathogen is of critical importance. Lysis by specific bacteriophages remains an essential method of Y. pestis detection and plague diagnostics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this work was to develop an alternative to conventional phage lysis tests--a rapid and highly sensitive method of indirect detection of live Y. pestis cells based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR monitoring of amplification of reporter Y. pestis-specific bacteriophages. Plague diagnostic phages phiA1122 and L-413C were shown to be highly effective diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of Y. pestis by using qPCR with primers specific for phage DNA. The template DNA extraction step that usually precedes qPCR was omitted. phiA1122-specific qPCR enabled the detection of an initial bacterial concentration of 10(3 CFU/ml (equivalent to as few as one Y. pestis cell per 1-microl sample in four hours. L-413C-mediated detection of Y. pestis was less sensitive (up to 100 bacteria per sample but more specific, and thus we propose parallel qPCR for the two phages as a rapid and reliable method of Y. pestis identification. Importantly, phiA1122 propagated in simulated clinical blood specimens containing EDTA and its titer rise was detected by both a standard plating test and qPCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, we developed a novel assay for detection and identification of Y. pestis using amplification of specific phages monitored by qPCR. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific and allows the detection of only live bacteria.

  6. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. Methodology/Principal findings A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74–0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling

  7. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  8. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  9. Laser induced desorption as hydrogen retention diagnostic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobinski, Miroslaw

    2016-07-15

    binding energy. Such effects can lead to the observed desorption fractions as simulations (TMAP7 code) of heat and H diffusion during the laser pulse show. These experiments are performed in a vacuum chamber outside the tokamak, where the desorbed gases are quantified by a quadrupole mass spectrometer, thus representing the ex situ method LID-QMS. In the tokamak TEXTOR the in situ diagnostic method LIDS is used utilizing the same physics for heating, desorption and surface modifications. Understanding the latter becomes important to mitigate material release into the plasma. Here, the quantification of the desorbed hydrogen is done by passive spectroscopy of the Balmer H{sub α} and D{sub α} light (656 nm) observed coaxially to the laser beam as a double line by a spectrometer and from the side by a camera with gated image intensifier using a narrow-band H and D filter. A simplified data evaluation has been developed which determines the plasma radius of the light intensity maximum of the LIDS light, takes the electron density and temperature at this radius measured by edge plasma diagnostics and looks up the corresponding quotient of ionisation to excitation rate {sup S}/{sub XB}(n{sub e},T{sub e}) in a database (ADAS). A second factor takes into account the dominant plasma processes which yield only one atom from one hydrogen molecule for pure hydrogen release and even less for desorbed hydrocarbons. The combined light-to-particle conversion factor is ca. 30 H atoms/H{sub α} photons which agrees with simulations of the LIDS light (ERO code). While the simulated spatial light distribution is very sensitive to the details of the plasma edge profiles, the total photon amount stays very constant, thus justifying the simplified data evaluation. The experimental FWHM of the light in toroidal/poloidal direction is 30-40 mm and has an e-folding decay length of 15-20 mm in radial direction. Its intensity maximum is typically at n{sub e} ∼ 4.10{sup 18} {sup e{sup -}}/{sub m

  10. Laser induced desorption as hydrogen retention diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobinski, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    . Such effects can lead to the observed desorption fractions as simulations (TMAP7 code) of heat and H diffusion during the laser pulse show. These experiments are performed in a vacuum chamber outside the tokamak, where the desorbed gases are quantified by a quadrupole mass spectrometer, thus representing the ex situ method LID-QMS. In the tokamak TEXTOR the in situ diagnostic method LIDS is used utilizing the same physics for heating, desorption and surface modifications. Understanding the latter becomes important to mitigate material release into the plasma. Here, the quantification of the desorbed hydrogen is done by passive spectroscopy of the Balmer H α and D α light (656 nm) observed coaxially to the laser beam as a double line by a spectrometer and from the side by a camera with gated image intensifier using a narrow-band H and D filter. A simplified data evaluation has been developed which determines the plasma radius of the light intensity maximum of the LIDS light, takes the electron density and temperature at this radius measured by edge plasma diagnostics and looks up the corresponding quotient of ionisation to excitation rate S / XB (n e ,T e ) in a database (ADAS). A second factor takes into account the dominant plasma processes which yield only one atom from one hydrogen molecule for pure hydrogen release and even less for desorbed hydrocarbons. The combined light-to-particle conversion factor is ca. 30 H atoms/H α photons which agrees with simulations of the LIDS light (ERO code). While the simulated spatial light distribution is very sensitive to the details of the plasma edge profiles, the total photon amount stays very constant, thus justifying the simplified data evaluation. The experimental FWHM of the light in toroidal/poloidal direction is 30-40 mm and has an e-folding decay length of 15-20 mm in radial direction. Its intensity maximum is typically at n e ∼ 4.10 18 e - / m 3 and k B T e ∼ 60 eV close to the last closed flux surface. A

  11. Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Background: Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical technique which can measure molecular vibrational modes within tissue. A large-scale clinical study (n = 518) has demonstrated that real-time Raman spectroscopy could distinguish malignant from benign skin lesions with good diagnostic accuracy; this was validated by a follow-up independent study (n = 127). Objective: Most of the previous diagnostic algorithms have typically been based on analyzing the full band of the Raman spectra, either in the fingerprint or high wavenumber regions. Our objective in this presentation is to explore wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Methods: A wavenumber selection algorithm was implemented using variably-sized wavenumber windows, which were determined by the correlation coefficient between wavenumbers. Wavenumber windows were chosen based on accumulated frequency from leave-one-out cross-validated stepwise regression or least and shrinkage selection operator (LASSO). The diagnostic algorithms were then generated from the selected wavenumber windows using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component and general discriminant analysis (PC-GDA) and partial least squares (PLS). A total cohort of 645 confirmed lesions from 573 patients encompassing skin cancers, precancers and benign skin lesions were included. Lesion measurements were divided into training cohort (n = 518) and testing cohort (n = 127) according to the measurement time. Result: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) improved from 0.861-0.891 to 0.891-0.911 and the diagnostic specificity for sensitivity levels of 0.99-0.90 increased respectively from 0.17-0.65 to 0.20-0.75 by selecting specific wavenumber windows for analysis. Conclusion: Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels.

  12. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  13. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Omata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG. Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg, bacterial culture (BC, and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb, rapid urease test (RUT, and urea breath test (UBT. Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%.

  15. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju

  16. The Hug-up Test: A New, Sensitive Diagnostic Test for Supraspinatus Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supraspinatus tendon is the most commonly affected tendon in rotator cuff tears. Early detection of a supraspinatus tear using an accurate physical examination is, therefore, important. However, the currently used physical tests for detecting supraspinatus tears are poor diagnostic indicators and involve a wide range of sensitivity and specificity values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a new physical test for the diagnosis of supraspinatus tears and evaluate its accuracy in comparison with conventional tests. Methods: Between November 2012 and January 2014, 200 consecutive patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy were prospectively evaluated preoperatively. The hug-up test, empty can (EC test, full can (FC test, Neer impingement sign, and Hawkins-Kennedy impingement sign were used and compared statistically for their accuracy in terms of supraspinatus tears, with arthroscopic findings as the gold standard. Muscle strength was precisely quantified using an electronic digital tensiometer. Results: The prevalence of supraspinatus tears was 76.5%. The hug-up test demonstrated the highest sensitivity (94.1%, with a low negative likelihood ratio (NLR, 0.08 and comparable specificity (76.6% compared with the other four tests. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the hug-up test was 0.854, with no statistical difference compared with the EC test (z = 1.438, P = 0.075 or the FC test (z = 1.498, P = 0.067. The hug-up test showed no statistical difference in terms of detecting different tear patterns according to the position (χ2 = 0.578, P = 0.898 and size (Fisher′s exact test, P > 0.999 compared with the arthroscopic examination. The interobserver reproducibility of the hug-up test was high, with a kappa coefficient of 0.823. Conclusions: The hug-up test can accurately detect supraspinatus tears with a high sensitivity, comparable specificity, and low NLR compared with the conventional

  17. Endoscopic and ultrasound diagnostics as contemporary method in diagnostics of dog stomach diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of pathological processes in the dog stomach determines a correct diagnosis or differential diagnosis, which presents the basic prerequisite for rational therapy. In addition to the conventional type of clinical examination which covers the taking of anamnestic data, observation of the patient and laboratory tests, there are also certain computerized diagnostic methods (magnetic resonance and scanner which are the most precise and most reliable in the verification of stomach diseases. However, the listed approaches are either insufficiently relevant in making the diagnosis or are too expensive and demanding for the everyday clinical practice. These are the reasons why veterinary medicine today increasingly resorts to the use of other forms of imaging diagnostics, and, as its representatives, the video endoscopic, ultrasound and X-ray examination of the digestive tract.

  18. Place of modern imaging methods and their influence on the diagnostic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, D.; Lazarova, I.

    1991-01-01

    The main trends in development of the modern imaging diagnostic methods are presented: increasing the specificity of CT, nuclear-magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, digital substractional angiography, echography etc. based on modern technical improvements; objective representation of the physiological and biochemical divergencies in particular diseases; interventional radiology; integral application of different methods; improving the sensitivity and specificity of the methods based on developments in pharmacology (new contrast media, parmaceuticals influencing the function of examinated organs, etc.); the possibilities for data compilation and further computerized processing of primary data. Personal experience is reported with the exploitation of these methods in Bulgaria. Attention is also called to the unfavourable impact connected with the too strong technicization of the diagnostic and therapeutic process in a health, deontologic, economical and social respect. 15 refs

  19. Sensitive Blu-ray detection of clustered rolling circle products for molecular Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlford, Annika; Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for low cost and rapid sensing of nucleic acids (NA) for infectious diagnostics, where isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) products, specifically generated by the presence of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), are bound to magnetic nanopart......In this paper we present a method for low cost and rapid sensing of nucleic acids (NA) for infectious diagnostics, where isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) products, specifically generated by the presence of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), are bound to magnetic...

  20. Calculation of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology. Method and surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauferrier, R.; Ramee, A.; Ezzeldin, K.; Guibert, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method for evaluating the radiation exposure of the main target organs during various diagnostic radiologic procedures is described. This technique was used for educational purposes: study of exposure variations according to the technical modalities of a given procedure, and study of exposure variations according to various technical protocols (IVU, EGD barium study, etc.). This method was also used for studying exposure of patients during hospitalization in the Rennes Regional Hospital Center (France) in 1982, according to departments (urology, neurology, etc.). This method and results of these three studies are discussed [fr

  1. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease; Diagnostik der Fettleber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). FE MRT

    2017-09-15

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  2. INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Velikanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  3. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ′z test′ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer′s χ2 test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method.

  4. Exploring Intercultural Sensitivity in Early Adolescence: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellizo, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore levels of intercultural sensitivity in a sample of fourth to eighth grade students in the United States (n = 162). "Intercultural sensitivity" was conceptualised through Bennett's Developmental Model of Sensitivity, and assessed through the Adapted Intercultural Sensitivity Index.…

  5. Electrochemistry-based approaches to low cost, high sensitivity, automated, multiplexed protein immunoassays for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Chandra K; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Otieno, Brunah A; Tang, Chi; Malla, Spundana; Krause, Colleen E; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-21

    Early detection and reliable diagnostics are keys to effectively design cancer therapies with better prognoses. The simultaneous detection of panels of biomarker proteins holds great promise as a general tool for reliable cancer diagnostics. A major challenge in designing such a panel is to decide upon a coherent group of biomarkers which have higher specificity for a given type of cancer. The second big challenge is to develop test devices to measure these biomarkers quantitatively with high sensitivity and specificity, such that there are no interferences from the complex serum or tissue matrices. Lastly, integrating all these tests into a technology that does not require exclusive training to operate, and can be used at point-of-care (POC) is another potential bottleneck in futuristic cancer diagnostics. In this article, we review electrochemistry-based tools and technologies developed and/or used in our laboratories to construct low-cost microfluidic protein arrays for the highly sensitive detection of a panel of cancer-specific biomarkers with high specificity which at the same time has the potential to be translated into POC applications.

  6. Intermediate Monocytes but Not TIE2-Expressing Monocytes Are a Sensitive Diagnostic Indicator for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Dominic; Starlinger, Patrick; Reiter, Christian; Jahn, Nikolaus; Zajc, Philipp; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas; Bergmann, Michael; Stift, Anton; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted the first study to determine the diagnostic potential of the CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes as compared to the pro-angiogenic subset of CD14++CD16+TIE2+ TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in cancer. These monocyte populations were investigated by flow cytometry in healthy volunteers (N = 32) and in colorectal carcinoma patients with localized (N = 24) or metastatic (N = 37) disease. We further determined blood levels of cytokines associated with monocyte regulation. The results revealed the intermediate monocyte subset to be significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients and to show the highest frequencies in localized disease. Multivariate regression analysis identified intermediate monocytes as a significant independent variable in cancer prediction. With a cut-off value at 0.37% (intermediate monocytes of total leukocytes) the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity ranged at 69% and 81%, respectively. In contrast, TEM levels were elevated in localized cancer but did not differ significantly between groups and none of the cytokines correlated with monocyte subpopulations. Of interest, in vitro analyses supported the observation that intermediate monocytes were more potently induced by primary as opposed to metastatic cancer cells which may relate to the immunosuppressive milieu established in the advanced stage of metastatic disease. In conclusion, intermediate monocytes as compared to TIE2-expressing monocytes are a more sensitive diagnostic indicator of colorectal cancer. PMID:22973451

  7. Intermediate monocytes but not TIE2-expressing monocytes are a sensitive diagnostic indicator for colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Schauer

    Full Text Available We have conducted the first study to determine the diagnostic potential of the CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes as compared to the pro-angiogenic subset of CD14++CD16+TIE2+ TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs in cancer. These monocyte populations were investigated by flow cytometry in healthy volunteers (N = 32 and in colorectal carcinoma patients with localized (N = 24 or metastatic (N = 37 disease. We further determined blood levels of cytokines associated with monocyte regulation. The results revealed the intermediate monocyte subset to be significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients and to show the highest frequencies in localized disease. Multivariate regression analysis identified intermediate monocytes as a significant independent variable in cancer prediction. With a cut-off value at 0.37% (intermediate monocytes of total leukocytes the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity ranged at 69% and 81%, respectively. In contrast, TEM levels were elevated in localized cancer but did not differ significantly between groups and none of the cytokines correlated with monocyte subpopulations. Of interest, in vitro analyses supported the observation that intermediate monocytes were more potently induced by primary as opposed to metastatic cancer cells which may relate to the immunosuppressive milieu established in the advanced stage of metastatic disease. In conclusion, intermediate monocytes as compared to TIE2-expressing monocytes are a more sensitive diagnostic indicator of colorectal cancer.

  8. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, Br

    2012-01-01

    The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the 'z test' was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ(2)test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method.

  9. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  10. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Doug G

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  11. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  12. The Diagnostic Value of ELISA Method for Pertussis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low effectiveness of laboratory methods for diagnosing pertussis it is important to look for new ways of verification of this infection. The article presents the analysis of the diagnostic value of ELISA method, which involves the identification of antibodies of different isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA to pertussis toxoid (PT and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA. The study included 279 children: 114 were under 1 year of age, 165 — older than 1 year. The pertussis was confirmed in 74.3 ± 2.6% of patients by using ELISA method. A significant proportion of seronegative patients (46.1 ± 6.2 per cent was revealed in the group of patients under 1 year. The pattern of production of antibodies in unvaccinated children was different. It depended on the age of the children and timing of illness. A low proportion of diagnostically significant indicators of IgM-antibodies at 2—3 weeks of illness was typical for patients under 1 year of age (e.g. 6.7 ± 6.5% as compared to 20.0 ± 7.9% and 50.0 ± 15.3 — 1—3 and 4—6 years of age. The diagnosis of pertussis in children under 1 year of age was confirmed mainly by the detection of IgG, starting from the 4th week of the disease. In the examination of vaccinated children diagnostically significant levels of IgA and IgG were identified (even in the late stages of the disease. Thus, the results of the analysis show special significance of using ELISA method for the diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children.

  13. Molecular diagnostic methods for invasive fungal disease: the horizon draws nearer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, C L; Kidd, S E; Sorrell, T C; Chen, S C-A

    2015-04-01

    Rapid, accurate diagnostic laboratory tests are needed to improve clinical outcomes of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Traditional direct microscopy, culture and histological techniques constitute the 'gold standard' against which newer tests are judged. Molecular diagnostic methods, whether broad-range or fungal-specific, have great potential to enhance sensitivity and speed of IFD diagnosis, but have varying specificities. The use of PCR-based assays, DNA sequencing, and other molecular methods including those incorporating proteomic approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) have shown promising results. These are used mainly to complement conventional methods since they require standardisation before widespread implementation can be recommended. None are incorporated into diagnostic criteria for defining IFD. Commercial assays may assist standardisation. This review provides an update of molecular-based diagnostic approaches applicable to biological specimens and fungal cultures in microbiology laboratories. We focus on the most common pathogens, Candida and Aspergillus, and the mucormycetes. The position of molecular-based approaches in the detection of azole and echinocandin antifungal resistance is also discussed.

  14. Thyroid nodular disease: their usefulness of diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ayala, Irene Maria; Sanchez Luthard, Maria de los Angeles; Martins Schmitz; Gomez, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid nodular disease is defined by the presence of nodules of thyroid of solid, liquid or mixed consistency, they are or non concrete. Solitary nodule thyroid, diffuse and multinodular goiter forms can be presented in. The thyroid nodule is a frequent clinical problem, the clinical prevalence in adult population is of 4%. Objective: to make a bibliographical revision to near the utility of the different methods available for the thyroid nodular pathology diagnosis and determining which of them turns out more specific to differentiate benignancy from malignancy in the found nodules. Materials and Methods: the bibliographical search was made in the data base Medline (Pubmed), in scientific magazines of the region and text books. Criteria of inclusion: bibliographical references pertaining to medical magazines and free full text with an antiquity nongreater to 8 years were included. Conclusion: the presence of thyroid nodules constitutes a reason for frequent consultation, the main diagnostic method at the moment is the fine needle aspiration cytology, due to its simple accomplishment, low cost, not requiring the hospitalization of the patient, and being fundamental in the decision making of the doctor. This diagnostic method is, in addition, the one that with greater certainty allows to differentiate benign from malignant nodules. (authors) [es

  15. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in a retrospective clinical, radiographic and histopathological study of 166 cystic jaw lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, N. M.; Andersen, Kristian; Blomlôf, J.

    2014-01-01

    , but a low diagnostic sensitivity in relation to the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) was revealed. The radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and KCOT were the most frequently observed cystic jaw lesions. Conclusion In general, a high diagnostic specificity for all cystic jaw lesions was observed. A low...

  16. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. method and container for production of diagnostic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddock, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The pertechnetate ion containing the technetium-99m isotope has limited applications in diagnostic scanning because it does not readily form complexes with materials which locate in specific parts of the body. Stannous salts have been widely used to reduce the pertechnetate to a form which readily complexes with materials. In the present invention, both a container and a more suitable metal reducing agent are discussed for transforming the technetium in pertechnetate for diagnostic scanning use. The vessel contains tin or a tin-containing alloy as a reducing agent for the pertechnetate and a complexant for the reduced technetium; all contents are sterile and dry. The present invention is advantageous over the stannous salts method since (1) problems of stannous salt instability during production, storage and after labelling are eliminated; (2) production procedures are simplified; (3) it is not essential to nitrogen purge vials before sterilisation; (4) it reduces toxicity; (5) the shelf life of diagnostic scanning kits may be dramatically improved; (6) the metal reducing agent may be sterilised by γ-irradiation without deteriorating; (7) the labelling technique can be performed over a wide pH range; and (8) the technique should be unaffected by technetium-99 in the technetium-99m. (U.K.)

  18. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  19. Current status and future perspectives on molecular and serological methods in diagnostic mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna; Chen, Sharon; Sleiman, Sue; Sorrell, Tania

    2009-11-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of infectious morbidity. Nonculture-based methods are increasingly used for rapid, accurate diagnosis to improve patient outcomes. New and existing DNA amplification platforms have high sensitivity and specificity for direct detection and identification of fungi in clinical specimens. Since laboratories are increasingly reliant on DNA sequencing for fungal identification, measures to improve sequence interpretation should support validation of reference isolates and quality control in public gene repositories. Novel technologies (e.g., isothermal and PNA FISH methods), platforms enabling high-throughput analyses (e.g., DNA microarrays and Luminex xMAP) and/or commercial PCR assays warrant further evaluation for routine diagnostic use. Notwithstanding the advantages of molecular tests, serological assays remain clinically useful for patient management. The serum Aspergillus galactomannan test has been incorporated into diagnostic algorithms of invasive aspergillosis. Both the galactomannan and the serum beta-D-glucan test have value for diagnosing infection and monitoring therapeutic response.

  20. ICF implosion hotspot ion temperature diagnostic techniques based on neutron time-of-flight method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qi; Song Zifeng; Chen Jiabin; Zhan Xiayu

    2013-01-01

    Ion temperature of implosion hotspot is a very important parameter for inertial confinement fusion. It reflects the energy level of the hotspot, and it is very sensitive to implosion symmetry and implosion speed. ICF implosion hotspot ion temperature diagnostic techniques based on neutron time-of-flight method were described. A neutron TOF spectrometer was developed using a ultrafast plastic scintillator as the neutron detector. Time response of the spectrometer has 1.1 ns FWHM and 0.5 ns rising time. TOF spectrum resolving method based on deconvolution and low pass filter was illuminated. Implosion hotspot ion temperature in low neutron yield and low ion temperature condition at Shenguang-Ⅲ facility was acquired using the diagnostic techniques. (authors)

  1. Empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test at a fixed level of specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengsheng Qin; Davis, Angela E; Jing, Bing-Yi

    2011-06-01

    For a continuous-scale diagnostic test, it is often of interest to find the range of the sensitivity of the test at the cut-off that yields a desired specificity. In this article, we first define a profile empirical likelihood ratio for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test and show that its limiting distribution is a scaled chi-square distribution. We then propose two new empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of the test at a fixed level of specificity by using the scaled chi-square distribution. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the finite sample performance of the newly proposed intervals with the existing intervals for the sensitivity in terms of coverage probability. A real example is used to illustrate the application of the recommended methods.

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for occupational mercury poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanqi; Wang Xiuqin; Luo Futang

    2003-01-01

    A method of diagnosing and treating occupational mercury poisoning is reviewed in this paper. The treating measures for the chelating syndrome are also described. Based on his exposure history, urinary mercury, and clinical symptom, the employee who exposed occupationally to mercury can be diagnosed to a certain degree according to the related diagnostic standards. The chelating agent, such as meso-2, 3-dimercapto-succinicacid (DMSA), is used for mercury-lustrating treatment. By reducing the chelating agent dose and supplying necessary trace element, the side effect of chelating treatment is decreased. (authors)

  3. Diagnostic methods in sepsis: the need of speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues Coelho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is a common condition encountered in hospital environments. There is no effective treatment for sepsis, and it remains an important cause of death at intensive care units. This study aimed to discuss some methods that are available in clinics, and tests that have been recently developed for the diagnosis of sepsis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed through the analysis of the following descriptors: sepsis, diagnostic methods, biological markers, and cytokines. RESULTS: The deleterious effects of sepsis are caused by an imbalance between the invasiveness of the pathogen and the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response. Consequently, the host's immune surveillance fails to eliminate the pathogen, allowing it to spread. Moreover, there is a pro-inflammatory mediator release, inappropriate activation of the coagulation and complement cascades, leading to dysfunction of multiple organs and systems. The difficulty achieve total recovery of the patient is explainable. There is an increased incidence of sepsis worldwide due to factors such as aging population, larger number of surgeries, and number of microorganisms resistant to existing antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The search for new diagnostic markers associated with increased risk of sepsis development and molecules that can be correlated to certain steps of sepsis is becoming necessary. This would allow for earlier diagnosis, facilitate patient prognosis characterization, and prediction of possible evolution of each case. All other markers are regrettably constrained to research units.

  4. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  5. Diagnostic agents containing albumin and methods for making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saklad, E.L.; Layne, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification outlines a method for providing a diagnostic agent for use in radiological testing, comprising the production of an admixture of a source of radionuclide ion (sup(99m)Tc), a reducing agent (source of stannous ions at a pH below 7) and a stabilized, defatted human albumin being sufficiently purified for an aqueous solution not to become cloudy for at least an hour at a pH of 4 or below. Other aspects of the patent provide for a method of producing a radiodiagnostic kit of the above components, packaged in a sealed sterile non-pyrogenic container, and also a method of concentrating sup(99m)Tc in vivo in a target mammalian tissue, by intravenous administration of a mixture of sup(99m)Tc, a reducing agent, and delipidized serum albumin. (U.K.)

  6. Acute appendicitis: sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of thin-section contrast-enhanced CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Yon; Choi, Dong Il; Park, Hae Won; Lee, Young Rae; Kook, Shin Ho; Kwang, Hyon Joo; Kim, Seung Kwon; Chung, Eun Chul

    2002-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of individual contrast-enhanced helical CT findings of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively reviewed the appendiceal helical CT scans, obtained after intravenous contrast administration (abdomen; 7-mm collimation, abdominopelvic junction; 5-mm collimation), of 50 patients with surgically proven acute appendicitis and 112 with alternative diagnoses. The following parameters were analysed by three radiologists: enlarged appendix (>6 mm in diameter), appendiceal wall thickening, appendiceal wall enhancement, no identification of the appendix, appendicolith(s), (appendiceal) intraluminal air, abscess, lymphadenopathy, terminal ileal wall thickening, focal cecal apical thickening, focal colonic wall thickening, and segmental colonic wall thickening. The CT findings of acute appendicitis that statistically distinguished it from alternative diagnoses were an enlarged appendix (sensitivity; 92%, specificity; 93%, diagnostic accuracy; 93%), appendiceal wall thickening (for these three parameters: 68%, 96% and 88%, respectively), periappendiceal fat stranding (90%, 79%, 82%), appendiceal wall enhancement (72%, 86%, 82%), appendicolith (16%, 100%, 74%), and focal cecal apical thickening (14%, 100%, 74%) (for each, p<0305). On thin-section contrast-enhanced helical CT, an enlarged appendix and periappendiceal fat stranding were found in 90% or more patients with acute appendicitis. Appendiceal wall thickening and enhancement were alearly demonstrated and significant findings for diagnosis. Less common but specific findings include appendicolith, focal cecal apical thickening and intramural air, can also help us establish a diagnosis of acute appendicitis

  7. Diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting trochlear ridge osteochondrosis lesions in the equine stifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Francesca; Chalmers, Heather J; Dante, Sara; Lotto, Eleonora; Pepe, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis lesions commonly occur on the femoral trochlear ridges in horses and radiography and ultrasonography are routinely used to diagnose these lesions. However, poor correlation has been found between radiographic and arthroscopic findings of affected trochlear ridges. Interobserver agreement for ultrasonographic diagnoses and correlation between ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings have not been previously described. Objectives of this study were to describe diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting and grading osteochondrosis lesions of the equine trochlear ridges, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Twenty-two horses were sampled. Two observers independently recorded radiographic and ultrasonographic findings without knowledge of arthroscopic findings. Imaging findings were compared between observers and with arthroscopic findings. Agreement between observers was moderate to excellent (κ 0.48-0.86) for detecting lesions using radiography and good to excellent (κ 0.74-0.87) for grading lesions using radiography. Agreement between observers was good to excellent (κ 0.78-0.94) for detecting lesions using ultrasonography and very good to excellent (κ 0.86-0.93) for grading lesions using ultrasonography. Diagnostic sensitivity was 84-88% for radiography and 100% for ultrasonography. Diagnostic specificity was 89-100% for radiography and 60-82% for ultrasonography. Agreement between radiography and arthroscopy was good (κ 0.64-0.78). Agreement between ultrasonography and arthroscopy was very good to excellent (κ 0.81-0.87). Findings from this study support ultrasound as a preferred method for predicting presence and severity of osteochondrosis lesions involving the femoral trochlear ridges in horses. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  8. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  9. Plasma-focus neutron diagnostics by means of high-sensitivity bubble detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoita, V.; Pantea, A.; Patran, A.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V.; Koh, M.; Rawat, R.S.; Zhang, T.; Hassan, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new type of bubble detector (a superheated fluid detector), the DEFENDER TM , was tested as a neutron diagnostics device on the NX2 plasma focus (PF) device at the NIE/NTU, Singapore. The DEFENDER TM detector was recently developed and commercialised by BTI, Canada, and it is characterised by a very high sensitivity (a factor of about 30 higher than the standard detectors) to fast neutrons (energy above 100 keV). Together with its particular energy response this high sensitivity allows for the development of improved neutron diagnostics for the PF devices. The NX2 plasma focus device has the following typical operating parameters: condenser bank charging voltage: 15 kV; stored energy: 2.3 kJ; peak current: 420 kA; current rise-time: 1.35 μs; deuterium pressure: 20 mbar. During most of the experiments reported here the NX2 device was operated at 14 kV charging voltage and 20 mbar deuterium pressure. A few shots were done at voltages of 14.5 and 15 kV and the same gas pressure. The bubble detector neutron diagnostics experiments carried out on the NX2 machine involved the following measurements: 1. Relative calibration of the four detectors. The detectors were irradiated simultaneously, in identical conditions, by plasma focus neutron pulses and their neutron responses were compared.; 2. angular distribution of the neutron fluence (single shot). The distribution of the neutron fluence was measured at four angles with respect to the PF electrode axis: 0, 30, 60 and 90 deg; 3. Reproducibility of the neutron yield at high repetition rate operation. The NX2 device was operated at 1 Hz repetition rate.; 4. Bubble detector response time. The response time of the DEFENDER TM detector was tested by using the short PF neutron pulses and a high-speed video camera. The paper will present the results of these experiments and their implications for the development of neutron plasma diagnostics techniques based on the bubble detectors and their broader class of superheated

  10. Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G.

    2013-01-01

    Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)

  11. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail.

  12. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  13. A novel diagnostic protocol to identify patients suitable for discharge after a single high-sensitivity troponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Edward W; Cullen, Louise; Than, Martin; Gamble, James; Khattab, Ahmed; Greaves, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish whether a novel accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) could successfully identify low-risk patients suitable for discharge after a single high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) taken at presentation to the emergency department. We also compared the diagnostic accuracy of this ADP with strategies using initial undetectable hs-cTnT. Methods This prospective observational study evaluated the ability of the Triage Rule-out Using high-Sensitivity Troponin (TRUST) ADP to identify low-risk patients with suspected ACS. The ADP incorporated a single presentation hs-cTnT of <14 ng/L, a non-ischaemic ECG and a modified Goldman risk score. Diagnostic performance of the ADP was compared with the detection limit cut-offs of hs-cTnT (<5 ng/L and <3 ng/L). The primary end point was fatal/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within 30 days. Results 960 participants were recruited, mean age 58.0 years, 80 (8.3%) had an AMI. The TRUST ADP classified 382 (39.8%) as low-risk with a sensitivity for identifying AMI of 98.8% (95% CI 92.5% to 99.9%). hs-cTnT detection limits (<5 ng/L and <3 ng/L) had a sensitivity of 100% (94.3 to 100) and 100% (94.4 to 100), respectively. The TRUST ADP identified more patients suitable for early discharge at 39.8% vs 29.3% (<5 ng/L) and 7.9% (<3 ng/L) (p<0.001) with a lower false-positive rate for AMI detection; specificity 43.3% (95% CI 42.7% to 43.4%) vs 32.0% (95% CI 31.5% to 32.0%) and 8.6% (95% CI 8.1% to 8.6%), respectively. Conclusions The TRUST ADP, which incorporates structured risk-assessment and a single presentation hs-cTnT blood draw, has potential to allow early discharge in 40% of patients with suspected ACS and has greater clinical utility than undetectable hs-cTnT strategies. Trial registration number ISRCTN No. 21109279. PMID:25691511

  14. Testing the sensitivity of Nested PCR method to detect Aspergillus fumigates in experimentally infected Sputum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Soukkaria, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by Aspergillus species generally are occupying a second place among invasive fungal infections in the world, especially A. fumigatus, which is considered the main cause of invasive Aspergillosis (IA). Although IA rarely infects immunocompetent individuals, however, it can lead to death in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the infection early in order to treat the disease efficiently. However, the conventional diagnostic tools, currently used to detect infections, has low sensitivity and reliability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology distribution as a molecular and high sensitive technology has allowed us to make comparative study between sensitivity of traditional currently used diagnostic method and Nested-PCR, the result of the study of sputum samples that experimentally infected with different concentrations of A.fumigatus spores ramping from 10 to10 6 spore/ml, have high sensitivity and specificity of Nested-PCR in detecting the lower concentrations, comparing with traditional diagnostic method (culture on Sabouraud media) that were negative in all concetrations. (author)

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Popp, Steffen; Singler, Katrin; Smolarsky, Alexander; Bertsch, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Greve, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    We examined the diagnostic and predictive value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) in patients with syncope. We performed an analysis of consecutive patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department. The primary end point was the accuracy to diagnose a cardiac syncope. In addition, the study explored the prognostic relevance of cTnThs in patients with cardiac and noncardiac syncope. A total of 360 patients were enrolled (median age, 70.5 years; male, 55.8%; 23.9% aged >80 years). Cardiac syncope was present in 22% of patients, reflex syncope was present in 40% of patients, syncope due to orthostatic hypotension was present in 20% of patients, and unexplained syncope was present in 17.5% of patients. A total of 148 patients (41%) had cTnThs levels above the 99% confidence interval (CI) (cutoff point). The diagnostic accuracy for cTnThs levels to determine the diagnosis of cardiac syncope was quantified by the area under the curve (0.77; CI, 0.72-0.83; P value of cTnThs levels within 30 days: Patients with increased cTnThs levels had a 52% likelihood for adverse events, patients with cTnThs levels below the cutoff point had a low risk (negative predictive value, 83.5%). Increased cTnThs levels indicate adverse prognosis in patients with noncardiac causes of syncope, but not in patients with cardiac syncope being a risk factor for adverse outcome by itself. Patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department have a high proportion of life-threatening conditions. cTnThs levels show a limited diagnostic and predictive accuracy for the identification of patients with syncope at high risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Machine Learning Methods for the Arterial Hypertension Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Kublanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of machine learning approach accuracy applied analysis of cardiac activity. The study evaluates the diagnostics possibilities of the arterial hypertension by means of the short-term heart rate variability signals. Two groups were studied: 30 relatively healthy volunteers and 40 patients suffering from the arterial hypertension of II-III degree. The following machine learning approaches were studied: linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine with radial basis, decision trees, and naive Bayes classifier. Moreover, in the study, different methods of feature extraction are analyzed: statistical, spectral, wavelet, and multifractal. All in all, 53 features were investigated. Investigation results show that discriminant analysis achieves the highest classification accuracy. The suggested approach of noncorrelated feature set search achieved higher results than data set based on the principal components.

  17. Diagnostics and correction of disregulation states by physical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gorsha, O. V.; Gorsha, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Odesa, Ukraine Gorsha O. V., Gorsha V. I. Diagnostics and correction of disregulation states by physical methods Горша О. В., Горша В. И. Диагностика и коррекция физическими методами дизрегуляторных состояний Toruń, Odesa 2017 Nicolaus Copernicus University, To...

  18. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  19. Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Kwang Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart. Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6% had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4% had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179, and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32. By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146, and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65 in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning, the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.

  20. Transitioning high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) into routine diagnostic use: More than just a sensitivity issue

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    High sensitivity cardiac troponin T and I (hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI) assays show analytical, diagnostic and prognostic improvement over contemporary sensitive cTn assays. However, given the importance of troponin in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, implementing this test requires rigorous analytical and clinical verification across the total testing pathway. This was the aim of this study.

  1. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caruso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation; and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength.

  2. Multi-method automated diagnostics of rotating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, A. V.; Boychenko, S. N.; Shchelkanov, A. V.; Burda, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    The automated machinery diagnostics and monitoring systems utilized within the petrochemical plants are an integral part of the measures taken to ensure safety and, as a consequence, the efficiency of these industrial facilities. Such systems are often limited in their functionality due to the specifics of the diagnostic techniques adopted. As the diagnostic techniques applied in each system are limited, and machinery defects can have different physical nature, it becomes necessary to combine several diagnostics and monitoring systems to control various machinery components. Such an approach is inconvenient, since it requires additional measures to bring the diagnostic results in a single view of the technical condition of production assets. In this case, we mean by a production facility a bonded complex of a process unit, a drive, a power source and lines. A failure of any of these components will cause an outage of the production asset, which is unacceptable. The purpose of the study is to test a combined use of vibration diagnostics and partial discharge techniques within the diagnostic systems of enterprises for automated control of the technical condition of rotating machinery during maintenance and at production facilities. The described solutions allow you to control the condition of mechanical and electrical components of rotating machines. It is shown that the functionality of the diagnostics systems can be expanded with minimal changes in technological chains of repair and operation of rotating machinery. Automation of such systems reduces the influence of the human factor on the quality of repair and diagnostics of the machinery.

  3. Sensitivity and diagnosticity of NASA-TLX and simplified SWAT to assess the mental workload associated with operating an agricultural sprayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit; Mann, Danny D

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were: a) to investigate three continuous variants of the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) (standard NASA (CNASA), average NASA (C1NASA) and principal component NASA (PCNASA)) and five different variants of the simplified subjective workload assessment technique (SSWAT) (continuous standard SSWAT (CSSWAT), continuous average SSWAT (C1SSWAT), continuous principal component SSWAT (PCSSWAT), discrete event-based SSWAT (D1SSWAT) and discrete standard SSWAT (DSSWAT)) in terms of their sensitivity and diagnosticity to assess the mental workload associated with agricultural spraying; b) to compare and select the best variants of NASA-TLX and SSWAT for future mental workload research in the agricultural domain. A total of 16 male university students (mean 30.4 +/- 12.5 years) participated in this study. All the participants were trained to drive an agricultural spraying simulator. Sensitivity was assessed by the ability of the scales to report the maximum change in workload ratings due to the change in illumination and difficulty levels. In addition, the factor loading method was used to quantify sensitivity. The diagnosticity was assessed by the ability of the scale to diagnose the change in task levels from single to dual. Among all the variants of NASA-TLX and SSWAT, PCNASA and discrete variants of SSWAT showed the highest sensitivity and diagnosticity. Moreover, among all the variants of NASA and SSWAT, the discrete variants of SSWAT showed the highest sensitivity and diagnosticity but also high between-subject variability. The continuous variants of both scales had relatively low sensitivity and diagnosticity and also low between-subject variability. Hence, when selecting a scale for future mental workload research in the agricultural domain, a researcher should decide what to compromise: 1) between-subject variability or 2) sensitivity and diagnosticity. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The use of subjective workload scales is very popular in

  4. Nailfold capillaroscopy as a diagnostic and prognostic method in rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Gabriela Poglia; Brenner, Fabiane Mulinari; Muller, Carolina de Souza; Wojcik, Adma Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no appropriate and reliable method of evaluating and monitoring severity in rosacea. To determine the importance of nailfold capillaroscopy as a diagnostic and prognostic method for patients with rosacea. A cross-sectional study where eight patients with rosacea and 8 control subjects were submitted to nailfold capillaroscopy from May to July 2009. We collected clinical data related to gender, age, skin phototype, and rosacea stage according to Plewig and Kligman classification and the classification of the National Rosacea Society. Additionally, we evaluated the progression of the disease and treatment therapies previously used. The majority of the patients evaluated (6 out of 8 patients) had rosacea subtype I (vascular) or erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. The mean duration of the disorder was 5.96 years, and 87.5% of the patients were under treatment with topical metronidazole. Nailfold cappilaroscopy showed that evidence of devascularization was absent in both groups. Nailfold capillaroscopy presents a nonspecific pattern and does not seem to help in the diagnosis or prognosis of rosacea.

  5. Critical Review of Diagnostic Methods Used in Chronic Pancreatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a balanced assessment of the various pancreatic function tests and imaging techniques used in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease. Function tests that study the digestive capacity of the pancreas (fat absorption of dietary lipids, fluorescein- or radiolabelled fats, bentiromide test, etc have high specificity, but very low sensitivity. This is because 90% of pancreas has to be destroyed before steatorrhea or creatorrhea occurs. Tests that directly measure pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion (secretin test, etc are more accurate and may detect pancreatic dysfunction even before anatomical changes occur. Measurement of pancreatic enzymes in serum or urine, or the decreased decline of serum amino acids during their incorporation into pancreatic enzymes, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to help diagnose pancreatic disease. Sensitive and specific tumour markers are not yet available. Thus screening tests are not cost-effective - if they are negative, they do not exclude pancreatic disease; and if positive, they have to be confirmed by more specific tests. Imaging techniques are the most commonly used methods of investigation. The usefulness of abdominal survey films, barium studies, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography is critically reviewed. Most of the radiological methods can be combined with cytology or biopsy. Histology demonstrating malignancy establishes this diagnosis, but negative biopsies do not exclude malignant tumours. Presently only ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound can diagnose cancers sufficiently early to allow for possible `curative' surgery, and only endoscopic ultrasound is capable to stage tumours for the assessment of resectability.

  6. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ahmed, Osman S; Bakr, Mohamed H

    2014-05-15

    We present an adjoint variable method for estimating the sensitivities of arbitrary responses with respect to the parameters of dispersive discontinuities in nanoplasmonic devices. Our theory is formulated in terms of the electric field components at the vicinity of perturbed discontinuities. The adjoint sensitivities are computed using at most one extra finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation regardless of the number of parameters. Our approach is illustrated through the sensitivity analysis of an add-drop coupler consisting of a square ring resonator between two parallel waveguides. The computed adjoint sensitivities of the scattering parameters are compared with those obtained using the accurate but computationally expensive central finite difference approach.

  7. Basic artefacts of diagnostic imaging by the magnetic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitak, T.; Seidl, Z.; Obenberger, J.; Vaneckova, M.; Danes, J.; Krasensky, J.; Peterkova, V

    2000-01-01

    Artefacts in diagnostic imaging are defined as a geometric or anatomic misrepresentation of the reality by the image formed. The article deals with artefacts due to field and frequency shifts, in particular due to the water-fat chemical shift and due to magnetic susceptibility. The physical nature of the artefacts is explained and their diagnostic significance is discussed. (P.A.)

  8. [CONTEMPORARY MOLECULAR-GENETIC METHODS USED FOR ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SEPSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, S N; Skachkova, T S; Shipulina, O Yu; Savochkina, Yu A; Shipulin, G A; Maleev, V V

    2016-01-01

    Etiologic diagnostics of sepsis is one of the most difficult problems of contemporary medicine due to a wide variety of sepsis causative agents, many of which are components of normal human microflora. Disadvantages of contemporary "golden standard" of microbiologic diagnostics of sepsis etiology by seeding of blood for sterility are duration of cultivation, limitation in detection of non-cultivable forms of microorganisms, significant effect of preliminary empiric antibiotics therapy on results of the analysis. Methods of molecular diagnostics that are being actively developed and integrated during the last decade are deprived of these disadvantages. Main contemporary methods of molecular-biological diagnostics are examined in the review, actualdata on their diagnostic characteristic are provided. Special attention is given to methods of PCR-diagnostics, including novel Russian developments. Methods of nucleic acid hybridization and proteomic analysis are examined in comparative aspect. Evaluation of application and perspectives of development of methods of molecular diagnostics of sepsis is given.

  9. Application of Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis to Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new formulation in structural analysis, Integrated Force Method has been successfully applied to many structures for civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering due to the accurate estimate of forces in computation. Right now, it is being further extended to the probabilistic domain. For the assessment of uncertainty effect in system optimization and identification, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of IFM was further investigated in this study. A set of stochastic sensitivity analysis formulation of Integrated Force Method was developed using the perturbation method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate its application. Its efficiency and accuracy were also substantiated with direct Monte Carlo simulations and the reliability-based sensitivity method. The numerical algorithm was shown to be readily adaptable to the existing program since the models of stochastic finite element and stochastic design sensitivity are almost identical.

  10. Laboratory diagnostic methods, system of quality and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Ružica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that laboratory investigations secure safe and reliable results that provide a final confirmation of the quality of work. Ideas, planning, knowledge, skills, experience, and environment, along with good laboratory practice, quality control and reliability of quality, make the area of biological investigations very complex. In recent years, quality control, including the control of work in the laboratory, is based on international standards and is used at that level. The implementation of widely recognized international standards, such as the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (1 and the implementing of the quality system series ISO/IEC 9000 (2 have become the imperative on the grounds of which laboratories have a formal, visible and corresponding system of quality. The diagnostic methods that are used must constantly yield results which identify the animal as positive or negative, and the precise status of the animal is determined with a predefined degree of statistical significance. Methods applied on a selected population reduce the risk of obtaining falsely positive or falsely negative results. A condition for this are well conceived and documented methods, with the application of the corresponding reagents, and work with professional and skilled staff. This process requires also a consistent implementation of the most rigorous experimental plans, epidemiological and statistical data and estimations, with constant monitoring of the validity of the applied methods. Such an approach is necessary in order to cut down the number of misconceptions and accidental mistakes, for a referent population of animals on which the validity of a method is tested. Once a valid method is included in daily routine investigations, it is necessary to apply constant monitoring for the purpose of internal quality control, in order adequately to evaluate its reproducibility and reliability. Consequently, it is necessary at least twice yearly to conduct

  11. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  14. Theories and Diagnostic Methods of Land Use Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfang; YANG; Lianqi; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    With social and economic development, the land resources are becoming increasingly scarce, and the land use conflicts are getting more frequent, deeper, more diversified and more severe. Besides, the factors that induce land use conflicts are more and more complicated. Therefore, the key to solve many difficult problems in regional sustainable land use lies in the research of land use conflicts, scientific evaluation of the intensity of regional land use conflicts, and the further reveal of external forms as well as intrinsic mechanisms of land use conflicts. Based on the review of both domestic and foreign literatures, this paper has completed the theoretical framework as well as the contents of land use conflicts research, established the diagnostic models and methods of land use conflicts intensity and proposed the key research areas of future studies. The purpose is to promote the evolution of spatial structure of China’s land resources to the positive direction and achieve integrated and coordinated management of land use through improving spatial allocation efficiency of land factors and buffering the pressure on land resources.

  15. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar DĂŠniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  16. Technical Note: Method of Morris effectively reduces the computational demands of global sensitivity analysis for distributed watershed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Herman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase in spatially distributed hydrologic modeling warrants a corresponding increase in diagnostic methods capable of analyzing complex models with large numbers of parameters. Sobol' sensitivity analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for diagnostic analyses of hydrologic models. However, for many spatially distributed models, the Sobol' method requires a prohibitive number of model evaluations to reliably decompose output variance across the full set of parameters. We investigate the potential of the method of Morris, a screening-based sensitivity approach, to provide results sufficiently similar to those of the Sobol' method at a greatly reduced computational expense. The methods are benchmarked on the Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM over a six-month period in the Blue River watershed, Oklahoma, USA. The Sobol' method required over six million model evaluations to ensure reliable sensitivity indices, corresponding to more than 30 000 computing hours and roughly 180 gigabytes of storage space. We find that the method of Morris is able to correctly screen the most and least sensitive parameters with 300 times fewer model evaluations, requiring only 100 computing hours and 1 gigabyte of storage space. The method of Morris proves to be a promising diagnostic approach for global sensitivity analysis of highly parameterized, spatially distributed hydrologic models.

  17. The Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Values of Snellen Chart Compared to the Diagnostic Test in Amblyopia Screening Program in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rivakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amblyopia is a leading cause of visual impairment in both childhood and adult populations. Our aim in this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of the amblyopia screening program in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on a randomly selected sample of 4,636 Iranian children who were referred to screening program in 2013 were participated in validity study, too. From each provinces the major city were selected. Screening and diagnostic tests were done by instructors in first stage and optometrists in second stage, respectively. Finally data were analyzed by Stata version 13. Results The sensitivity was ranged from 74% to 100% among the various provinces such that Fars and Ardabil province had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The pattern of specificity was differ and ranged 44% to 84% among the provinces; Hormozgan and Fars had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The positive predictive value was also ranged from 35% to %81 which was assigned to Khuzestan and Ardabil provinces, respectively. The range of Negative Predictive value was 61% to 100% which was belonged to Ardabil and Fars provinces. Conclusion The total sensitivity (89% and negative predictive values (93% of screening test among children aged 3-6 years is acceptable, but only 51% of children refereed to second stage are true positive and this imposes considerable cost to health system.

  18. A general first-order global sensitivity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chonggang; Gertner, George Zdzislaw

    2008-01-01

    Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) is one of the most popular global sensitivity analysis techniques. The main mechanism of FAST is to assign each parameter with a characteristic frequency through a search function. Then, for a specific parameter, the variance contribution can be singled out of the model output by the characteristic frequency. Although FAST has been widely applied, there are two limitations: (1) the aliasing effect among parameters by using integer characteristic frequencies and (2) the suitability for only models with independent parameters. In this paper, we synthesize the improvement to overcome the aliasing effect limitation [Tarantola S, Gatelli D, Mara TA. Random balance designs for the estimation of first order global sensitivity indices. Reliab Eng Syst Safety 2006; 91(6):717-27] and the improvement to overcome the independence limitation [Xu C, Gertner G. Extending a global sensitivity analysis technique to models with correlated parameters. Comput Stat Data Anal 2007, accepted for publication]. In this way, FAST can be a general first-order global sensitivity analysis method for linear/nonlinear models with as many correlated/uncorrelated parameters as the user specifies. We apply the general FAST to four test cases with correlated parameters. The results show that the sensitivity indices derived by the general FAST are in good agreement with the sensitivity indices derived by the correlation ratio method, which is a non-parametric method for models with correlated parameters

  19. Validation Tools and Methods for Diagnostic Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The potential benefits of advanced algorithms for diagnostics and prognostics, inner-loop control, and other flight critical systems have been demonstrated in a...

  20. THE HARMONIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR A BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  1. Polarization sensitive camera for the in vitro diagnostic and monitoring of dental erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, Anke; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Lussi, Adrian; Meier, Christoph

    Due to a frequent consumption of acidic food and beverages, the prevalence of dental erosion increases worldwide. In an initial erosion stage, the hard dental tissue is softened due to acidic demineralization. As erosion progresses, a gradual tissue wear occurs resulting in thinning of the enamel. Complete loss of the enamel tissue can be observed in severe clinical cases. Therefore, it is essential to provide a diagnosis tool for an accurate detection and monitoring of dental erosion already at early stages. In this manuscript, we present the development of a polarization sensitive imaging camera for the visualization and quantification of dental erosion. The system consists of two CMOS cameras mounted on two sides of a polarizing beamsplitter. A horizontal linearly polarized light source is positioned orthogonal to the camera to ensure an incidence illumination and detection angles of 45°. The specular reflected light from the enamel surface is collected with an objective lens mounted on the beam splitter and divided into horizontal (H) and vertical (V) components on each associate camera. Images of non-eroded and eroded enamel surfaces at different erosion degrees were recorded and assessed with diagnostic software. The software was designed to generate and display two types of images: distribution of the reflection intensity (V) and a polarization ratio (H-V)/(H+V) throughout the analyzed tissue area. The measurements and visualization of these two optical parameters, i.e. specular reflection intensity and the polarization ratio, allowed detection and quantification of enamel erosion at early stages in vitro.

  2. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves: review of methods with applications in diagnostic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Bullen, Jennifer A.

    2018-04-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a tool used to describe the discrimination accuracy of a diagnostic test or prediction model. While sensitivity and specificity are the basic metrics of accuracy, they have many limitations when characterizing test accuracy, particularly when comparing the accuracies of competing tests. In this article we review the basic study design features of ROC studies, illustrate sample size calculations, present statistical methods for measuring and comparing accuracy, and highlight commonly used ROC software. We include descriptions of multi-reader ROC study design and analysis, address frequently seen problems of verification and location bias, discuss clustered data, and provide strategies for testing endpoints in ROC studies. The methods are illustrated with a study of transmission ultrasound for diagnosing breast lesions.

  3. Application of RNB for high sensitive wear diagnostics in medicine technique and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehsenfeld, P.; Eifrig, C.; Kubat, R.

    2002-01-01

    The RTM--Radionuclide Technique in Mechanical engineering--is now extended to the solution of world wide problems in medicine technique (prosthetics), and in development of modern materials (synthetic materials, ceramics, hard coatings, etc.) and their industrial application. RNB--Radioactive Nuclear Beams of 7 Be or 22 Na--may enable the required extreme thin radioactive surface labeling (several micrometers) of synthetic materials for wear measurements without producing radiation damages of influence to the wear properties of the material. The function principle and special properties of the RTM on-line wear diagnostics and its components, the measurement methods, the radioactive surface labeling, and the measurement instruments are explained. The quality features of a 7 Be and 22 Na-beam for RTM application are specified

  4. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  5. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Emma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50 years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial

  6. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Description of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. Then, in the second and concluding part of this presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  7. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described in the first part of this presentation: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. In this, the second and concluding part of the presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  8. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Structures by Virtual Distortion Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gierlinski, J.T.; Holnicki-Szulc, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1991-01-01

    are used in structural optimization, see Haftka [4]. The recently developed Virtual Distortion Method (VDM) is a numerical technique which offers an efficient approach to calculation of the sensitivity derivatives. This method has been orginally applied to structural remodelling and collapse analysis, see...

  10. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  11. Use of Capillary Blood Samples Leads to Higher Parasitemia Estimates and Higher Diagnostic Sensitivity of Microscopic and Molecular Diagnostics of Malaria than Venous Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischlinger, Johannes; Pitzinger, Paul; Veletzky, Luzia; Groger, Mirjam; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Lell, Bertrand; Kremsner, Peter G; Tannich, Egbert; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael

    2018-05-25

    Diagnosis of malaria is usually based on samples of peripheral blood. However, it is unclear whether capillary (CAP) or venous (VEN) blood samples provide better diagnostic performance. Quantitative differences of parasitemia between CAP and VEN blood and diagnostic performance characteristics were investigated. Patients were recruited between September 2015 and February 2016 in Gabon. Light microscopy and qPCR quantified parasitemia of paired CAP and VEN samples, whose preparation followed the exact same methodology. CAP and VEN performance characteristics using microscopy were evaluated against a qPCR gold-standard. Microscopy revealed a median (IQR) parasites/L of 495 (853,243) in CAP and 429 (524,074) in VEN samples manifesting in a +16.6% (p=0.04) higher CAPparasitemia compared with VENparasitemia. Concordantly, qPCR demonstrated that -0.278 (p=0.006) cycles were required for signal detection in CAP samples. CAPsensitivity of microscopy relative to the gold-standard was 81.5% (77.485.6%) versus VENsensitivity of 73.4% (68.878.1%), while CAPspecificity and VENspecificity were 91%. CAPsensitivity and VENsensitivity dropped to 63.3% and 45.9%, respectively for a sub-population of low-level parasitemias while specificities were 92%. CAP sampling leads to higher parasitemias compared to VEN sampling and improves diagnostic sensitivity. These findings may have important implications for routine diagnostics, research and elimination campaigns of malaria.

  12. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders.

  13. Diagnostic methods and techniques in cervical cancer prevention Part II: Molecular diagnostics of HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vince,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnostics of HPV infection is based on analytically andclinically validated assays for qualitative detection of HPV DNAfrom high risk genotypes. New generation of HPV DNA assayscombines qualitative detection of 12 high-risk HPV genotypeswith HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotyping. New generation of HPVmolecular assays designed to increase clinical specificity of moleculartesting is based on detection of mRNA for E6 and E7.

  14. Current antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of typhoidal salmonellae in a referral diagnostic centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Shujat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections caused by typhoidal salmonellae are an important public health concern in Pakistan. Inappropriate and injudicious use of fluoroquinolones has reduced their efficacy due to development of high level resistance. Aim: To ascertain the current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae thus guiding the physicians for better management of typhoid patients.Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at our institution from January 2012 through December 2013 to investigate current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 107 (53.5% were identified as Salmonella Typhi and 93 (46.5% as Salmonella Paratyphi A. Sensitivities of Salmonella Typhi were as follows: ampicillin (48.6%, chloramphenicol (45.8%, co-trimoxazole (40.1%, ciprofloxacin (11.2%. Sensitivities of Salmonella Paratyphi A were: ampicillin (80.6%, chloramphenicol (89.2%, co-trimoxazole (90.3%, and ciprofloxacin (16.1%. No resistance was detected against third generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Typhoidal salmonellae are still entirely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins in our setting. Marked rise in resistance to fluoroquinolones has reduced their empirical usage. Sensitivity of Salmonella Paratyphi A to conventional antityphoid drugs was encouraging.

  15. Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Corey R; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-01-01

    Radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography are commonly used for diagnosis of shoulder osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD) in dogs, however there is a lack of published information on the relative diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities for detecting shoulder OC/OCD in a group of dogs, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical findings consistent with osteochondrosis and/or osteochondritis dissecans involving at least one shoulder. With informed client consent, both shoulders for all included dogs were examined using standardized radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and arthroscopy protocols. One of three veterinary surgeons recorded clinical and arthroscopic findings without knowledge of diagnostic imaging findings. One of two veterinary radiologists recorded diagnostic imaging findings without knowledge of clinical and arthroscopic findings. Eighteen client-owned dogs (n = 36 shoulders) met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (correct classification rate) values for detecting presence or absence of shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans were as follows: radiography (88.5%, 90%, 88.9%), ultrasonography (92%, 60%, 82.6%), and MRI (96%, 88.9%, 94.4%). Odds of a correct diagnosis for MRI were 3.2 times more than ultrasonography and two times more than radiography. For MRI detection of lesions, the sagittal T2 or PD-FAT SAT sequences were considered to be most helpful. For radiographic detection of lesions, the additional supinated-mediolateral and pronated-mediolateral projections were considered to be most helpful. Findings from the current study support more evidence-based diagnostic imaging recommendations for dogs with clinically suspected shoulder osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. © 2014 American College of

  16. On the Exploitation of Sensitivity Derivatives for Improving Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanzhao; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Many application codes, such as finite-element structural analyses and computational fluid dynamics codes, are capable of producing many sensitivity derivatives at a small fraction of the cost of the underlying analysis. This paper describes a simple variance reduction method that exploits such inexpensive sensitivity derivatives to increase the accuracy of sampling methods. Three examples, including a finite-element structural analysis of an aircraft wing, are provided that illustrate an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy for both Monte Carlo and stratified sampling schemes.

  17. Diagnostic examination of the urethra in the female and double-balloon urethrography as a diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeja, C.; Mutze, S.; Poetzschke, B.; Tunn, R.; Heinrich, G.; Hamm, B.

    1997-01-01

    The double-balloon urethrography can be recommended as an efficient diagnostic method for examination of the urethra in the female patient. Because of its improved controllability, retrograde application of the contrast agent is superior to other techniques. Complications can be avoided by maintaining constant pressure during contrast agent application. The few commercially available double-balloon instruments suffer from a number of deficiencies which are the reason for this technique having met with low acceptance, thus being only rarely applied. In addition, application of the instrument is not easy. Nevertheless, this diagnostic technique would deserve much more frequent application. (orig.) [de

  18. Connectivity diagnostics in the Mediterranean obtained from Lagrangian Flow Networks; global patterns, sensitivity and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Pedro; Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Lagrangian Flow Network (LFN) is a modeling framework in which geographical sub-areas of the ocean are represented as nodes in a network and are interconnected by links representing the transport of water, substances or propagules (eggs and larvae) by currents. Here we compute for the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin four connectivity metrics derived from LFN that measure retention and exchange processes, thus providing a systematic characterization of propagule dispersal driven by the ocean circulation. Then we assess the sensitivity and robustness of the results with respect to the most relevant parameters: the density of released particles, the node size (spatial-scales of discretization), the Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) and the modality of spawning. We find a threshold for the number of particles per node that guarantees reliable values for most of the metrics examined, independently of node size. For our setup, this threshold is 100 particles per node. We also find that the size of network nodes has a non-trivial influence on the spatial variability of both exchange and retention metrics. Although the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the circulation affect larval transport in a complex and unpredictable manner, our analyses evidence how specific biological parametrization impact the robustness of connectivity diagnostics. Connectivity estimates for long PLDs are more robust against biological uncertainties (PLD and spawning date) than for short PLDs. Furthermore, our model suggests that for mass-spawners that release propagules over short periods (≃ 2 to 10 days), daily release must be simulated to properly consider connectivity fluctuations. In contrast, average connectivity estimates for species that spawn repeatedly over longer duration (a few weeks to a few months) remain robust even using longer periodicity (5 to 10 days). Our results give a global view of the surface connectivity of the Mediterranean Sea and have implications for the design of

  19. Diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound, radiography and computed tomography for gender determination in four species of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Volta, Antonella; Pelizzone, Igor; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gender determination is frequently requested by reptile breeders, especially for species with poor or absent sexual dimorphism. The aims of the current study were to describe techniques and diagnostic sensitivities of ultrasound, radiography, and computed tomography for gender determination (identification of hemipenes) in four species of lizards. Nineteen lizards of known sex, belonging to four different species (Pogona vitticeps, Uromastyx aegyptia, Tiliqua scincoides, Gerrhosaurus major) were prospectively enrolled. With informed owner consent, ultrasound, noncontrast CT, contrast radiography, and contrast CT (with contrast medium administered into the cloaca) were performed in conscious animals. Imaging studies were reviewed by three different operators, each unaware of the gender of the animals and of the results of the other techniques. The lizard was classified as a male when hemipenes were identified. Nineteen lizards were included in the study, 10 females and nine males. The hemipenes were seen on ultrasound in only two male lizards, and appeared as oval hypoechoic structures. Radiographically, hemipenes filled with contrast medium appeared as spindle-shaped opacities. Noncontrast CT identified hemipenes in only two lizards, and these appeared as spindle-shaped kinked structures with hyperattenuating content consistent with smegma. Hemipenes were correctly identified in all nine males using contrast CT (accuracy of 100%). Accuracy of contrast radiography was excellent (94.7%). Accuracy of ultrasound and of noncontrast CT was poor (64.3% and 63.1%, respectively). Findings from the current study supported the use of contrast CT or contrast radiography for gender determination in lizards. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Artificial Intelligence: Bayesian versus Heuristic Method for Diagnostic Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Peter L; Schlegel, Daniel R; Anderson, Michael; Komm, Jordan; Ficheur, Gregoire; Bisson, Leslie

    2018-04-01

    Evoking strength is one of the important contributions of the field of Biomedical Informatics to the discipline of Artificial Intelligence. The University at Buffalo's Orthopedics Department wanted to create an expert system to assist patients with self-diagnosis of knee problems and to thereby facilitate referral to the right orthopedic subspecialist. They had two independent sports medicine physicians review 469 cases. A board-certified orthopedic sports medicine practitioner, L.B., reviewed any disagreements until a gold standard diagnosis was reached. For each case, the patients entered 126 potential answers to 26 questions into a Web interface. These were modeled by an expert sports medicine physician and the answers were reviewed by L.B. For each finding, the clinician specified the sensitivity (term frequency) and both specificity (Sp) and the heuristic evoking strength (ES). Heuristics are methods of reasoning with only partial evidence. An expert system was constructed that reflected the posttest odds of disease-ranked list for each case. We compare the accuracy of using Sp to that of using ES (original model, p  < 0.0008; term importance * disease importance [DItimesTI] model, p  < 0.0001: Wilcoxon ranked sum test). For patient referral assignment, Sp in the DItimesTI model was superior to the use of ES. By the fifth diagnosis, the advantage was lost and so there is no difference between the techniques when serving as a reminder system. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  1. A new method of diagnostics for the magnetospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheto, Jacqueline; Petit, Michel

    1977-01-01

    A new diagnostic technique for magnetospheric plasma, based on in situ excitation of the plasma resonances, has been used for the first time on board the Geos satellite. The preliminary results are very gratifying: electron density and magnetic field intensity are derived reliably and accurately from the resonances observed; hopefully, temperature and electric field will be deduced from the data as well [fr

  2. Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics. PMID:3887762

  3. Sherlock Holmes' methods of deductive reasoning applied to medical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L

    1985-03-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

  4. Mammary carcinoma – current diagnostic methods and symptomatology in imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popiel, Monika; Mróz-Klimas, Danuta; Kasprzak, Renata; Furmanek, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm of the female population and its incidence is constantly rising. Social campaigns educating the public about the importance of the problem have been conducted for the past several years. Women are encouraged to self-examine on a monthly basis. Women aged 50–69 years can have an x-ray mammography performed once every 2 years as part of a prophylactic screening program. Ultrasound studies or MR mammography are adjuvant or, in some cases, alternative to x-ray mammography. Nuclear medicine techniques with application of oncophilic markers and receptor studies (this publication will not cover nuclear medicine methods) are not routinely used. Other techniques, such as computed tomography and conventional radiography are of no significance in the diagnostics of mammary cancer. However, together with isotopic methods, they are helpful in staging of the disease. X-ray mammography is, up to date, the only method with proven value in decreasing mortality. It is also the best available method for visualization of microcalicifications. Ultrasound examination is complementary to x-ray mammography as it is a cheap, easily available method of imaging mammary glands with higher glandular tissue content. It is also the most commonly used modality aiding in targeted biopsy of mammary gland. To date, MR mammography, characterized by the highest sensitivity in cancer diagnostics, remained a method reserved for “special tasks”. MR is used for prophylaxis mainly in a population of women with particularly high risk of the disease and in cases where x-ray and ultrasound examinations are insufficient. Picture of mammary carcinoma in imaging studies is heterogeneous. However, it most often presents as an irregularly demarcated mass. Moreover, each modality can aid in visualization of additional features of a lesion such as typical shape of microcalcifications in x-ray mammography, characteristic pattern of contrast enhancement in MR examination

  5. Diagnostic Value of Nineteen Different Imaging Methods for Patients with Breast Cancer: a Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA to investigate and compare the diagnostic value of 19 different imaging methods used for breast cancer (BC. Methods: Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE were searched to collect the relevant literature from the inception of the study until November 2016. A combination of direct and indirect comparisons was performed using an NMA to evaluate the combined odd ratios (OR and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA of the diagnostic value of different imaging methods for BC. Results: A total of 39 eligible diagnostic tests regarding 19 imaging methods (mammography [MG], breast-specific gamma imaging [BSGI], color Doppler sonography [CD], contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [CE-MRI], digital breast tomosynthesis [DBT], fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography [FDG PET/CT], fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography [FDG-PET], full field digital mammography [FFDM], handheld breast ultrasound [HHUS], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], automated breast volume scanner [ABUS], magnetic resonance mammography [MRM], scintimammography [SMM], single photon emission computed tomography scintimammography [SPECT SMM], ultrasound elastography [UE], ultrasonography [US], mammography + ultrasonography [MG + US], mammography + scintimammography [MG + SMM], and ultrasound elastography + ultrasonography [UE + US] were included in the study. According to this network meta-analysis, in comparison to the MG method, the CE-MRI, MRI, MRM, MG + SMM and UE + US methods exhibited relatively higher sensitivity, and the specificity of the FDG PET/CT method was higher, while the BSGI and MRI methods exhibited higher accuracy. Conclusion: The results from this NMA indicate that the diagnostic value of the BSGI, MG + SMM, MRI and CE-MRI methods for BC were relatively higher in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

  6. Comparison of a New and Rapid Method: Brucella Coombs Gel Test With Other Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Fatma; Ergün, Ayşe Gül; Durmaz, Süleyman; Doğan, Metin; Ertuğrul, Ömür; Gündem, Seval

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect reliability of Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT) by comparing with with ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination methods in serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT), Brucella ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination tests of 78 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis which were sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Konya Numune Hospital from various regions of Konya were studied. Of 78 patients with ELISA IgG and IgM, STA, BICA and BCGT; 26, 21, 10, 12 and 12 were positive. When compared with BICA, the sensitivity and specifity of BCGT were 100% and 100%, respectively. According to results BCGT can be used as a diagnostic test in routine laboratories after more comprehensive studies in control groups and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Resonance-induced sensitivity enhancement method for conductivity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shih, Chi-yuan (Inventor); Li, Wei (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for improving the sensitivity of a variety of conductivity sensing devices, in particular capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detectors. A parallel inductor is added to the conductivity sensor. The sensor with the parallel inductor is operated at a resonant frequency of the equivalent circuit model. At the resonant frequency, parasitic capacitances that are either in series or in parallel with the conductance (and possibly a series resistance) is substantially removed from the equivalent circuit, leaving a purely resistive impedance. An appreciably higher sensor sensitivity results. Experimental verification shows that sensitivity improvements of the order of 10,000-fold are possible. Examples of detecting particulates with high precision by application of the apparatus and methods of operation are described.

  8. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  9. Some non-LTE diagnostic methods for hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Cho, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that if electric and magnetic fields are not negligible, then the 2-T model assumed by many non-LTE plasma diagnostic techniques may lead to serious errors. Significant difference between T e and T ex have been shown to exist with electric field strengths as low as ∼10 V/cm. Multithermal equilibrium (MTE) calculations show significant deviations in line emission coefficients when T e ≠ T ex compared to equivalent T e ≠ T q . A quasi non-dimentional MTE continuum relation is present to assist in diagnostics. Normalized line emission coefficients verses N e are used to indicate the type and extent of non-LTE. The MTE state diagram for hydrogen is used to show why non-LTE plasmas often appear to be in LTE based on N e determinations

  10. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Han Yih; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care di...

  11. SCALE-6 Sensitivity/Uncertainty Methods and Covariance Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Mark L.; Rearden, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    Computational methods and data used for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis within the SCALE nuclear analysis code system are presented. The methodology used to calculate sensitivity coefficients and similarity coefficients and to perform nuclear data adjustment is discussed. A description is provided of the SCALE-6 covariance library based on ENDF/B-VII and other nuclear data evaluations, supplemented by 'low-fidelity' approximate covariances. SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) is a modular code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform calculations for criticality safety, reactor physics, and radiation shielding applications. SCALE calculations typically use sequences that execute a predefined series of executable modules to compute particle fluxes and responses like the critical multiplication factor. SCALE also includes modules for sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis of calculated responses. The S/U codes in SCALE are collectively referred to as TSUNAMI (Tools for Sensitivity and UNcertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation). SCALE-6-scheduled for release in 2008-contains significant new capabilities, including important enhancements in S/U methods and data. The main functions of TSUNAMI are to (a) compute nuclear data sensitivity coefficients and response uncertainties, (b) establish similarity between benchmark experiments and design applications, and (c) reduce uncertainty in calculated responses by consolidating integral benchmark experiments. TSUNAMI includes easy-to-use graphical user interfaces for defining problem input and viewing three-dimensional (3D) geometries, as well as an integrated plotting package.

  12. NK sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells determined by a highly sensitive coupled luminescent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbomo, Henry; Hahn, Anke; Geiler, Janina; Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of natural killer (NK) cells toxicity against tumor or virus-infected cells especially in cases with small blood samples requires highly sensitive methods. Here, a coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase release from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of interleukin-2 activated NK cells against neuroblastoma cell lines. In contrast to most other methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with labeling substances which could be toxic or radioactive. The effective killing of tumor cells was achieved by low effector/target ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1. CLM provides highly sensitive, safe, and fast procedure for measurement of NK cell activity with small blood samples such as those obtained from pediatric patients

  13. The Value of Naproxen Test as a Diagnostic Method to Differentiate Cause of Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fever of whatever etiology still remains a perplexing problem to both clinicians and investigators. Increasingly, its role in connective tissue diseases, malignancies and other inflammatory disorders is slowly supplanting the exclusivity of the symptom to just infectious conditions. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of the naproxen test and the diagnostic value in patients with a prolonged febrile illness. Methods: We evaluated twenty patients had been administered the naproxen test. Fever lysis after or within the time frame of drug administration was interpreted as a infectious or an infectious condition. Results: Infectious diseases etiology was detected at 15 patients. 12 and 3 of them responded to naproxen test at the first and second days respectively. Two of non-infectious etiology patients remained unanswered. Conclusion: This study clearly showed that the naproxen test cannot be relied upon to guide diagnostic decision making in patients with fever unknown origin. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 779-782

  14. High sensitive quench detection method using an integrated test wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Tavergnier, J.P.; Nithart, H.; Kiblaire, M.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A high sensitive quench detection method which works even in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field is reported. The quench signal is obtained from the difference in voltages at the superconducting winding terminals and at the terminals at a secondary winding strongly coupled to the primary. The secondary winding could consist of a ''zero-current strand'' of the superconducting cable not connected to one of the winding terminals or an integrated normal test wire inside the superconducting cable. Experimental results on quench detection obtained by this method are described. It is shown that the integrated test wire method leads to efficient and sensitive quench detection, especially in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field

  15. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  16. Computational Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Rearden, B.T.

    1999-01-01

    Interest in the sensitivity methods that were developed and widely used in the 1970s (the FORSS methodology at ORNL among others) has increased recently as a result of potential use in the area of criticality safety data validation procedures to define computational bias, uncertainties and area(s) of applicability. Functional forms of the resulting sensitivity coefficients can be used as formal parameters in the determination of applicability of benchmark experiments to their corresponding industrial application areas. In order for these techniques to be generally useful to the criticality safety practitioner, the procedures governing their use had to be updated and simplified. This paper will describe the resulting sensitivity analysis tools that have been generated for potential use by the criticality safety community

  17. Method of reduction of diagnostic parameters during observation on the example of a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orczyk Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method of selecting diagnostic parameters which map the process of damaging the object. This method consists in calculating, during the observation, the correlation coefficient between the intensity of damage and the individual diagnostic parameters; and discarding of those parameters whose correlation coefficient values are outside of the narrowest confidence interval of the correlation coefficient. The characteristic feature of this method is that the parameters are reduced during the diagnostic experiment. The essence of the proposed method is illustrated by the vibration diagnosis of an internal combustion engine.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Methods for Detection of Diabetic Sensory Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, A. R.; Alvi, K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of clinical methods for detection of sensory neuropathy as compared to biothesiometry. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: 1 Mountain Medical Battalion, Azad Kashmir, from October 2013 to September 2014. Methodology: Patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled by convenience sampling. Exclusion criteria included other identifiable causes of neuropathy, extensive ulceration of feet, amputated feet, those on treatment for neuropathy and unwilling patients. Average of 3 vibration perception threshold values measured with a biothesiometer on distal hallux was calculated. Ten gm monofilament was used to examine touch sensation over dorsal surfaces of great toes. Vibration sensation was checked over the tips of great toes using 128Hz tuning fork. Ankle jerks were checked bilaterally. Result: Neuropathy (vibration perception threshold > 25 volts) was present in 34 (21.12 percentage) out of 161 patients and 93 (57.76 percentage) were symptomatic. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for monofilament, tuning fork and ankle jerks were: sensitivity 41.18 percentage, 55.88 percentage and 64.71 percentage; specificity 92.91 percentage, 93.70 percentage and 80.31 percentage; positive predictive value (PPV) 60.87 percentage, 70.37 percentage and 46.81 percentage; negative predictive value (NPV) 85.51 percentage, 88.81 percentage and 89.47 percentage; and, diagnostic accuracy 81.99 percentage, 85.71 percentage and 77.02 percentage, respectively. Values for any 1 positive sign, any 2 positive signs or all 3 positive signs were: sensitivity 35.29 percentage, 14.71 percentage and 32.35 percentage; specificity 81.89 percentage, 93.70 percentage and 99.21 percentage; PPV 34.29 percentage, 38.46 percentage and 91.67 percentage; NPV 82.54 percentage, 80.41 percentage and 84.56 percentage; and, diagnostic accuracy 72.05 percentage, 77.02 percentage and 85.09 percentage, respectively. Conclusion: Clinical methods are

  19. Method matters: Understanding diagnostic reliability in DSM-IV and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Clark, Lee Anna; Bagby, R Michael; Watson, David

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostic reliability is essential for the science and practice of psychology, in part because reliability is necessary for validity. Recently, the DSM-5 field trials documented lower diagnostic reliability than past field trials and the general research literature, resulting in substantial criticism of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Rather than indicating specific problems with DSM-5, however, the field trials may have revealed long-standing diagnostic issues that have been hidden due to a reliance on audio/video recordings for estimating reliability. We estimated the reliability of DSM-IV diagnoses using both the standard audio-recording method and the test-retest method used in the DSM-5 field trials, in which different clinicians conduct separate interviews. Psychiatric patients (N = 339) were diagnosed using the SCID-I/P; 218 were diagnosed a second time by an independent interviewer. Diagnostic reliability using the audio-recording method (N = 49) was "good" to "excellent" (M κ = .80) and comparable to the DSM-IV field trials estimates. Reliability using the test-retest method (N = 218) was "poor" to "fair" (M κ = .47) and similar to DSM-5 field-trials' estimates. Despite low test-retest diagnostic reliability, self-reported symptoms were highly stable. Moreover, there was no association between change in self-report and change in diagnostic status. These results demonstrate the influence of method on estimates of diagnostic reliability. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A Fault Alarm and Diagnosis Method Based on Sensitive Parameters and Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Ziyun; Lv, Zhiquan; Zhu, Qunxiong; Xu, Fengtian; Jiang, Zhinong

    2015-08-01

    Study on the extraction of fault feature and the diagnostic technique of reciprocating compressor is one of the hot research topics in the field of reciprocating machinery fault diagnosis at present. A large number of feature extraction and classification methods have been widely applied in the related research, but the practical fault alarm and the accuracy of diagnosis have not been effectively improved. Developing feature extraction and classification methods to meet the requirements of typical fault alarm and automatic diagnosis in practical engineering is urgent task. The typical mechanical faults of reciprocating compressor are presented in the paper, and the existing data of online monitoring system is used to extract fault feature parameters within 15 types in total; the inner sensitive connection between faults and the feature parameters has been made clear by using the distance evaluation technique, also sensitive characteristic parameters of different faults have been obtained. On this basis, a method based on fault feature parameters and support vector machine (SVM) is developed, which will be applied to practical fault diagnosis. A better ability of early fault warning has been proved by the experiment and the practical fault cases. Automatic classification by using the SVM to the data of fault alarm has obtained better diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. Serological diagnosis of syphilis: a comparison of different diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simčič, Saša; Potočnik, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Serological tests' limitations in syphilis diagnosis as well as numerous test interpretations mean that patients with discordant serology results can present diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians. We analyzed three common diagnostic algorithms for detecting suspected syphilis in high-prevalence populations in Slovenia. The prospective study included a total of 437 clinical serum samples from adults throughout Slovenia tested with Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA), and an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In addition to percent agreement, kappa coefficients were calculated as a secondary measure of agreement between the three algorithms. Overall, of 183 subjects that had seroreactive results, 180 were seroreactive in both the reverse sequence and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. The traditional algorithm had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 30.0%, the overall percent agreement between the traditional and the reverse algorithm (or the ECDC algorithm) was 87.6%, and the kappa value was 0.733. However, the reverse and ECDC algorithm failed to detect three subjects with positive serodiagnosis determined by additional confirmative treponemal assays. Our results supported the ECDC algorithm in the serodiagnosis of syphilis in high-prevalence populations and the use of nontreponemal serology to monitor the response to treatment.

  3. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  4. Studies of neutron measurement methods for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimer, K.H.

    1986-03-01

    This thesis comprises several studies mainly devoted to neutron measurement systems for plasma diagnostics at JET (Joint European Torus). An in situ calibration of the U-235 fission chamber detectors located at JET is presented. These detectors are used for measuring the neutron yield from the thermonuclear reactions in the plasma. The energy spectrum of the neutrons from the reactions D(d,n) 3 He has been studied by means of a 3 He spectrometer. Especially, it was found that by measuring the width of the full energy peak in the response spectrum of the 3 He-spectrometer, the deuterium distribution in the deuterium targets used can be estimated. In order to measure different neutron energies it is necessary to obtain a detailed knowledge of the response of the spectrometer. Therefore, the response function to monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 130-3030 keV was experimentally determined. Some work has been related to a design study of a 14 MeV spectrometer for neutron diagnostics. It is a combined proton-recoil and time-of-flight spectrometer for high resolution measurements. The main parts of it are the collimator, the scattering foil, and the detectors for the recoil protons and the scattered neutrons. The influence of proton straggling in the foil on the resolution and efficiency of the spectrometer has been studied. Furthermore, a three dimensional Monte Carlo code has been written and used for the design of the collimator. (author)

  5. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Uchiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs, the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  6. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Deirdre M., E-mail: d.mcgrath@sheffield.ac.uk; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Samavati, Navid [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Jewett, Michael A. S. [Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Kwast, Theo van der [Pathology Department, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Chung, Peter [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, 1058 Rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, Québec H2X 3J4 (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  7. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Deirdre M.; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D.; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Kwast, Theo van der; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  8. New method of leak detecting in diagnostic of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Dabrowski, A.; Sobkiewicz, D.; Oracz, H.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes new directions in gas transmission pipelines diagnostics as well as new methods and equipment used to detect leaks. It was also shown that efficient and functional diagnostics system is the necessary condition to keep the exploitation of transmission systems safe. (author)

  9. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  10. Drop weight impact measurements of HE sensitivity: modified detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D N; Brown, G W; Tappan, B C; Oshwald, D M; Koby, J R; Schoonover, M L

    2014-01-01

    High explosives small-scale sensitivity testing has been a hallmark of safety screening since WWII. Sensitivity testing was once crude and simple; broom sticks were used to scrape explosives on the floor while experimenters would look, listen, and smell for signs of a reaction. Since then, a wide variety of testing apparatus have been developed to explore the effects of different stimuli on explosives. In concert with the development of the machines themselves, the reaction detection methods have also evolved. This paper's focus is on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) drop weight impact machine and reaction detection methods. A critical evaluation of results is presented with cautionary examples of false positives that can occur with non-explosive materials.

  11. An easily implemented static condensation method for structural sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, S. N.; Haftka, R. T.; Nikolaidis, E.

    1990-01-01

    A black-box approach to static condensation for sensitivity analysis is presented with illustrative examples of a cube and a car structure. The sensitivity of the structural response with respect to joint stiffness parameter is calculated using the direct method, forward-difference, and central-difference schemes. The efficiency of the various methods for identifying joint stiffness parameters from measured static deflections of these structures is compared. The results indicate that the use of static condensation can reduce computation times significantly and the black-box approach is only slightly less efficient than the standard implementation of static condensation. The ease of implementation of the black-box approach recommends it for use with general-purpose finite element codes that do not have a built-in facility for static condensation.

  12. Using the method of judgement analysis to address variations in diagnostic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Helen C; Mason, James M; Murphy, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart failure is not a clear-cut diagnosis but a complex clinical syndrome with consequent diagnostic uncertainty. Judgment analysis is a method to help clinical teams to understand how they make complex decisions. The method of judgment analysis was used to determine the factors that influence clinicians' diagnostic decisions about heart failure. Methods Three consultants, three middle grade doctors, and two junior doctors each evaluated 45 patient scenarios. The main out...

  13. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician

  14. A sensitive new method of ex vivo platelet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badimon, L.; Fuster, V.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Romero, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, an in vivo quantitative method of platelet aggregation based on the increment of weight of a rabbit tendon when superfused with flowing blood (3 ml/min) derived from a carotid artery of a cat and reentering the contralateral jugular vein was reported. TO increase the sensitivity of the method, researches labeled platelets with indium-111 and reinjected them after two hours; then, with a gamma counter, researches quantitated the 111 In-labeled platelets deposited on the superfused rabbit tendon. Results of the radioactivity method and of the weight method were compared. Researchers found that the 111 In-labeling of platelets was more precise and reproducible method, rendering possible the use of a small amount of blood without need for reentry into the venous system

  15. High sensitivity and specificity in proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alvin C C; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Pillai, Sekhar C; Tantsis, Esther; Jones, Hannah; Ho, Reena; Lim, Ming; Hacohen, Yael; Vincent, Angela; Dale, Russell C

    2017-12-01

    To determine the validity of the proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in paediatric patients. The diagnostic criteria for anti-NMDAR encephalitis proposed by Graus et al. (2016) use clinical features and conventional investigations to facilitate early immunotherapy before antibody status is available. The criteria are satisfied if patients develop four out of six symptom groups within 3 months, together with at least one abnormal investigation (electroencephalography/cerebrospinal fluid) and reasonable exclusion of other disorders. We evaluated the validity of the criteria using a retrospective cohort of paediatric patients with encephalitis. Twenty-nine patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 74 comparison children with encephalitis were included. As expected, the percentage of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who fulfilled the clinical criteria increased over time. During the hospital inpatient admission, most patients (26/29, 90%) with anti-NMDAR encephalitis fulfilled the criteria, significantly more than the comparison group (3/74, 4%) (panti-NMDAR encephalitis was 2 weeks from first symptom onset (range 1-6). The sensitivity of the criteria was 90% (95% confidence interval 73-98) and the specificity was 96% (95% confidence interval 89-99). The proposed diagnostic criteria for anti-NMDAR encephalitis have good sensitivity and specificity. Incomplete criteria do not exclude the diagnosis. The proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis by Graus et al. (2016) have high sensitivity and specificity in paediatric patients. The median time of fulfilling the criteria in patients with anti-NMDAR was 2 weeks from first symptom onset. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  16. METHODS OF DIAGNOSTIC EFFECTIVENESS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES IN CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Sergeevich Antipov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article propose methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. The article contain the main results approbation of the developed methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations in 37 cargo motor transportation organizations of Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. Constructed diagrams of conformity specific weights resulting from organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. Presents diagrams effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations at every stages of the life cycle. The goal of the present paper is to development methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations.

  17. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  18. Comparative Study for the Accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods Associated with Some Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman N. Naji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This Study was intended to diagnose H. pyiori the major causative pathogen in gastro duodenal irritation and ulceration. Differert techniques were used invasive tests (histopathological examina-tion, rapid urea CLO test and culture , while noninvasive tests includes (serological tests and stool antigen in addition to determination of some immune response factors (IgM , IgG , IgA as well as (IL – 8 and IFN – y in Ptients Sera. According to the results of invasive diagnostic method 30/113 (26.69% patients were considered to be infected and 83/113(73.31% patients were considered as noninfeted was contrasted with noninvasive diagnostic method 25/113 (22.14% patients were considered to be infected and 88/133(77.83% patients were considered as noninfeted. In order to get the overall percentage of the infected people included in this study, we merge the results of the two methods ,so we found out that the total infected patients with H. pylori diagnosed by invasive and noninvasive methods were 42 /113 (37.2% while the noninfected 71/113 (62.8 disseminated as 27/68(39.71% infect-ed male ,which was privileged than the infected female when it was 15/45(33.33%. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection in the age group ranging between (46-60 in male and female. Histology (invasive teq. and ECO rapid test (noninvasive teq. were considered as the ‘‘best techniques ’’ for H. pylori detection, in the outlook of its high specificity, sensitivity and because it detected the major number of H. pylori-positive patients along with the other techniques used in this work. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV for histology were 100,100,100 and 94.5% , respectively, while for the ECO rapid test they were 96, 93, 91.5, and 97.14%. Culture (invasive teq. and IgG anti H. pylori (noninvasive teq. coming secondly in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection because they detected a little fewer number of

  19. An efficient method of reducing glass dispersion tolerance sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrold, Scott W.; Shepard, R. Hamilton

    2014-12-01

    Constraining the Seidel aberrations of optical surfaces is a common technique for relaxing tolerance sensitivities in the optimization process. We offer an observation that a lens's Abbe number tolerance is directly related to the magnitude by which its longitudinal and transverse color are permitted to vary in production. Based on this observation, we propose a computationally efficient and easy-to-use merit function constraint for relaxing dispersion tolerance sensitivity. Using the relationship between an element's chromatic aberration and dispersion sensitivity, we derive a fundamental limit for lens scale and power that is capable of achieving high production yield for a given performance specification, which provides insight on the point at which lens splitting or melt fitting becomes necessary. The theory is validated by comparing its predictions to a formal tolerance analysis of a Cooke Triplet, and then applied to the design of a 1.5x visible linescan lens to illustrate optimization for reduced dispersion sensitivity. A selection of lenses in high volume production is then used to corroborate the proposed method of dispersion tolerance allocation.

  20. Capillary Electrophoresis Sensitivity Enhancement Based on Adaptive Moving Average Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevinskas, Tomas; Telksnys, Laimutis; Maruška, Audrius; Gorbatsova, Jelena; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2018-06-05

    In the present work, we demonstrate a novel approach to improve the sensitivity of the "out of lab" portable capillary electrophoretic measurements. Nowadays, many signal enhancement methods are (i) underused (nonoptimal), (ii) overused (distorts the data), or (iii) inapplicable in field-portable instrumentation because of a lack of computational power. The described innovative migration velocity-adaptive moving average method uses an optimal averaging window size and can be easily implemented with a microcontroller. The contactless conductivity detection was used as a model for the development of a signal processing method and the demonstration of its impact on the sensitivity. The frequency characteristics of the recorded electropherograms and peaks were clarified. Higher electrophoretic mobility analytes exhibit higher-frequency peaks, whereas lower electrophoretic mobility analytes exhibit lower-frequency peaks. On the basis of the obtained data, a migration velocity-adaptive moving average algorithm was created, adapted, and programmed into capillary electrophoresis data-processing software. Employing the developed algorithm, each data point is processed depending on a certain migration time of the analyte. Because of the implemented migration velocity-adaptive moving average method, the signal-to-noise ratio improved up to 11 times for sampling frequency of 4.6 Hz and up to 22 times for sampling frequency of 25 Hz. This paper could potentially be used as a methodological guideline for the development of new smoothing algorithms that require adaptive conditions in capillary electrophoresis and other separation methods.

  1. Novel Readout Method for Molecular Diagnostic Assays Based on Optical Measurements of Magnetic Nanobead Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Bejhed, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling...

  2. The diagnostic performance of imaging methods in ARVC using the 2010 Task Force criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgquist, Rasmus; Haugaa, Kristina H; Gilljam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , fractional area shortening 31 ± 9 vs. 39 ± 9% (P performance was low; sensitivity 50% and specificity 70%, positive predictive value 80% and negative predictive value 37...... evaluation of subtle structural changes in the right ventricle may be unreliable, and the diagnostic performance of CMR compared with echocardiography should be reflected in the guidelines....

  3. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, W.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), an interdisciplinary research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to aid in solving DOE's nuclear waste problem. The program is a comprehensive effort which includes five focus areas: advanced diagnostic systems; development/application; torch operation and test facilities; process development; on-site field measurement and analysis; technology transfer/commercialization. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and process control. Also, the measured parameters, will be employed to improve, optimize and control the operation of the plasma torch and the overall plasma treatment process. Moreover, on-site field measurements at various DOE facilities are carried out to aid in the rapid demonstration and implementation of modern fieldable diagnostic methods. Such efforts also provide a basis for technology transfer

  4. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, W.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), an interdisciplinary research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to aid in solving DOE`s nuclear waste problem. The program is a comprehensive effort which includes five focus areas: advanced diagnostic systems; development/application; torch operation and test facilities; process development; on-site field measurement and analysis; technology transfer/commercialization. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and process control. Also, the measured parameters, will be employed to improve, optimize and control the operation of the plasma torch and the overall plasma treatment process. Moreover, on-site field measurements at various DOE facilities are carried out to aid in the rapid demonstration and implementation of modern fieldable diagnostic methods. Such efforts also provide a basis for technology transfer.

  5. Pathogen Inactivating Properties and Increased Sensitivity in Molecular Diagnostics by PAXgene, a Novel Non-Crosslinking Tissue Fixative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Loibner

    Full Text Available Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene, was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples.Because of the excellent preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene we investigated its pathogen inactivation ability and biosafety in comparison to formalin by in-vitro testing of bacteria, human relevant fungi and human cytomegalovirus (CMV. Guidelines for testing disinfectants served as reference for inactivation assays. Furthermore, we tested the properties of PAXgene for detection of pathogens by PCR based assays.All microorganisms tested were similarly inactivated by PAXgene and formalin except Clostridium sporogenes, which remained viable in seven out of ten assays after PAXgene treatment and in three out of ten assays after formalin fixation. The findings suggest that similar biosafety measures can be applied for PAXgene and formalin fixed samples. Detection of pathogens in PCR-based diagnostics using two CMV assays resulted in a reduction of four to ten quantification cycles of PAXgene treated samples which is a remarkable increase of sensitivity.PAXgene fixation might be superior to formalin fixation when molecular diagnostics and highly sensitive detection of pathogens is required in parallel to morphology assessment.

  6. Pathogen Inactivating Properties and Increased Sensitivity in Molecular Diagnostics by PAXgene, a Novel Non-Crosslinking Tissue Fixative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibner, Martina; Buzina, Walter; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Hausleitner, Anja; Siaulyte, Gintare; Kufferath, Iris; Kölli, Bettina; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene), was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples. Because of the excellent preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene we investigated its pathogen inactivation ability and biosafety in comparison to formalin by in-vitro testing of bacteria, human relevant fungi and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Guidelines for testing disinfectants served as reference for inactivation assays. Furthermore, we tested the properties of PAXgene for detection of pathogens by PCR based assays. All microorganisms tested were similarly inactivated by PAXgene and formalin except Clostridium sporogenes, which remained viable in seven out of ten assays after PAXgene treatment and in three out of ten assays after formalin fixation. The findings suggest that similar biosafety measures can be applied for PAXgene and formalin fixed samples. Detection of pathogens in PCR-based diagnostics using two CMV assays resulted in a reduction of four to ten quantification cycles of PAXgene treated samples which is a remarkable increase of sensitivity. PAXgene fixation might be superior to formalin fixation when molecular diagnostics and highly sensitive detection of pathogens is required in parallel to morphology assessment.

  7. Comparative analysis of diagnostic performance, feasibility and cost of different test-methods for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Lavra, Luca; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Magi, Fiorenza; De Francesco, Gian Paolo; Bellotti, Carlo; Salehi, Leila B; Trovato, Maria; Drago, Carlo; Bartolazzi, Armando

    2017-07-25

    Since it is impossible to recognize malignancy at fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in indeterminate thyroid nodules, surgery is recommended for all of them. However, cancer rate at final histology is blood assay.We performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compare their features, feasibility, diagnostic performance and cost. GEC, GEC+BRAF, M/F panel+miRNA GEC and M/F panel by NGS were the best in ruling-out malignancy (sensitivity = 90%, 89%, 89% and 90% respectively). BRAF and M/F panel alone and by NGS were the best in ruling-in malignancy (specificity = 100%, 93% and 93%). The M/F by NGS showed the highest accuracy (92%) and BRAF the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (247). GAL-3-ICC performed well as rule-out (sensitivity = 83%) and rule-in test (specificity = 85%), with good accuracy (84%) and high DOR (27) and is one of the cheapest (113 USD) and easiest one to be performed in different clinical settings.In conclusion, the more accurate molecular-based test-methods are still expensive and restricted to few, highly specialized and centralized laboratories. GAL-3-ICC, although limited by some false negatives, represents the most suitable screening test-method to be applied on a large-scale basis in the diagnostic algorithm of indeterminate thyroid lesions.

  8. High sensitivity point-of-care device for direct virus diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Dapra, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2013-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, carry the risk of pandemics, and pose a considerable economic burden worldwide. To improve the management of the illness, it is essential with accurate and fast point-of-care diagnostic tools for use in the field or at the pat...

  9. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2018-01-01

    Background Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. Methodology We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I) or without AIDS (group II), uninfected (group III), and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV). All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection. Results Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S), 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS), and a 100 kDa protein (HC100) revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases. Conclusion Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis. PMID:29342162

  10. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Dantas

    Full Text Available Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients.We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I or without AIDS (group II, uninfected (group III, and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV. All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection.Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S, 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS, and a 100 kDa protein (HC100 revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases.Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis.

  11. EPR method for the detection of sensitization in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, W.L.; Cowan, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the reliability of reactor system piping by increasing knowledge of failure causing mechanisms and by enhancing the capability for design evaluation and analysis. Toward the attainment of that objective, a technique has been developed to measure the degree of sensitization quantitatively in thermally treated AISI-304, -304L, -316 and 316L stainless steels. The Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test was developed because of an industrial need for a rapid, nondestructive, quantitative field test which could be used for assessing sensitization in reactor components. The EPR method consists of developing potentiokinetic curves on a polarized sample obtained by controlled potential sweep from the passive to the active region (reactivation) in a specific electrolyte; details of the test technique have been reported

  12. A new sensitive method for detecting human endogenous (leukocyte) pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodel, P; Miller, H

    1978-03-01

    Endogenous, or leukocyte pyrogen (EP), the mediator of fever, is currently detected by injection of pyrogen-containing supernatants into rabbits. This assay has been of little value in the study of human fever because it required injection of relatively large amounts of pyrogen. We now report that injection of medium containing human EP produces fever in mice. Supernatant from 1 c 10(5) granulocytes, stimulated by phagocytosis of staphylococci and incubated overnight, or 1 x 10(4) monocytes similarly treated, produce clear pyrogenic responses. This method for detecting EP is about 100-fold more sensitive than the rabbit assay, and it appears to be specific for EP. Preliminary studies of EP released by small samples of needle liver biopsies from febrile and afebrile patients suggests that this sensitive assay may be useful for investigations into the mechanisms of clinical fever.

  13. Application of the Monte Carlo method to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persliden, J.

    1986-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program for photon transport is developed. The program is used to investigate the energy imparted to water slabs (simulating patients), and the related backscattered and transmitted energies as functions of primary photon energy and water slab thickness. The accuracy of the results depends on the cross-section data for the probabilities of the various interactions in the slab and on the physical quantity calculated. Backscattered energy fractions can vary by as much as 10-20 %, using different sets of published data for the photoelectric cross section while imparted fractions are only slightly affected. The results are used to calculate improved conversion factors for determining the energy imparted to the patient in X-ray diagnostic examinations from measurements of the air collision kerma integrated over beam area. The small angle distribution of scattered photons transmitted through a water slab, relevant to problems of image quality, is calculated taking into account the diffraction phenomena of liquid water. The calculations are performed with a collision density estimator. This estimator makes it possible to calculate important physical quantities which are virtually impracticable to assess with the Monte Carlo codes commonly used in medical physics or in experiments. With the collision density estimator, the influence of air gaps on the reduction of scattered radiation is investigated for different detectors, field areas and primary X-ray spectra. Contrast degradation and contrast improvement factors are given as functions of field area for various air gaps. (With 105 refs.) (author)

  14. Most important methods of the diagnostics of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, E; Cimander, B

    1976-01-01

    The paper contains a review of literature concerning the more important procedures for diagnosing air pollution. Cited results of studies from several countries indicate a relationship between the intensity of sulfur dioxide air pollution and the extent of vegetation damage. Possibility of the use of aerial photography for diagnosis of damage in forests was mentioned. Possibilities for utilization of certain plant species or plant communities as indicators of air pollution were described. It was stressed that long-lived evergreens are the best bio-indicators. Examples of increases in population density of certain insect pest sand activation of fungal pathogens caused by industrial emissions were given. Techniques used in Poland for the development and introduction of zones of forest threat by industrial air pollution were discussed. These are based on alterations in the length and shape of needles, foliage coloration, numbers of needle generations, and external appearance of tree crowns in the form of height growth inhibition or impairment of tree vigor. It was stressed that not all changes in forest environment under the impact of emissions may be considered appropriate for the diagnosis of air pollution. Diagnostic procedures ought to be relatively simple and easy to apply.

  15. Cognitive strategies: a method to reduce diagnostic errors in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Prevaldi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available I wonder why sometimes we are able to rapidly recognize patterns of disease presentation, formulate a speedy diagnostic closure, and go on with a treatment plan. On the other hand sometimes we proceed studing in deep our patient in an analytic, slow and rational way of decison making. Why decisions sometimes can be intuitive, while sometimes we have to proceed in a rigorous way? What is the “back ground noise” and the “signal to noise ratio” of presenting sintoms? What is the risk in premature labeling or “closure” of a patient? When is it useful the “cook-book” approach in clinical decision making? The Emergency Department is a natural laboratory for the study of error” stated an author. Many studies have focused on the occurrence of errors in medicine, and in hospital practice, but the ED with his unique operating characteristics seems to be a uniquely errorprone environment. That's why it is useful to understand the underlying pattern of thinking that can lead us to misdiagnosis. The general knowledge of thought processes gives the psysician awareness an the ability to apply different tecniques in clinical decision making and to recognize and avoid pitfalls.

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Bastos Ramis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infects nearly 50% of the world's population. This microorganism is accepted as the most important agent of gastritis and as a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently many diagnostic methods exist for detecting H. pylori, however they all have limitations, thus it is recommend a combination of at least two methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic methods, such as in-house urease test, culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, for the detection of the H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of 144 dyspeptic patients, using as gold standard the association between histology and rapid urease test. According to the gold standard used in this study, 48 (33.3% patients were infected with H. pylori, while 96 (66.7% were classified as not infected. The in-house urease test and the PCR were the most sensitive methods (100%, followed by culture (85.4%. However, the in-house urease test and the culture were the most specific (100%, followed by PCR (75%. In conclusion, this study showed that, in comparison with the combination of histology and rapid urease test, the in-house urease test and the PCR presented 100% of sensitivity in the diagnosis of gastric infection by H. pylori, while the in-house urease test and the culture reached 100% of specificity. These finding suggest that the combination of two or more methods may improve the accuracy of the H. pylori detection.

  17. Prospective evaluation of the diagnostic value of sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood in adults with suspected systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, H; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood has been proposed to guide bone marrow (BM) investigation in suspected systemic mastocytosis (SM). The aim of this prospective study was for the first time to compare the D816V status of the "screening blood sample" used to guide BM biopsy...... in suspected SM to the outcome of the subsequent BM investigation. METHODS: Fifty-eight adult patients with suspected SM were included. The outcome of sensitive KIT D816V analysis of blood was compared to the result of the BM investigation. RESULTS: Screening blood samples from 44 of 58 patients tested D816V...... patients did not fulfill any diagnostic SM criteria (excluding tryptase criterion). Of the 48 SM patients, 90% tested D816V-positive. Thirteen SM patients presented with Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis, no skin lesions, and baseline serum tryptase ≤20 ng/mL. Of these, 92% tested D816V...

  18. Clinical diagnostic value of determination of serum lschemia modified albumin, homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiqun; Jiang Donglin; Lu Weigu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical diagnostic value of determination of serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA), homocysteine (Hcy) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Serum IMA (with albumin-cobalt binding assay), Hcy (with ELISA) and hs-CRP (with RIA) levels were determined in 73 patients with ACS within 3 hours after onset of chest pain and 40 controls. Results: The sensitivity of IMA was 87.67%, the specificity was 100%. The area under curve of ROC was 0.985 (95% confidence interval 0.969 ∼ 1.001). All the figures were higher than those of Hcy and hs-CRP. Combined determination of IMA, Hcy and hs-CRP, would increass the sensitivity to 97.26%. Conclusion: IMA is one of the earliest sensitive indicators for clinical diagnosis of early myocardial ischemia in patients with ACS. Combined determination of IMA, Hcy and hs-CRP would be even more sensitive. (authors)

  19. The Scientific Method, Diagnostic Bayes, and How to Detect Epistemic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades, Bayesian methods have found widespread application and use in environmental systems modeling. Bayes theorem states that the posterior probability, P(H|D) of a hypothesis, H is proportional to the product of the prior probability, P(H) of this hypothesis and the likelihood, L(H|hat{D}) of the same hypothesis given the new/incoming observations, \\hat {D}. In science and engineering, H often constitutes some numerical simulation model, D = F(x,.) which summarizes using algebraic, empirical, and differential equations, state variables and fluxes, all our theoretical and/or practical knowledge of the system of interest, and x are the d unknown parameters which are subject to inference using some data, \\hat {D} of the observed system response. The Bayesian approach is intimately related to the scientific method and uses an iterative cycle of hypothesis formulation (model), experimentation and data collection, and theory/hypothesis refinement to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world. Unfortunately, model refinement has proven to be very difficult in large part because of the poor diagnostic power of residual based likelihood functions tep{gupta2008}. This has inspired te{vrugt2013} to advocate the use of 'likelihood-free' inference using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). This approach uses one or more summary statistics, S(\\hat {D}) of the original data, \\hat {D} designed ideally to be sensitive only to one particular process in the model. Any mismatch between the observed and simulated summary metrics is then easily linked to a specific model component. A recurrent issue with the application of ABC is self-sufficiency of the summary statistics. In theory, S(.) should contain as much information as the original data itself, yet complex systems rarely admit sufficient statistics. In this article, we propose to combine the ideas of ABC and regular Bayesian inference to guarantee that no information is lost in diagnostic model

  20. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-01

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  1. Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.

    1987-03-01

    X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10 5 m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments

  2. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-15

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  3. Overview of hybrid subspace methods for uncertainty quantification, sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Bang, Youngsuk; Wang, Congjian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We overview the state-of-the-art in uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. ► We overview new developments in above areas using hybrid methods. ► We give a tutorial introduction to above areas and the new developments. ► Hybrid methods address the explosion in dimensionality in nonlinear models. ► Representative numerical experiments are given. -- Abstract: The role of modeling and simulation has been heavily promoted in recent years to improve understanding of complex engineering systems. To realize the benefits of modeling and simulation, concerted efforts in the areas of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis are required. The manuscript intends to serve as a pedagogical presentation of the material to young researchers and practitioners with little background on the subjects. We believe this is important as the role of these subjects is expected to be integral to the design, safety, and operation of existing as well as next generation reactors. In addition to covering the basics, an overview of the current state-of-the-art will be given with particular emphasis on the challenges pertaining to nuclear reactor modeling. The second objective will focus on presenting our own development of hybrid subspace methods intended to address the explosion in the computational overhead required when handling real-world complex engineering systems.

  4. Interlaboratory diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Hugas, M.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative study involving four European laboratories was conducted to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a Salmonella specific PCR-based method, which was evaluated within the European FOOD-PCR project (http://www.pcr.dk). Each laboratory analysed by the PCR a set of independent obtained...... presumably naturally contaminated samples and compared the results with the microbiological culture method. The PCR-based method comprised a preenrichment step in buffered peptone water followed by a thermal cell lysis using a closed tube resin-based method. Artificially contaminated minced beef and whole......-based diagnostic methods and is currently proposed as international standard document....

  5. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine...

  6. Diagnostic of the beam by pepper-pot method

    CERN Document Server

    Dolinskaya, M E; Zajchenko, A K

    2002-01-01

    The new method for the measuring of the particle distribution in the transversal plane with pepper-pot device is described. The algorithm for the beam emittance and Twiss parameters determination, using such measurements is presented. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Automatic diagnostic methods of nuclear reactor collected signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavison, P.

    1978-03-01

    This work is the first phase of an opwall study of diagnosis limited to problems of monitoring the operating state; this allows to show all what the pattern recognition methods bring at the processing level. The present problem is the research of the control operations. The analysis of the state of the reactor gives a decision which is compared with the history of the control operations, and if there is not correspondence, the state subjected to the analysis will be said 'abnormal''. The system subjected to the analysis is described and the problem to solve is defined. Then, one deals with the gaussian parametric approach and the methods to evaluate the error probability. After one deals with non parametric methods and an on-line detection has been tested experimentally. Finally a non linear transformation has been studied to reduce the error probability previously obtained. All the methods presented have been tested and compared to a quality index: the error probability [fr

  8. Diagnostic performance of a Lattice Boltzmann-based method for CT-based fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Tang, Anji; Ge, Yin; Cheezum, Michael K; Steigner, Michael L; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Chiappino, Dante; Della Latta, Daniele; Berti, Sergio; Chiappino, Sara; Rybicki, Frank J; Melchionna, Simone; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2018-02-20

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) estimated from coronary computed tomography angiography (CT-FFR) offers non-invasive detection of lesion-specific ischaemia. We aimed to develop and validate a fast CT-FFR algorithm utilising the Lattice Boltzmann method for blood flow simulation (LBM CT-FFR). Sixty-four patients with clinically indicated CTA and invasive FFR measurement from three institutions were retrospectively analysed. CT-FFR was performed using an onsite tool interfacing with a commercial Lattice Boltzmann fluid dynamics cloud-based platform. Diagnostic accuracy of LBM CT-FFR ≤0.8 and percent diameter stenosis >50% by CTA to detect invasive FFR ≤0.8 were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Sixty patients successfully underwent LBM CT-FFR analysis; 29 of 73 lesions in 69 vessels had invasive FFR ≤0.8. Total time to perform LBM CT-FFR was 40±10 min. Compared to invasive FFR, LBM CT-FFR had good correlation (r=0.64), small bias (0.009) and good limits of agreement (-0.223 to 0.206). The AUC of LBM CT-FFR (AUC=0.894, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.792-0.996) was significantly higher than CTA (AUC=0.685, 95% CI: 0.576-0.794) to detect FFR ≤0.8 (p=0.0021). Per-lesion specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of LBM CT-FFR were 97.7%, 79.3%, and 90.4%, respectively. LBM CT-FFR has very good diagnostic accuracy to detect lesion-specific ischaemia (FFR ≤0.8) and can be performed in less than one hour.

  9. Diagnostic Methods for Dental Caries Used by Private Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... methods used for diagnosis and treatment of dental caries can exhibit considerable differences. Oral health markedly contributes to the maintenance of general health and ..... may be attributed to the deterioration of eye function with the advanced ... meticulous visual examination of a dry tooth and the lack.

  10. Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions

  11. Hydrocoin level 3 - Testing methods for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.; Lindbom, B.; Larsson, A.; Andersson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The HYDROCOIN study is an international cooperative project for testing groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The study was initiated in 1984 by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the technical work was finalised in 1987. The participating organisations are regulatory authorities as well as implementing organisations in 10 countries. The study has been performed at three levels aimed at studying computer code verification, model validation and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis respectively. The results from the first two levels, code verification and model validation, have been published in reports in 1988 and 1990 respectively. This paper focuses on some aspects of the results from Level 3, sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, for which a final report is planned to be published during 1990. For Level 3, seven test cases were defined. Some of these aimed at exploring the uncertainty associated with the modelling results by simply varying parameter values and conceptual assumptions. In other test cases statistical sampling methods were applied. One of the test cases dealt with particle tracking and the uncertainty introduced by this type of post processing. The amount of results available is substantial although unevenly spread over the test cases. It has not been possible to cover all aspects of the results in this paper. Instead, the different methods applied will be illustrated by some typical analyses. 4 figs., 9 refs

  12. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  13. Non-IgE-related diagnostic methods (LST, patch test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Although most food allergy patients have immediate-type reactions, some have delayed-type reactions. Unlike for the detection of food-specific IgE antibody in immediate-type (IgE-mediated) food allergies, only a few tests are currently available to aid in the diagnosis of delayed-type (non-IgE-mediated) food allergies. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of one in vitro test and one in vivo test for non-IgE-mediated food allergies: the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and the atopy patch test (APT). Although the LST is not yet standardized, a food protein-specific LST might be a useful tool for diagnosing delayed-type food allergies, and especially those manifesting with gastrointestinal symptoms but not skin symptoms. Various remaining issues - including basophil contamination of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction and lipopolysaccharide contamination of food antigen preparations - are also discussed. The APT uses an epicutaneous patch technique to occlusively apply food antigens to the skin to induce inflammatory reactions at the patch application site. Because the APT shows modest sensitivity and specificity, the clinical benefit of the APT in the diagnosis of food allergies in patients with atopic dermatitis is limited. A position paper on the APT issued by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network in 2006 is briefly summarized, and several recent APT-related topics, including APT use for the diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, are discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  15. Ultra-low dose dual-source high-pitch computed tomography of the paranasal sinus: diagnostic sensitivity and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Boris; Zangos, Stefan; Friedrichs, Ingke; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, Matthias; Vogl, Thomas J.; Martin M Mack, Martin M.; Potente, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Today's gold standard for diagnostic imaging of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinus is computed tomography (CT). Purpose: To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and radiation dose of an ultra-low dose dual-source CT technique. Material and Methods: Paranasal sinuses of 14 cadaveric heads were independently evaluated by two readers using a modern dual-source CT with lowest reasonable dosage in high-pitch mode (100 kV, 10 mAs, collimation 0.6 mm, pitch value 3.0). Additionally the head part of an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescent detectors to measure radiation exposure to the eye lenses and thyroid gland. Results: Diagnostic accuracy regarding sinusoidal fluid, nasal septum deviation, and mucosal swelling was 100%. Mastoid fluid was detected in 76% and 92%, respectively. In the phantom study, average measured eye lens dosage was 0.64 mGy; radiation exposure of the thyroid gland was 0.085 mGy. Conclusion: Regarding evaluation of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinus this study indicates sufficient accuracy of the proposed CT protocol at a very low dosage level

  16. Dynamic pressure sensitivity determination with Mach number method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf, Christophe; Damion, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of pressure in fast transient conditions are often performed even if the dynamic characteristic of the transducer are not traceable to international standards. Moreover, the question of a primary standard in dynamic pressure is still open, especially for gaseous applications. The question is to improve dynamic standards in order to respond to expressed industrial needs. In this paper, the method proposed in the EMRP IND09 ‘Dynamic’ project, which can be called the ‘ideal shock tube method’, is compared with the ‘collective standard method’ currently used in the Laboratoire de Métrologie Dynamique (LNE/ENSAM). The input is a step of pressure generated by a shock tube. The transducer is a piezoelectric pressure sensor. With the ‘ideal shock tube method’ the sensitivity of a pressure sensor is first determined dynamically. This method requires a shock tube implemented with piezoelectric shock wave detectors. The measurement of the Mach number in the tube allows an evaluation of the incident pressure amplitude of a step using a theoretical 1D model of the shock tube. Heat transfer, other actual effects and effects of the shock tube imperfections are not taken into account. The amplitude of the pressure step is then used to determine the sensitivity in dynamic conditions. The second method uses a frequency bandwidth comparison to determine pressure at frequencies from quasi-static conditions, traceable to static pressure standards, to higher frequencies (up to 10 kHz). The measurand is also a step of pressure generated by a supposed ideal shock tube or a fast-opening device. The results are provided as a transfer function with an uncertainty budget assigned to a frequency range, also deliverable frequency by frequency. The largest uncertainty in the bandwidth of comparison is used to trace the final pressure step level measured in dynamic conditions, owing that this pressure is not measurable in a steady state on a shock tube. A reference

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic capsules and method of producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.A.; Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    An article of manufacture comprising a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule formed essentially of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contract with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract, and having a filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract said filler material being supported by said capsule. And a method of filling a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule comprising providing filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound and transporting said filler material carrying a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound into the chamber of said capsule

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder in the DSM-5: Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansz, Jessica A.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months…

  19. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim badparva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that lives in the genital tract and causes trichomoniasis in women. About 200 million people all over the world are infected with T. vaginalis. There are various methods with different sensitivity and specificity for detection of this parasite, that one of them is direct smear of vaginal secretions which is simpler, rapid and cheaper than other diagnostic methods. Materials and Methods: Demographic data was gathered by a questionnaire which contained different variables. Vaginal secretions samples were taken by spicolum and two swaps that maintained in glucose solution in separate tubes from 160 women referred to health centers of Khorramabad. One of the vaginal samples was examined by direct smear in saline solution and the other was cultured in Dorse medium. Results: Of 160 women suspected of trichomoniasis, 11.8% and 18.75% were positive by direct smear and culture respectively. The sensitivity of the direct method was 63.3%. Our findings indicated that 30% of the infected women belonged to the 31 – 35 age group, which had the most relative frequency of positive cases. Most of the patients (43% were illiterate or had elementary educational level. Conclussion: The sensivity of direct method is 63% in compare to culture ( as a Gold standard , which is ralatively low . Although the efficacy of this test could be imporved by shortening the elapsed time between sampling and examination , use of skilled microscopists , and different samples , but we recommend that more sensitive methods such as culture and PCR should be used .

  20. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  1. Radiation dosage of various CT-methods in lung diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz-Peer, G.; Weninger, F.; Nowotny, R.; Herold, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction of the computed tomography index CTDI and the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) has led to standardization of the dose description in CT examinations. Despite the use of these dose parameters, many different dosages are reported in the literature for different CT methods. In addition, there is still a wide range of radiation dosimetry results reported for conventional CT, helical CT, and HRCT used in chest examinations. The variations in dosage are mainly due to difference in factors affecting the dose, i.e. beam geometry, beam quality, scanner geometry ('generation'), and operating parameters. In addition, CT dosimetry instrumentation and methodology make a contribution to dosages. Recent studies calculating differences in factors affecting dosage and CT dosimetry and using similar operating parameters, show similar results in CT dosimetry for conventional and helical CT. On the other hand, dosages for HRCT were greatly reduced. This was mainly caused by narrow beam collimation and increasing section spacing. (orig.) [de

  2. Rock-Magnetic Method for Post Nuclear Detonation Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, J.; Petrosky, J.; Bailey, W.; Watts, D. R.; Tauxe, L.; Heger, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    A magnetic signature characteristic of a Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) may still be detectable near the sites of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at what is now the Nevada National Security Site. This signature is due to a secondary magnetization component of the natural remanent magnetization of material containing traces of ferromagnetic particles that have been exposed to a strong pulse of magnetic field. We apply a rock-magnetic method introduced by Verrier et al. (2002), and tested on samples exposed to artificial lightning, to samples of rock and building materials (e.g. bricks, concrete) retrieved from several above ground nuclear test sites. The results of magnetization measurements are compared to NEMP simulations and historic test measurements.

  3. Cost utility analysis of diagnostic method of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the diagnosis of syphilis is dependent mainly on serological tests. The most widely used screening tests for syphilis are the VDRL and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR and for confirmation, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA and the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA tests. The four alternative modes for diagnosis of syphilis can be a VDRL + FTA, b VDRL + TPHA, c RPR + FTA and d RPR + TPHA. Here the author reports an evaluation of cost utility of these tests in medical practice. It is shown that the cost per accurate diagnosis with VDRL + TPH is the least expensive choice. Therefore, this alternative is the best method for serological diagnosis for syphilis, based on medical laboratory economics principles

  4. Clinical and Demographic Stratification of Test Performance: A Pooled Analysis of Five Laboratory Diagnostic Methods for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Ramos, Ana P.; Espinosa, Diego; Valencia, Braulio M.; Veland, Nicolas; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated performance characteristics of five diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients who came to the Leishmania Clinic of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, were enrolled in the study. Lesion smears, culture, microculture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed. A total of 145 patients with 202 lesions were enrolled: 114 patients with 161 lesions fulfilled criteria for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sensitivity and specificity were 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.2–65.4%) and 100.0% for culture, 78.3% (95% CI = 71.9–84.7%) and 100.0% for microculture, 71.4% (95% CI = 64.4–78.4%) and 100.0% for smears, 78.2% (95% CI = 70.6–85.8%) and 77.4% (95% CI = 62.7–92.1%) for LST, and 96.9% (95% CI = 94.2–99.6%) and 65.9% (95% CI = 51.4–80.4%) for PCR. PCR was more sensitive than the other assays (P < 0.001). Sensitivities of culture, smears, and LST varied by lesion duration and appearance. PCR offers performance advantages over other assays, irrespective of patient age, sex, lesion duration, or appearance. That clinical factors influence performance of non-molecular assays offers clinicians a patient-focused approach to diagnostic test selection. PMID:20682880

  5. [Hysteroscopy clinic: diagnostic and therapeutic method in abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Fuentes, José; Obregón Zegarra, Eva Haydee

    2012-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a public health problem prevalence exceeded only by abnormal vaginal discharge as a reason for medical consultation. To describe the findings reported by the Hysteroscopy clinic of the Hospital GEA Gonzalez on patients with Abnormal Uterine bleeding diagnosis. Retrospective, transversal, descriptive study. The total 2546 records of those patient that were evaluated by Office Hysteroscopic between January 2007 and December 2008 on the Hysteroscopy Clinic of Hospital Manuel GEA Gonzalez, then we selected the 1482 records of those patients that were sended because of an Abnormal Uterine bleeding condition. We descrive the frequencies of the diagnosis and its interrelation with the age of the patients. We also report the therapeutical interventions during office hysteroscopy. The mean age of the patients was 42.15 +/- 9.30 years (from 12 a 92 years); the age groups of patients that belonged to 40-44 years and 45-49 years are the most frequent patient and they represent the 25% y el 23.3% of the records. The abnormal findings occurred on the 66% de of the patients. Those patients of 65 years old and older do not have any report of normal cavities, all of then have abnormal findings. The leiomyoma (26.9%) and the endometrial polyps (27.3%) were the most frequent findings. The postmenopausal bleeding had a rate of 90.9% abnormal findings and in this group of patients the most frequent diagnosis was atrophic endometrium (32.2%) and polyps (24.3%). Besides that the office hysteroscopy show its therapeutical usefulness because of the 67% and 77.5% of polipectomy perform for endometrial and cervical polyps respectively The office Hysteroscopy is a well tolerated diagnosis and therapeutic method that is useful for any women with abnormal uterine bleeding condition and it is the ideal technique for the examination of abnormal uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women... The office hysteroscopy is a efficient cost-effective and cost-benefic method for

  6. Systematic reviews of diagnostic tests in endocrinology: an audit of methods, reporting, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Brito, Juan P; Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole; Tamhane, Shrikant; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan; Montori, Victor M

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews provide clinicians and policymakers estimates of diagnostic test accuracy and their usefulness in clinical practice. We identified all available systematic reviews of diagnosis in endocrinology, summarized the diagnostic accuracy of the tests included, and assessed the credibility and clinical usefulness of the methods and reporting. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to December 2015 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting accuracy measures of diagnostic tests in endocrinology. Experienced reviewers independently screened for eligible studies and collected data. We summarized the results, methods, and reporting of the reviews. We performed subgroup analyses to categorize diagnostic tests as most useful based on their accuracy. We identified 84 systematic reviews; half of the tests included were classified as helpful when positive, one-fourth as helpful when negative. Most authors adequately reported how studies were identified and selected and how their trustworthiness (risk of bias) was judged. Only one in three reviews, however, reported an overall judgment about trustworthiness and one in five reported using adequate meta-analytic methods. One in four reported contacting authors for further information and about half included only patients with diagnostic uncertainty. Up to half of the diagnostic endocrine tests in which the likelihood ratio was calculated or provided are likely to be helpful in practice when positive as are one-quarter when negative. Most diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrine lack methodological rigor, protection against bias, and offer limited credibility. Substantial efforts, therefore, seem necessary to improve the quality of diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrinology.

  7. Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare personnel: a self-reporting investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, Jan; Brennan, Patrick C.; Bowden, Julie Anne

    2003-01-01

    The use of latex gloves has risen dramatically among healthcare workers resulting in an increase in the number of workers experiencing reactions to gloves. Little evidence of reactions among Irish healthcare workers is available. The current, self-reporting study investigated the prevalence to latex gloves amongst four professional groups within three Diagnostic Imaging Departments. Prevalence is similar to that demonstrated elsewhere with 18.3% of individuals expressing latex associated symptoms. Symptoms included itching and redness of hands, dry cracked skin, soreness of eyes and upper respiratory tract complaints. These results indicate that latex hypersensitivity is a real problem amongst Irish healthcare workers. This preliminary work provides the basis of a much larger controlled study currently being planned

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIAGNOSTIC METHOD OF MORAL ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Slavinskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the developing and standardization of psychodiagnostics test that measures moral orientations for adolescence. The definition of moral orientations as a matter of diagnosis and the justification of chosen stimuli are provided. Respondents evaluate the degree to which 13 values are expressed in the behavior of seven categories of people (from the «native» to the «enemies». Youthful students from 17 to 21 years (N = 330 were used as a standardization sample. Factorial validity of the scales used was tested by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A hierarchical structure of the test (including the common scale and three subscales is confirmed by the CFA. Cronbach’s alpha indicated a high consistency between separate items of the test, demonstrating high reliability of the test’s scales. Criterion validity of the scales is assessed on the basis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by establishing close statistical relations with constructs similar in content. The standards for test’s scales are developed. The results testify the adequacy of this method for the diagnosis of youth moral orientations.

  9. Inservice diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOVs) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOVs that can help ensure their operational readiness-that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. An earlier (Phase 1) NPAR program study described SOV failure modes and causes and had identified measurable parameters thought to be linked to the progression of everpresent degradation mechanisms that may ultimately result in functional failure of the valve. Using this earlier work as a guide, the present (Phase 11) study focused on devising and then demonstrating the effectiveness of techniques and equipment with which to measure performance parameters that show promise for detecting the presence and trending the progress of such degradations before they reach a critical stage. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and practicality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided

  10. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x10 13 neutron cm -2 sec - 1 , (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  11. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-pat...

  12. Methods and computer codes for probabilistic sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and applications experience with two computer codes that are now available from the National Energy Software Center at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the SCREEN code is to identify a group of most important input variables of a code that has many (tens, hundreds) input variables with uncertainties, and do this without relying on judgment or exhaustive sensitivity studies. Purpose of the PROSA-2 code is to propagate uncertainties and calculate the distributions of interesting output variable(s) of a safety analysis code using response surface techniques, based on the same runs used for screening. Several applications are discussed, but the codes are generic, not tailored to any specific safety application code. They are compatible in terms of input/output requirements but also independent of each other, e.g., PROSA-2 can be used without first using SCREEN if a set of important input variables has first been selected by other methods. Also, although SCREEN can select cases to be run (by random sampling), a user can select cases by other methods if he so prefers, and still use the rest of SCREEN for identifying important input variables

  13. Salivary Pepsin Lacks Sensitivity as a Diagnostic Tool to Evaluate Extraesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Fei; Amirault, Janine; Mitchell, Paul D; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH testing (pH-MII), endoscopy, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaires. We prospectively recruited 50 children from Boston Children's Hospital who were undergoing pH-MII to evaluate for GERD. The patients completed 24-hour pH-MII testing, completed symptom and quality of life questionnaires, and provided a saliva specimen that was analyzed using the PepTest lateral flow test. A subset of patients also underwent bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with each reference standard. Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) were salivary pepsin-positive, with a median salivary pepsin concentration of 10 ng/mL (IQR, 10-55 ng/mL). There was no significant difference in the distributions of acid, nonacid, total reflux episodes, full column reflux, or any other reflux variable in patients who were pepsin-positive compared with those who were pepsin-negative (P > .50). There was no significant correlation between the number of reflux episodes and pepsin concentration (P > .10). There was no positive relationship between salivary pepsin positivity, any extraesophageal symptoms or quality of life scores, or inflammation on bronchoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (P > .30). Salivary pepsin measurement has a low sensitivity for predicting pathological gastroesophageal reflux in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Guidelines Improves the Diagnostic Sensitivity of Gastrointestinal Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Diana M; Detweiler, Claire J; Shealy, Michael J; Sung, Anthony D; Wild, Daniel M; Poleski, Martin H; Balmadrid, Bryan L; Cirrincione, Constance T; Howell, David N; Sullivan, Keith M

    2018-04-26

    - Graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate diagnosis can be difficult and is a truly clinicopathologic endeavor. - To assess the diagnostic sensitivity of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease using the 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH) histology consensus guidelines and to analyze histologic findings that support the guidelines. - Patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants were identified via a retrospective search of our electronic medical record from January 1, 2005, to January 1, 2011. Endoscopies with available histology were reviewed by 2 pathologists using the 2015 NIH guidelines. The clinical diagnosis was used as the gold standard. A nontransplant set of endoscopic biopsies was used as a control. - Of the 250 total endoscopies, 217 (87%) had a clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease. Use of the NIH consensus guidelines showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 65%. Thirty-seven of 58 (64%) cases with an initial false-negative histopathologic diagnosis were diagnosed as graft-versus-host disease on our review. - Use of the NIH histology consensus guidelines results in a high sensitivity and specificity, thereby decreasing false-negatives. Additionally, use of the NIH guidelines aids in creating uniformity and diagnostic clarity. Correlation with clinical and laboratory findings is critical in evaluating the differential diagnosis and to avoid false-positives. As expected, increased apoptosis with decreased inflammation was associated with a pathologic diagnosis of graft-versus-host disease and supports the NIH guidelines.

  15. The diagnostic accuracy of serologic and molecular methods for detecting visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Fernandes Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a potentially fatal disease, has emerged as an important opportunistic condition in HIV infected patients. In immunocompromised patients, serological investigation is considered not an accurate diagnostic method for VL diagnosis and molecular techniques seem especially promising. OBJECTIVE: This work is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of serologic and molecular tests for VL diagnosis specifically in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched PubMed and LILACS databases. The quality of studies was assessed by QUADAS score. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures: diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC. RESULTS: Thirty three studies recruiting 1,489 patients were included. The following tests were evaluated: Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting (Blot, direct agglutination test (DAT and polimerase chain reaction (PCR in whole blood and bone marrow. Most studies were carried out in Europe. Serological tests varied widely in performance, but with overall limited sensitivity. IFAT had poor sensitivity ranging from 11% to 82%. DOR (95% confidence interval was higher for DAT 36.01 (9.95-130.29 and Blot 27.51 (9.27-81.66 than for IFAT 7.43 (3.08-1791 and ELISA 3.06 (0.71-13.10. PCR in whole blood had the highest DOR: 400.35 (58.47-2741.42. The accuracy of PCR based on Q-point was 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.97, which means good overall performance. CONCLUSION: Based mainly on evidence gained by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi, serological tests should not be used to rule out a diagnosis of VL among the HIV-infected, but a positive test at even low titers has diagnostic value when combined with the clinical case definition. Considering the available evidence, tests based on DNA

  16. Sensitivity kernels for viscoelastic loading based on adjoint methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, David; Tromp, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    kernel' Kη determines the linearized sensitivity of J to viscosity perturbations defined with respect to a laterally heterogeneous reference earth model, while the `rate-of-loading kernel' K_{dot{σ }} determines the sensitivity to variations in the time derivative of the surface load. By restricting attention to spherically symmetric viscosity perturbations, we also obtain a `radial viscosity kernel' overline{K}_{η } such that the associated contribution to δJ can be written int _{IS}overline{K}_{η }δ ln η dr, where IS denotes the subset of radii lying in solid regions. In order to illustrate this theory, we describe its numerical implementation in the case of a spherically symmetric earth model using a 1-D spectral element method, and calculate sensitivity kernels for a range of realistic observables.

  17. Influence of Feature Selection Methods on Classification Sensitivity Based on the Example of A Study of Polish Voivodship Tourist Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Iwona

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of various methods of selection of diagnostic features on the sensitivity of classification. Three options of feature selection are presented: a parametric feature selection method with a sum (option I, a median of the correlation coefficients matrix column elements (option II and the method of a reversed matrix (option III. Efficiency of the groupings was verified by the indicators of homogeneity, heterogeneity and the correctness of grouping. In the assessment of group efficiency the approach with the Weber median was used. The undertaken problem was illustrated with a research into the tourist attractiveness of voivodships in Poland in 2011.

  18. The Increase of Operational Safety of Ships by Improving Diagnostic Methods for Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Witkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the importance of the diagnostic improvement methods of marine engines to boost the economy and safety of operation of marine cargo ships. The need to implement effective diagnostic methods is justified by presenting statistical data of marine diesel engines failure and the cost of their operation. Based on the own research has been proven, for the chosen example, that indicator diagrams and analysis of indicated parameters have limited utility in the diagnosis of damages of marine engine, although this is a method commonly used in operational practice. To achieve greater diagnostic effectiveness, when, based on indicator diagrams, are calculated and then the characteristics of heat release is analyzed - net of heat release characteristics and the intensity of the heat release, it was demonstrated. This procedure is particularly effective in the diagnosis of damage of injection system components marine diesel engine.

  19. Comparison of sample types and diagnostic methods for in vivo detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during early stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Maria; Daniels, Jason; Rovira, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The study of diagnostic accuracy of chest nodules by using different compression methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhigang; Kuncheng, L.I.; Zhang Jinghong; Liu Shuliang

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of small nodules in the chest by using different compression methods. Method: Two radiologists with 5 years experience twice interpreted 39 chest images by using lossless and lossy compression methods. The time interval was 3 weeks. Each time the radiologists interpreted one kind of compressed images. The image browser used the Unisight software provided by Atlastiger Company in Shanghai. The interpreting results were analyzed by the ROCKIT software and the ROC curves were painted by Excel 2002. Results: In studies of receiver operating characteristics for scoring the presence or absence of nodules, the images with lossy compression method showed no statistical difference as compared with the images with lossless compression method. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of chest nodules by using the lossless and lossy compression methods had no significant difference, we could use the lossy compression method to transmit and archive the chest images with nodules

  1. Fast and sensitive method for detecting volatile species in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarco, Daniel B.; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib; Vesborg, Peter C. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel apparatus for extracting volatile species from liquids using a "sniffer-chip." By ultrafast transfer of the volatile species through a perforated and hydrophobic membrane into an inert carrier gas stream, the sniffer-chip is able to transport the species directly to a mass spectrometer through a narrow capillary without the use of differential pumping. This method inherits features from differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), but brings the best of both worlds, i.e., the fast time-response of a DEMS system and the high sensitivity of a MIMS system. In this paper, the concept of the sniffer-chip is thoroughly explained and it is shown how it can be used to quantify hydrogen and oxygen evolution on a polycrystalline platinum thin film in situ at absolute faradaic currents down to ˜30 nA. To benchmark the capabilities of this method, a CO-stripping experiment is performed on a polycrystalline platinum thin film, illustrating how the sniffer-chip system is capable of making a quantitative in situ measurement of <1 % of a monolayer of surface adsorbed CO being electrochemically stripped off an electrode at a potential scan-rate of 50 mV s-1.

  2. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  3. Diagnostic method for photovoltaic systems based on light I-V measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    , be it external, such as shading or soiling, or degradation or failure of the PV modules and balance-of-system components. This allows for performing preventive and/or reparative maintenance, thus minimizing further losses and costs. This article proposes a complete diagnostic method for detecting shading...... and analysis of the diagnostic parameters and logic was performed based on module level tests on standard crystalline silicon PV modules, and were optimized to detect even small partial shading and increase series-resistance losses. To demonstrate the practical application and operation of this method...

  4. Diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts based on a method for LR(k) testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1981-01-01

    A user of an LALR(k) parser generator system may have difficulties in understanding how a given LALR(k) conflict is generated. This is especially difficult if the conflict does not correspond to an LR(k) conflict. A practical method for giving informative diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts is prese......A user of an LALR(k) parser generator system may have difficulties in understanding how a given LALR(k) conflict is generated. This is especially difficult if the conflict does not correspond to an LR(k) conflict. A practical method for giving informative diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts...

  5. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairinger, Fabian D; Walter, Robert Fh; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Hager, Thomas; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Schmid, Kurt W

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. A total of 250 μg DNA (concentration 5 μg/μL) was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA.

  6. Inter-observer agreement, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of animal-based indicators of young lamb welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phythian, C. J.; Toft, N.; Cripps, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    A scientific literature review and consensus of expert opinion used the welfare definitions provided by the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) Five Freedoms as the framework for selecting a set of animal-based indicators that were sensitive to the current on-farm welfare issues of young lambs (aged...... fill posture, body condition and eye condition. The diagnostic performance of some indicators was influenced by the composition of the study population, and it would be useful to test the indicators on lambs with a greater level of outcomes associated with poor welfare. The findings presented...... in this paper could be applied in the selection of valid, reliable and feasible indicators used for the purposes of on-farm assessments of lamb welfare....

  7. Studies on analytical method and nondestructive measuring method on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimura, Kichiro; Arioka, Koji; Horai, Manabu; Noguchi, Shigeru.

    1982-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used as structural materials for the machine and equipment of various kinds of plants, such as thermal power, nuclear power, and chemical plants. The machines and equipment using this kind of material, however, have the possibility of suffering corrosion damage while in service, and these damages are considered to be largely due to the sensitization of the material in sometimes. So, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for grasping the sensitization of the material more in detail and a quantitative nondestructive measuring method which is applicable to various kinds of structures in order to prevent the corrosion damage. From the above viewpoint, studies have been made on the analytical method based on the theory of diffusion of chromium in austenitic stainless steels and on Electro-Potentiokinetics Reactivation Method (EPR Method) as a nondestructive measuring method, using 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels having different carbon contents in base metals. This paper introduces the results of EPR test on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels and the correlation between analytical and experimental results. (author)

  8. A comparative assessment of the value of imaging methods in diagnostic of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshev, A.; Mlachkova, D.; Mlachkov, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the presentation is to study the possibilities of contemporary methods for early diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in adults with a view to make a suitable diagnostic protocol. 156 hip joints were examined. A conventional radiography was performed in all, CT - in 112, bone scan - in 123, MRI - in 42. The findings of the imaging methods were compared. The results of imaging methods were put together with the extension of the clinical complaints. The findings of conventional radiography were classified according to Ficat and Arlet, CT findings were classified according to Magit. The size and location of the necrotic area as a prognostic factor was evaluated. MRI was the most sensitive method in the early stages of necrosis of femoral head, followed by bone scan and CT. Conventional radiography is suitable for late stages of osteonecrosis. On the basis of our investigations we propose a diagnostic protocol for early diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in adults

  9. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairinger FD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabian D Mairinger,1 Robert FH Walter,2 Claudia Vollbrecht,3 Thomas Hager,1 Karl Worm,1 Saskia Ting,1 Jeremias Wohlschläger,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Kurt W Schmid1 1Institute of Pathology, 2Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, 3Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 4Pulmonary Department, Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Background and methods: Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. Results: A total of 250 µg DNA (concentration 5 µg/µL was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. Conclusion: We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA. Keywords: isothermal multiple displacement amplification, isothermal, whole

  10. Global and Local Sensitivity Analysis Methods for a Physical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is the study of how the different input variations of a mathematical model influence the variability of its output. In this paper, we review the principle of global and local sensitivity analyses of a complex black-box system. A simulated case of application is given at the end of this paper to compare both approaches.…

  11. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  12. An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation method and its comparison with existing variational methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation (ASDA method is proposed and applied to a heavy rainfall case over the Korean Peninsula. The heavy rainfall case, which occurred on 26 July 2006, caused torrential rainfall over the central part of the Korean Peninsula. The mesoscale convective system (MCS related to the heavy rainfall was classified as training line/adjoining stratiform (TL/AS-type for the earlier period, and back building (BB-type for the later period. In the ASDA method, an adjoint model is run backwards with forecast-error gradient as input, and the adjoint sensitivity of the forecast error to the initial condition is scaled by an optimal scaling factor. The optimal scaling factor is determined by minimising the observational cost function of the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var method, and the scaled sensitivity is added to the original first guess. Finally, the observations at the analysis time are assimilated using a 3D-Var method with the improved first guess. The simulated rainfall distribution is shifted northeastward compared to the observations when no radar data are assimilated or when radar data are assimilated using the 3D-Var method. The rainfall forecasts are improved when radar data are assimilated using the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Simulated atmospheric fields such as horizontal winds, temperature, and water vapour mixing ratio are also improved via the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Due to the improvement in the analysis, subsequent forecasts appropriately simulate the observed features of the TL/AS- and BB-type MCSs and the corresponding heavy rainfall. The computational cost associated with the ASDA method is significantly lower than that of the 4D-Var method.

  13. Diagnostic methods and interpretation of the experiments on microtarget compression in the Iskra-4 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochemasov, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the problem of laser fusion, which is mainly based on experiments conducted in the Iskra-4 device are reviewed. Different approaches to solution of the problem of DT-fuel ignition, methods of diagnostics of characteristics of laser radiation and plasma, occurring on microtarget heating and compression, are considered

  14. Diagnostic Utility of High Sensitivity Troponins for Echocardiographic Markers of Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Dugo, Clementina; Gillian, Yvonne; Yvonne, Wynne; Heather, Semple; Kevin, Smith; Peter, Cleave; Jonathan, Christiansen; Andrew, To; Nezar, Amir; Scott, Tony; Ross, Boswell; Patrick, Gladding

    2018-02-15

    The conventional use of high-sensitivity troponins (hs-troponins) is for diagnosing myocardial infarction however they also have a role in chronic disease management. This pilot study assessed the relationship of hs-troponins with echocardiographic markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and structural heart disease (SHD). Patients undergoing computer gomography (CT) coronary angiogram for low-intermediate risk chest pain and healthy volunteers were recruited. Hs-troponins Singulex I, Abbott I and Roche T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were evaluated in relation to SHD parameters including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH Echo ) and left atrial enlargement (LAE Echo ) on echocardiography. 78 subjects who underwent echocardiography were included in this study. C-statistics (95% confidence interval) of the four biomarkers for predicting LVH Echo were 0.84 (0.72-0.92), 0.84 (0.73-0.92), 0.75 (0.63-0.85) and 0.62 (0.49-0.74); for LAE Echo 0.74 (0.6-0.85), 0.78 (0.66-0.88), 0.55 (0.42-0.67) and 0.68 (0.62-0.85); and composite SHD 0.79 (0.66-0.88), 0.87 (0.75-0.94), 0.62 (0.49-0.73) and 0.74 (0.62-0.84) respectively. Optimal cut points for SHD were >1.2 ng/L, >1.6 ng/L, >8 ng/L and >18 pmol/L respectively. These results advocate the potential role of hs-troponins as screening tools for structural heart disease with theranostic implications.

  15. Rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. Recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of FMD virus (FMDV by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, real-time  reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and sequencing. RT-LAMP enables amplification of the FMDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D(pol gene at 63 °C (in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase for 1 h, whilst RT-qPCR amplifies the same gene in approximately 2 h 30 min. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and effectiveness of RT-LAMP against RT-qPCR for the detection of the FMDV 3D(pol gene in 179 oesophageal-pharyngeal scraping samples (collected by probang obtained from clinically healthy cattle and buffalo in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania in 2010. The FMDV detection rate was higher with RT-LAMP (30.2%; n = 54 than with RT-qPCR (17.3%; n = 31. All samples positive by RT-qPCR (Cq ≤ 32.0 were also positive for the RT-LAMP assay; and both assays proved to be highly specific for the FMDV target sequence. In addition, the VP1 sequences of 10 viruses isolated from positive samples corresponded to the respective FMDV serotypes and genotypes. Our findings indicate that the performance of RT-LAMP is superior to RT-qPCR. Accordingly, we consider this test to have great potential with regard to the specific detection and surveillance of infectious diseases of humans and animals in resource-compromised developing countries.

  16. Simulation study on unfolding methods for diagnostic X-rays and mixed gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Ara, Kuniaki; Kanno, Ikuo; Imamura, Ryo; Mikami, Kenta; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    A photon detector operating in current mode that can sense X-ray energy distribution has been reported. This detector consists of a row of several segment detectors. The energy distribution is derived using an unfolding technique. In this paper, comparisons of the unfolding techniques among error reduction, spectrum surveillance, and neural network methods are discussed through simulation studies on the detection of diagnostic X-rays and gamma rays emitted by a mixture of 137 Cs and 60 Co. For diagnostic X-ray measurement, the spectrum surveillance and neural network methods appeared promising, while the error reduction method yielded poor results. However, in the case of measuring mixtures of gamma rays, the error reduction method was both sufficient and effective. (author)

  17. A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsuhaibani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.

  18. Anomaly-sensitive dictionary learning for structural diagnostics from ultrasonic wavefields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Jeffrey M; Haupt, Jarvis D; Gonella, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a strategy for the detection and triangulation of localized anomalies, such as defects, inclusions, or damage zones, in solid and structural media. The method revolves around the construction of sparse representations of the structure's ultrasonic wavefield response, which are obtained by learning instructive dictionaries that form a suitable basis for the response data. The resulting sparse coding problem is cast as a modified dictionary learning task with additional spatial sparsity constraints enforced on the atoms of the learned dictionaries, which provide them with the ability to unveil anomalous regions in the physical domain. The proposed methodology is model-agnostic, i.e., it forsakes the need for a physical model and requires virtually no a priori knowledge of the material properties. This characteristic makes the approach especially powerful for anomaly identification in systems with unknown or highly heterogeneous property distribution, for which a material model is unsuitable or unreliable. The method is tested against synthetically generated data as well as experimental data acquired using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer.

  19. A Highly Sensitive Diagnostic System for Detecting Dengue Viruses Using the Interaction between a Sulfated Sugar Chain and a Virion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Saksono

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method of detecting trace amounts of dengue virus (DENVs from serum. Our method is based on the interaction between a sulfated sugar chain and a DENV surface glycoprotein. After capturing DENV with the sulfated sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles (SGNPs, the resulting complex is precipitated and viral RNA content is measured using the reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction SYBR Green I (RT-qPCR-Syb method. Sugar chains that bind to DENVs were identified using the array-type sugar chain immobilized chip (Sugar Chip and surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging. Heparin and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate were identified as binding partners, and immobilized on gold nanoparticles to prepare 3 types of SGNPs. The capacity of these SGNPs to capture and concentrate trace amounts of DENVs was evaluated in vitro. The SGNP with greatest sensitivity was tested using clinical samples in Indonesia in 2013-2014. As a result, the novel method was able to detect low concentrations of DENVs using only 6 μL of serum, with similar sensitivity to that of a Qiagen RNA extraction kit using 140 μL of serum. In addition, this method allows for multiplex-like identification of serotypes of DENVs. This feature is important for good healthcare management of DENV infection in order to safely diagnose the dangerous, highly contagious disease quickly, with high sensitivity.

  20. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  1. Baroreflex sensitivity in the elderly : influence of age, breathing and spectral methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J; TenVoorde, B J; Dekker, J M; Kostense, P J; Bouter, L M; Heethaar, R M

    2000-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has been proposed as a diagnostic parameter for neurological disorders and as a survival-prognosis parameter in diabetic and cardiac patients. Therefore reference values and the reproducibility of BRS were assessed, taking into account the possible influence of age,

  2. Pressurized water reactor monitoring. Study of detection, diagnostic and estimation (least squares and filtering) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, M.

    1986-07-01

    This thesis presents a study for the surveillance of the Primary circuit water inventory of a pressurized water reactor. A reference model is developed for the development of an automatic system ensuring detection and real-time diagnostic. The methods to our application are statistical tests and adapted a pattern recognition method. The estimation of the detected anomalies is treated by the least square fit method, and by filtering. A new projected optimization method with superlinear convergence is developed in this framework, and a segmented linearization of the model is introduced, in view of a multiple filtering. 46 refs [fr

  3. Diagnostic technology and an expert system for photovoltaic systems using the learning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Hitoshi; Hagihara, Ryuzou; Tanaka, Toshiya; Kozuma, Shinichi; Ishida, Takeo; Waki, Masahiro; Tanaka, Makoto; Kiyama, Seiichi [SANYO Electric Co. Ltd., New Materials Research Center, Moriguchi City, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Diagnostic technology for photovoltaic (PV) systems was developed, using the learning method to take each site's conditions into account. This technology employs diagnostic criteria databases to analyze data acquired from the PV systems. These criteria are updated monthly for each site using analyzed data. To check the shadows on the PV modules and pyranometer, the sophisticated verification method was also applied to this technology. After the diagnosis, a basket method provides maintenance advice for the PV systems. Based on the results of precise diagnoses, this expert system offers quick and proper maintenance advice within a few minutes. This technology is highly useful, because it greatly simplifies the servicing and maintenance of PV systems. (Author)

  4. Vibrational methods of the overhead gas-pipelines technological equipment diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhezin, A.M.; Malysheva, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of overhead gas-pipelines of the technical equipment of gas-compressor station are considered in this article by carrying out registration certification documentation. Some faults of overhead technical gas-pipelines have been proposed. This paper is devoted to the diagnostic methods of the whole gas- pipelines and their parts for some faults during expert checking fulfillment and carrying out registration certification documentation. The analysis of all defects allows to determine a 'between-repairs interval', to develop some operations to avoid these faults and to estimate the repair operation quality, to reduce failure probability. As an example of the effectiveness of technical condition service of vibrational methods by expertise fulfillment have been considered for some defects of the overhead pipelines. (author)

  5. A simple method to combine multiple molecular biomarkers for dichotomous diagnostic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Manik A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the recognized diagnostic potential of biomarkers, the quest for squelching noise and wringing in information from a given set of biomarkers continues. Here, we suggest a statistical algorithm that – assuming each molecular biomarker to be a diagnostic test – enriches the diagnostic performance of an optimized set of independent biomarkers employing established statistical techniques. We validated the proposed algorithm using several simulation datasets in addition to four publicly available real datasets that compared i subjects having cancer with those without; ii subjects with two different cancers; iii subjects with two different types of one cancer; and iv subjects with same cancer resulting in differential time to metastasis. Results Our algorithm comprises of three steps: estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for each biomarker, identifying a subset of biomarkers using linear regression and combining the chosen biomarkers using linear discriminant function analysis. Combining these established statistical methods that are available in most statistical packages, we observed that the diagnostic accuracy of our approach was 100%, 99.94%, 96.67% and 93.92% for the real datasets used in the study. These estimates were comparable to or better than the ones previously reported using alternative methods. In a synthetic dataset, we also observed that all the biomarkers chosen by our algorithm were indeed truly differentially expressed. Conclusion The proposed algorithm can be used for accurate diagnosis in the setting of dichotomous classification of disease states.

  6. Cervical vertebral maturation method and mandibular growth peak: a longitudinal study of diagnostic reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Primozic, Jasmina; Sharma, Bhavna; Cioffi, Iacopo; Contardo, Luca

    2018-03-28

    The capability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method in the identification of the mandibular growth peak on an individual basis remains undetermined. The diagnostic reliability of the six-stage CVM method in the identification of the mandibular growth peak was thus investigated. From the files of the Oregon and Burlington Growth Studies (data obtained between early 1950s and middle 1970s), 50 subjects (26 females, 24 males) with at least seven annual lateral cephalograms taken from 9 to 16 years were identified. Cervical vertebral maturation was assessed according to the CVM code staging system, and mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Co-Gn distance. A diagnostic reliability analysis was carried out to establish the capability of the circumpubertal CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 in the identification of the imminent mandibular growth peak. Variable durations of each of the CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 were seen. The overall diagnostic accuracy values for the CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 were 0.70, 0.76, and 0.77, respectively. These low values appeared to be due to false positive cases. Secular trends in conjunction with the use of a discrete staging system. In most of the Burlington Growth Study sample, the lateral head film at age 15 was missing. None of the CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 reached a satisfactorily diagnostic reliability in the identification of imminent mandibular growth peak.

  7. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM. Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA, while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA, the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  8. [Methods of statistical analysis in differential diagnostics of the degree of brain glioma anaplasia during preoperative stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiĭ, A Ia; Guzhovskaia, N V; Lysenko, S N; Kulik, A V

    2005-12-01

    The authors proposed a possible preoperative diagnostics of the degree of supratentorial brain gliom anaplasia using statistical analysis methods. It relies on a complex examination of 934 patients with I-IV degree anaplasias, which had been treated in the Institute of Neurosurgery from 1990 to 2004. The use of statistical analysis methods for differential diagnostics of the degree of brain gliom anaplasia may optimize a diagnostic algorithm, increase reliability of obtained data and in some cases avoid carrying out irrational operative intrusions. Clinically important signs for the use of statistical analysis methods directed to preoperative diagnostics of brain gliom anaplasia have been defined

  9. Confirming nasogastric tube placement: Is the colorimeter as sensitive and specific as X-ray? A diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordiffi, Siti Zubaidah; Goh, Mien Li; Phua, Jason; Chan, Yiong-Huak

    2016-09-01

    The effect of delivering enteral nutrition or medications via a nasogastric tube that is inadvertently located in the tracheobronchial tract can cause respiratory complications. Although radiographic examination is accepted as the gold standard for confirming the position of patients' enteral tubes, it is costly, involves risks of radiation, and is not failsafe. Studies using carbon dioxide sensors to detect inadvertent nasogastric tube placements have been conducted in intensive care settings. However, none involved patients in general wards. The objective of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic measure of colorimeter, with radiographic examination as the reference standard, to confirm the location of nasogastric tubes in patients. A prospective observational study of a diagnostic test. This study was conducted in the general wards of an approximately 1100-bed acute care tertiary hospital of an Academic Medical Center in Singapore. Adult patients with nasogastric tubes admitted to the general wards were recruited into the study. The colorimeter was attached to the nasogastric tube to detect for the presence of carbon dioxide, suggestive of a tracheobronchial placement. The exact location of the nasogastric tube was subsequently confirmed by a radiographic examination. A total of 192 tests were undertaken. The colorimeter detected carbon dioxide in 29 tested nasogastric tubes, of which radiographic examination confirmed that four tubes were located in the tracheobronchial tract. The colorimeter failed to detect carbon dioxide in one nasogastric tube that was located in the tracheobronchial tract, thus, demonstrating a sensitivity of 0.80 [95% CI (0.376, 0.964)]. The colorimeter detected absence of carbon dioxide in 163 tested nasogastric tubes in which radiographic examination confirmed 160 gastrointestinal and one tracheobronchial placements, demonstrating a specificity of 0.865 [95% CI (0.808, 0.907)]. The colorimeter detected one tracheobronchial

  10. Clinical value of FDG hybrid-PET in staging and restaging of malignant lymphoma. Compared with conventional diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, R.; Maschek, W.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Huber, H.; Wimmer, G.; Wahl, G.; Fridrik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aim of the present retrospective study was to validate the clinical value of F-18-FDG PET imaging in lymphoma patients with a dual head camera modified for coincidence detection. Staging before and after oncological treatment was compared with a conservative diagnostic approach. Methods: 48 patients (28 non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 20 Hodgkin's disease) received FDG-Hybrid-PET scans. Pretherapeutic staging was realized in 28 patients, 9 of them had control studies after they had completed therapy. Totally 29 persons were examined for posttherapeutic restaging. Computed tomography imaging and lymph node sonography was performed in all cases. Results were validated by clinical follow-up, in three cases a recidive was proven by biopsy. Results: CT and ultrasound detected 77 lesions in 28 patients compared with 100 visualized by PET, but this difference in pretherapeutic staging did not reach significance at p>0.05 by Fisher's t-test. Hybrid-PET obtained a sensitivity of 93%, a specifity of 79%, a positive of 82% and a negative predictive value of 92% for detection of residual disease. The values for CT+US were 87%, 64%, 72% and 88% respectively. Conclusion: FDG Hybrid-PET is as or even more accurate than standard morphologic diagnostic methods for prestaging in malignant lymphoma. Additionally, there is a substancial benefit for therapy monitoring of residual disease using coincidence detection PET with a 3/4-inch crystal gamma camera. (orig.) [de

  11. Effects of disease severity distribution on the performance of quantitative diagnostic methods and proposal of a novel ‘V-plot’ methodology to display accuracy values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Sen, Sayan; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E; Francis, Darrel P

    2018-01-01

    Background Diagnostic accuracy is widely accepted by researchers and clinicians as an optimal expression of a test’s performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of disease severity distribution on values of diagnostic accuracy as well as propose a sample-independent methodology to calculate and display accuracy of diagnostic tests. Methods and findings We evaluated the diagnostic relationship between two hypothetical methods to measure serum cholesterol (Cholrapid and Cholgold) by generating samples with statistical software and (1) keeping the numerical relationship between methods unchanged and (2) changing the distribution of cholesterol values. Metrics of categorical agreement were calculated (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity). Finally, a novel methodology to display and calculate accuracy values was presented (the V-plot of accuracies). Conclusion No single value of diagnostic accuracy can be used to describe the relationship between tests, as accuracy is a metric heavily affected by the underlying sample distribution. Our novel proposed methodology, the V-plot of accuracies, can be used as a sample-independent measure of a test performance against a reference gold standard. PMID:29387424

  12. Molecular methods for the detection of human papillomavirus infection: new insights into their role in diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.

  13. A Novel Diagnostic Method to Detect Duck Tembusu Virus: A Colloidal Gold-Based Immunochromatographic Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanliu Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in large economic losses to the duck-rearing industry in China since 2010. Therefore, an effective diagnostic approach to monitor the spread of DTMUV is necessary. Here, a novel diagnostic immunochromatographic strip (ICS assay was developed to detect DTMUV. The assay was carried out using colloidal gold coated with purified monoclonal antibody A12D3 against envelope E protein. Purified polyclonal C12D1 antibodies from BALB/c mice against the envelope E protein were used as the capture antibody. Goat anti-mouse IgG was used to detect DTMUV, which was also assembled on the ICS. Results showed that the ICS could specifically detect DTMUV within 10 min. It also could be stored 25 and 4°C for 4 and 6 months, respectively. The sensitivity of the ICS indicated that the dilution multiples of positive allantoic fluid of DTMUV (LD50: 104.33/0.2 ml was up to 200. Its specificity and sensibility showed no significant change under the above storage situations. Fifty clinical samples were simultaneously detected by ICS and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction with a 93.9% coincidence rate between them. It proved that the ICS in the present study was highly specific, sensitive, repeatable, and more convenient to rapidly detect DTMUV in clinical samples.

  14. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  15. Radiation-sensitive compounds and methods of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMajistre, R.

    1977-01-01

    Novel diacrylates are prepared by reacting a monohydroxylated acrylic monomer with a polyisocyanate. The reaction product may be polymerized by subjecting to ionizing irradiation, actinic light or to free radical catalysis to form a useful coating material. The diacrylates may also be copolymerized with other radiation sensitive materials

  16. Methods for global sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Evelyne A.; Bokkers, Eddy; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Input parameters required to quantify environmental impact in life cycle assessment (LCA) can be uncertain due to e.g. temporal variability or unknowns about the true value of emission factors. Uncertainty of environmental impact can be analysed by means of a global sensitivity analysis to

  17. Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has the right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data have shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% (ICRP84, 2000) up to 0.14% per 10 mSv (BEIR-V 1990). In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy (ICRP84, 2000), and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; 1. The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. 2. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period

  18. Statistical Sensitive Data Protection and Inference Prevention with Decision Tree Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, LiWu

    2003-01-01

    .... We consider inference as correct classification and approach it with decision tree methods. As in our previous work, sensitive data are viewed as classes of those test data and non-sensitive data are the rest attribute values...

  19. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS MODEL RESEARCH BY MEANS OF THE POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS METHOD FOR NEUROLOGY DISEASES CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Stetsyuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Informatization in medicine offers a lot of opportunities to enhance quality of medical support, accuracy of diagnosis and provides the use of accumulated experience. Modern program systems are utilized now as additional tools to get appropriate advice. This article offers the way to provide help for neurology department doctor of NCSH «OKHMATDYT» during diagnosis determining. It was decided to design the program system for this purpose based on differential diagnostic model. The key problems in differential diagnosis are symptoms similarity between each other in one disease group and the absence of key symptom. Therefore the differential diagnostic model is needed. It is constructed using the potential function method in characteristics space. This characteristics space is formed by 100-200 points - patients with their symptoms. The main feature of this method here is that the decision function is building during recognition step united with learning that became possible with the help of modern powerful computers.

  20. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Nam, Tran Hoai; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This report constitutes Stage 18 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The objective of the research program is to contribute to the strategic research goal of competence and research capacity by building up competence within the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, regarding reactor physics, reactor dynamics and noise diagnostics. The purpose is also to contribute to the research goal of giving a basis for SSM's supervision by developing methods for identification and localization of perturbations in reactor cores. Results up to Stage 17 were reported in SKI and SSM reports, as listed in the report's summary

  1. Method for remote diagnostics of the internal structure of layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagov, V V; Kal'yanov, A L; Ryabukho, V P; Lyakin, D V

    2008-01-01

    The method of autocorrelation low coherence interferometry is proposed for diagnostics of inhomogeneities and the internal structure of layered technical and biological samples. In this method the low coherence optical field reflected from the layered sample is analysed by using a Michelson interferometer. Because the object is outside the interferometer, the distance between the interferometer and the object under study is not limited and thus the object can move during the measurements. Theoretical substantiation of the autocorrelation method for media with discrete and continuous optical structure modifications is presented. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  2. A qualitative model construction method of nuclear power plants for effective diagnostic knowledge generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinji; Endou, Akira; Kitamura, Yoshinobu; Sasajima, Munehiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichiro.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to construct a qualitative model of a nuclear power plant, in order to generate effective diagnostic knowledge. The proposed method is to prepare deep knowledge to be provided to a knowledge compiler based upon qualitative reasoning (QR). Necessity of knowledge compilation for nuclear plant diagnosis will be explained first, and conventionally-experienced problems in qualitative reasoning and a proposed method to overcome this problem is shown next, then a sample procedure to build a qualitative nuclear plant model is demonstrated. (author)

  3. A New Diagnostic system for Ultra Sensitive and Specific Detection and Quantitation of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”, the Bacterium Associated with Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an ultra sensitive and quantitative diagnostic system for “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” was developed. This system adapts a nested PCR and Taq-Man PCR in a single closed tube. The procedure involves two steps of PCR using the species specific outer and inner primer pairs. Differ...

  4. Application of the spectral-correlation method for diagnostics of cellulose paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, D.; Malyugin, V.; Reznik, A.; Yudin, A.; Zhuravleva, N.

    2017-11-01

    The spectral-correlation method was described for diagnostics of optically inhomogeneous biological objects and materials of natural origin. The interrelation between parameters of the studied objects and parameters of the cross correlation function of speckle patterns produced by scattering of coherent light at different wavelengths is shown for thickness, optical density and internal structure of the material. A detailed study was performed for cellulose electric insulating paper with different parameters.

  5. Bayesian and maximum entropy methods for fusion diagnostic measurements with compact neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements

  6. Comparing sensitivity analysis methods to advance lumped watershed model identification and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify sensitivity tools that will advance our understanding of lumped hydrologic models for the purposes of model improvement, calibration efficiency and improved measurement schemes. Four sensitivity analysis methods were tested: (1 local analysis using parameter estimation software (PEST, (2 regional sensitivity analysis (RSA, (3 analysis of variance (ANOVA, and (4 Sobol's method. The methods' relative efficiencies and effectiveness have been analyzed and compared. These four sensitivity methods were applied to the lumped Sacramento soil moisture accounting model (SAC-SMA coupled with SNOW-17. Results from this study characterize model sensitivities for two medium sized watersheds within the Juniata River Basin in Pennsylvania, USA. Comparative results for the 4 sensitivity methods are presented for a 3-year time series with 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h time intervals. The results of this study show that model parameter sensitivities are heavily impacted by the choice of analysis method as well as the model time interval. Differences between the two adjacent watersheds also suggest strong influences of local physical characteristics on the sensitivity methods' results. This study also contributes a comprehensive assessment of the repeatability, robustness, efficiency, and ease-of-implementation of the four sensitivity methods. Overall ANOVA and Sobol's method were shown to be superior to RSA and PEST. Relative to one another, ANOVA has reduced computational requirements and Sobol's method yielded more robust sensitivity rankings.

  7. Application of contemporary imaging methods in diagnostics of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecki, J.; Pawlowska-Detko, A.; Ignaciuk, K.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Barcikowska, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as a heterogeneous clinical syndrome associated with high risk of the development of dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD). Owing to the recent advances in understanding of the molecular phenomena underlying AD there is a chance of introducing effective therapy for this disease in the near future. Therefore, improvement of early diagnostics methods and finding the markers of AD progression, especially in the high risk population of patients with MCI becomes a crucial issue. From the clinical point of view, great expectations are associated with neuroradiologic methods, which are hoped to make it possible to find the markers of conversion from MCI to dementia and the markers of dementia progression in subjects at risk of the development of AD. Growing interest in the problem of MCI diagnostics, reflected in numerous medical publications that have appeared during the recent few years, has prompted the authors to review and summarize the current knowledge concerning the application of modern neuroradiologic methods in the diagnostics of subjects with MCI. (author)

  8. Scale Sensitivity and Question Order in the Contingent Valuation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Svensson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents' cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first ('bottom-up' approach). This contradicts some previous evi...

  9. A novel method for assessing position-sensitive detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L.; Shao, L.; Hero, A.O. III; Koral, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    A marked point process model of a position-sensitive detector is developed which includes the effects of detector efficiency, spatial response, energy response, and source statistics. The average mutual information between the incident distribution of γ rays and the detector response is derived and used as a performance index for detector optimization. A brief example is presented which uses this figure-of-merit for optimization of light guide dimensions for a modular scintillation camera

  10. An Improved Method to Watermark Images Sensitive to Blocking Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Afzel Noore

    2007-01-01

    A new digital watermarking technique for images that are sensitive to blocking artifacts is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed MDCT based approach produces highly imperceptible watermarked images and is robust to attacks such as compression, noise, filtering and geometric transformations. The proposed MDCT watermarking technique is applied to fingerprints for ensuring security. The face image and demographic text data of an individual are used as multi...

  11. Sensitivity is not an intrinsic property of a diagnostic test: empirical evidence from histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrilho Carla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to provide empirical evidence of how spectrum effects can affect the sensitivity of histological assessment of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across populations with expectedly similar prevalence. Methods Cross-sectional evaluation of dyspeptic subjects undergoing upper digestive endoscopy, including collection of biopsy specimens from the greater curvature of the antrum for assessment of H. pylori infection by histopathological study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, from Portugal (n = 106 and Mozambique (n = 102 following the same standardized protocol. Results In the Portuguese sample the prevalence of infection was 95.3% by histological assessment and 98.1% by PCR. In the Mozambican sample the prevalence was 63.7% and 93.1%, respectively. Among those classified as infected by PCR, the sensitivity of histological assessment was 96.2% among the Portuguese and 66.3% among the Mozambican. Among those testing positive by both methods, 5.0% of the Portuguese and 20.6% of the Mozambican had mild density of colonization. Conclusions This study shows a lower sensitivity of histological assessment of H. pylori infection in Mozambican dyspeptic patients compared to the Portuguese, which may be explained by differences in the density of colonization, and may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across African settings.

  12. Effects of disease severity distribution on the performance of quantitative diagnostic methods and proposal of a novel 'V-plot' methodology to display accuracy values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraco, Ricardo; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Sen, Sayan; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E; Francis, Darrel P

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy is widely accepted by researchers and clinicians as an optimal expression of a test's performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of disease severity distribution on values of diagnostic accuracy as well as propose a sample-independent methodology to calculate and display accuracy of diagnostic tests. We evaluated the diagnostic relationship between two hypothetical methods to measure serum cholesterol (Chol rapid and Chol gold ) by generating samples with statistical software and (1) keeping the numerical relationship between methods unchanged and (2) changing the distribution of cholesterol values. Metrics of categorical agreement were calculated (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity). Finally, a novel methodology to display and calculate accuracy values was presented (the V-plot of accuracies). No single value of diagnostic accuracy can be used to describe the relationship between tests, as accuracy is a metric heavily affected by the underlying sample distribution. Our novel proposed methodology, the V-plot of accuracies, can be used as a sample-independent measure of a test performance against a reference gold standard.

  13. Methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on non-invasive coronary CT angiography: influence of QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) items on sensitivity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, Sabine; Walther, Stefan; Schuetz, Georg M. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [University Hospital of Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Documentation, Jena (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    To evaluate the methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) tool. Each QUADAS item was individually defined to adapt it to the special requirements of studies on coronary CT angiography. Two independent investigators analysed 118 studies using 12 QUADAS items. Meta-regression and pooled analyses were performed to identify possible effects of methodological quality items on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The overall methodological quality of coronary CT studies was merely moderate. They fulfilled a median of 7.5 out of 12 items. Only 9 of the 118 studies fulfilled more than 75 % of possible QUADAS items. One QUADAS item (''Uninterpretable Results'') showed a significant influence (P = 0.02) on estimates of diagnostic accuracy with ''no fulfilment'' increasing specificity from 86 to 90 %. Furthermore, pooled analysis revealed that each QUADAS item that is not fulfilled has the potential to change estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The methodological quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive coronary CT is only moderate and was found to affect the sensitivity and specificity. An improvement is highly desirable because good methodology is crucial for adequately assessing imaging technologies. (orig.)

  14. Methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on non-invasive coronary CT angiography: influence of QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) items on sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, Sabine; Walther, Stefan; Schuetz, Georg M.; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) tool. Each QUADAS item was individually defined to adapt it to the special requirements of studies on coronary CT angiography. Two independent investigators analysed 118 studies using 12 QUADAS items. Meta-regression and pooled analyses were performed to identify possible effects of methodological quality items on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The overall methodological quality of coronary CT studies was merely moderate. They fulfilled a median of 7.5 out of 12 items. Only 9 of the 118 studies fulfilled more than 75 % of possible QUADAS items. One QUADAS item (''Uninterpretable Results'') showed a significant influence (P = 0.02) on estimates of diagnostic accuracy with ''no fulfilment'' increasing specificity from 86 to 90 %. Furthermore, pooled analysis revealed that each QUADAS item that is not fulfilled has the potential to change estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The methodological quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive coronary CT is only moderate and was found to affect the sensitivity and specificity. An improvement is highly desirable because good methodology is crucial for adequately assessing imaging technologies. (orig.)

  15. A method of the sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kinji; Kuroi, Hideo

    1977-07-01

    To make sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides, mathematical methods related to this problem have been investigated in detail. Application of time-dependent perturbation technique and Bateman method to sensitivity analysis is mainly studied. For the purpose, a basic equation and its adjoint equation for build-up and decay of actinides are systematically solved by introducing Laplace and modified Laplace transforms and their convolution theorems. Then, the mathematical method of sensitivity analyses is formulated by the above technique; its physical significance is also discussed. Finally, application of eigenvalue-method is investigated. Sensitivity coefficients can be directly calculated by this method. (auth.)

  16. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  17. Radiation-sensitive material and method of recording information upon radiation-sensitive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.V.; Krjuchin, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The invention can be employed for recording binary information in memory units of electronic computers, in video-recording equipment, laser recording devices and other recording means. The proposed radiation-sensitive material comprises a metallic layer made of silver, or copper, or nickel, or thallium, or alloy thereof, an inorganic material layer made of arsenic chalcogenide, or antimony chalcogenide, or bismuth chalcogenide, and a separation layer disposed between the metallic layer and the inorganic material layer made of a material which is inert relative to said layers, which separation layer has a thickness sufficient for preventing interaction between the metallic layer and the inorganic material layer when the radiation-sensitive materials is exposed to electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation having a power density lower than a threshold value required for the breakdown of the separation layer in the area exposed to radiation. The separation layer can be made from As, Sb, Si or Ge or their oxides, metallic oxides of e.g. Al, Ti, V or Fe, or from polyorganosiloxane films. (author)

  18. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  19. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT

  20. Using method of geotechnical diagnostics for oil and gas pipelines on the base of aerospace monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirinzade, A.; Gasanov, Kh.; Ragimov, R.; Timofeev, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper o the base of aerospatial images of decoding it is studied the problems of using the method of geotechnical diagnostics (GTD) for magistral pipelines. This technique is used for discovering potentially dangerous sections. It has been shown that the processes in geotechnical system have pecular properties on the earth surface which may be identified in terms of aerospace monitoring. Studing these properties one can conclude about state of the system as whole. It is described example of using the GTD method for practical evaluation of magistral pipeline

  1. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko

    -ion diagnostic views, it is possible to infer the distribution function using a tomography approach. Several inversion methods for solving this tomography problem in velocity space are implemented and compared. It is found that the best quality it obtained when using inversion methods which penalise steep......Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast...

  2. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye [Atatuerk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT.

  3. evelopment of a boiling water reactor fault diagnostic system with a signed directed graph method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Yu, C.C.; Liou, C.T.; Liao, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power reactor is expected to be a useful decision support system for the operators during transients and accident conditions. A considerable research effort has been devoted to the development of automated fault diagnostic systems. One major approach, which has been widely used in chemical engineering, is to identify the possible causes of process disturbance using a logic-oriented method called signed directed graph (SDG). A knowledge based system was developed with the rules derived from the SDG representation. The SDG for the Chinshan nuclear power plant, which is a typical boiling water reactor, is established. The personal consultant system is used as the expert system development tool in this paper

  4. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  5. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 3. Investigation of detection sensitivity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2001-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately any leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, the Doppler method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that, in the SG full-sector model that simulates actual SGs, the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.4 l/s within a few seconds. However in consideration of the dissolution rate of hydrogen generated by a sodium-water reaction even from a small water leak, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the influence of background noise were experimentally investigated. In-water experiments were performed using the SG model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.01 l/s (equivalent to a water leak rate of about 0.01 g/s) within a few seconds and that the background noise has little effect on water leak detection performance. The Doppler method thus has great potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  6. A simple, scalable and low-cost method to generate thermal diagnostics of a domestic building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papafragkou, Anastasios; Ghosh, Siddhartha; James, Patrick A.B.; Rogers, Alex; Bahaj, AbuBakr S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Our diagnostic method uses a single field measurement from a temperature logger. • Building technical performance and occupant behaviour are addressed simultaneously. • Our algorithm learns a thermal model of a home and diagnoses the heating system. • We propose a novel clustering approach to decouple user behaviour from technical performance. • Our diagnostic confidence is enhanced using a large scale deployment. - Abstract: Traditional approaches to understand the problem of the energy performance in the domestic sector include on-site surveys by energy assessors and the installation of complex home energy monitoring systems. The time and money that needs to be invested by the occupants and the form of feedback generated by these approaches often makes them unattractive to householders. This paper demonstrates a simple, low cost method that generates thermal diagnostics for dwellings, measuring only one field dataset; internal temperature over a period of 1 week. A thermal model, which is essentially a learning algorithm, generates a set of thermal diagnostics about the primary heating system, the occupants’ preferences and the impact of certain interventions, such as lowering the thermostat set-point. A simple clustering approach is also proposed to categorise homes according to their building fabric thermal performance and occupants’ energy efficiency with respect to ventilation. The advantage of this clustering approach is that the occupants receive tailored advice on certain actions that if taken will improve the overall thermal performance of a dwelling. Due to the method’s low cost and simplicity it could facilitate government initiatives, such as the ‘Green Deal’ in the UK

  7. Characterization of high-sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters system and LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosimeters for use in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, S.L.; Chu, T.C.; Lan, G.Y.; Wu, T.H.; Lin, Y.C.; Lee, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring radiation exposure during diagnostic radiographic procedures has recently become an area of interest. In recent years, the LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD-100H) and the highly sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter were introduced as good candidates for entrance skin dose measurements in diagnostic radiology. In the present study, the TLD-100H and the MOSFET dosimeters were evaluated for sensitivity, linearity, energy, angular dependence, and post-exposure response. Our results indicate that the TLD-100H dosimeter has excellent linearity within diagnostic energy ranges and its sensitivity variations were under 3% at tube potentials from 40 Vp to 125 kVp. Good linearity was also observed with the MOSFET dosimeter, but in low-dose regions the values are less reliable and were found to be a function of the tube potentials. Both dosimeters also presented predictable angular dependence in this study. Our findings suggest that the TLD-100H dosimeter is more appropriate for low-dose diagnostic procedures such as chest and skull projections. The MOSFET dosimeter system is valuable for entrance skin dose measurement with lumbar spine projections and certain fluoroscopic procedures

  8. Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Lampe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today.

  9. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Wahlström

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR, allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard. Materials and methods: Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108 and autumn 2012 (n=69 in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained. Results and discussion: This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI 0.80–0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76–0.88, which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94–0.99 for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99–1 for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997–1. One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88 was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83.

  10. Diagnostic validation of three test methods for detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, Sharon C; McClure, Carol; Schroeder, Tamara; Desai, Megan; Hawley, Laura; Khatkar, Sunita; Lindsay, Melissa; Lowe, Geoff; Richard, Jon; Anderson, Eric D

    2017-03-06

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease in koi and common carp. The disease is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Three tests-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), conventional PCR (cPCR) and virus isolation by cell culture (VI)-were validated to assess their fitness as diagnostic tools for detection of CyHV-3. Test performance metrics of diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp). Repeatability and reproducibility were measured to assess diagnostic precision. Estimates of test accuracy, in the absence of a gold standard reference test, were generated using latent class models. Test samples originated from wild common carp naturally exposed to CyHV-3 or domesticated koi either virus free or experimentally infected with the virus. Three laboratories in Canada participated in the precision study. Moderate to high repeatability (81 to 99%) and reproducibility (72 to 97%) were observed for the qPCR and cPCR tests. The lack of agreement observed between some of the PCR test pair results was attributed to cross-contamination of samples with CyHV-3 nucleic acid. Accuracy estimates for the PCR tests were 99% for DSe and 93% for DSp. Poor precision was observed for the VI test (4 to 95%). Accuracy estimates for VI/qPCR were 90% for DSe and 88% for DSp. Collectively, the results show that the CyHV-3 qPCR test is a suitable tool for surveillance, presumptive diagnosis and certification of individuals or populations as CyHV-3 free.

  11. Does more favourable handling of the cerebrospinal fluid increase the diagnostic sensitivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific PCR in Lyme neuroborreliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forselv, Kristine J N; Lorentzen, Åslaug R; Ljøstad, Unn; Mygland, Åse; Eikeland, Randi; Kjelland, Vivian; Noraas, Sølvi; Quarsten, Hanne

    2018-04-01

    Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA). Patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for LNB were classified as LNB cases and the rest as controls. Bb DNA in CSF was detected by PCR in seven of 28 adults with LNB. Two were Bb antibody negative. No Bb DNA was detected in CSF from 137 controls. Diagnostic sensitivity was 25% and specificity 100%. There was a non-significant trend towards larger CSF sample volume, faster handling of the sample, shorter duration of symptoms, and higher CSF cell count in the PCR-positive cases. We did not find that optimized handling of CSF increased diagnostic sensitivity of PCR in adults with LNB. However, our case series is small and we hypothesize that the importance of these factors will be clarified in further studies with larger case series and altered study design. PCR for diagnosis of LNB may be useful in cases without Bb antibodies due to short duration of symptoms.

  12. High sensitivity neutron activation analysis using coincidence counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    Four kinds of standard samples such as river sediment (NIES CRM No.16), Typical Japanese Diet, otoliths and river water were irradiated by TRIGA-II (100 kW, 3.7x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 ) for 6 h. After irradiation and cooling, they were analyzed by the coincidence counting method and a conventional γ-ray spectrometry. Se, Ba and Hf were determined by 75 Se 265 keV, 131 Ba 496 keV and 181 Hf 482 keV. On the river sediment sample, Ba and Hf showed the same values by two methods, but Se value contained Ta by the conventional method, although the coincidence counting method could analyze Se. On Typical Japanese Diet and otoliths, Se could be determined by two methods and Ba and Hf determined by the coincidence counting method but not determined by the conventional method. Se value in the river water agreed with the authorization value. (S.Y.)

  13. 1HNMR-Based metabolomic profiling method to develop plasma biomarkers for sensitivity to chronic heat stress in growing pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dou

    Full Text Available The negative impact of heat stress (HS on the production performances in pig faming is of particular concern. Novel diagnostic methods are needed to predict the robustness of pigs to HS. Our study aimed to assess the reliability of blood metabolome to predict the sensitivity to chronic HS of 10 F1 (Large White × Creole sire families (SF reared in temperate (TEMP and in tropical (TROP regions (n = 56±5 offsprings/region/SF. Live body weight (BW and rectal temperature (RT were recorded at 23 weeks of age. Average daily feed intake (AFDI and average daily gain were calculated from weeks 11 to 23 of age, together with feed conversion ratio. Plasma blood metabolome profiles were obtained by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR from blood samples collected at week 23 in TEMP. The sensitivity to hot climatic conditions of each SF was estimated by computing a composite index of sensitivity (Isens derived from a linear combination of t statistics applied to familial BW, ADFI and RT in TEMP and TROP climates. A model of prediction of sensitivity was established with sparse Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA between the two most robust SF (n = 102 and the two most sensitive ones (n = 121 using individual metabolomic profiles measured in TEMP. The sPLS-DA selected 29 buckets that enabled 78% of prediction accuracy by cross-validation. On the basis of this training, we predicted the proportion of sensitive pigs within the 6 remaining families (n = 337. This proportion was defined as the predicted membership of families to the sensitive category. The positive correlation between this proportion and Isens (r = 0.97, P < 0.01 suggests that plasma metabolome can be used to predict the sensitivity of pigs to hot climate.

  14. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

  15. Are LOD and LOQ Reliable Parameters for Sensitivity Evaluation of Spectroscopic Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershadi, Saba; Shayanfar, Ali

    2018-03-22

    The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) are common parameters to assess the sensitivity of analytical methods. In this study, the LOD and LOQ of previously reported terbium sensitized analysis methods were calculated by different methods, and the results were compared with sensitivity parameters [lower limit of quantification (LLOQ)] of U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The details of the calibration curve and standard deviation of blank samples of three different terbium-sensitized luminescence methods for the quantification of mycophenolic acid, enrofloxacin, and silibinin were used for the calculation of LOD and LOQ. A comparison of LOD and LOQ values calculated by various methods and LLOQ shows a considerable difference. The significant difference of the calculated LOD and LOQ with various methods and LLOQ should be considered in the sensitivity evaluation of spectroscopic methods.

  16. A combination between the differential and the perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Antonio Andrade

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating theses coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivatives of the integral parameter, Φ, with respect to σ are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivatives of this generic integral parameter with respect to σ and Φ are calculated using the differential method. (author)

  17. Application of Monte Carlo filtering method in regional sensitivity analysis of AASHTOWare Pavement ME design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since AASHTO released the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG for public review in 2004, many highway research agencies have performed sensitivity analyses using the prototype MEPDG design software. The information provided by the sensitivity analysis is essential for design engineers to better understand the MEPDG design models and to identify important input parameters for pavement design. In literature, different studies have been carried out based on either local or global sensitivity analysis methods, and sensitivity indices have been proposed for ranking the importance of the input parameters. In this paper, a regional sensitivity analysis method, Monte Carlo filtering (MCF, is presented. The MCF method maintains many advantages of the global sensitivity analysis, while focusing on the regional sensitivity of the MEPDG model near the design criteria rather than the entire problem domain. It is shown that the information obtained from the MCF method is more helpful and accurate in guiding design engineers in pavement design practices. To demonstrate the proposed regional sensitivity method, a typical three-layer flexible pavement structure was analyzed at input level 3. A detailed procedure to generate Monte Carlo runs using the AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design software was provided. The results in the example show that the sensitivity ranking of the input parameters in this study reasonably matches with that in a previous study under a global sensitivity analysis. Based on the analysis results, the strengths, practical issues, and applications of the MCF method were further discussed.

  18. Diagnostic value of exercise-induced changes in circulating high sensitive troponin T in stable chest pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Pedersen, Ole Dyg

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects.......We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects....

  19. Psychophysiological methods for the diagnostics of human functional states: New approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernorizov A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L. S. Vygotsky in his famous methodological essay “The historical meaning of psychological crisis” (1928 emphasized the importance of studying any psychological process or state as a “whole” — that is, as characterized from the subjective and objective sides at the same time. This position is fully relevant for studying the human functional states (FSes. Today the objective psychophysiological diagnostics of human FSes in activities associated with a high risk of technological disasters (in nuclear-power plants, transportation, the chemical industry are extremely relevant and socially important. This article reviews some new psychophysiological methods of FS assessment that are being developed in Russia and abroad and discusses different aspects of developing integral psychophysiological FS assessment. The emphasis is on distant methods of FS diagnostics: the bioradiolocation method, laser Doppler vibrometry, eye tracking, audio and video recordings, infrared thermography. The possibilities and limitations of the most popular emotion atlases — the Facial Affect Scoring Technique (FAST and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS — in developing distant visual-range and infrared-range systems for automated classification of facial expressions are analyzed. A special section of the article concentrates on the problem of constructing an integral psychophysiological FS index. Mathematical algorithms that provide a partition of FS indicators into different FS types are based on various methods of machine learning. We propose the vector approach for construction of complex estimations of the human FSes.

  20. An affordable and easy-to-use diagnostic method for keratoconus detection using a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Behnam; Tabei, Fatemehsadat; Askarian, Amin; Chong, Jo Woon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, smartphones are used for disease diagnosis and healthcare. In this paper, we propose a novel affordable diagnostic method of detecting keratoconus using a smartphone. Keratoconus is usually detected in clinics with ophthalmic devices, which are large, expensive and not portable, and need to be operated by trained technicians. However, our proposed smartphone-based eye disease detection method is small, affordable, portable, and it can be operated by patients in a convenient way. The results show that the proposed keratoconus detection method detects severe, advanced, and moderate keratoconus with accuracies of 93%, 86%, 67%, respectively. Due to its convenience with these accuracies, the proposed keratoconus detection method is expected to be applied in detecting keratoconus at an earlier stage in an affordable way.

  1. Pressurized water reactor monitoring. Study of detection, diagnostic and estimation methods (least error squares and filtering)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, M.

    1986-07-01

    This thesis presents a study for the surveillance of the ''primary coolant circuit inventory monitoring'' of a pressurized water reactor. A reference model is developed in view of an automatic system ensuring detection and diagnostic in real time. The methods used for the present application are statistical tests and a method related to pattern recognition. The estimation of failures detected, difficult owing to the non-linearity of the problem, is treated by the least error squares method of the predictor or corrector type, and by filtering. It is in this frame that a new optimized method with superlinear convergence is developed, and that a segmented linearization of the model is introduced, in view of a multiple filtering [fr

  2. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S.; Helmrot, E.; Persliden, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  3. Fast and sensitive method for detecting volatile species in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimarco, Daniel Bøndergaard; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    to a mass spectrometer through a narrow capillary without the use of differential pumping. This method inherits features from differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), but brings the best of both worlds, i.e., the fast time-response of a DEMS system...

  4. Evaluation of the utility value of three diagnostic methods in the detection of malaria parasites in endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugah, Uchenna Iyioku; Alo, Moses Nnaemeka; Owolabi, Jacob Oluwabusuyi; Okata-Nwali, Oluchi DivineGift; Ekejindu, Ifeoma Mercy; Ibeh, Nancy; Elom, Michael Okpara

    2017-05-06

    Malaria is a debilitating disease with high morbidity and mortality in Africa, commonly caused by different species of the genus Plasmodium in humans. Misdiagnosis is a major challenge in endemic areas because of other disease complications and technical expertise of the medical laboratory staff. Microscopic method using Giemsa-stained blood film has been the mainstay of diagnosis of malaria. However, since 1993 when rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits were introduced, they have proved to be effective in the diagnosis of malaria. This study was aimed at comparing the accuracy of microscopy and RDTs in the diagnosis of malaria using nested PCR as the reference standard. Four hundred and twenty (420) venous blood specimens were collected from patients attending different General Hospitals in Ebonyi State with clinical symptoms of malaria. The samples were tested with Giemsa-stained microscopy and three RDTs. Fifty specimens were randomly selected for molecular analysis. Using different diagnostic methods, the prevalence of malaria among the subjects studied was 25.95% as detected by microscopy, prevalence found among the RDTs was 22.90, 15.20 and 54.80% for Carestart, SD Bioline PF and SD Bioline PF/PV, respectively. Molecular assay yielded a prevalence of 32%. The major specie identified was Plasmodium falciparum; there was co-infection of P. falciparum with Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopy was 50.00 and 70.59% while that of the RDTs were (25.00 and 85.29%), (25.00 and 94.12%) and (68.75 and 52.94%) for Carestart, SD Bioline PF and SD Bioline PF/PV, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to measure the level of agreement of the methods with nested PCR. Microscopy showed a moderate measure of agreement (k = 0.491), Carestart showed a good measure of agreement (k = 0.611), SD Bioline PF showed a fair measure of agreement (k = 0.226) while SD Bioline PF/PV showed a poor measure of agreement (k = 0

  5. Method for Determining the Sensitivity of a Physical Security System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Matthew John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wachtel, Amanda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kittinger, Robert Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Modern systems, such as physical security systems, are often designed to involve complex interactions of technological and human elements. Evaluation of the performance of these systems often overlooks the human element. A method is proposed here to expand the concept of sensitivity—as denoted by d’—from signal detection theory (Green & Swets 1966; Macmillan & Creelman 2005), which came out of the field of psychophysics, to cover not only human threat detection but also other human functions plus the performance of technical systems in a physical security system, thereby including humans in the overall evaluation of system performance. New in this method is the idea that probabilities of hits (accurate identification of threats) and false alarms (saying “threat” when there is not one), which are used to calculate d’ of the system, can be applied to technologies and, furthermore, to different functions in the system beyond simple yes-no threat detection. At the most succinct level, the method returns a single number that represents the effectiveness of a physical security system; specifically, the balance between the handling of actual threats and the distraction of false alarms. The method can be automated, and the constituent parts revealed, such that given an interaction graph that indicates the functional associations of system elements and the individual probabilities of hits and false alarms for those elements, it will return the d’ of the entire system as well as d’ values for individual parts. The method can also return a measure of the response bias* of the system. One finding of this work is that the d’ for a physical security system can be relatively poor in spite of having excellent d’s for each of its individual functional elements.

  6. Sensitivity and Specificity of a Prototype Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: A Multi-centric Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisser, Sylvie; Lumbala, Crispin; Nguertoum, Etienne; Kande, Victor; Flevaud, Laurence; Vatunga, Gedeao; Boelaert, Marleen; Büscher, Philippe; Josenando, Theophile; Bessell, Paul R; Biéler, Sylvain; Ndung'u, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in the control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is lack of reliable diagnostic tests that are rapid and easy to use in remote areas where the disease occurs. In Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT, the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT) has been the reference screening test since 1978, usually on whole blood, but also in a 1/8 dilution (CATT 1/8) to enhance specificity. However, the CATT is not available in a single format, requires a cold chain for storage, and uses equipment that requires electricity. A solution to these challenges has been provided by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), which have recently become available. A prototype immunochromatographic test, the SD BIOLINE HAT, based on two native trypanosomal antigens (VSG LiTat 1.3 and VSG LiTat 1.5) has been developed. We carried out a non-inferiority study comparing this prototype to the CATT 1/8 in field settings. The prototype SD BIOLINE HAT, the CATT Whole Blood and CATT 1/8 were systematically applied on fresh blood samples obtained from 14,818 subjects, who were prospectively enrolled through active and passive screening in clinical studies in three endemic countries of central Africa: Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. One hundred and forty nine HAT cases were confirmed by parasitology. The sensitivity and specificity of the prototype SD BIOLINE HAT was 89.26% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 83.27-93.28) and 94.58% (95% CI = 94.20-94.94) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the CATT on whole blood were 93.96% (95% CI = 88.92-96.79) and 95.91% (95% CI = 95.58-96.22), and of the CATT 1/8 were 89.26% (95% CI = 83.27-93.28) and 98.88% (95% CI = 98.70-99.04) respectively. After further optimization, the prototype SD BIOLINE HAT could become an alternative to current screening methods in primary healthcare settings in remote, resource-limited regions where HAT typically occurs.

  7. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  8. A Simple Method for Making Diagnostic Casts for Dental Implants Using Acrylic Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Siadat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple implants in the same jaw requires a detailed knowledge of abutment angulation. The position and angulation of the abutments play an important role in treatment planning and fabrication of the custom tray. Therefore diagnostic casts thatcontain cover screws may cause problems during implant therapy.The current article describes a technique for making a preliminary cast with acrylic custom abutments in order to help the clinician select an appropriate impression technique and evaluate the location and angulations of the implant bodies. This method can also aid the technician to provide adequate and proper space for the fabrication of an open custom tray.

  9. A simple, rapid, cost-effective and sensitive method for detection of Salmonella in environmental and pecan samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobhal, S; Zhang, G; Rohla, C; Smith, M W; Ma, L M

    2014-10-01

    PCR is widely used in the routine detection of foodborne human pathogens; however, challenges remain in overcoming PCR inhibitors present in some sample matrices. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, cost-effective and rapid method for processing large numbers of environmental and pecan samples for Salmonella detection. This study was also aimed at validation of a new protocol for the detection of Salmonella from in-shell pecans. Different DNA template preparation methods, including direct boiling, prespin, multiple washing and commercial DNA extraction kits, were evaluated with pure cultures of Salmonella Typhimurium and with enriched soil, cattle feces and in-shell pecan each spiked individually with Salmonella Typhimurium. PCR detection of Salmonella was conducted using invA and 16S rRNA gene (internal amplification control) specific primers. The effect of amplification facilitators, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and gelatin on PCR sensitivity, was also evaluated. Conducting a prespin of sample matrices in combination with the addition of 0·4% (w/v) BSA and 1% (w/v) PVP in PCR mix was the simplest, most rapid, cost-effective and sensitive method for PCR detection of Salmonella, with up to 40 CFU Salmonella per reaction detectable in the presence of over 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) of background micro-organisms from enriched feces soil or pecan samples. The developed method is rapid, cost-effective and sensitive for detection of Salmonella from different matrices. This study provides a method with broad applicability for PCR detection of Salmonella in complex sample matrices. This method has a potential for its application in different research arenas and diagnostic laboratories. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Sensitive method for the assay of guanylate cyclase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewski, P; Krause, E G [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Herz- und Kreislauf-Regulationsforschung

    1978-07-01

    A method for the assay of guanylate cyclase is described utilizing ..cap alpha..-(/sup 32/P)-GTP as substrate for the enzyme reaction. 100-150 ..mu..g of enzyme protein is incubated in a 15.6 mM Tris-HCl buffer incubation mixture, pH 7.6. The reaction is stopped by the addition of EDTA. The (/sup 32/P)-cyclic GMP formed is separated by a two-step column chromatography on Dowex 50W-X4 ion-exchange resin and neutral alumina. The recovery for cyclic GMP was about 70%. The blank values ranged from 0.001-0.003 % of the added ..cap alpha..-(/sup 32/P)-GTP which had been purified by Dowex 50W-X4 column chromatography. This method was employed for the assay of guanylate cyclase activities in different tissues.

  11. White-Nose Syndrome Disease Severity and a Comparison of Diagnostic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P; Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; McGregor, Glenna; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Foster, Jeffrey T; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-03-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America but the pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood. Our objectives were to (1) assess non-destructive diagnostic methods for P. destructans infection compared to histopathology, the current gold-standard, and (2) to evaluate potential metrics of disease severity. We used data from three captive inoculation experiments involving 181 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to compare histopathology, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and ultraviolet fluorescence as diagnostic methods of P. destructans infection. To assess disease severity, we considered two histology metrics (wing area with fungal hyphae, area of dermal necrosis), P. destructans fungal load (qPCR), ultraviolet fluorescence, and blood chemistry (hematocrit, sodium, glucose, pCO2, and bicarbonate). Quantitative PCR was most effective for early detection of P. destructans, while all three methods were comparable in severe infections. Correlations among hyphae and necrosis scores, qPCR, ultraviolet fluorescence, blood chemistry, and hibernation duration indicate a multi-stage pattern of disease. Disruptions of homeostasis occurred rapidly in late hibernation. Our results provide valuable information about the use of non-destructive techniques for monitoring, and provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome, with implications for developing and implementing potential mitigation strategies.

  12. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  13. Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips of wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N/sup 3/2/, where N is the number of subdivisions

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  15. Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips or wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N 3 sup(/) 2 , where N is the number of subdivisions. (orig.)

  16. Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wolz

    Full Text Available The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC, 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI, 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI, 198 AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA and support vector machines (SVM. The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification, 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD, 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI. Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

  17. Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S; Svedendahl, M; Kaell, M; Gunnarsson, L; Dmitriev, A, E-mail: alexd@chalmers.s [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-10-28

    We present a simple and robust scheme for biosensing with an ultralow limit-of-detection down to several pg cm{sup -2} (or several tens of attomoles cm{sup -2}) based on optical label-free biodetection with localized surface plasmon resonances. The scheme utilizes cost-effective optical components and comprises a white light source, a properly functionalized sensor surface enclosed in a simple fluidics chip, and a spectral analyzer. The sensor surface is produced by a bottom-up nanofabrication technique with hole mask colloidal lithography. Despite its simplicity, the method is able to reliably detect protein-protein binding events at low picomolar and femtomolar concentrations, which is exemplified by the label-free detection of the extracellular adherence protein (EAP) found on the outer surface of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is believed to be a prostate cancer marker. These experiments pave the way towards an ultra-sensitive yet compact biodetection platform for point-of-care diagnostics applications.

  18. Sensitive and simple method for measuring wire tensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Mishina, M.

    1982-08-01

    Measuring tension of wires in drift chambers and multiwire proportional chambers after construction is an important process because sometimes wires get loose after soldering, crimping or glueing. One needs to sort out wires which have tensions below a required minimum value to prevent electrostatic instabilities. There have been several methods reported on this subject in which the wires were excited either with sinusoidal current under magnetic field or with sinusoidal voltage electrostatically coupled to the wire, searching for a resonating frequency with which the wires vibrate mechanically. Then the vibration is detected either visually, optically or with magnetic pick-up directly touching the wires. Any of these is only applicable to the usual multiwire chamber which has open access to the wire plane. They also need fairly large excitation currents to induce a detectable vibration to the wires. Here we report a very simple method that can be used for any type of wire chamber or proportional tube system for measuring wire tension. Only a very small current is required for the wire excitation to obtain a large enough signal because it detects the induced emf voltage across a wire. A sine-wave oscillator and a digital voltmeter are sufficient devices aside from a permanent magnet to provide the magnetic field around the wire. A useful application of this method to a large system is suggested

  19. Minimal invasive stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods and preinterventional diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohs, J.G.; Krepler, P.

    2004-01-01

    Minimal invasive stabilizations represent a new alternative for the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures. Vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty are two methods to enhance the strength of osteoporotic vertebral bodies by the means of cement application. Vertebroplasty is the older and technically easier method. The balloon kyphoplasty is the newer and more expensive method which does not only improve pain but also restores the sagittal profile of the spine. By balloon kyphoplasty the height of 101 fractured vertebral bodies could be increased up to 90% and the wedge decreased from 12 to 7 degrees. Pain was reduced from 7,2 to 2,5 points. The Oswestry disability index decreased from 60 to 26 points. This effects persisted over a period of two years. Cement leakage occurred in only 2% of vertebral bodies. Fractures of adjacent vertebral bodies were found in 11%. Good preinterventional diagnostics and intraoperative imaging are necessary to make the balloon kyphoplasty a successful application. (orig.) [de

  20. An Efficient Method of Vibration Diagnostics For Rotating Machinery Using a Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Suk Yang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient method to automatize vibration diagnosis for rotating machinery using a decision tree, which is applicable to vibration diagnosis expert system. Decision tree is a widely known formalism for expressing classification knowledge and has been used successfully in many diverse areas such as character recognition, medical diagnosis, and expert systems, etc. In order to build a decision tree for vibration diagnosis, we have to define classes and attributes. A set of cases based on past experiences is also needed. This training set is inducted using a result-cause matrix newly developed in the present work instead of using a conventionally implemented cause-result matrix. This method was applied to diagnostics for various cases taken from published work. It is found that the present method predicts causes of the abnormal vibration for test cases with high reliability.

  1. Detecting microcalcifications in mammograms by using SVM method for the diagnostics of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Baikun; Wang, Ruiping; Qi, Hongzhi; Cao, Xuchen

    2005-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a new statistical learning method. Compared with the classical machine learning methods, SVM learning discipline is to minimize the structural risk instead of the empirical risk of the classical methods, and it gives better generative performance. Because SVM algorithm is a convex quadratic optimization problem, the local optimal solution is certainly the global optimal one. In this paper a SVM algorithm is applied to detect the micro-calcifications (MCCs) in mammograms for the diagnostics of breast cancer that has not been reported yet. It had been tested with 10 mammograms and the results show that the algorithm can achieve a higher true positive in comparison with artificial neural network (ANN) based on the empirical risk minimization, and is valuable for further study and application in the clinical engineering.

  2. A New Computationally Frugal Method For Sensitivity Analysis Of Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.; Clark, M. P.; Weerts, A.; Teuling, R.; Borgonovo, E.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-12-01

    Effective and efficient parameter sensitivity analysis methods are crucial to understand the behaviour of complex environmental models and use of models in risk assessment. This paper proposes a new computationally frugal method for analyzing parameter sensitivity: the Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA). The DELSA method can be considered a hybrid of local and global methods, and focuses explicitly on multiscale evaluation of parameter sensitivity across the parameter space. Results of the DELSA method are compared with the popular global, variance-based Sobol' method and the delta method. We assess the parameter sensitivity of both (1) a simple non-linear reservoir model with only two parameters, and (2) five different "bucket-style" hydrologic models applied to a medium-sized catchment (200 km2) in the Belgian Ardennes. Results show that in both the synthetic and real-world examples, the global Sobol' method and the DELSA method provide similar sensitivities, with the DELSA method providing more detailed insight at much lower computational cost. The ability to understand how sensitivity measures vary through parameter space with modest computational requirements provides exciting new opportunities.

  3. Improving diagnostic sensitivity of combined dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy imaging through double reader concordance evaluation in telemedicine settings: A retrospective study of 1000 equivocal cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Witkowski

    Full Text Available Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is an imaging device that permits non-invasive visualization of cellular morphology and has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal cutaneous lesions. The application of double reader concordance evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets in retrospective settings and its potential application to telemedicine evaluation has not been tested in a large study population.To improve diagnostic sensitivity of RCM image diagnosis using a double reader concordance evaluation approach; to reduce mismanagement of equivocal cutaneous lesions in retrospective consultation and telemedicine settings.1000 combined dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated in blind by 10 readers with advanced training and internship in dermoscopy and RCM evaluation. We compared sensitivity and specificity of single reader evaluation versus double reader concordance evaluation as well as the effect of diagnostic confidence on lesion management in a retrospective setting.Single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 76.3%, with misdiagnosis of 8 melanomas, 4 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas. Combined double reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 65.5%, with misdiagnosis of 1 in-situ melanoma and 2 basal cell carcinomas.Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of cutaneous lesions by single reader evaluation in retrospective settings is limited by sensitivity levels that may result in potential mismanagement of malignant lesions. Double reader blind concordance evaluation may improve the sensitivity of diagnosis and management safety. The use of a second check can be implemented in telemedicine settings where expert consultation and second opinions may be required.

  4. [Diagnostic agreement between two glycosylated a1b hemoglobin methods in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-del-Campo, M C; Rodríguez-Caravaca, G; Gil-Yonte, P; Cidoncha-Calderón, E; García-Cruces Méndez, J; Donnay-Pérez, S

    2014-01-01

    Several methods are available for measuring glycosylated A1c hemoglobin (HbA1c), all rapid methods for point of care use in a clinical or laboratory setting. This study attempts to compare the diagnostic agreement between two methods for detection of HbA1c. A descriptive cross-sectional study of diagnostic agreement was carried out in the Los Carmenes Health Centre. Two groups of patients -with and without type 2 diabetes- were consecutively included. A method for point-of-care use in a Primary Care Clinic setting (DCA(TM) Systems Siemens(®)) was compared with a laboratory test (chromatographic analysis). An analysis was made of the mean concentration of HbA1c, the agreement between methods, using the intra-class correlation coefficient (CCLA1) and the Bland-Altman method. A total of 102 patients were included, 62 diabetic (60.8%) and 40 non-diabetic (39.2%). The overall mean HbA1c was 6.46% (SD=0.88) in the analysis using capillary blood in the clinic with the DCA™ system, and 6.44% (SD=0.86) using the laboratory test (P>.05). The degree of agreement between the two tests was 0.975 (95% CI: 0.963-0.983). The mean of the differences between the results of the two assessed tests was 0.024 (SD=0.27). The percentage of points outside the limits of optimal agreement, as defined in the Bland-Altman graph, was 2.5%. Diagnostic agreement between a method for point-of-care use in a Primary Health Care Clinic and a laboratory test was very high. Detection at the point-of-care allows a quick and simple assessment of HbA1c. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of dosimetric characteristics of the high sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P Thermoluminescent Dosemeter and its applications in diagnostic radiology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, K.L. E-mail: orkarl@polyu.edu.hk

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated the dosimetric properties of the high sensitivity TLD (Thermoluminescent Dosemeter) of LiF:Mg,Cu,P and its applications in diagnostic radiology. A reproducible readout and annealing regime for this high sensitivity TLD was developed in the initial part of this study with the newly installed automatic TLD Reader system. Basic dosimetric characteristics of this T.L. dosemeter were then investigated. This paved the foundation for subsequent selected novel application studies in diagnostic radiology. This study exploits the favourable dosimetric properties of these T.L. dosemeters in some selected novel dosimetric applications in diagnostic radiology with an anthropomorphic phantom. The applications studied in radiological procedures included: dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography utilizing the 'anode heel effect'; gonad dose variation with kV{sub p} in chest radiography; foetal dose comparison between computed tomography (CT) and computed radiography (CR) in X-ray pelvimetry; lens dose reduction with bismuth eye-shields in CT brain studies; foetal dose assessment of early pregnancy in common high risk radiological examinations. It is anticipated that the unique and favourable dosimetric performance of LiF:Mg,Cu,P T.L. phosphor will be exploited further in measurements of low level dose received by patients and staff in diagnostic radiological procedures such as paediatric X-ray examinations.

  6. Investigation of dosimetric characteristics of the high sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P Thermoluminescent Dosemeter and its applications in diagnostic radiology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dosimetric properties of the high sensitivity TLD (Thermoluminescent Dosemeter) of LiF:Mg,Cu,P and its applications in diagnostic radiology. A reproducible readout and annealing regime for this high sensitivity TLD was developed in the initial part of this study with the newly installed automatic TLD Reader system. Basic dosimetric characteristics of this T.L. dosemeter were then investigated. This paved the foundation for subsequent selected novel application studies in diagnostic radiology. This study exploits the favourable dosimetric properties of these T.L. dosemeters in some selected novel dosimetric applications in diagnostic radiology with an anthropomorphic phantom. The applications studied in radiological procedures included: dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography utilizing the 'anode heel effect'; gonad dose variation with kV p in chest radiography; foetal dose comparison between computed tomography (CT) and computed radiography (CR) in X-ray pelvimetry; lens dose reduction with bismuth eye-shields in CT brain studies; foetal dose assessment of early pregnancy in common high risk radiological examinations. It is anticipated that the unique and favourable dosimetric performance of LiF:Mg,Cu,P T.L. phosphor will be exploited further in measurements of low level dose received by patients and staff in diagnostic radiological procedures such as paediatric X-ray examinations

  7. Diagnostic validity of methods for assessment of swallowing sounds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Karinna Veríssimo Meira; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Leão, Bianca Lopes Cavalcante de; Neto, José Stechman; Pernambuco, Leandro; Silva, Letícia Korb da; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Porporatti, André Luís

    2018-02-03

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a highly prevalent comorbidity in neurological patients and presents a serious health threat, which may lead to outcomes of aspiration pneumonia, ranging from hospitalization to death. This assessment proposes a non-invasive, acoustic-based method to differentiate between individuals with and without signals of penetration and aspiration. This systematic review evaluated the diagnostic validity of different methods for assessment of swallowing sounds, when compared to Videofluroscopic of Swallowing Study (VFSS) to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Articles in which the primary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of swallowing sounds were searched in five electronic databases with no language or time limitations. Accuracy measurements described in the studies were transformed to construct receiver operating characteristic curves and forest plots with the aid of Review Manager v. 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. The final electronic search revealed 554 records, however only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria. The accuracy values (area under the curve) were 0.94 for microphone, 0.80 for Doppler, and 0.60 for stethoscope. Based on limited evidence and low methodological quality because few studies were included, with a small sample size, from all index testes found for this systematic review, Doppler showed excellent diagnostic accuracy for the discrimination of swallowing sounds, whereas microphone-reported good accuracy discrimination of swallowing sounds of dysphagic patients and stethoscope showed best screening test. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of a complex, proposed geologic waste disposal system using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yichi; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2001-01-01

    The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method has been used to perform a sensitivity analysis of a computer model developed for conducting total system performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The computer model has a large number of random input parameters with assigned probability density functions, which may or may not be uniform, for representing data uncertainty. The FAST method, which was previously applied to models with parameters represented by the uniform probability distribution function only, has been modified to be applied to models with nonuniform probability distribution functions. Using an example problem with a small input parameter set, several aspects of the FAST method, such as the effects of integer frequency sets and random phase shifts in the functional transformations, and the number of discrete sampling points (equivalent to the number of model executions) on the ranking of the input parameters have been investigated. Because the number of input parameters of the computer model under investigation is too large to be handled by the FAST method, less important input parameters were first screened out using the Morris method. The FAST method was then used to rank the remaining parameters. The validity of the parameter ranking by the FAST method was verified using the conditional complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the output. The CCDF results revealed that the introduction of random phase shifts into the functional transformations, proposed by previous investigators to disrupt the repetitiveness of search curves, does not necessarily improve the sensitivity analysis results because it destroys the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions, which is required for Fourier analysis

  9. Sensiprobe—a miniature thermal device incorporating Peltier technology as a diagnostic tool for studying human oesophageal sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J W; Birch, M J; Al-Zinaty, M; Woodland, P; Sifrim, D; Aziz, Q

    2014-01-01

    Heightened perception of gastrointestinal sensation is termed visceral hypersensitivity (VH) and is commonly observed in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. VH is thought to be a major contributory factor in oesophageal disease, particularly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease that does not respond to standard (proton pump inhibitor) treatment, and in functional heartburn. Clinical tools that can help phenotype according to the mechanism of chronic pain and thus allow targeted drug treatment (e.g. with pain modulator therapy) would be very desirable. A technique that produces repeatable and controllable thermal stimuli within the oesophagus could meet this need. The aims of this study were to develop a method for linear control of the heat stimulation in the oesophagus, to assess the reproducibility of this method, and obtain normal thermal sensitivity values in the distal and proximal oesophagus. The 7 mm diameter Peltier-based thermal device was investigated on 27 healthy subjects using a heating ramp of 0.2 °C s −1 . The pain detection threshold (PDT) temperature was recorded. To assess the reproducibility of the device, each subject underwent the procedure twice, with a minimum of two weeks between each procedure. The mean PDT temperature measured in the distal oesophagus, was 53.8 ± 2.9 °C and 53.6 ± 2.6 °C, for visits 1 and 2 respectively. The mean PDT temperature measured in the proximal oesophagus was 54.1 ± 2.4 °C and 54.0 ± 2.8 °C, for visits 1 and 2 respectively. The reproducibility of the PDT temperature in the distal and proximal oesophagus, was good (intra-class correlation >0.6). Future studies should be aimed to determine whether oesophageal thermal sensitivity can act as a biomarker of transient receptor potential vallanoid 1 upregulation. (paper)

  10. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  11. Sensitivity of radiation methods of diagnosis of electric potentials in dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhkov, Yu.I.; Smekalin, L.F.; Yagushkin, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the base of the albedo method the characteristics of radiation methods of diagnosis of electric potentials inside dielectrics, such as sensitivity and resolution are considered. Investigations are carried out for electron energies of tens keV. It is shown that with energy growth the sensitivity to electric field in the dielectrics volume drops. The target atomic number growth reduces the sensitivity approximately 1/lnz. The albedo method resolution in the investigated energy range is constant. The results obtained testify to the usability radiation methods of the diagnosis for control of electric fields of dielectric structural materials in the course of their operation

  12. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhang, Kai [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, China and Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations.

  13. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations

  14. Features of the diagnostic methods to identify the sheep subclinical mastitis in according to infectious etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Vale Tanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland mainly caused by bacteria. In sheep, besides it causes chemical and physical changes in milk with the loss in quality, mastitis changes the glandular tissue which may lead to premature cull-out from the herd. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic features of the California Mastitis Test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC to the identification of subclinical mastitis in sheep according to the micro-organisms isolated. The work is at an early stage and CMT was performed in all ewes. It was considered positive results all degrees of reaction, while the negative reaction was considered when there was not viscosity. Subsequently, samples were collected aseptically from milk and were sent for microbiological analysis. A total of 160 milk samples were analyzed from 85 Santa Inês sheep belonging to the Embrapa Southeast Livestock in São Carlos, São Paulo. Samples were plated on sheep blood agar to 5% and incubated for 24h/72h at 35 ° C. In samples with growth, tests to the identification of the microorganisms were performed, macroscopic characteristics of the colonies and the production or absence of hemolysis, Gram staining, catalase test, coagulase test with rabbit plasma and verification of acetoin production. The sensitivity of the diagnostic tests were determined in accordance to the ratio of the positive tests and the presence of the disease, while the specificities were calculated according to the ratio of the negative results and the absence of disease. The efficiency was based on the percentage of true results that the test was able to provide diagnosis. SCC in milk was determined using the somatic cell count Somacount 300 (Bentley and the presence of the disease was given when isolated coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, coliforms and other microorganisms (Corinebacteria, strep and association of two bacteria in a same sample. It was used the limit

  15. Schlieren method diagnostics of plasma compression in front of coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Hruska, J.; Bacilek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The schlieren method employing a movable knife edge placed in the focal plane of a laser beam was used for the diagnostics of plasma produced by a coaxial plasma gun. When compared with the interferometric method reported earlier, spatial resolution was improved by more than one order of magnitude. In the determination of electron density near the gun orifice, spherical symmetry of the current sheath inhomogeneities and cylindrical symmetry of the compression maximum were assumed. Radial variation of electron density could be reconstructed from the photometric measurements of the transversal variation of schlieren light intensity. Due to small plasma dimensions, electron density was determined directly from the knife edge shift necessary for shadowing the corresponding part of the picture. (J.U.)

  16. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  17. Study on diagnostic plant analyzer method for support of emergency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Gofuku, A.; Itoh, K.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of time-critical diagnostic plant analyzer are investigated which would serve as support to emergency operation of nuclear power plant. A faster-than-real-time simulator code TOKRAC is developed for analyzing PWR primary loop thermo-hydraulics of small-break LOCA and it is applied for a numerical experiment of initial phase of TMI-2 accident. TOKRAC resulted in a good agreement with a RELAP4/MOD6 calculation and the plant record with as fast as can one-tenth of real time. A real-time estimator of SG heat transfer rate based on Kalman filter is proposed and its applicability is verified using LOFT ATWS experimental data. With regards to how to integrate those methods into the software system in operation support center, a new concept of module-based simulation system is proposed which aims at offering a flexible and human-cognitive oriented environment for various analytical tool development

  18. Method for Evaluating Information to Solve Problems of Control, Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. A.; Dobrynina, N. V.

    2017-06-01

    The article describes a method for evaluating information to solve problems of control, monitoring and diagnostics. It is necessary for reducing the dimensionality of informational indicators of situations, bringing them to relative units, for calculating generalized information indicators on their basis, ranking them by characteristic levels, for calculating the efficiency criterion of a system functioning in real time. The design of information evaluation system has been developed on its basis that allows analyzing, processing and assessing information about the object. Such object can be a complex technical, economic and social system. The method and the based system thereof can find a wide application in the field of analysis, processing and evaluation of information on the functioning of the systems, regardless of their purpose, goals, tasks and complexity. For example, they can be used to assess the innovation capacities of industrial enterprises and management decisions.

  19. A Self-diagnostic Method for the Electrode Adhesion of an Electromagnetic Flow-meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Cui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes of electromagnetic flow-meter are subject to contamination in sewage measurement. In this paper, the relationship between the internal resistance of the flow-induced voltage and the electrode contamination is analyzed on the basis of numerical analysis. A new self- diagnostic method for electrode adhesion with additional excitation based on photovoltaic cell is proposed, in which magnetic excitation for flow-rate measurement and electric excitation for electrode self-diagnosis is divided in both time domain and frequency domain. A dual-excited electromagnetic flow-meter with electrode self-diagnosis was designed and validated. Simulation experiments based on the change of the internal resistance of the flow-induced voltage were carried out. And the experimental results fully show that this new method is feasible and promising.

  20. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

  1. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P C; Boerner, W; Emrich, S; Gutekunst, R; Herrmann, J; Horn, K; Klett, M; Krueskemper, H L; Pfannenstiel, P; Pickardt, C R

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  2. Thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Reiners, C.; Reinwein, D.; Schleusener, H.

    1985-01-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Some methods of analysis and diagnostics of corroded components from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogosan, S.; Radulescu, M.; Fulger, M.; Stefanescu, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) it is necessary to ensure a longer and safe operation as difficult and expensive it is the maintenance of these very complex installations and equipment. In this regard, The Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory Corroded Metal Components in Nuclear Facilities-LADICON; was authorized RENAR and CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) notified as a testing laboratory for nuclear-grade materials. As part of the investigation and evaluation of corrosion behavior for these materials two types of test methods are used i.e. longer corrosion tests such as: autoclaving at high temperature and pressure in different chemical media-specific patterns in NPP and accelerated methods like: electrochemical techniques, accelerated chemical tests, etc. This paper presents some methods of analysis for materials corrosion; methods of assessment of corrosion of structural materials exposed to specific operating conditions and environment in NPPs. The electrochemical measurements show the following advantages: a) Allowing a direct method to accelerate the corrosion processes without altering the environment, b) It can be used as an nondestructive tool for assessing the rate of corrosion and c) Offers the possibility of conducting such investigations in - situ and ex- situ. Corroborating the environmental chemistry that was born on samples movies investigation results obtained by the methods above, it is possible to identify the types of corrosion of the materials and sometimes even those processes and mechanisms of corrosion. (authors)

  4. Comparison of global sensitivity analysis methods – Application to fuel behavior modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, Timo, E-mail: timo.ikonen@vtt.fi

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Several global sensitivity analysis methods are compared. • The methods’ applicability to nuclear fuel performance simulations is assessed. • The implications of large input uncertainties and complex models are discussed. • Alternative strategies to perform sensitivity analyses are proposed. - Abstract: Fuel performance codes have two characteristics that make their sensitivity analysis challenging: large uncertainties in input parameters and complex, non-linear and non-additive structure of the models. The complex structure of the code leads to interactions between inputs that show as cross terms in the sensitivity analysis. Due to the large uncertainties of the inputs these interactions are significant, sometimes even dominating the sensitivity analysis. For the same reason, standard linearization techniques do not usually perform well in the analysis of fuel performance codes. More sophisticated methods are typically needed in the analysis. To this end, we compare the performance of several sensitivity analysis methods in the analysis of a steady state FRAPCON simulation. The comparison of importance rankings obtained with the various methods shows that even the simplest methods can be sufficient for the analysis of fuel maximum temperature. However, the analysis of the gap conductance requires more powerful methods that take into account the interactions of the inputs. In some cases, moment-independent methods are needed. We also investigate the computational cost of the various methods and present recommendations as to which methods to use in the analysis.

  5. Calibration method of the pulsed X-ray relative sensitivity for ST401 plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongwei; Song Guzhou; Wang Kuilu

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity calibration method of the pulsed X-ray in ST401 plastic scintillator is presented. Experimental relative sensitivity calibrations of the plastic scintillators of different thicknesses from 1 mm to 50 mm are accomplished on the 'Chenguang' pulsed X-ray source and a Co radioactive source, The uncertainty of the calibration data is evaluated, which can be treated as the experimental evidence for the relative sensitivity conversion of ST401 plastic scintillator. (authors)

  6. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 2: A review of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Crawshaw, T R; Downs, S H; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Despite the large host range of Mycobacterium bovis, ante-mortem diagnostic tests for the infection mostly lack sensitivity/specificity and/or remain unvalidated in non-bovine species. The epidemiology and importance of M. bovis infection in these species are discussed in the first part of this two-part review. This second part focuses on the diagnostic options available to identify infected species such as sheep, goats, dogs, cats, and camelids, and highlights the significant challenges posed, both in establishing estimates of disease prevalence and in controlling infections in these species, in the absence of fully validated tests. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for bipolar disorders in Spanish-speaking populations: sensitivity and specificity of the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale-Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Gustavo Héctor; Romero, Ester; Fabregues, Fernando; Pies, Ronald; Ghaemi, Nassir; Mota-Castillo, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is commonly misdiagnosed, perhaps more so in Latin American and Spanish-speaking populations than in the United States. The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is a 19-item screening instrument designed to assist in screening for all types of bipolar disorder. The authors investigated the sensitivity of a Spanish-language version of the BSDS in a cohort of 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, based on a semi-structured interview and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. To determine specificity, we assessed a control group of 36 outpatients with diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder. The overall sensitivity of the BSDS Spanish version with bipolar disorders types I, II, and NOS was 0.70, which was slightly lower than the sensitivity in the study using the English version of the BSDS (0.76). The specificity was 0.89. When the threshold was decreased from 13 to 12, the sensitivity of the Spanish BSDS increased to 0.76 and specificity dropped to 0.81. The Spanish version of the BSDS is promising as a screening instrument in Spanish-speaking populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Ah Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI, a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1=0.66–0.89; inspection signs (AC1=0.66–0.95; listening/smelling signs (AC1=0.67–0.88; and inquiry signs (AC1=0.62–0.94. Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used, it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training.

  9. A comparison between workshop and DVD methods of training for physiotherapists in diagnostic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKiernan, Sharmaine; Chiarelli, Pauline; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has expanded into physiotherapy though training in the modality appears to be and is reported by physiotherapists as limited. To address this, a training package was specifically developed for physiotherapists within Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the training package for improved educational outcome and to ascertain if there was a difference in outcome between two forms of delivery. The training package was delivered either during a workshop, where the training package was delivered face to face, or via a self paced DVD, which was mailed to participants. Both participant groups completed a web based assessment prior to and at the completion of the training. The assessment assessed their knowledge in ultrasound physics, scanning technique and anatomy. Pre and post training assessment scores were available for 84 participants who attended a workshop and 96 participants who received the DVD. Important and statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in assessment scores from the beginning to the end of the training program were seen in both groups. On average, workshop participant scores improved by 37% and DVD participant scores improved by 27%. No statistical difference in the post assessment scores of the workshop trained or DVD trained participants was evident. On comparison, no statistically significant difference between the two methods of training; workshop and DVD, was found so both can be seen to be beneficial to the professional development of the physiotherapist in the use of diagnostic ultrasound within their profession.

  10. Comprehensive and Methodical: Diagnostic and Management Approaches to Rapidly Progressive Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya; Appleby, Brian S

    2017-09-30

    Purpose of review The sudden emergence of a change in cognitive abilities or behavior is an important symptom that warrants medical evaluation and may represent the early stages of a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). To correctly ascertain the cause of RPD in a given patient, the clinician must be methodical and knowledgeable about the range of potential causes and must move forward with supportive treatment, and in some cases empiric treatment, based on clinical features alone. Recent findings Significant advances in prion disease biomarkers, the molecular features of rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease, and new detection of autoimmune limbic encephalitis disease entities have caused a shift in the diagnostic and treatment framework of RPD. Additionally, in the past decade, emerging retrospective data have led to suggested treatments in autoimmune encephalitis that, if instituted early, can protect patients against residual deficits and disease relapse. Summary Here, we provide an integrative clinical and diagnostic treatment approach that is applicable to the various forms of RPD. We have highlighted the clinical features of selected types of RPD that have experienced advances in the last 10-15 years.

  11. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  12. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL MOV aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of MOV monitoring methods and techniques. The diagnostic information available from any MOV measurable parameters was evaluated by ORNL using MOVs that were mounted on test stands. Those tests led to the conclusion that the single most informative MOV measurable parameter was also the one which was most easily acquired, namely the motor current. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) was found to provide detailed information related to the condition of the motor, motor operator, and valve across a wide range of levels. As part of the MOV aging assessment, several tests were carried out by ORNL on MOVs having implanted defects and degradations. Tests were also performed on many MOVs located within a nuclear power plant. In addition, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown Test program carried out at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Results from all of these tests are summarized in this paper and several selected examples are given. Other areas covered in this paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues and activities, other related diagnostics research at ORNL, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  13. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  14. The Brief Introduction of Different Laser Diagnostics Methods Used in Aeroengine Combustion Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion test diagnosis has always been one of the most important technologies for the development of aerospace engineering. The traditional methods of measurement have been unable to meet the requirements of accurate capture of the flow field in the development process of the aeroengine combustor. Therefore, the development of high-precision measurement and diagnostic techniques to meet the needs of the aeroengine combustor design is imperative. Laser diagnostics techniques developed quickly in the past several years. They are used to measure the parameters of the combustion flow field such as velocity, temperature, and components concentration with high space and time resolution and brought no disturbance. Planar laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and Raman scattering were introduced systemically in this paper. After analysis of their own advantages and disadvantages, the authors considered validated Raman scattering system and Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography are more suitable for research activities on aeroengine combustion systems.

  15. A combination of differential method and perturbation theory for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Borges, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating these coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The proposed method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivates of the integral parameter, φ(ξ), with respect to σ are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivates of this generic integral parameter with respect to σ and φ are calculated using the differential method. The new method merges the advantages of the differential and generalized perturbation theory methods and eliminates their disadvantages. (author)

  16. Fuzzy based method for project planning of the infrastructure design for the diagnostic in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piros, Attila; Veres, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The long-term design projects need special preparation before the start of the execution. This preparation usually includes the drawing of the network diagram for the whole procedure. This diagram includes the time estimation of the individual subtasks and gives us information about the predicted dates of the milestones. The calculated critical path in this network characterizes a specific design project concerning to its duration very well. Several methods are available to support this step of preparation. This paper describes a new method to map the structure of the design process and clarify the milestones and predict the dates of these milestones. The method is based on the PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) network but as a novelty it applies fuzzy logic to find out the concerning times in this graph. With the application of the fuzzy logic the handling of the different kinds of design uncertainties becomes feasible. Many kinds of design uncertainties exist from the possible electric blackout up to the illness of an engineer. In many cases these uncertainties are related with human errors and described with linguistic expressions. The fuzzy logic enables to transform these ambiguous expressions into numeric values for further mathematical evaluation. The method is introduced in the planning of the design project of the infrastructure for the diagnostic systems of ITER. The method not only helps the project in the planning phase, but it will be a powerful tool in mathematical modeling and monitoring of the project execution

  17. Fuzzy based method for project planning of the infrastructure design for the diagnostic in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piros, Attila, E-mail: attila.piros@gt3.bme.hu [Department of Machine and Product Design, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Veres, Gábor [Department of Plasma Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-10-15

    The long-term design projects need special preparation before the start of the execution. This preparation usually includes the drawing of the network diagram for the whole procedure. This diagram includes the time estimation of the individual subtasks and gives us information about the predicted dates of the milestones. The calculated critical path in this network characterizes a specific design project concerning to its duration very well. Several methods are available to support this step of preparation. This paper describes a new method to map the structure of the design process and clarify the milestones and predict the dates of these milestones. The method is based on the PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) network but as a novelty it applies fuzzy logic to find out the concerning times in this graph. With the application of the fuzzy logic the handling of the different kinds of design uncertainties becomes feasible. Many kinds of design uncertainties exist from the possible electric blackout up to the illness of an engineer. In many cases these uncertainties are related with human errors and described with linguistic expressions. The fuzzy logic enables to transform these ambiguous expressions into numeric values for further mathematical evaluation. The method is introduced in the planning of the design project of the infrastructure for the diagnostic systems of ITER. The method not only helps the project in the planning phase, but it will be a powerful tool in mathematical modeling and monitoring of the project execution.

  18. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to r...

  19. Novel readout method for molecular diagnostic assays based on optical measurements of magnetic nanobead dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula; Bejhed, Rebecca S; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Østerberg, Frederik W; Strömberg, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel F; Vavassori, Paolo

    2015-02-03

    We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling circle amplification and benchmark against a commercial equipment. The results demonstrate the fast optomagnetic readout of rolling circle products from bacterial DNA utilizing the dynamic properties of MNBs in a miniaturized and low-cost platform requiring only a transparent window in the chip.

  20. Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tick-borne hemoparasites of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J V; Buening, G M

    1995-03-01

    An increased number of articles on the use of nucleic acid-based hybridization techniques for diagnostic purposes have been recently published. This article reviews nucleic acid-based hybridization as an assay to detect hemoparasite infections of economic relevance in veterinary medicine. By using recombinant DNA techniques, selected clones containing inserts of Anaplasma, Babesia, Cowdria or Theileria genomic DNA sequences have been obtained, and they are now available to be utilized as specific, highly sensitive DNA or RNA probes to detect the presence of the hemoparasite DNA in an infected animal. Either in an isotopic or non-isotopic detection system, probes have allowed scientists to test for--originally in samples collected from experimentally infected animals and later in samples collected in the field--the presence of hemoparasites during the prepatent, patent, convalescent, and chronic periods of the infection in the host. Nucleic acid probes have given researchers the opportunity to carry out genomic analysis of parasite DNA to differentiate hemoparasite species and to identify genetically distinct populations among and within isolates, strains and clonal populations. Prevalence of parasite infection in the tick vector can now be accomplished more specifically with the nucleic acid probes. Lately, with the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, small numbers of hemoparasites can be positively identified in the vertebrate host and tick vector. These techniques can be used to assess the veterinary epidemiological situation in a particular geographical region for the planning of control measures.

  1. IR IMAGING AND VIBRATORY METHODS OF CONTROL AND DIAGNOSTICS OF THE EQUIPMENT AT OJSC «BSW – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMC»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shinkarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main methods of diagnostics of the equipment of OJSC «BSW – management company of holding «BMC». Presents results of diagnostics of various equipment with the description of the devices directly used for the diagnostic that can detect various defects of the equipment at the stage of their origination. Describes the advantages of these methods compared to other methods of control and diagnostics.

  2. Diagnostic performance of a computer-assisted diagnosis system for bone scintigraphy of newly developed skeletal metastasis in prostate cancer patients: search for low-sensitivity subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Motegi, Kazuki; Koyama, Masamichi; Terauchi, Takashi; Yuasa, Takeshi; Yonese, Junji

    2017-08-01

    The computer-assisted diagnostic system for bone scintigraphy (BS) BONENAVI is used to evaluate skeletal metastasis. We investigated its diagnostic performance in prostate cancer patients with and without skeletal metastasis and searched for the problems. An artificial neural network (ANN) value was calculated in 226 prostate cancer patients (124 with skeletal metastasis and 101 without) using BS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed and the sensitivity and specificity determined (cutoff ANN = 0.5). Patient's situation at the time of diagnosis of skeletal metastasis, computed tomography (CT) type, extent of disease (EOD), and BS uptake grade were analyzed. False-negative and false-positive results were recorded. BONENAVI showed 82% (102/124) of sensitivity and 83% (84/101) specificity for metastasis detection. There were no significant differences among CT types, although low EOD and faint BS uptake were associated with low ANN values and low sensitivity. Patients showed lower sensitivity during the follow-up period than staging work-up. False-negative lesions were often located in the pelvis or adjacent to it. They comprised not only solitary, faint BS lesions but also overlaying to urinary excretion. BONENAVI with BS has good sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer's osseous metastasis. Low EOD and faint BS uptake are associated with low sensitivity but not the CT type. Prostate cancer patients likely to have false-negative results during the follow-up period had a solitary lesion in the pelvis with faint BS uptake or lesions overlaying to urinary excretion.

  3. Study of time-critical diagnostic method for emergency operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to support the emergency operation of nuclear power plant, the method of time-critical diagnostic plant analyzer has been investigated. The conception of the emergency operation support center is proposed and two types of plant analyzer may be installed in this center. One analyzer is a real-time tracking simulation code using the observed signals and another is a fast trend-prediction code. A real-time tracking code, TOKRAC, has been developed for analyzing the PWR primary loop thermo-hydraulics at SBLOCA, and the applicability of this code was examined by the numerical experiments for the initial phase transient of both TMI-2 accident and 6% coldleg SBLOCA of a Westinghouse-type PWR plant. The results showed that fairly good tracking was carried out by TOKRAC. The CPU time of TOKRAC was about 12-14 percent of real-time

  4. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  5. Duplicated collecting system of a kidney complicated with hydronephrosis - diagnostic methods review: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanski, P.; Plucinska, I.; Calka, K.; Kedzierski, B.; Jazwiec, P.

    2008-01-01

    Duplicated collecting system of a kidney occurs in 1.7-4.2% of the population. It is a complex, unilateral or bilateral, congenital abnormality of the pyelocalyceal system and the ureter. The 2 ureters fuse to form a single ureteral orifice or empty separately into the bladder (ureter duplex). Duplicated collecting systems with complete ureteric duplication may lead to developing vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and urinary infection. This article presents a case of a 49-year-old woman with duplicated collecting system and hydronephrosis in the upper pole. The anomaly was diagnosed using urography, ultrasonography and computed tomography examination.The best method for diagnostics of the duplicated pyelocalyceal system complicated by hydronephrosis is computed tomography examination, especially multislice computed tomography. The authors present also the options for therapy (author)

  6. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  7. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  8. Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Three Conditionally Dependent Diagnostic Tests in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Swildens, B.; Stegeman, J.A.; Buist, W.G.; Jong, de M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Data from three tests for the detection of EF-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in sows were analyzed. The data were collected in a field study in the absence of a gold standard, that is, the true disease status

  9. A simple method to estimate the episode and programme sensitivity of breast cancer screening programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Guzzinati, Stefano; Puliti, Donella; Paci, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of breast cancer screening sensitivity is a major aim in the quality assessment of screening programmes. The proportional incidence method for the estimation of the sensitivity of breast cancer screening programmes is rarely used to estimate the underlying incidence rates. We present a method to estimate episode and programme sensitivity of screening programmes, based solely on cancers detected within screening cycles (excluding breast cancer cases at prevalent screening round) and on the number of incident cases in the total target population (steady state). The assumptions, strengths and limitations of the method are discussed. An example of calculation of episode and programme sensitivities is given, on the basis of the data from the IMPACT study, a large observational study of breast cancer screening programmes in Italy. The programme sensitivity from the fifth year of screening onwards ranged between 41% and 48% of the total number of cases in the target population. At steady state episode sensitivity was 0.70, with a trend across age groups, with lowest values in women aged 50-54 years (0.52) and highest in those 65-69 (0.77). The method is a very serviceable tool for estimating sensitivity in service screening programmes, and the results are comparable with those of other methods of estimation.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of infectious disease models: methods, advances and their application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Dhingra, Radhika; Gambhir, Manoj; Remais, Justin V.

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) can aid in identifying influential model parameters and optimizing model structure, yet infectious disease modelling has yet to adopt advanced SA techniques that are capable of providing considerable insights over traditional methods. We investigate five global SA methods—scatter plots, the Morris and Sobol’ methods, Latin hypercube sampling-partial rank correlation coefficient and the sensitivity heat map method—and detail their relative merits and pitfalls when applied to a microparasite (cholera) and macroparasite (schistosomaisis) transmission model. The methods investigated yielded similar results with respect to identifying influential parameters, but offered specific insights that vary by method. The classical methods differed in their ability to provide information on the quantitative relationship between parameters and model output, particularly over time. The heat map approach provides information about the group sensitivity of all model state variables, and the parameter sensitivity spectrum obtained using this method reveals the sensitivity of all state variables to each parameter over the course of the simulation period, especially valuable for expressing the dynamic sensitivity of a microparasite epidemic model to its parameters. A summary comparison is presented to aid infectious disease modellers in selecting appropriate methods, with the goal of improving model performance and design. PMID:23864497

  11. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods

  12. Real time elastography - a non-invasive diagnostic method of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Liana; Iacob, Speranta; Iacob, Razvan; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, Gabriel; Herlea, Vlad; Gheorghe, Cristian; Lupescu, Ioana; Popescu, Irinel

    2009-12-01

    Small nodules (under 3 cm) detected on ultrasound (US) in cirrhotics represent the most challenging category for noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate real-time sonoelastography as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of small HCC nodules in cirrhotic patients. 42 cirrhotic patients with 58 nodules (1-3 cm) were evaluated with real-time elastography (Hitachi EUB-6500); the mean intensity of colors red, blue, green were measured using a semi-quantitative method. Analysis of histograms for each color of the sonoelastography images was performed for quantifying the elasticity of nodule tissue in comparison with the cirrhotic liver tissue. AUROC curves were constructed to define the best cut-off points to distinguish malignant features of the nodules. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. 595 sonoelastography images from 42 patients (25 men; 17 women) were analyzed. The mean age was 56.4 +/- 0.7 years and 69% patients were in Child-Pugh class A, 19% class B, 11% class C. For the mean intensity of green color AUROC=0.81, a cut-off value under 108.7 being diagnostic for HCC with a Sp=91.1%, Se=50%, PPV=92.1%, NPV=47.1%. Mean intensity of blue color proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool for HCC (AUROC=0.94); for a cut-off value greater than 128.9, Sp=92.2%, Se=78.9%, PPV=95.4%, NPV=68%. Independent predictive factors of HCC for a small nodule in cirrhotic patients were: blue color over 128.9 at sonoelastography and hypervascular appearance at Doppler US. US elastography is a promising method for the non-invasive diagnosis of early HCC. Blue color at elastography and hypervascular aspects are independent predictors of HCC.

  13. Design Optimization Method for Composite Components Based on Moment Reliability-Sensitivity Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Changxi; Niu, Xuming; Song, Yingdong

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a Reliability-Sensitivity Based Design Optimization (RSBDO) methodology for the design of the ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) components has been proposed. A practical and efficient method for reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis of complex components with arbitrary distribution parameters are investigated by using the perturbation method, the respond surface method, the Edgeworth series and the sensitivity analysis approach. The RSBDO methodology is then established by incorporating sensitivity calculation model into RBDO methodology. Finally, the proposed RSBDO methodology is applied to the design of the CMCs components. By comparing with Monte Carlo simulation, the numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology provides an accurate, convergent and computationally efficient method for reliability-analysis based finite element modeling engineering practice.

  14. A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1993-01-01

    A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The circuit analysis of this novel design is described and the measured performances of a practical circuit are provided

  15. Approximate method in estimation sensitivity responses to variations in delayed neutron energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J.; Shin, H. S.; Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous our numerical results in computing point kinetics equations show a possibility in developing approximations to estimate sensitivity responses of nuclear reactor. We recalculate sensitivity responses by maintaining the corrections with first order of sensitivity parameter. We present a method for computing sensitivity responses of nuclear reactor based on an approximation derived from point kinetics equations. Exploiting this approximation, we found that the first order approximation works to estimate variations in the time to reach peak power because of their linear dependence on a sensitivity parameter, and that there are errors in estimating the peak power in the first order approximation for larger sensitivity parameters. To confirm legitimacy of out approximation, these approximate results are compared with exact results obtained from out previous numerical study. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  16. Approximate method in estimation sensitivity responses to variations in delayed neutron energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J; Shin, H S; Song, T Y; Park, W S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Previous our numerical results in computing point kinetics equations show a possibility in developing approximations to estimate sensitivity responses of nuclear reactor. We recalculate sensitivity responses by maintaining the corrections with first order of sensitivity parameter. We present a method for computing sensitivity responses of nuclear reactor based on an approximation derived from point kinetics equations. Exploiting this approximation, we found that the first order approximation works to estimate variations in the time to reach peak power because of their linear dependence on a sensitivity parameter, and that there are errors in estimating the peak power in the first order approximation for larger sensitivity parameters. To confirm legitimacy of out approximation, these approximate results are compared with exact results obtained from out previous numerical study. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  17. A diagnostic model for the detection of sensitization to wheat allergens was developed and validated in bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, Eva; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Moons, Karel G.; de Monchy, Jan; Grobbee, Diederick; Heederik, Dick; Meijer, Evert

    Objectives: To develop and validate a prediction model to detect sensitization to wheat allergens in bakery workers. Study Design and Setting: The prediction model was developed in 867 Dutch bakery workers (development set, prevalence of sensitization 13%) and included questionnaire items (candidate

  18. The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feder Gene

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV including physical, sexual and emotional violence, causes short and long term ill-health. Brief questions that reliably identify women experiencing IPV who present in clinical settings are a pre-requisite for an appropriate response from health services to this substantial public health problem. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK developed from the Abuse Assessment screen, compared to a 30-item abuse questionnaire, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS. Methods We administered the four HARK questions and the CAS to women approached by two researchers in general practice waiting rooms in Newham, east London. Inclusions: women aged more than 17 years waiting to see a doctor or nurse, who had been in an intimate relationship in the last year. Exclusions: women who were accompanied by children over four years of age or another adult, too unwell to complete the questionnaires, unable to understand English or unable to give informed consent. Results Two hundred and thirty two women were recruited. The response rate was 54%. The prevalence of current intimate partner violence, within the last 12 months, using the CAS cut off score of ≥3, was 23% (95% C.I. 17% to 28% with pre-test odds of 0.3 (95% C.I. 0.2 to 0.4. The receiver operator characteristic curve demonstrated that a HARK cut off score of ≥1 maximises the true positives whilst minimising the false positives. The sensitivity of the optimal HARK cut-off score of ≥1 was 81% (95% C.I. 69% to 90%, specificity 95% (95% C.I. 91% to 98%, positive predictive value 83% (95% C.I. 70% to 91%, negative predictive value 94% (95% C.I. 90% to 97%, likelihood ratio 16 (95% C.I. 8 to 31 and post-test odds 5. Conclusion The four HARK questions accurately identify women experiencing IPV in the past year and may help women disclose abuse in general practice. The HARK questions could be incorporated into the electronic medical record

  19. Fluorimetry as a Simple and Sensitive Method for Determination of Catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catalase enzyme plays an important role in the anti-oxidation defense of body so it is important to measure its activity. Nowadays catalase activity measurement is performed by expensive imported kits in various scientific fields. The purpose of this study was to design a sensitive fluorimetry method for measuring catalase activity with improved sensitivity, accuracy and speed. Materials and Methods: In this study, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with peroxidase (as a reaction accelerator was used in fluorimetry for catalase activity measuring in serum samples in order to increase the sensitivity of the assay. The sensitivity and intra- and inter-assay accuracy, verification test, recovery and parallelism tests, comparison method and correlation and coherence investigation methods were also performed. In order to increase the accuracy and speed of reading, the assay was performed in microplates and reading was done in fluorimetry plates. Results: The percentage of intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients were measured 3.8- 6.6 % and 4.1-7.3%, respectively. Comparison of the results of mentioned method for 50 serum samples with common colorimetric method showed a good correlation (0.917. In assessing the accuracy, the recovery percent was obtained 91% to 107%. The test sensitivity was measured 0.02 IU/ml. Conclusion: The fluorimetry method by microplate reading has a sufficient precision, accuracy and efficiency for catalase activity measuring as well as speed of measurement. Thus it can be an alternative method to conventional imported colorimetric methods.

  20. Computing eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients to nuclear data based on the CLUTCH method with RMC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yishu; She, Ding; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Kan; Liang, Jingang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed to reduce memory consumption for sensitivity analysis. • The fission matrix method is used to generate adjoint fission source distributions. • Sensitivity analysis is performed on a detailed 3D full-core benchmark with RMC. - Abstract: Recently, there is a need to develop advanced methods of computing eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients to nuclear data in the continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes. One of these methods is the iterated fission probability (IFP) method, which is adopted by most of Monte Carlo codes of having the capabilities of computing sensitivity coefficients, including the Reactor Monte Carlo code RMC. Though it is accurate theoretically, the IFP method faces the challenge of huge memory consumption. Therefore, it may sometimes produce poor sensitivity coefficients since the number of particles in each active cycle is not sufficient enough due to the limitation of computer memory capacity. In this work, two algorithms of the Contribution-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Tracklength importance CHaracterization (CLUTCH) method, namely, the collision-event-based algorithm (C-CLUTCH) which is also implemented in SCALE and the fission-event-based algorithm (F-CLUTCH) which is put forward in this work, are investigated and implemented in RMC to reduce memory requirements for computing eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients. While the C-CLUTCH algorithm requires to store concerning reaction rates of every collision, the F-CLUTCH algorithm only stores concerning reaction rates of every fission point. In addition, the fission matrix method is put forward to generate the adjoint fission source distribution for the CLUTCH method to compute sensitivity coefficients. These newly proposed approaches implemented in RMC code are verified by a SF96 lattice model and the MIT BEAVRS benchmark problem. The numerical results indicate the accuracy of the F-CLUTCH algorithm is the same as the C

  1. Estimation of the sensitivity of various environmental sampling methods for detection of Salmonella in duck flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mark E; Mueller-Doblies, Doris; Gosling, Rebecca J; Martelli, Francesca; Davies, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Reports of Salmonella in ducks in the UK currently rely upon voluntary submissions from the industry, and as there is no harmonized statutory monitoring and control programme, it is difficult to compare data from different years in order to evaluate any trends in Salmonella prevalence in relation to sampling methodology. Therefore, the aim of this project was to assess the sensitivity of a selection of environmental sampling methods, including the sampling of faeces, dust and water troughs or bowls for the detection of Salmonella in duck flocks, and a range of sampling methods were applied to 67 duck flocks. Bayesian methods in the absence of a gold standard were used to provide estimates of the sensitivity of each of the sampling methods relative to the within-flock prevalence. There was a large influence of the within-flock prevalence on the sensitivity of all sample types, with sensitivity reducing as the within-flock prevalence reduced. Boot swabs (individual and pool of four), swabs of faecally contaminated areas and whole house hand-held fabric swabs showed the overall highest sensitivity for low-prevalence flocks and are recommended for use to detect Salmonella in duck flocks. The sample type with the highest proportion positive was a pool of four hair nets used as boot swabs, but this was not the most sensitive sample for low-prevalence flocks. All the environmental sampling types (faeces swabs, litter pinches, drag swabs, water trough samples and dust) had higher sensitivity than individual faeces sampling. None of the methods consistently identified all the positive flocks, and at least 10 samples would be required for even the most sensitive method (pool of four boot swabs) to detect a 5% prevalence. The sampling of dust had a low sensitivity and is not recommended for ducks.

  2. The evaluation of GM6-based ELISA and ICT as diagnostic methods on a Mongolian farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Batdorj; Amgalanbaatar, Tovuu; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Suganuma, Keisuke; Otgonsuren, Davaajav; Mossaad, Ehab; Narantsatsral, Sandagdorj; Battur, Banzragch; Battsetseg, Badgar; Xuan, Xuenan; Inoue, Noboru

    2017-09-15

    Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T. equiperdum GM6 and the GM6 of another Trypanozoon, which also shared the same cellular localization. This finding suggests the utility of rTeGM6-4r-based serodiagnostic methods for epidemiological studies and the diagnosis of both surra and dourine in Equidae. Fifty blood samples were examined from a herd of horses. The diagnostic value of an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and an rTeGM6-4r-based immunochromatographic test (ICT) were measured in comparison to a T. evansi crude antigen-based ELISA, which is a diagnostic method recommended by the OIE. However, this is not a perfect diagnostic method for trypanosomosis. Positive serum samples were detected in 46%, 42% and 28% of the tested horses using an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA, crude antigen-based ELISA and rTeGM6-4r-based ICT, respectively. The sensitivity of rTeGM6-based ELISA was 81%, the specificity was 79%, and the agreement was moderate. We conclude that rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and ICT represent alternative options for baseline epidemiological studies and the on-site diagnosis of horse trypanosomoses in the field, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-ups on the dentins.Impressions were taken of the casts with alginate and duplicated with dental stone. Models were measured with digital caliper manually. Then images were taken from the occlusal views of the casts by a digital camera. Measurements were done on digital images with the AutoCAD software.The results of the computerized and manual methods were compared with the gold standard.Intra class correlation coefficient of reliability was used to measure the accuracy ofthe methods and the Friedman technique used to evaluate the significance of differences.Results: Results indicated that all measurements were highly correlated, e.g. gold standard and manual (0.9613-0.9991, gold standard and computerized (0.7118-0.9883, manual and computerized (0.6734-0.9914. Statistically significant differences were present between these methods (P<0.05, but they proved not to be clinically significant.Conclusion: Manual measurement is still the most accurate method when compared to the computerized measurements and the results of measurement by computer should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Application of Wielandt method in continuous-energy nuclear data sensitivity analysis with RMC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yishu; Wang Kan; She Ding

    2015-01-01

    The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method, an accurate method to estimate adjoint-weighted quantities in the continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality calculations, has been widely used for calculating kinetic parameters and nuclear data sensitivity coefficients. By using a strategy of waiting, however, this method faces the challenge of high memory usage to store the tallies of original contributions which size is proportional to the number of particle histories in each cycle. Recently, the Wielandt method, applied by Monte Carlo code McCARD to calculate kinetic parameters, estimates adjoint fluxes in a single particle history and thus can save memory usage. In this work, the Wielandt method has been applied in Rector Monte Carlo code RMC for nuclear data sensitivity analysis. The methodology and algorithm of applying Wielandt method in estimation of adjoint-based sensitivity coefficients are discussed. Verification is performed by comparing the sensitivity coefficients calculated by Wielandt method with analytical solutions, those computed by IFP method which is also implemented in RMC code for sensitivity analysis, and those from the multi-group TSUNAMI-3D module in SCALE code package. (author)

  5. Reliability and limitation of various diagnostic methods including nuclear medicine in myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyasu, Yoshiki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Yamazaki, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, nuclear method, cardiac catheterization, left ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsy (biopsy) were performed in 40 cases of cardiomyopathy (CM), 9 of endocardial fibroelastosis and 19 of specific heart muscle disease, and the usefulness and limitation of each method was comparatively estimated. In CM, various methods including biopsy were performed. The 40 patients were classified into 3 groups, i.e., hypertrophic (17), dilated (20) and non-hypertrophic.non-dilated (3) on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. The hypertrophic group was divided into 4 subgroups: 9 septal, 4 apical, 2 posterior and 2 anterior. The nuclear study is useful in assessing the site of the abnormal ventricular thickening, perfusion defect and ventricular function. Echocardiography is most useful in detecting asymmetric septal hypertrophy. The biopsy gives the sole diagnostic clue, especially in non-hypertrophic.non-dilated cardiomyopathy. ECG is useful in all cases but correlation with the site of disproportional hypertrophy was not obtained. (J.P.N.)

  6. Biochemical nature of familial amyloiditic polyneuropathy and a new diagnostic method by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, M.; Kanagawa, K.; Kurihara, T.

    1986-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) in Japan is clinically similar to that of Portugal. We have reported that amyloid fibril protein isolated from Japanese FAP cases is composed of a prealbumin variant in which a valine residue at position 30 is replaced by a methionine (Tawara et al., 1983). Furthermore, we have clarified that this prealbumin variant is present in the sera of Japanese FAP patients. There has been no definite method to detect this progressive illness before clinical manifestations appear. For the purpose of developing a new, noninvasive diagnostic method, we have established a radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a nonapeptide corresponding to the subsequence (22-30) of the prealbumin variant. The serum levels of the prealbumin variant in normal individuals, FAP patients, asymptomatic members of FAP families, primary and secondary amyloidosis cases are studied. The present RIA serves as a simple and definite method for an early detection of this disease and an appropriate genetic advice can be given to FAP patients and their families

  7. Investigation of modern methods of probalistic sensitivity analysis of final repository performance assessment models (MOSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiessl, Sabine; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical means for analysing the sensitivities of a computational model to variations of its input parameters. Thus, it is a tool for managing parameter uncertainties. It is often performed probabilistically as global sensitivity analysis, running the model a large number of times with different parameter value combinations. Going along with the increase of computer capabilities, global sensitivity analysis has been a field of mathematical research for some decades. In the field of final repository modelling, probabilistic analysis is regarded a key element of a modern safety case. An appropriate uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can help identify parameters that need further dedicated research to reduce the overall uncertainty, generally leads to better system understanding and can thus contribute to building confidence in the models. The purpose of the project described here was to systematically investigate different numerical and graphical techniques of sensitivity analysis with typical repository models, which produce a distinctly right-skewed and tailed output distribution and can exhibit a highly nonlinear, non-monotonic or even non-continuous behaviour. For the investigations presented here, three test models were defined that describe generic, but typical repository systems. A number of numerical and graphical sensitivity analysis methods were selected for investigation and, in part, modified or adapted. Different sampling methods were applied to produce various parameter samples of different sizes and many individual runs with the test models were performed. The results were evaluated with the different methods of sensitivity analysis. On this basis the methods were compared and assessed. This report gives an overview of the background and the applied methods. The results obtained for three typical test models are presented and explained; conclusions in view of practical applications are drawn. At the end, a recommendation

  8. Investigation of modern methods of probalistic sensitivity analysis of final repository performance assessment models (MOSEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiessl, Sabine; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2017-06-15

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical means for analysing the sensitivities of a computational model to variations of its input parameters. Thus, it is a tool for managing parameter uncertainties. It is often performed probabilistically as global sensitivity analysis, running the model a large number of times with different parameter value combinations. Going along with the increase of computer capabilities, global sensitivity analysis has been a field of mathematical research for some decades. In the field of final repository modelling, probabilistic analysis is regarded a key element of a modern safety case. An appropriate uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can help identify parameters that need further dedicated research to reduce the overall uncertainty, generally leads to better system understanding and can thus contribute to building confidence in the models. The purpose of the project described here was to systematically investigate different numerical and graphical techniques of sensitivity analysis with typical repository models, which produce a distinctly right-skewed and tailed output distribution and can exhibit a highly nonlinear, non-monotonic or even non-continuous behaviour. For the investigations presented here, three test models were defined that describe generic, but typical repository systems. A number of numerical and graphical sensitivity analysis methods were selected for investigation and, in part, modified or adapted. Different sampling methods were applied to produce various parameter samples of different sizes and many individual runs with the test models were performed. The results were evaluated with the different methods of sensitivity analysis. On this basis the methods were compared and assessed. This report gives an overview of the background and the applied methods. The results obtained for three typical test models are presented and explained; conclusions in view of practical applications are drawn. At the end, a recommendation

  9. Therapy evaluation and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumours: assessment of radiological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvin, A.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonically guided biopsy-gun biopsies was assessed in a group of 47 patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 44 of the 47 patients (94%). Biopsy-gun biopsy of the pancreas is considered a useful, reliable and non-traumatic method for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. Twenty-five patients with known neuroendocrine tumour disease were biopsied with 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm biopsy-gun needles. The influence of treatment-related fibrosis was also evaluated. The overall diagnostic accuracy with the 0.9 mm needle was 69% as compared to 92% with the 1.2 mm needle. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy rate for radiologists with different experience of biopsy procedures 175 cases of renal biopsy-gun biopsies were evaluated. No statistical significant difference was found between the different operators. The role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in monitoring interferon treatment-related changes in carcinoid metastases was evaluated. It present duplex Doppler ultrasound does not seem to play a role in the evaluation of tumour therapy in carcinoid patients. Therapy response evaluation was performed with MR imaging in a group of 17 patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. A significant difference was found between patients responding to and patients with failure of treatment in terms of tumour T1, contrast enhancement and signal intensity ratio. This indicates that MR investigation may be used in therapy monitoring of patients with neuroendocrine metastases. The neuroendocrine-differentiated colonic carcinoma cell line (LCC-18) was transplanted to 29 mice to establish a tumour/animal model that would allow the monitoring of changes with MR imaging induced by interferon therapy and to evaluate whether the therapeutic response could be modulated by different interferon dosages. Interferon does not seem to have any prolonged anti-proliferative effect on the LCC-18 tumour cell line when transplanted to

  10. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennick, Kate E; McKnight, Christy A; Patterson, Jon S; Latimer, Kenneth S; Maes, Roger K; Wise, Annabel G; Kiupel, Matti

    2012-03-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) can be used either to detect or to differentiate between Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) within formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissue of horses. To compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of ISH and IHC, FFPE brain tissue from 20 EEEV-positive horses and 16 WNV-positive horses were tested with both EEEV and WNV oligoprobes and EEEV- and WNV-specific antibodies. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of EEEV and WNV was used as the gold standard to confirm infection. All horses that tested positive for EEEV by RT-PCR also tested positive by IHC and ISH, except for 1 case that was false-negative by ISH. In contrast, all horses that tested positive for WNV by RT-PCR tested negative by IHC and only 2 horses tested positive by ISH. No false-positives were detected with either method for both viruses. Both IHC and ISH are highly specific and sensitive diagnostic methods to detect EEEV in equine FFPE brain tissues, although neither appear effective for the diagnosis of WNV in equine neurologic cases.

  11. Imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, James; Hadden, William J; Laurence, Jerome M; Lam, Vincent; Yuen, Lawrence; Janssen, Anna; Pleass, Henry

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer, primarily pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), accounts for 2.4% of cancer diagnoses and 5.8% of cancer death annually. Early diagnoses can improve 5-year survival in PDAC. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy values for MRI, CT, PET&PET/CT, EUS and transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) in the diagnosis of PDAC. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies reporting sensitivity, specificity and/or diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of PDAC with MRI, CT, PET, EUS or TAUS. Proportional meta-analysis was performed for each modality. A total of 5399 patients, 3567 with PDAC, from 52 studies were included. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 93% (95% CI=88-96), 89% (95% CI=82-94) and 90% (95% CI=86-94) for MRI; 90% (95% CI=87-93), 87% (95% CI=79-93) and 89% (95% CI=85-93) for CT; 89% (95% CI=85-93), 70% (95% CI=54-84) and 84% (95% CI=79-89) for PET; 91% (95% CI=87-94), 86% (95% CI=81-91) and 89% (95% CI=87-92) for EUS; and 88% (95% CI=86-90), 94% (95% CI=87-98) and 91% (95% C=87-93) for TAUS. This review concludes all modalities, except for PET, are equivalent within 95% confidence intervals for the diagnosis of PDAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensitivity, Specificity, Predictive Values, and Accuracy of Three Diagnostic Tests to Predict Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blockade Failure in Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavarría-Bolaños

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB is the most common anesthetic technique used on mandibular teeth during root canal treatment. Its success in the presence of preoperative inflammation is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of three diagnostic tests used to predict IANB failure in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the mandibular molars of 53 patients with SIP. All patients received a single cartridge of mepivacaine 2% with 1 : 100000 epinephrine using the IANB technique. Three diagnostic clinical tests were performed to detect anesthetic failure. Anesthetic failure was defined as a positive painful response to any of the three tests. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and ROC curves were calculated and compared and significant differences were analyzed. Results. IANB failure was determined in 71.7% of the patients. The sensitivity scores for the three tests (lip numbness, the cold stimuli test, and responsiveness during endodontic access were 0.03, 0.35, and 0.55, respectively, and the specificity score was determined as 1 for all of the tests. Clinically, none of the evaluated tests demonstrated a high enough accuracy (0.30, 0.53, and 0.68 for lip numbness, the cold stimuli test, and responsiveness during endodontic access, resp.. A comparison of the areas under the curve in the ROC analyses showed statistically significant differences between the three tests (p<0.05. Conclusion. None of the analyzed tests demonstrated a high enough accuracy to be considered a reliable diagnostic tool for the prediction of anesthetic failure.

  13. The list of official methods of laboratory diagnostics of foods and fodder crops dated as of January 9, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic published approved method of laboratory diagnostics of foods and fodder crops. Chapter 13.1 contains determination of specific activity of radionuclides in homogenizable materials by methods of semiconductor gamma-spectrometry in the range 60 keV - 200 keV for standard geometry

  14. Advance in study of intelligent diagnostic method for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gang; Yang Li

    2008-01-01

    The advance of research on the application of three types of intelligent diagnostic approach based on neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic and expert system to the operation status monitoring and fault diagnosis of nuclear power plant (NPP) was reviewed. The research status and characters on status monitoring and fault diagnosis approaches based on neural network, fuzzy logic and expert system for nuclear power plant were analyzed. The development trend of applied research on intelligent diagnostic approaches for nuclear power plant was explored. The analysis results show that the research achievements on intelligent diagnostic approaches based on fuzzy logic and expert system for nuclear power plant are not much relatively. The research of intelligent diagnostic approaches for nuclear power plant concentrate on the aspect of operation status monitoring and fault diagnosis based on neural networks for nuclear power plant. The advancing tendency of intelligent diagnostic approaches for nuclear power plant is the combination of various intelligent diagnostic approaches, the combination of neural network diagnostic approaches and other diagnostic approaches as well as multiple neural network diagnostic approaches. (authors)

  15. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G. [National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Rua, Diego [The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Khan, Ikhlas A., E-mail: ikhan@olemiss.edu [National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization, integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to replace conventional animal tests. Chemical methods are intended to characterize the potential of a sensitizer to induce earlier molecular initiating events. The presence of an electrophilic mechanistic domain is considered one of the essential chemical features to covalently bind to the biological target and induce further haptenation processes. Current in chemico assays rely on the quantification of unreacted model nucleophiles after incubation with the candidate sensitizer. In the current study, a new fluorescence-based method, ‘HTS-DCYA assay’, is proposed. The assay aims at the identification of reactive electrophiles based on their chemical reactivity toward a model fluorescent thiol. The reaction workflow enabled the development of a High Throughput Screening (HTS) method to directly quantify the reaction adducts. The reaction conditions have been optimized to minimize solubility issues, oxidative side reactions and increase the throughput of the assay while minimizing the reaction time, which are common issues with existing methods. Thirty-six chemicals previously classified with LLNA, DPRA or KeratinoSens™ were tested as a proof of concept. Preliminary results gave an estimated 82% accuracy, 78% sensitivity, 90% specificity, comparable to other in chemico methods such as Cys-DPRA. In addition to validated chemicals, six natural products were analyzed and a prediction of their sensitization potential is presented for the first time. - Highlights: • A novel fluorescence-based method to detect electrophilic sensitizers is proposed. • A model fluorescent thiol was used to directly quantify the reaction products. • A discussion of the reaction workflow

  16. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2015-01-01

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization, integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to replace conventional animal tests. Chemical methods are intended to characterize the potential of a sensitizer to induce earlier molecular initiating events. The presence of an electrophilic mechanistic domain is considered one of the essential chemical features to covalently bind to the biological target and induce further haptenation processes. Current in chemico assays rely on the quantification of unreacted model nucleophiles after incubation with the candidate sensitizer. In the current study, a new fluorescence-based method, ‘HTS-DCYA assay’, is proposed. The assay aims at the identification of reactive electrophiles based on their chemical reactivity toward a model fluorescent thiol. The reaction workflow enabled the development of a High Throughput Screening (HTS) method to directly quantify the reaction adducts. The reaction conditions have been optimized to minimize solubility issues, oxidative side reactions and increase the throughput of the assay while minimizing the reaction time, which are common issues with existing methods. Thirty-six chemicals previously classified with LLNA, DPRA or KeratinoSens™ were tested as a proof of concept. Preliminary results gave an estimated 82% accuracy, 78% sensitivity, 90% specificity, comparable to other in chemico methods such as Cys-DPRA. In addition to validated chemicals, six natural products were analyzed and a prediction of their sensitization potential is presented for the first time. - Highlights: • A novel fluorescence-based method to detect electrophilic sensitizers is proposed. • A model fluorescent thiol was used to directly quantify the reaction products. • A discussion of the reaction workflow

  17. A simple in chemico method for testing skin sensitizing potential of chemicals using small endogenous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Mahesh Raj; Shakya, Rajina; Kang, Mi Jeong; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2018-06-01

    Among many of the validated methods for testing skin sensitization, direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) employs no cells or animals. Although no immune cells are involved in this assay, it reliably predicts the skin sensitization potential of a chemical in chemico. Herein, a new method was developed using endogenous small-molecular-weight compounds, cysteamine and glutathione, rather than synthetic peptides, to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers with an accuracy as high as DPRA. The percent depletion of cysteamine and glutathione by test chemicals was measured by an HPLC equipped with a PDA detector. To detect small-size molecules, such as cysteamine and glutathione, a derivatization by 4-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) was employed prior to the HPLC analysis. Following test method optimization, a cut-off criterion of 7.14% depletion was applied to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers in combination of the ratio of 1:25 for cysteamine:test chemical with 1:50 for glutathione:test chemical for the best predictivity among various single or combination conditions. Although overlapping HPLC peaks could not be fully resolved for some test chemicals, high levels of sensitivity (100.0%), specificity (81.8%), and accuracy (93.3%) were obtained for 30 chemicals tested, which were comparable or better than those achieved with DPRA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Takeuchi-Storm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. Methods This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013 using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011–2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Results Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Conclusions

  19. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, P.A.; Broed, R.

    2006-05-01

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several linked

  20. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, P.A.; Broed, R. [Facilia AB, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several

  1. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázzari Julio O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  2. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio O. Lázzari

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  3. The nuclear interaction analysis methods for diagnostics of high power ion beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhkov, V A; Grushin, I I; Remnev, G E [Nuclear Physics Inst., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The complex of Nuclear Interaction Analysis Methods including charged particle activation analysis (CPAA and HIAA), spectrometry of ion induced gamma-emission (PIGE and HIIGE) , characteristic X-ray emission (PIXE), and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), have been used for diagnostics of the High Power Ion Beam (HPIB) assisted technologies. Accelerated ion beams from the EG-2.5 electrostatic generator and U-120 cyclotron were used for implementation of the techniques. The complex allows a lot of problems of elemental and isotopic analysis to be addressed. First, it is the determination of micro- and macrocomponents of modified materials; second, determination of surface density of thin films, multilayers and coatings, total surface gaseous contamination and amounts of the elements implanted in specimens; third, measurement of concentration depth profiles of the elements. Experiments have shown that the preferable application of nuclear analysis methods allows us to avoid the considerable errors arising when the concentration depth profiles of elements are measured by SIMS or AES in studies of mass transfer processes induced by HPIBs. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 3 refs.

  4. Application of diagnostic methods and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobin disorders in Khuzestan province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakher, Rahim; Bijan, Kaeikhaei; Taghi, Akbari Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hemoglobinopathies refer to a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a reduced synthesis of one or more globin chains (thalassemias) or the synthesis of structurally abnormal hemoglobin (Hb). The thalassemias often coexist with a variety of structural Hb variants giving rise to complex genotypes and an extremely wide spectrum of clinical and hematological phenotypes. Hematological and biochemical investigations and family studies provide essential clues to the different interactions and are fundamental to DNA diagnostics of the Hb disorders. Although DNA diagnostics have made a major impact on our understanding and detection of the hemoglobinopathies, DNA mutation testing should never be considered a shortcut or the test of first choice in the workup of a hemoglobinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A careful three-tier approach involving: (1) Full blood count (2) Special hematological tests, followed by (3) DNA mutation analysis, provides the most effective way in which to detect primary gene mutations as well as gene-gene interactions that can influence the overall phenotype. With the exception of a few rare deletions and rearrangements, the molecular lesions causing hemoglobinopathies are all identifiable by PCR-based techniques. Furthermore, each at-risk ethnic group has its own combination of common Hb variants and thalassemia mutations. In Iran, there are many different forms of α and β thalassemia. Increasingly, different Hb variants are being detected and their effects per se or in combination with the thalassemias, provide additional diagnostic challenges. RESULTS: We did step-by-step diagnosis workup in 800 patients with hemoglobinopathies who referred to Research center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies in Shafa Hospital of Ahwaz Joundishapour University of medical sciences, respectively. We detected 173 patients as iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 627 individuals as thalassemic patients by use of different indices. We

  5. Development of diagnostic RI test method for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in SMS and IDDM patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saida, Takahiko

    2000-01-01

    Western blotting with antigens purified using its specific antibody bound column has demonstrated that patients with Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) and insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) were both positive for anti-GAD antibody. Further, anti-GAD antibodies from various animal brains were characterized using GAD 65 and GAD 67 peptide antibody. The antibody against the anti-N-terminal peptide inhibited the enzyme activity of GAD, suggesting that the active site of GAD might exist in the N-terminal region. Development of a new detection method for anti-GAD antibody was attempted and the amount of GAD protein bound to protein G resin was determined based on the activity to release 14 CO 2 from 14 C glutamic acid. In addition, solid-phase RIA method was developed using GAD purified by the anti-peptide antibody affinity column. The positive detection rate for GAD antibody was 39% for the enzymatic method and 56% for the solid-phase RIA method. To develop a further sensitive detection method for GAD antibody, construction of recombinant GAD was attempted and two GAD65s different in molecular size were constructed using pMal-c vector. Thus obtained antibodies against anti-N-terminal peptides were separately responded to GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms in the rat, mouse and bovine brains, whereas the carboxy-terminal antibodies were reactive to both isoforms together. Therefore, it became possible to make purification of GAD65 and GAD67 by the use of the two N-terminal peptide antibodies. Further, it became possible to purify GAD as a mixture of both isoforms. However, the yield of purification using anti-affinity column was still unsatisfactory ( several percent) and the GAD preparation obtained had little activity. The positive detection by the solid-phase RIA method was 50% for SMS patients and 56% for IDDM ones, indicating that this method was superior to the previous enzyme method. The protein A method in which labeled human recombinant GAD65 was used to precipitate 125 -I

  6. Development of diagnostic RI test method for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in SMS and IDDM patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saida, Takahiko [Utano National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Western blotting with antigens purified using its specific antibody bound column has demonstrated that patients with Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) and insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) were both positive for anti-GAD antibody. Further, anti-GAD antibodies from various animal brains were characterized using GAD 65 and GAD 67 peptide antibody. The antibody against the anti-N-terminal peptide inhibited the enzyme activity of GAD, suggesting that the active site of GAD might exist in the N-terminal region. Development of a new detection method for anti-GAD antibody was attempted and the amount of GAD protein bound to protein G resin was determined based on the activity to release {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C glutamic acid. In addition, solid-phase RIA method was developed using GAD purified by the anti-peptide antibody affinity column. The positive detection rate for GAD antibody was 39% for the enzymatic method and 56% for the solid-phase RIA method. To develop a further sensitive detection method for GAD antibody, construction of recombinant GAD was attempted and two GAD65s different in molecular size were constructed using pMal-c vector. Thus obtained antibodies against anti-N-terminal peptides were separately responded to GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms in the rat, mouse and bovine brains, whereas the carboxy-terminal antibodies were reactive to both isoforms together. Therefore, it became possible to make purification of GAD65 and GAD67 by the use of the two N-terminal peptide antibodies. Further, it became possible to purify GAD as a mixture of both isoforms. However, the yield of purification using anti-affinity column was still unsatisfactory ( several percent) and the GAD preparation obtained had little activity. The positive detection by the solid-phase RIA method was 50% for SMS patients and 56% for IDDM ones, indicating that this method was superior to the previous enzyme method. The protein A method in which labeled human recombinant GAD65 was used to

  7. A highly sensitive method for detection of molybdenum-containing proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalakutskii, K.L.; Shvetsov, A.A.; Bursakov, S.A.; Letarov, A.V.; Zabolotnyi, A.I.; L'vov, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly sensitive method for detection of molybdenum-containing proteins in gels after electrophoresis has been developed. The method involves in vitro labeling of the proteins with the radioactive isotope 185 W. The method used to detect molybdenum-accumulating proteins in lupine seeds, xanthine dehydrogenase and another molybdenum-containing protein in wheat, barley, and pea seedlings, and nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase in bacteroides from lupine nodules. Nitrogenase could not be detected by the method. 16 refs., 5 figs

  8. Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, J.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux - correlation between diagnostic methods; Refluxo gastroesofagico - correlacao entre metodos diagnosticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Maria das Gracas de Almeida; Penas, Maria Exposito; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia-Medicina Nuclear; Lemme, Eponina Maria O. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinia Medica-Gastroenterologia; Martinho, Maria Jose Ribeiro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-02-01

    A group of 97 individuals with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was submitted to gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) and compared to the results obtained from endoscopy, histopathology and 24 hours pHmetry. Twenty-four healthy individuals were used as a control group and they have done only the GERS. The results obtained showed that: (a) the difference in the reflux index (RI) for the control group and the sick individuals was statistically significant (p < 0.0001); (b) the correlation between GERS and the other methods showed the following results: sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 95%; positive predictive value, 98%; negative predictive value, 67%; accuracy, 87%. We have concluded that the scintigraphic method should be used to confirm the diagnosis of GERD and also recommended as initial investiative procedure. (author)

  10. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate the congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distribute energy resources (DERs). Sensitivity analysis of the DT method is crucial because of its decentralized...... control manner. The sensitivity analysis can obtain the changes of the optimal energy planning and thereby the line loading profiles over the infinitely small changes of parameters by differentiating the KKT conditions of the convex quadratic programming, over which the DT method is formed. Three case...

  12. A sensitive method for assay of beryllium with chromazurol S and 2,2'-bipyridyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, F.; Kwapulinska, G.

    1980-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method of assay for microgram amounts of beryllium by means of chromazurol S in presence of 2,2'-bipyridyl was described. The latter appreciably enhances the sensitivity of the method; epsilonsub(lambda=610nm) is 5.4X10 4 . The complex compound obeys the Lambert-Beer law in the concentration range 0.002 to 0.2 ppm Be. The maximum colour intensity is immediately attained at pH 5. The molar ratio Be: CHAS: bip is 1 : 2 : 1. The suggested method is sensitive and has satisfactory selectivity when EDTA is applied as masking agent. (author)

  13. Demodulation method for tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xuantung; Si, Jinhai; Chen, Tao; Wang, Ruize; Yan, Lihe; Cao, Houjun; Hou, Xun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a demodulation method for refractive index (RI) sensing with tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs). It operates by monitoring the TFBG cladding mode resonance "cut-off wavelengths." The idea of a "cut-off wavelength" and its determination method are introduced. The RI sensitivities of TFBGs are significantly enhanced in certain RI ranges by using our demodulation method. The temperature-induced cross sensitivity is eliminated. We also demonstrate a parallel-double-angle TFBG (PDTFBG), in which two individual TFBGs are inscribed in the fiber core in parallel using a femtosecond laser and a phase mask. The RI sensing range of the PDTFBG is significantly broader than that of a conventional single-angle TFBG. In addition, its RI sensitivity can reach 1023.1 nm/refractive index unit in the 1.4401-1.4570 RI range when our proposed demodulation method is used.

  14. The Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the recommended glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetic retinopathy.We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases from inception to July 2015 for observational studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and 2-hour plasma glucose (2h-PG. Random effects models for the diagnostic odds ratio (dOR value computed by Moses' constant for a linear model and 95% CIs were used to calculate the accuracy of the test. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves (HSROC were used to summarize the overall test performance.Eleven published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled dOR values for the diagnosis of retinopathy were 16.32 (95% CI 13.86-19.22 for HbA1c and 4.87 (95% CI 4.39-5.40 for FPG. The area under the HSROC was 0.837 (95% CI 0.781-0.892 for HbA1c and 0.735 (95% CI 0.657-0.813 for FPG. The 95% confidence region for the point that summarizes the overall test performance of the included studies occurs where the cut-offs ranged from 6.1% (43.2 mmol/mol to 7.8% (61.7 mmol/mol for HbA1c and from 7.8 to 9.3 mmol/L for FPG. In the four studies that provided information regarding 2h-PG, the pooled accuracy estimates for HbA1c were similar to those of 2h-PG; the overall performance for HbA1c was superior to that for FPG.The three recommended tests for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in nonpregnant adults showed sufficient accuracy for their use in clinical settings, although the overall accuracy for the diagnosis of retinopathy was similar for HbA1c and 2h-PG, which were both more accurate than for FPG. Due to the variability and inconveniences of the glucose level-based methods, HbA1c appears to be the most appropriate method for the diagnosis diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Perturbative methods for sensitivity calculation in safety problems of nuclear reactors: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Fernando R.A.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Gandini, Augusto

    1995-01-01

    During the last two decades perturbative methods became an efficient tool to perform sensitivity analysis in nuclear reactor safety problems. In this paper, a comparative study taking into account perturbation formalisms (Diferential and Matricial Mthods and generalized Perturbation Theory - GPT) is considered. Then a few number of applications are described to analyze the sensitivity of some functions relavant to thermal hydraulics designs or safety analysis of nuclear reactor cores and steam generators. The behaviours of the nuclear reactor cores and steam generators are simulated, respectively, by the COBRA-IV-I and GEVAP codes. Results of sensitivity calculations have shown a good agreement when compared to those obtained directly by using the mentioned codes. So, a significative computational time safe can be obtained with perturbative methods performing sensitivity analysis in nuclear power plants. (author). 25 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Improving the Sensitivity and Functionality of Mobile Webcam-Based Fluorescence Detectors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Balsam, Joshua; Prickril, Ben; Ossandon, Miguel; Rasooly, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate readers have been developed for many applications including detection of microbial toxins such as C. Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and flow cytometry has been used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility. We have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity presented here for webcam based fluorescence detectors, including (1) image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios; (2) lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry; and (3) streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches can also help to overcome some of the limitations of other low-cost optical detection technologies such as CCD or phone-based detectors (like high noise levels or low sensitivities), and provide for their use in low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. PMID:27196933

  17. Performance of a High-Sensitivity Rapid Diagnostic Test for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Asymptomatic Individuals from Uganda and Myanmar and Naive Human Challenge Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Smita; Jang, Ihn Kyung; Barney, Becky; Peck, Roger; Rek, John C; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Adrama, Harriet; Murphy, Maxwell; Imwong, Mallika; Ling, Clare L; Proux, Stephane; Haohankhunnatham, Warat; Rist, Melissa; Seilie, Annette M; Hanron, Amelia; Daza, Glenda; Chang, Ming; Nakamura, Tomoka; Kalnoky, Michael; Labarre, Paul; Murphy, Sean C; McCarthy, James S; Nosten, Francois; Greenhouse, Bryan; Allauzen, Sophie; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2017-11-01

    Sensitive field-deployable diagnostic tests can assist malaria programs in achieving elimination. The performance of a new Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f Ultra Sensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT) was compared with the currently available SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f RDT in blood specimens from asymptomatic individuals in Nagongera, Uganda, and in a Karen Village, Myanmar, representative of high- and low-transmission areas, respectively, as well as in pretreatment specimens from study participants from four Plasmodium falciparum -induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) studies. A quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) were used as reference assays. The uRDT showed a greater than 10-fold lower limit of detection for HRP2 compared with the RDT. The sensitivity of the uRDT was 84% and 44% against qRT-PCR in Uganda and Myanmar, respectively, and that of the RDT was 62% and 0% for the same two sites. The specificities of the uRDT were 92% and 99.8% against qRT-PCR for Uganda and Myanmar, respectively, and 99% and 99.8% against the HRP2 reference ELISA. The RDT had specificities of 95% and 100% against qRT-PCR for Uganda and Myanmar, respectively, and 96% and 100% against the HRP2 reference ELISA. The uRDT detected new infections in IBSM study participants 1.5 days sooner than the RDT. The uRDT has the same workflow as currently available RDTs, but improved performance characteristics to identify asymptomatic malaria infections. The uRDT may be a useful tool for malaria elimination strategies.

  18. Improving the Sensitivity and Functionality of Mobile Webcam-Based Fluorescence Detectors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Rasooly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource-poor countries and regions require effective, low-cost diagnostic devices for accurate identification and diagnosis of health conditions. Optical detection technologies used for many types of biological and clinical analysis can play a significant role in addressing this need, but must be sufficiently affordable and portable for use in global health settings. Most current clinical optical imaging technologies are accurate and sensitive, but also expensive and difficult to adapt for use in these settings. These challenges can be mitigated by taking advantage of affordable consumer electronics mobile devices such as webcams, mobile phones, charge-coupled device (CCD cameras, lasers, and LEDs. Low-cost, portable multi-wavelength fluorescence plate readers have been developed for many applications including detection of microbial toxins such as C. Botulinum A neurotoxin, Shiga toxin, and S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB, and flow cytometry has been used to detect very low cell concentrations. However, the relatively low sensitivities of these devices limit their clinical utility. We have developed several approaches to improve their sensitivity presented here for webcam based fluorescence detectors, including (1 image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratios; (2 lasers to enable fluorescence excitation for flow cytometry; and (3 streak imaging to capture the trajectory of a single cell, enabling imaging sensors with high noise levels to detect rare cell events. These approaches can also help to overcome some of the limitations of other low-cost optical detection technologies such as CCD or phone-based detectors (like high noise levels or low sensitivities, and provide for their use in low-cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

  19. Adjoint Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for the Hydrodynamic Lattice Boltzmann Method with Applications to Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingen, Georg; Evgrafov, Anton; Maute, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    We present an adjoint parameter sensitivity analysis formulation and solution strategy for the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The focus is on design optimization applications, in particular topology optimization. The lattice Boltzmann method is briefly described with an in-depth discussion...

  20. Highly sensitive luminescence method of scandium determination in the products of metallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveets, M.A.; Akhmetova, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Highly sensitive reaction of scandium with 1,10-phenanthroline and eosin is used for the development of luminescence method of its determination in metallurgical products. The effect of interfering elements is eliminated by scandium extraction with monocarboxylic acids. The method permits to determine scandium content from 5 x 10 -5 % (Sr 0.15 - 0.25)

  1. Improved sensitivity testing of explosives using transformed Up-Down methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response follows a normal distribution as a function of the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing for example). These assumptions and other limitations of traditional explosive sensitivity testing can be addressed using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine how to adjust the applied stimulus. In the context of explosive sensitivity we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels. Here, these methods are explained and compared to Bruceton Up-Down testing using computer simulation. The results show that the TUD methods are more useful for many cases but that they do require more tests as a consequence. For non-normal distributions, however, the TUD methods may be the only accurate assessment method.

  2. Method of estimating the sensitivity of a calculated nuclide vector to deviations in initial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1998-12-01

    The application of perturbation theory algorithms in modelling of nuclides transmutation is considered. The perturbation theory is used to construct the analytical technique of sensitivity analysis. It is shown that such algorithms have to be used in modelling of lifetime performance of nuclear power installations with the Monte Carlo method. The present approach differs from others by consistent use of analytical methods. (author)

  3. Sensitivity analysis for decision-making using the MORE method-A Pareto approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravalico, Jakin K.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM) incorporates knowledge from different disciplines to provide an overarching assessment of the impact of different management decisions. The complex nature of these models, which often include non-linearities and feedback loops, requires special attention for sensitivity analysis. This is especially true when the models are used to form the basis of management decisions, where it is important to assess how sensitive the decisions being made are to changes in model parameters. This research proposes an extension to the Management Option Rank Equivalence (MORE) method of sensitivity analysis; a new method of sensitivity analysis developed specifically for use in IAM and decision-making. The extension proposes using a multi-objective Pareto optimal search to locate minimum combined parameter changes that result in a change in the preferred management option. It is demonstrated through a case study of the Namoi River, where results show that the extension to MORE is able to provide sensitivity information for individual parameters that takes into account simultaneous variations in all parameters. Furthermore, the increased sensitivities to individual parameters that are discovered when joint parameter variation is taken into account shows the importance of ensuring that any sensitivity analysis accounts for these changes.

  4. Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (II): an assessment of defined approaches *.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Allen, David; Ashikaga, Takao; Casey, Warren; Clouet, Elodie; Cluzel, Magalie; Desprez, Bertrand; Gellatly, Nichola; Göbel, Carsten; Kern, Petra S; Klaric, Martina; Kühnl, Jochen; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Mewes, Karsten; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Strickland, Judy; van Vliet, Erwin; Zang, Qingda; Petersohn, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force (STTF) collected and generated data on 128 substances in multiple in vitro and in chemico skin sensitization assays selected based on a systematic assessment by the STTF. These assays, together with certain in silico predictions, are key components of various non-animal testing strategies that have been submitted to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as case studies for skin sensitization. Curated murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human skin sensitization data were used to evaluate the performance of six defined approaches, comprising eight non-animal testing strategies, for both hazard and potency characterization. Defined approaches examined included consensus methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machine models, Bayesian networks, and decision trees, most of which were reproduced using open source software tools. Multiple non-animal testing strategies incorporating in vitro, in chemico, and in silico inputs demonstrated equivalent or superior performance to the LLNA when compared to both animal and human data for skin sensitization.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of the mood disorder questionnaire and the bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale in Argentinean patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaratiegui, Rodolfo M; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Lorenzo, Laura S; Marinelli, Marcia; Aguayo, Silvia; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Padilla, Eduardo; Goldchluk, Aníbal; Herbst, Luis; Vilapriño, Juan J; Bonetto, Gerardo García; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo G; Abraham, Estela; Kahn, Clara; Whitham, Elizabeth A; Holtzman, Niki S; Ghaemi, Nassir

    2011-08-01

    To assess the sensitivity and specificity of two self-report instruments for detection of bipolarity in a sample of Argentinean patients. Spanish versions of the MDQ and the BSDS were administered over four months at 11 sites in Argentina. Diagnoses were made using DSM-IV criteria and the MINI. The study sample consisted of patients diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) Types I, II, or NOS. BDNOS diagnoses were made using extended guidelines for bipolar spectrum symptoms. Unipolar patients were used as a control group. Of 493 patients screened, 354 completed evaluation by MDQ and MINI, and 363 by BSDS and MINI. Specificity of MDQ was 0.97 and BSDS was 0.81. MDQ sensitivity was 0.70 for bipolar type I (BD-I), 0.52 for bipolar II (BD-II) and 0.31 for bipolar not otherwise specified (BDNOS). BSDS sensitivities were 0.75, 0.70 and 0.51 respectively. This study was performed in specialized outpatient settings and thus its results are not necessarily representative for other clinical settings. There was not a systematic evaluation of comorbid psychiatric disease or test-retest reliability. The local versions of the MDQ and the BSDS showed a sensitivity and specificity comparable to previous research. Our results indicate that in this sample, MDQ was more specific for BD and BSDS was more sensitive to detect BD-II and NOS. Since BD-I is more readily recognized than bipolar spectrum disorders, enhanced sensitivity of BSDS for soft bipolarity may be an advantage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Combine Use of Semi-destructive and Non-destructive Methods for Tiled Floor Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štainbruch, Jakub; Bayer, Karol; Jiroušek, Tomáš; Červinka, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The combination of semi-destructive and non-destructive methods was used to asset the conditions of a tiled floor in the historical monument Minaret, situated in the park complex of the Chateau Lednice (South Moravia Region, Czech Republic), before its renovation. Another set of measurements is going to be performed after the conservation works are finished. (The comparison of the results collected during pre- and post-remediation measurements will be known and presented during the General Assembly meeting in Wien.) The diagnostic complex of methods consisted of photogrammetry, resistivity drilling and georadar. The survey was aimed to contour extends of air gaps beneath the tiles and the efficiency of filling gaps by means of injection, consolidation and gluing individual layers. The state chateau Lednice creates a part of the Lednice-Valtice precinct, a UNESCO landmark, and belongs among the greatest historic monuments in Southern Moravia. In the chateau park there is a romantic observation tower in the shape of a minaret built according to the plans of Josef Hardtmuth between 1798-1804. The Minaret has been extensively renovated for many decades including the restoration of mosaic floors from Venetian terazzo. During the static works of the Minaret building between 1999-2000, the mosaic floors in the rooms on the second floor were transferred and put back onto concrete slabs. Specifically, the floor was cut up to tiles and these were glued to square slabs which were then attached to the base plate. The transfer was not successful and the floor restoration was finalized between 2016-2017. The damage consisted in separating the original floor from the concrete plate which led to creating gaps. Furthermore, the layers of the floor were not compact. It was necessary to fill the gaps and consolidate and glue the layers. The existence of air gap between individual layers of the tiles and their degradation was detected using two different diagnostic methods: semi

  7. Leakage localisation method in a water distribution system based on sensitivity matrix: methodology and real test

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Pañach, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Leaks are present in all water distribution systems. In this paper a method for leakage detection and localisation is presented. It uses pressure measurements and simulation models. Leakage localisation methodology is based on pressure sensitivity matrix. Sensitivity is normalised and binarised using a common threshold for all nodes, so a signatures matrix is obtained. A pressure sensor optimal distribution methodology is developed too, but it is not used in the real test. To validate this...

  8. Development of a localized probabilistic sensitivity method to determine random variable regional importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millwater, Harry; Singh, Gulshan; Cortina, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There are many methods to identify the important variable out of a set of random variables, i.e., “inter-variable” importance; however, to date there are no comparable methods to identify the “region” of importance within a random variable, i.e., “intra-variable” importance. Knowledge of the critical region of an input random variable (tail, near-tail, and central region) can provide valuable information towards characterizing, understanding, and improving a model through additional modeling or testing. As a result, an intra-variable probabilistic sensitivity method was developed and demonstrated for independent random variables that computes the partial derivative of a probabilistic response with respect to a localized perturbation in the CDF values of each random variable. These sensitivities are then normalized in absolu