WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensing signal processing

  1. Multidimensional Signal Processing for Sensing & Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Spectrum Sensing,” submitted to IEEE Intl. Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing, Cancun, Mexico , 13-16 Dec. 2015...Sensing,” submitted to IEEE Intl. Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing, Cancun, Mexico , 13-16 Dec. 2015...diversity in echolocating mammals ,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 65- 75, Jan. 2009. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for

  2. Compressive sensing-based electrostatic sensor array signal processing and exhausted abnormal debris detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Li, Yue; Yang, Yongmin

    2018-05-01

    When faults happen at gas path components of gas turbines, some sparsely-distributed and charged debris will be generated and released into the exhaust gas. The debris is called abnormal debris. Electrostatic sensors can detect the debris online and further indicate the faults. It is generally considered that, under a specific working condition, a more serious fault generates more and larger debris, and a piece of larger debris carries more charge. Therefore, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are important indicators of the fault severity. However, because an electrostatic sensor can only detect the superposed effect on the electrostatic field of all the debris, it can hardly identify the amount and position of the debris. Moreover, because signals of electrostatic sensors depend on not only charge but also position of debris, and the position information is difficult to acquire, measuring debris charge accurately using the electrostatic detecting method is still a technical difficulty. To solve these problems, a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) is used, and an array signal processing method based on compressive sensing (CS) is proposed in this paper. To research in a theoretical framework of CS, the measurement model of the HSESCA is discretized into a sparse representation form by meshing. In this way, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are described as a sparse vector. It is further reconstructed by constraining l1-norm when solving an underdetermined equation. In addition, a pre-processing method based on singular value decomposition and a result calibration method based on weighted-centroid algorithm are applied to ensure the accuracy of the reconstruction. The proposed method is validated by both numerical simulations and experiments. Reconstruction errors, characteristics of the results and some related factors are discussed.

  3. Sensors Technology and Advanced Signal Processing Concepts for Layered Warfare/Layered Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    accurate model of the earth is a geoid defined as the shape of the gravitational equipotential of the earth’s surface . However, geoid models are often...processing framework is inadequate when confronted with complex surface target engagement applications being addressed by layered sensing. The...United States’ combat advantage in surface target engagement. Over the past 20+ years, the US has gathered a large quantity of information on the

  4. Optical fibre multi-parameter sensing with secure cloud based signal capture and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newe, Thomas; O'Connell, Eoin; Meere, Damien; Yuan, Hongwei; Leen, Gabriel; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2016-05-01

    Recent advancements in cloud computing technologies in the context of optical and optical fibre based systems are reported. The proliferation of real time and multi-channel based sensor systems represents significant growth in data volume. This coupled with a growing need for security presents many challenges and presents a huge opportunity for an evolutionary step in the widespread application of these sensing technologies. A tiered infrastructural system approach is adopted that is designed to facilitate the delivery of Optical Fibre-based "SENsing as a Service- SENaaS". Within this infrastructure, novel optical sensing platforms, deployed within different environments, are interfaced with a Cloud-based backbone infrastructure which facilitates the secure collection, storage and analysis of real-time data. Feedback systems, which harness this data to affect a change within the monitored location/environment/condition, are also discussed. The cloud based system presented here can also be used with chemical and physical sensors that require real-time data analysis, processing and feedback.

  5. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  6. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  7. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  8. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  9. Motion sensing using WLAN signal fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infer the motion of the user has previously been possible only with the usage of additional hardware. In this paper we show how motion sensing can be obtained just by observing the WLAN radio’s signal strength and its fluctuations. For the first time, we have analyzed the signal

  10. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  11. Remote Sensing using Signals of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Yertay, Alibek; Garrison, James L

    2013-01-01

    Today, there are more than eight thousand satellites in space. Therefore, Radio Frequency (RF) signals broadcast from satellites can be accessed from almost every point on the earth. There will be number of satellites available at most points on earth with different frequency bands. These satellite signals can be used for remote sensing, therefore software that visualizes footprints of satellites and shows characteristics of every satellite available at any point would be useful in determinin...

  12. Radiation signal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

    1980-01-01

    An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing

  13. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  14. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  15. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  16. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  17. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  18. Redox signaling in acute oxygen sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute oxygen (O2 sensing is essential for individuals to survive under hypoxic conditions. The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor, which contains excitable and O2-sensitive glomus cells with O2-regulated ion channels. Upon exposure to acute hypoxia, inhibition of K+ channels is the signal that triggers cell depolarization, transmitter release and activation of sensory fibers that stimulate the brainstem respiratory center to produce hyperventilation. The molecular mechanisms underlying O2 sensing by glomus cells have, however, remained elusive. Here we discuss recent data demonstrating that ablation of mitochondrial Ndufs2 gene selectively abolishes sensitivity of glomus cells to hypoxia, maintaining responsiveness to hypercapnia or hypoglycemia. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species and NADH generated in mitochondrial complex I during hypoxia are signaling molecules that modulate membrane K+ channels. We propose that the structural substrates for acute O2 sensing in CB glomus cells are “O2-sensing microdomains” formed by mitochondria and neighboring K+ channels in the plasma membrane. Keywords: Hypoxia, Acute oxygen sensing, Peripheral chemoreceptors, Carotid body, Adrenal medulla, Mitochondrial complex I, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, Pyridine nucleotides

  19. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  20. Signal processing in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Signals occurring in microdosimetric measurements cover a dynamic range of 100 dB at a counting rate which normally stays below 10 4 but could increase significantly in case of an accident. The need for high resolution at low energies, non-linear signal processing to accommodate the specified dynamic range, easy calibration and thermal stability are conflicting requirements which pose formidable design problems. These problems are reviewed, and a practical approach to their solution is given employing a single processing channel. (author)

  1. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  2. Compressive Sensing: Analysis of Signals in Radio Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigals G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive sensing (CS theory says that for some kind of signals there is no need to keep or transfer all the data acquired accordingly to the Nyquist criterion. In this work we investigate if the CS approach is applicable for recording and analysis of radio astronomy (RA signals. Since CS methods are applicable for the signals with sparse (and compressible representations, the compressibility of RA signals is verified. As a result, we identify which RA signals can be processed using CS, find the parameters which can improve or degrade CS application to RA results, describe the optimum way how to perform signal filtering in CS applications. Also, a range of virtual LabVIEW instruments are created for the signal analysis with the CS theory.

  3. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  4. WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouzhou Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.

  5. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks Data Processing Summary Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a newly proposed theory, compressive sensing (CS is commonly used in signal processing area. This paper investigates the applications of compressed sensing (CS in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. First, the development and research status of compressed sensing technology and wireless sensor networks are described, then a detailed investigation of WSNs research based on CS are conducted from aspects of data fusion, signal acquisition, signal routing transmission, and signal reconstruction. At the end of the paper, we conclude our survey and point out the possible future research directions.

  7. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  8. Fundamentals of adaptive signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Uncini, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an accessible guide to adaptive signal processing methods that equips the reader with advanced theoretical and practical tools for the study and development of circuit structures and provides robust algorithms relevant to a wide variety of application scenarios. Examples include multimodal and multimedia communications, the biological and biomedical fields, economic models, environmental sciences, acoustics, telecommunications, remote sensing, monitoring, and, in general, the modeling and prediction of complex physical phenomena. The reader will learn not only how to design and implement the algorithms but also how to evaluate their performance for specific applications utilizing the tools provided. While using a simple mathematical language, the employed approach is very rigorous. The text will be of value both for research purposes and for courses of study.

  9. ECG signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A system extracts an ECG signal from a composite signal (308) representing an electric measurement of a living subject. Identification means (304) identify a plurality of temporal segments (309) of the composite signal corresponding to a plurality of predetermined segments (202,204,206) of an ECG

  10. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  11. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  12. Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Culver, Richard L; Sibul, Leon H; Bradley, David L

    2007-01-01

    .... The research is directed toward passive sonar detection and classification, continuous wave (CW) and broadband signals, shallow water operation, both platform-mounted and distributed systems, and frequencies below 1 kHz...

  13. Gravity sensing and signal transduction in vascular plant primary roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Katherine L; Strohm, Allison K; Masson, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    During gravitropism, the potential energy of gravity is converted into a biochemical signal. How this transfer occurs remains one of the most exciting mysteries in plant cell biology. New experiments are filling in pieces of the puzzle. In this review, we introduce gravitropism and give an overview of what we know about gravity sensing in roots of vascular plants, with special highlight on recent papers. When plant roots are reoriented sideways, amyloplast resedimentation in the columella cells is a key initial step in gravity sensing. This process somehow leads to cytoplasmic alkalinization of these cells followed by relocalization of auxin efflux carriers (PINs). This changes auxin flow throughout the root, generating a lateral gradient of auxin across the cap that upon transmission to the elongation zone leads to differential cell elongation and gravibending. We will present the evidence for and against the following players having a role in transferring the signal from the amyloplast sedimentation into the auxin signaling cascade: mechanosensitive ion channels, actin, calcium ions, inositol trisphosphate, receptors/ligands, ARG1/ARL2, spermine, and the TOC complex. We also outline auxin transport and signaling during gravitropism.

  14. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  15. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented

  16. Quorum signaling and sensing by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, W Edward

    2012-01-01

    Quorum signals are diffusible factors produced by bacteria that coordinate communal responses. For nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a series of recent papers indicate that production and sensing of quorum signals are determinants of biofilm formation/maturation and persistence in vivo. In this mini-review I will summarize the current knowledge about quorum signaling/sensing by this organism, and identify specific topics for additional study.

  17. Quorum signaling and sensing by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Edward Swords

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quorum signals are diffusible factors produced by bacteria that coordinate communal responses. For Haemophilus influenzae, a series of recent papers indicate that production and sensing of quorum signals are determinants of biofilm formation/maturation and persistence in vivo. In this mini-review I will summarize the current knowledge about quorum signaling/sensing by H. influenzae, and identify specific topics for additional study.

  18. Compressive sensing scalp EEG signals: implementations and practical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Amir M; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2012-11-01

    Highly miniaturised, wearable computing and communication systems allow unobtrusive, convenient and long term monitoring of a range of physiological parameters. For long term operation from the physically smallest batteries, the average power consumption of a wearable device must be very low. It is well known that the overall power consumption of these devices can be reduced by the inclusion of low power consumption, real-time compression of the raw physiological data in the wearable device itself. Compressive sensing is a new paradigm for providing data compression: it has shown significant promise in fields such as MRI; and is potentially suitable for use in wearable computing systems as the compression process required in the wearable device has a low computational complexity. However, the practical performance very much depends on the characteristics of the signal being sensed. As such the utility of the technique cannot be extrapolated from one application to another. Long term electroencephalography (EEG) is a fundamental tool for the investigation of neurological disorders and is increasingly used in many non-medical applications, such as brain-computer interfaces. This article investigates in detail the practical performance of different implementations of the compressive sensing theory when applied to scalp EEG signals.

  19. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  20. Fundamentals of statistical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Steven M

    1993-01-01

    A unified presentation of parameter estimation for those involved in the design and implementation of statistical signal processing algorithms. Covers important approaches to obtaining an optimal estimator and analyzing its performance; and includes numerous examples as well as applications to real- world problems. MARKETS: For practicing engineers and scientists who design and analyze signal processing systems, i.e., to extract information from noisy signals — radar engineer, sonar engineer, geophysicist, oceanographer, biomedical engineer, communications engineer, economist, statistician, physicist, etc.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of root gravity sensing and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Allison K; Baldwin, Katherine L; Masson, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    Plants use gravity as a guide to direct their roots down into the soil to anchor themselves and to find resources needed for growth and development. In higher plants, the columella cells of the root tip form the primary site of gravity sensing, and in these cells the sedimentation of dense, starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers gravity signal transduction. This generates an auxin gradient across the root cap that is transmitted to the elongation zone where it promotes differential cell elongation, allowing the root to direct itself downward. It is still not well understood how amyloplast sedimentation leads to auxin redistribution. Models have been proposed to explain how mechanosensitive ion channels or ligand-receptor interactions could connect these events. Although their roles are still unclear, possible second messengers in this process include protons, Ca(2+), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Upon gravistimulation, the auxin efflux facilitators PIN3 and PIN7 relocalize to the lower side of the columella cells and mediate auxin redistribution. However, evidence for an auxin-independent secondary mechanism of gravity sensing and signal transduction suggests that this physiological process is quite complex. Furthermore, plants must integrate a variety of environmental cues, resulting in multifaceted relationships between gravitropism and other directional growth responses such as hydro-, photo-, and thigmotropism. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Financial signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni,Sanjeev R; Dmitry M. Malioutov

    2016-01-01

    The modern financial industry has been required to deal with large and diverse portfolios in a variety of asset classes often with limited market data available. Financial Signal Processing and Machine Learning unifies a number of recent advances made in signal processing and machine learning for the design and management of investment portfolios and financial engineering. This book bridges the gap between these disciplines, offering the latest information on key topics including characterizing statistical dependence and correlation in high dimensions, constructing effective and robust risk measures, and their use in portfolio optimization and rebalancing. The book focuses on signal processing approaches to model return, momentum, and mean reversion, addressing theoretical and implementation aspects. It highlights the connections between portfolio theory, sparse learning and compressed sensing, sparse eigen-portfolios, robust optimization, non-Gaussian data-driven risk measures, graphical models, causal analy...

  3. Symbolic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechester, A.B.; White, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamic processes exhibit many complicated patterns of evolution. How can all these patterns be recognized using only output (observational, experimental) data without prior knowledge of the equations of motion? The powerful method for doing this is based on symbolic dynamics: (1) Present output data in symbolic form (trial language). (2) Topological and metric entropies are constructed. (3) Develop algorithms for computer optimization of entropies. (4) By maximizing entropies, find the most appropriate symbolic language for the purpose of pattern recognition. (5) Test this method using a variety of dynamical models from nonlinear science. The authors are in the process of applying this method for analysis of MHD fluctuations in tokamaks

  4. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  5. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  6. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  7. Neural networks in signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Engineering has matured during the last decade. In research and design, control, supervision, maintenance and production, mathematical models and theories are used extensively. In all such applications signal processing is embedded in the process. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), because of their nonlinear, adaptive nature are well suited to such applications where the classical assumptions of linearity and second order Gaussian noise statistics cannot be made. ANN's can be treated as nonparametric techniques, which can model an underlying process from example data. They can also adopt their model parameters to statistical change with time. Algorithms in the framework of Neural Networks in Signal processing have found new applications potentials in the field of Nuclear Engineering. This paper reviews the fundamentals of Neural Networks in signal processing and their applications in tasks such as recognition/identification and control. The topics covered include dynamic modeling, model based ANN's, statistical learning, eigen structure based processing and generalization structures. (orig.)

  8. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  9. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Smartt, H. B.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Taylor, P. L.; Waddoups, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-by-pass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  10. Digital signal processing for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    NDT begins to adapt and use the most recent developments of digital signal and image processing. We briefly sum up the main characteristics of NDT situations (particularly noise and inverse problem formulation) and comment on techniques already used or just emerging (SAFT, split spectrum, adaptive learning network, noise reference filtering, stochastic models, neural networks). This survey is focused on ultrasonics, eddy currents and X-ray radiography. The final objective of end users (availability of automatic diagnosis systems) cannot be achieved only by signal processing algorithms. A close cooperation with other techniques such as artificial intelligence has therefore to be implemented. (author). 20 refs

  11. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  12. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  13. Signal processing method for Johnson noise thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I. G.; Moon, B. S.; Kinser, Rpger

    2003-01-01

    The development of Johnson Noise Thermometry requires a high sensitive preamplifier circuit to pick up the temperature-related noise on the sensing element. However, the random noise generated in this amplification circuit causes a significant erroneous influence to the measurement. This paper describes signal processing mechanism of the Johnson Noise Thermometry system which is underway of development in collaboration between KAERI and ORNL. It adopts two identical amplifier channels and utilizes a digital signal processing technique to remove the independent noise of each channel. The CPSD(Cross Power Spectral Density) function is used to cancel the independent noise and the differentiation of narrow or single frequency peak from the CPSD data separates the common mode electromagnetic interference noise

  14. Wavelets and multiscale signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Albert

    1995-01-01

    Since their appearance in mid-1980s, wavelets and, more generally, multiscale methods have become powerful tools in mathematical analysis and in applications to numerical analysis and signal processing. This book is based on "Ondelettes et Traitement Numerique du Signal" by Albert Cohen. It has been translated from French by Robert D. Ryan and extensively updated by both Cohen and Ryan. It studies the existing relations between filter banks and wavelet decompositions and shows how these relations can be exploited in the context of digital signal processing. Throughout, the book concentrates on the fundamentals. It begins with a chapter on the concept of multiresolution analysis, which contains complete proofs of the basic results. The description of filter banks that are related to wavelet bases is elaborated in both the orthogonal case (Chapter 2), and in the biorthogonal case (Chapter 4). The regularity of wavelets, how this is related to the properties of the filters and the importance of regularity for t...

  15. Death and Survival in Streptococcus mutans: Differing Outcomes of a Quorum-Sensing Signalling Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eLeung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are considered ‘social’ organisms able to communicate with one another using small hormone-like molecules (pheromones in a process called quorum-sensing. These signalling molecules increase in concentration as a function of bacterial cell density. For most human pathogens, quorum-sensing is critical for virulence and biofilm formation, and the opportunity to interfere with bacterial quorum-sensing could provide a sophisticated means for manipulating the composition of pathogenic biofilms, and possibly eradicating the infection. Streptococcus mutans is a well-characterized resident of the dental plaque biofilm, and is the major pathogen of dental caries (tooth decay. In S. mutans, its CSP quorum-sensing signalling peptide does not act as a classical quorum-sensing signal by accumulating passively in proportion to cell density. In fact, particular stresses such as those encountered in the oral cavity, induces the production of the CSP pheromone, suggesting that the pheromone most probably functions as a stress-inducible alarmone by triggering the signalling to the bacterial population to initiate an adaptive response that results in different phenotypic outcomes. This mini-review discusses two different CSP-induced phenotypes, bacterial ‘suicide’ and dormancy, and the underlying mechanisms by which S. mutans utilizes the same quorum-sensing signalling peptide to regulate two opposite phenotypes.

  16. Suppression of Instability on Sensing Signal of Optical Pulse Correlation Measurement in Remote Fiber Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    response and improve the accuracy of signals at the focused sensing regions. We also experimentally demonstrate remote temperature monitoring over a 30 km-long distance using a remote reference technique, and we estimate the resolution and the measurable span of the temperature variation as (1.1/L∘C and (5.9×10/L°C, respectively, where L is the length of the fiber in the sensing region.

  17. Compressed Sensing with Linear Correlation Between Signal and Measurement Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    reconstruction algorithms, but is not known in existing literature. The proposed technique reduces reconstruction error considerably in the case of linearly correlated measurements and noise. Numerical experiments confirm the efficacy of the technique. The technique is demonstrated with application to low......Existing convex relaxation-based approaches to reconstruction in compressed sensing assume that noise in the measurements is independent of the signal of interest. We consider the case of noise being linearly correlated with the signal and introduce a simple technique for improving compressed...... sensing reconstruction from such measurements. The technique is based on a linear model of the correlation of additive noise with the signal. The modification of the reconstruction algorithm based on this model is very simple and has negligible additional computational cost compared to standard...

  18. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  19. Signal processing for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Samyde, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1998, Paul Kocher showed that when a smart card computes cryptographic algorithms, for signatures or encryption, its consumption or its radiations leak information. The keys or the secrets hidden in the card can then be recovered using a differential measurement based on the intercorrelation function. A lot of silicon manufacturers use desynchronization countermeasures to defeat power analysis. In this article we detail a new resynchronization technic. This method can be used to facilitate the use of a neural network to do the code recognition. It becomes possible to reverse engineer a software code automatically. Using data and clock separation methods, we show how to optimize the synchronization using signal processing. Then we compare these methods with watermarking methods for 1D and 2D signal. The very last watermarking detection improvements can be applied to signal processing for smart cards with very few modifications. Bayesian processing is one of the best ways to do Differential Power Analysis, and it is possible to extract a PIN code from a smart card in very few samples. So this article shows the need to continue to set up effective countermeasures for cryptographic processors. Although the idea to use advanced signal processing operators has been commonly known for a long time, no publication explains that results can be obtained. The main idea of differential measurement is to use the cross-correlation of two random variables and to repeat consumption measurements on the processor to be analyzed. We use two processors clocked at the same external frequency and computing the same data. The applications of our design are numerous. Two measurements provide the inputs of a central operator. With the most accurate operator we can improve the signal noise ratio, re-synchronize the acquisition clock with the internal one, or remove jitter. The analysis based on consumption or electromagnetic measurements can be improved using our structure. At first sight

  20. Nutrient sensing and signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Michaela; Schothorst, Joep; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a favorite organism for pioneering studies on nutrient-sensing and signaling mechanisms. Many specific nutrient responses have been elucidated in great detail. This has led to important new concepts and insight into nutrient-controlled cellular regulation. Major highlights include the central role of the Snf1 protein kinase in the glucose repression pathway, galactose induction, the discovery of a G-protein-coupled receptor system, and role of Ras in glucose-induced cAMP signaling, the role of the protein synthesis initiation machinery in general control of nitrogen metabolism, the cyclin-controlled protein kinase Pho85 in phosphate regulation, nitrogen catabolite repression and the nitrogen-sensing target of rapamycin pathway, and the discovery of transporter-like proteins acting as nutrient sensors. In addition, a number of cellular targets, like carbohydrate stores, stress tolerance, and ribosomal gene expression, are controlled by the presence of multiple nutrients. The protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in this general nutrient response. It has led to the discovery of nutrient transceptors (transporter receptors) as nutrient sensors. Major shortcomings in our knowledge are the relationship between rapid and steady-state nutrient signaling, the role of metabolic intermediates in intracellular nutrient sensing, and the identity of the nutrient sensors controlling cellular growth. PMID:24483210

  1. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  2. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    hardwired ASICs and more than 6 21 times lower than current state of the art low-power DSP processors. An orthogonal but practical contribution of this thesis is the test bench implementation. A PCI-based FPGA board has been used to equip a standard desktop PC with tester facilities. The test bench proved...... to be a viable alternative to conventional expensive test equipment. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has been published at several IEEE workshops and conferences, and in the Journal of VLSI Signal Processing....

  3. Distributed sensing signal analysis of deformable plate/membrane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen

    2017-11-01

    Deformable optical mirrors usually play key roles in aerospace and optical structural systems applied to space telescopes, radars, solar collectors, communication antennas, etc. Limited by the payload capacity of current launch vehicles, the deformable mirrors should be lightweight and are generally made of ultra-thin plates or even membranes. These plate/membrane mirrors are susceptible to external excitations and this may lead to surface inaccuracy and jeopardize relevant working performance. In order to investigate the modal vibration characteristics of the mirror, a piezoelectric layer is fully laminated on its non-reflective side to serve as sensors. The piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements so that microscopic distributed sensing signals can be explored. In this paper, the deformable mirror is modeled as a pre-tensioned plate and membrane respectively and sensing signal distributions of the two models are compared. Different pre-tensioning forces are also applied to reveal the tension effects on the mode shape and sensing signals of the mirror. Analytical results in this study could be used as guideline of optimal sensor/actuator placement for deformable space mirrors.

  4. The application of sparse linear prediction dictionary to compressive sensing in speech signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Hanxu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Appling compressive sensing (CS,which theoretically guarantees that signal sampling and signal compression can be achieved simultaneously,into audio and speech signal processing is one of the most popular research topics in recent years.In this paper,K-SVD algorithm was employed to learn a sparse linear prediction dictionary regarding as the sparse basis of underlying speech signals.Compressed signals was obtained by applying random Gaussian matrix to sample original speech frames.Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP and compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP were adopted to recovery original signals from compressed one.Numbers of experiments were carried out to investigate the impact of speech frames length,compression ratios,sparse basis and reconstruction algorithms on CS performance.Results show that sparse linear prediction dictionary can advance the performance of speech signals reconstruction compared with discrete cosine transform (DCT matrix.

  5. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  6. Experiment and practice on signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The contents of this book contains basic practice of CEM Tool, discrete time signal and experiment and practice of system, experiment and practice of discrete time signal sampling, practice of frequency analysis, experiment of digital filter design, application of digital signal processing, project related voice, basic principle of signal processing, the technique of basic image signal processing, biology astronomy and Robot soccer with apply of image signal processing technique, control video signal and project related image. It also has an introduction of CEM Linker I. O in the end.

  7. Experiment and practice on signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    The contents of this book contains basic practice of CEM Tool, discrete time signal and experiment and practice of system, experiment and practice of discrete time signal sampling, practice of frequency analysis, experiment of digital filter design, application of digital signal processing, project related voice, basic principle of signal processing, the technique of basic image signal processing, biology astronomy and Robot soccer with apply of image signal processing technique, control video signal and project related image. It also has an introduction of CEM Linker I. O in the end.

  8. Bayesian signal reconstruction for 1-bit compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingying; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The 1-bit compressed sensing framework enables the recovery of a sparse vector x from the sign information of each entry of its linear transformation. Discarding the amplitude information can significantly reduce the amount of data, which is highly beneficial in practical applications. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach to signal reconstruction for 1-bit compressed sensing and analyze its typical performance using statistical mechanics. As a basic setup, we consider the case that the measuring matrix Φ has i.i.d entries and the measurements y are noiseless. Utilizing the replica method, we show that the Bayesian approach enables better reconstruction than the l 1 -norm minimization approach, asymptotically saturating the performance obtained when the non-zero entry positions of the signal are known, for signals whose non-zero entries follow zero mean Gaussian distributions. We also test a message passing algorithm for signal reconstruction on the basis of belief propagation. The results of numerical experiments are consistent with those of the theoretical analysis. (paper)

  9. Poisson pre-processing of nonstationary photonic signals: Signals with equality between mean and variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplová, Michaela; Sovka, Pavel; Cifra, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Photonic signals are broadly exploited in communication and sensing and they typically exhibit Poisson-like statistics. In a common scenario where the intensity of the photonic signals is low and one needs to remove a nonstationary trend of the signals for any further analysis, one faces an obstacle: due to the dependence between the mean and variance typical for a Poisson-like process, information about the trend remains in the variance even after the trend has been subtracted, possibly yielding artifactual results in further analyses. Commonly available detrending or normalizing methods cannot cope with this issue. To alleviate this issue we developed a suitable pre-processing method for the signals that originate from a Poisson-like process. In this paper, a Poisson pre-processing method for nonstationary time series with Poisson distribution is developed and tested on computer-generated model data and experimental data of chemiluminescence from human neutrophils and mung seeds. The presented method transforms a nonstationary Poisson signal into a stationary signal with a Poisson distribution while preserving the type of photocount distribution and phase-space structure of the signal. The importance of the suggested pre-processing method is shown in Fano factor and Hurst exponent analysis of both computer-generated model signals and experimental photonic signals. It is demonstrated that our pre-processing method is superior to standard detrending-based methods whenever further signal analysis is sensitive to variance of the signal.

  10. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  11. Sensing RF signals with the optical wideband converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The optical wideband converter (OWC) is a system for measuring properties of RF signals in the GHz band without use of high speed electronics. In the OWC the RF signal is modulated on a repetitively pulsed optical field with a large wavelength chirp, the optical field is diffracted onto a spatial light modulator (SLM) whose pixels are modulated with a pseudo-random bit sequences (PRBSs), and finally the optical field is directed to a photodiode and the resulting current integrated for each PRBS. When the number of PRBSs and measurements equals the number of SLM pixels, the RF signal can be obtained in principle by multiplying the measurement vector by the inverse of the square matrix given by the PRBSs and the properties of the optics. When the number of measurements is smaller than the number of pixels, a compressive sensing (CS) measurement can be performed, and sparse RF signals can be obtained using one of the standard CS recovery algorithms such as the penalized l1 norm (also known as basis pursuit) or one of the variants of matching pursuit. Accurate reconstruction of RF signals requires good calibration of the OWC. In this paper, we present results using the OWC for RF signals consisting of 2 sinusoids recovered using 3 techniques (matrix inversion, basis pursuit, and matching pursuit). We compare results obtained with orthogonal matching pursuit with nonlinear least squares to basis pursuit with an over-complete dictionary.

  12. Protein sensing by nanofluidic crystal and its signal enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jianming; Du, Hongtan; Wang, Wei; Chu, Ming; Wang, Yuedan; Li, Haichao; Alice Zhang, Haixia; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Nanofluidics has a unique property that ionic conductance across a nanometer-sized confined space is strongly affected by the space surface charge density, which can be utilized to construct electrical read-out biosensor. Based on this principle, this work demonstrated a novel protein sensor along with a sandwich signal enhancement approach. Nanoparticles with designed aptamer onside are assembled in a suspended micropore to form a 3-dimensional network of nanometer-sized interstices, named as nanofluidic crystal hereafter, as the basic sensing unit. Proteins captured by aptamers will change the surface charge density of nanoparticles and thereby can be detected by monitoring the ionic conductance across this nanofluidic crystal. Another aptamer can further enlarge the variations of the surface charge density by forming a sandwich structure (capturing aptamer/protein/signal enhancement aptamer) and the read-out conductance as well. The preliminary experimental results indicated that human α-thrombin was successfully detected by the corresponding aptamer modified nanofluidic crystal with the limit of detection of 5 nM (0.18 μg/ml) and the read-out signal was enhanced up to 3 folds by using another thrombin aptamer. Being easy to graft probe, facile and low-cost to prepare the nano-device, and having an electrical read-out, the present nanofluidic crystal scheme is a promising and universal strategy for protein sensing. PMID:24404017

  13. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  14. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  15. Compressive Sensing of Roller Bearing Faults via Harmonic Detection from Under-Sampled Vibration Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Hou, Wei; Wang, Huaqing; Luo, Ganggang; Ma, Jianwei

    2015-10-09

    The Shannon sampling principle requires substantial amounts of data to ensure the accuracy of on-line monitoring of roller bearing fault signals. Challenges are often encountered as a result of the cumbersome data monitoring, thus a novel method focused on compressed vibration signals for detecting roller bearing faults is developed in this study. Considering that harmonics often represent the fault characteristic frequencies in vibration signals, a compressive sensing frame of characteristic harmonics is proposed to detect bearing faults. A compressed vibration signal is first acquired from a sensing matrix with information preserved through a well-designed sampling strategy. A reconstruction process of the under-sampled vibration signal is then pursued as attempts are conducted to detect the characteristic harmonics from sparse measurements through a compressive matching pursuit strategy. In the proposed method bearing fault features depend on the existence of characteristic harmonics, as typically detected directly from compressed data far before reconstruction completion. The process of sampling and detection may then be performed simultaneously without complete recovery of the under-sampled signals. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulations and experiments.

  16. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  17. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael C.; Skubal, Laura R.

    1999-02-01

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical 'signatures' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration; the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  18. A signal theoretic introduction to random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    A fresh introduction to random processes utilizing signal theory By incorporating a signal theory basis, A Signal Theoretic Introduction to Random Processes presents a unique introduction to random processes with an emphasis on the important random phenomena encountered in the electronic and communications engineering field. The strong mathematical and signal theory basis provides clarity and precision in the statement of results. The book also features:  A coherent account of the mathematical fundamentals and signal theory that underpin the presented material Unique, in-depth coverage of

  19. Digital signal processing with kernel methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo-Alvarez, José Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    A realistic and comprehensive review of joint approaches to machine learning and signal processing algorithms, with application to communications, multimedia, and biomedical engineering systems Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods reviews the milestones in the mixing of classical digital signal processing models and advanced kernel machines statistical learning tools. It explains the fundamental concepts from both fields of machine learning and signal processing so that readers can quickly get up to speed in order to begin developing the concepts and application software in their own research. Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods provides a comprehensive overview of kernel methods in signal processing, without restriction to any application field. It also offers example applications and detailed benchmarking experiments with real and synthetic datasets throughout. Readers can find further worked examples with Matlab source code on a website developed by the authors. * Presents the necess...

  20. Signal Processing and Neural Network Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Dennis L.; Billhartz, Thomas J.; Doner, John R.; Kraft, Timothy T.

    1995-04-01

    The signal processing and neural network simulator (SPANNS) is a digital signal processing simulator with the capability to invoke neural networks into signal processing chains. This is a generic tool which will greatly facilitate the design and simulation of systems with embedded neural networks. The SPANNS is based on the Signal Processing WorkSystemTM (SPWTM), a commercial-off-the-shelf signal processing simulator. SPW provides a block diagram approach to constructing signal processing simulations. Neural network paradigms implemented in the SPANNS include Backpropagation, Kohonen Feature Map, Outstar, Fully Recurrent, Adaptive Resonance Theory 1, 2, & 3, and Brain State in a Box. The SPANNS was developed by integrating SAIC's Industrial Strength Neural Networks (ISNN) Software into SPW.

  1. Process Dissociation and Mixture Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2008-01-01

    The process dissociation procedure was developed in an attempt to separate different processes involved in memory tasks. The procedure naturally lends itself to a formulation within a class of mixture signal detection models. The dual process model is shown to be a special case. The mixture signal detection model is applied to data from a widely…

  2. Interactive Teaching of Adaptive Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, R W; Harteneck, M; Weiss, S

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 30 years adaptive digital signal processing has progressed from being a strictly graduate level advanced class in signal processing theory to a topic that is part of the core curriculum for many undergraduate signal processing classes. The key reason is the continued advance of communications technology, with its need for echo control and equalisation, and the widespread use of adaptive filters in audio, biomedical, and control applications. In this paper we will review the basi...

  3. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  4. Challenges for Social Sensing using WiFi Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Nurmi, Petteri

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones are an attractive option for social sensing due to their widespread market penetration rate and advanced sensing capabilities. Enabling social sensing on smartphones would require techniques that can accurately detect and characterize physical proximity, an important prerequisite...

  5. [Automated processing of electrophysiologic signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevskiĭ, N A; Gubanov, V V

    1995-01-01

    The paper outlines a diagram of a multichannel analyzer of electrophysiological signals while are significantly non-stationary (such as those of electroencephalograms, myograms, etc.), by using a method based on the ranging procedure by the change-over points which may be the points of infection, impaired locality, minima, maxima, discontinuity, etc.

  6. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  7. Radar signal processing and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  8. Inductive Loops for Sensing Position as Signature Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbani, Sofiane; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Nordin, Anis Norashikin; Khan, Sheroz; Shobaki, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an inductive sensing technique made of a special shaped inductive loop is proposed. The inductive loop has an inner turn fitted within an outer turn, making a total inductance value 100μH. This loop is made to be shown with balanced response using three capacitance values of 0.068μF each when a sinusoidal voltage source of 5V peak-to-peak is applied. The variation of the relative permeability of the inductance of the inductive loop (AL) results in a variation of the overall inductance value (L+AL), that causes the output signal to change in term of shape and amplitude for variation of total inductance sweep over a given period of time. As a result of change in inductance value (lμH) there is a correspondence increase of 300mV. Theoretical derivations have showed in close agreement with the simulation plots obtained using Multisim software

  9. Inductive Loops for Sensing Position as Signature Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbani, Sofiane; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Norashikin Nordin, Anis; Khan, Sheroz; Shobaki, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, an inductive sensing technique made of a special shaped inductive loop is proposed. The inductive loop has an inner turn fitted within an outer turn, making a total inductance value 100μH. This loop is made to be shown with balanced response using three capacitance values of 0.068μF each when a sinusoidal voltage source of 5V peak-to-peak is applied. The variation of the relative permeability of the inductance of the inductive loop (AL) results in a variation of the overall inductance value (L+AL), that causes the output signal to change in term of shape and amplitude for variation of total inductance sweep over a given period of time. As a result of change in inductance value (lμH) there is a correspondence increase of 300mV. Theoretical derivations have showed in close agreement with the simulation plots obtained using Multisim software.

  10. Signal processing for boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledwidge, T.J.; Black, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with investigations of acoustic signals from a boiling experiment performed on the KNS I loop at KfK Karlsruhe. Signals have been analysed in frequency as well as in time domain. Signal characteristics successfully used to detect the boiling process have been found in time domain. (author). 6 refs, figs

  11. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  12. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum...... of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...... of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3...

  13. Energy Analysis of Decoders for Rakeness-Based Compressed Sensing of ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Fabio; Mangia, Mauro; Bortolotti, Daniele; Bartolini, Andrea; Benini, Luca; Rovatti, Riccardo; Setti, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, compressed sensing (CS) has proved to be effective in lowering the power consumption of sensing nodes in biomedical signal processing devices. This is due to the fact the CS is capable of reducing the amount of data to be transmitted to ensure correct reconstruction of the acquired waveforms. Rakeness-based CS has been introduced to further reduce the amount of transmitted data by exploiting the uneven distribution to the sensed signal energy. Yet, so far no thorough analysis exists on the impact of its adoption on CS decoder performance. The latter point is of great importance, since body-area sensor network architectures may include intermediate gateway nodes that receive and reconstruct signals to provide local services before relaying data to a remote server. In this paper, we fill this gap by showing that rakeness-based design also improves reconstruction performance. We quantify these findings in the case of ECG signals and when a variety of reconstruction algorithms are used either in a low-power microcontroller or a heterogeneous mobile computing platform.

  14. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  15. Cognitive Algorithms for Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Analysis of Millennial Spiritual Issues,” Zygon, Journal of Science and Religion , 43(4), 797-821, 2008. [46] R. Linnehan, C. Mutz, L.I. Perlovsky, B...dimensions of X and Y : (a) true ‘smile’ and ‘frown’ patterns are shown without clutter; (b) actual image available for recognition (signal is below...clutter in 2 dimensions of X(n) = (X, Y ), is given by l(X(n)|m = clutter) = 1/ (X •  Y ), X = (Xmax-Xmin),  Y = (Ymax-Ymin); (6) 13 Minimal

  16. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

  17. Wavelet based methods for improved wind profiler signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehmann

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply wavelet thresholding for removing automatically ground and intermittent clutter (airplane echoes from wind profiler radar data. Using the concept of discrete multi-resolution analysis and non-parametric estimation theory, we develop wavelet domain thresholding rules, which allow us to identify the coefficients relevant for clutter and to suppress them in order to obtain filtered reconstructions.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing; signal processing

  18. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  19. Efficient Sparse Signal Transmission over a Lossy Link Using Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liantao Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliable data transmission over lossy communication link is expensive due to overheads for error protection. For signals that have inherent sparse structures, compressive sensing (CS is applied to facilitate efficient sparse signal transmissions over lossy communication links without data compression or error protection. The natural packet loss in the lossy link is modeled as a random sampling process of the transmitted data, and the original signal will be reconstructed from the lossy transmission results using the CS-based reconstruction method at the receiving end. The impacts of packet lengths on transmission efficiency under different channel conditions have been discussed, and interleaving is incorporated to mitigate the impact of burst data loss. Extensive simulations and experiments have been conducted and compared to the traditional automatic repeat request (ARQ interpolation technique, and very favorable results have been observed in terms of both accuracy of the reconstructed signals and the transmission energy consumption. Furthermore, the packet length effect provides useful insights for using compressed sensing for efficient sparse signal transmission via lossy links.

  20. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  1. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL

  2. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  3. Signal and image processing in medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Rahim, B Abdul; Kumar, D Sravan

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent findings on and analyses conducted on signals and images in the area of medicine. The experimental investigations involve a variety of signals and images and their methodologies range from very basic to sophisticated methods. The book explains how signal and image processing methods can be used to detect and forecast abnormalities in an easy-to-follow manner, offering a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, physicians and bioinformatics researchers alike.

  4. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  5. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  6. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  7. Cyclic LTI Systems in Digital Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidyanathan, P

    1998-01-01

    .... While circular convolution has been the centerpiece of many algorithms in signal processing for decades, such freedom, especially from the viewpoint of linear system theory, has not been studied in the past...

  8. Book: Marine Bioacoustic Signal Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    physicists , and mathematicians . However, more and more biologists and psychologists are starting to use advanced signal processing techniques and...Book: Marine Bioacoustic Signal Processing and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT ...chapters than it should be, since the project must be finished by Dec. 31. I have started setting aside 2 hours of uninterrupted per workday to work

  9. Non-commutative tomography and signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Non-commutative tomography is a technique originally developed and extensively used by Professors M A Man’ko and V I Man’ko in quantum mechanics. Because signal processing deals with operators that, in general, do not commute with time, the same technique has a natural extension to this domain. Here, a review is presented of the theory and some applications of non-commutative tomography for time series as well as some new results on signal processing on graphs. (paper)

  10. Processing of acoustic signal in rock desintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futó Jozef

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of an effective rock disintegration for a given tool and rock type it is needed to define an optimal disintegration regime. Optimisation of the disintegration process by drilling denotes the finding out an appropriate couple of input parameters of disintegration, i.e. the thrust and revolutions for a quasi-equal rock environment. The disintegration process can be optimised to reach the maximum immediate drilling rate, to reach the minimum specific disintegration energy or to reach the maximum ratio of immediate drilling rate and specific disintegration energy. For the determination of the optimal thrust and revolutions it is needed to monitor the disintegration process. Monitoring of the disintegration process in real conditions is complicated by unfavourable factors, such as the presence of water, dust, vibrations etc. Following our present experience in the monitoring of drilling or full-profile driving, we try to replace the monitoring of input values by monitoring of the scanned acoustic signal. This method of monitoring can extend the optimisation of disintegration process in the technical practice. Its advantage consists in the registration of one acoustic signal by an appropriate microphone. Monitoring of acoustic signal is used also in monitoring of metal machining by milling and turning jobs. The research results of scanning of the acoustic signal in machining of metals are encouraging. Acoustic signal can be processed by different statistical parameters. The paper decribes some results of monitoring of the acoustic signal in rock disintegration on the drilling stand of the Institute of Geotechnics SAS in Košice. The acoustic signal has been registered and processed in no-load run of electric motor, in no-load run of electric motor with a drilling fluid, and in the Ruskov andesite drilling. Registration and processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research

  11. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  12. Signal processing: opportunities for superconductive circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Prime motivators in the evolution of increasingly sophisticated communication and detection systems are the needs for handling ever wider signal bandwidths and higher data processing speeds. These same needs drive the development of electronic device technology. Until recently the superconductive community has been tightly focused on digital devices for high speed computers. The purpose of this paper is to describe opportunities and challenges which exist for both analog and digital devices in a less familiar area, that of wideband signal processing. The function and purpose of analog signal-processing components, including matched filters, correlators and Fourier transformers, will be described and examples of superconductive implementations given. A canonic signal-processing system is then configured using these components in combination with analog/digital converters and digital output circuits to highlight the important issues of dynamic range, accuracy and equivalent computation rate. Superconductive circuits hold promise for processing signals of 10-GHz bandwidth. Signal processing systems, however, can be properly designed and implemented only through a synergistic combination of the talents of device physicists, circuit designers, algorithm architects and system engineers. An immediate challenge to the applied superconductivity community is to begin sharing ideas with these other researchers

  13. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  14. Multivariate Analysis for the Processing of Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-world experiments are becoming increasingly more complex, needing techniques capable of tracking this complexity. Signal based measurements are often used to capture this complexity, where a signal is a record of a sample’s response to a parameter (e.g. time, displacement, voltage, wavelength that is varied over a range of values. In signals the responses at each value of the varied parameter are related to each other, depending on the composition or state sample being measured. Since signals contain multiple information points, they have rich information content but are generally complex to comprehend. Multivariate Analysis (MA has profoundly transformed their analysis by allowing gross simplification of the tangled web of variation. In addition MA has also provided the advantage of being much more robust to the influence of noise than univariate methods of analysis. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness that the nature of the multivariate methods allows exploitation of its benefits for purposes other than data analysis, such as pre-processing of signals with the aim of eliminating irrelevant variations prior to analysis of the signal of interest. It has been shown that exploiting multivariate data reduction in an appropriate way can allow high fidelity denoising (removal of irreproducible non-signals, consistent and reproducible noise-insensitive correction of baseline distortions (removal of reproducible non-signals, accurate elimination of interfering signals (removal of reproducible but unwanted signals and the standardisation of signal amplitude fluctuations. At present, the field is relatively small but the possibilities for much wider application are considerable. Where signal properties are suitable for MA (such as the signal being stationary along the x-axis, these signal based corrections have the potential to be highly reproducible, and highly adaptable and are applicable in situations where the data is noisy or

  15. ASIC3 Channels Integrate Agmatine and Multiple Inflammatory Signals through the Nonproton Ligand Sensing Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Hui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs have long been known to sense extracellular protons and contribute to sensory perception. Peripheral ASIC3 channels represent natural sensors of acidic and inflammatory pain. We recently reported the use of a synthetic compound, 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ, to identify a novel nonproton sensing domain in the ASIC3 channel, and proposed that, based on its structural similarity with GMQ, the arginine metabolite agmatine (AGM may be an endogenous nonproton ligand for ASIC3 channels. Results Here, we present further evidence for the physiological correlation between AGM and ASIC3. Among arginine metabolites, only AGM and its analog arcaine (ARC activated ASIC3 channels at neutral pH in a sustained manner similar to GMQ. In addition to the homomeric ASIC3 channels, AGM also activated heteromeric ASIC3 plus ASIC1b channels, extending its potential physiological relevance. Importantly, the process of activation by AGM was highly sensitive to mild acidosis, hyperosmolarity, arachidonic acid (AA, lactic acid and reduced extracellular Ca2+. AGM-induced ASIC3 channel activation was not through the chelation of extracellular Ca2+ as occurs with increased lactate, but rather through a direct interaction with the newly identified nonproton ligand sensing domain. Finally, AGM cooperated with the multiple inflammatory signals to cause pain-related behaviors in an ASIC3-dependent manner. Conclusions Nonproton ligand sensing domain might represent a novel mechanism for activation or sensitization of ASIC3 channels underlying inflammatory pain-sensing under in vivo conditions.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing signal molecules interfere with dendritic cell-induced T-cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena; Zeuthen, Louise; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa releases a wide array of toxins and tissue-degrading enzymes. Production of these malicious virulence factors is controlled by interbacterial communication in a process known as quorum sensing. An increasing body of evidence reveals that the bacterial signal molecule N-(3-o...

  17. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešinger, Filip; Jurčo, Juraj; Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2016), N38-N48 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA ČR GAP102/12/2034 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : data visualization * software * signal processing * ECG * EEG Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  18. Blind Compressed Sensing Parameter Estimation of Non-cooperative Frequency Hopping Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the disadvantages of a non-cooperative frequency hopping communication system, such as a high sampling rate and inadequate prior information, parameter estimation based on Blind Compressed Sensing (BCS is proposed. The signal is precisely reconstructed by the alternating iteration of sparse coding and basis updating, and the hopping frequencies are directly estimated based on the results. Compared with conventional compressive sensing, blind compressed sensing does not require prior information of the frequency hopping signals; hence, it offers an effective solution to the inadequate prior information problem. In the proposed method, the signal is first modeled and then reconstructed by Orthonormal Block Diagonal Blind Compressed Sensing (OBD-BCS, and the hopping frequencies and hop period are finally estimated. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can reconstruct and estimate the parameters of noncooperative frequency hopping signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing......MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing...

  20. Nonlinear filtering for LIDAR signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lainiotis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available LIDAR (Laser Integrated Radar is an engineering problem of great practical importance in environmental monitoring sciences. Signal processing for LIDAR applications involves highly nonlinear models and consequently nonlinear filtering. Optimal nonlinear filters, however, are practically unrealizable. In this paper, the Lainiotis's multi-model partitioning methodology and the related approximate but effective nonlinear filtering algorithms are reviewed and applied to LIDAR signal processing. Extensive simulation and performance evaluation of the multi-model partitioning approach and its application to LIDAR signal processing shows that the nonlinear partitioning methods are very effective and significantly superior to the nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF, which has been the standard nonlinear filter in past engineering applications.

  1. Digital signal processing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Deergha

    2018-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive exposition of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP). With numerous illustrative examples for easy understanding of the topics, it also includes MATLAB-based examples with codes in order to encourage the readers to become more confident of the fundamentals and to gain insights into DSP. Further, it presents real-world signal processing design problems using MATLAB and programmable DSP processors. In addition to problems that require analytical solutions, it discusses problems that require solutions using MATLAB at the end of each chapter. Divided into 13 chapters, it addresses many emerging topics, which are not typically found in advanced texts on DSP. It includes a chapter on adaptive digital filters used in the signal processing problems for faster acceptable results in the presence of changing environments and changing system requirements. Moreover, it offers an overview of wavelets, enabling readers to easily understand the basics and applications of this po...

  2. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  3. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  4. Theoretical and experimental signal-to-noise ratio assessment in new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar based on an image-reject homodyne receiver has recently been demonstrated at DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. In this contribution we analyse the signal-to-noise ratio resulting from two different data processing methods both...... leading to the direction sensing capability. It is found that using the auto spectrum of the complex signal to determine the wind speed leads to a signal-to-noise ratio equivalent to that of a standard self-heterodyne receiver. Using the imaginary part of the cross spectrum to estimate the Doppler shift...... has the benefit of a zero-mean background spectrum, but comes at the expense of a decrease in the signal-to noise ratio by a factor of √2....

  5. Python for signal processing featuring IPython notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Unpingco, José

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental concepts in signal processing illustrated with Python code and made available via IPython Notebooks, which are live, interactive, browser-based documents that allow one to change parameters, redraw plots, and tinker with the ideas presented in the text. Everything in the text is computable in this format and thereby invites readers to ""experiment and learn"" as they read. The book focuses on the core, fundamental principles of signal processing. The code corresponding to this book uses the core functionality of the scientific Python toolchain that should remai

  6. Signal Processing Methods Monitor Cranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Norden Huang, of Goddard Space Flight Center, invented a set of algorithms (called the Hilbert-Huang Transform, or HHT) for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary signals that developed into a user-friendly signal processing technology for analyzing time-varying processes. At an auction managed by Ocean Tomo Federal Services LLC, licenses of 10 U.S. patents and 1 domestic patent application related to HHT were sold to DynaDx Corporation, of Mountain View, California. DynaDx is now using the licensed NASA technology for medical diagnosis and prediction of brain blood flow-related problems, such as stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

  7. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  8. An introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  9. Processing oscillatory signals by incoherent feedforward loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Carolyn; Wu, Feilun; Tsoi, Ryan; Shats, Igor; You, Lingchong

    From the timing of amoeba development to the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency,many biological signaling pathways exhibit the ability to differentiate between pulsatile and sustained signals in the regulation of downstream gene expression.While networks underlying this signal decoding are diverse,many are built around a common motif, the incoherent feedforward loop (IFFL),where an input simultaneously activates an output and an inhibitor of the output.With appropriate parameters,this motif can generate temporal adaptation,where the system is desensitized to a sustained input.This property serves as the foundation for distinguishing signals with varying temporal profiles.Here,we use quantitative modeling to examine another property of IFFLs,the ability to process oscillatory signals.Our results indicate that the system's ability to translate pulsatile dynamics is limited by two constraints.The kinetics of IFFL components dictate the input range for which the network can decode pulsatile dynamics.In addition,a match between the network parameters and signal characteristics is required for optimal ``counting''.We elucidate one potential mechanism by which information processing occurs in natural networks with implications in the design of synthetic gene circuits for this purpose. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (CZ).

  10. Attracting and repelling in homogeneous signal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downarowicz, T; Grzegorek, P; Lacroix, Y

    2010-01-01

    Attracting and repelling are discussed on two levels: in abstract signal processes and in signal processes arising as returns to a fixed set in an ergodic dynamical system. In the first approach, among other things, we give three examples in which the sum of two Poisson (hence neutral—neither attracting nor repelling) processes comes out either neutral or attracting, or repelling, depending on how the two processes depend on each other. The main new result of the second type concerns so-called 'composite events' in the form of a union of all cylinders over blocks belonging to the δ-ball in the Hamming distance around a fixed block. We prove that in a typical ergodic nonperiodic process the majority of such 'composite events' reveal strong attracting. We discuss the practical interpretation of this result

  11. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  12. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensing and Processing in Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we summarize recent advances in nanoscale electrochemistry, including the use of nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanowires. Exciting developments are reported for nanoscale redox cycling devices, which can chemically amplify signal readout. We also discuss promising

  13. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...

  14. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, P.F.; Duque, C.A.; Da Silveira, P.M.; Cerqueira, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power

  15. Optimisation in signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the optimization methods most commonly encountered in signal and image processing: artificial evolution and Parisian approach; wavelets and fractals; information criteria; training and quadratic programming; Bayesian formalism; probabilistic modeling; Markovian approach; hidden Markov models; and metaheuristics (genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, cross-entropy, particle swarm optimization, estimation of distribution algorithms, and artificial immune systems).

  16. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  17. Signal Recovery in Compressive Sensing via Multiple Sparsifying Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardhana, U. L.; Belyaev, Evgeny; Codreanu, M.

    2017-01-01

    is sparse is the key assumption utilized by such algorithms. However, the basis in which the signal is the sparsest is unknown for many natural signals of interest. Instead there may exist multiple bases which lead to a compressible representation of the signal: e.g., an image is compressible in different...... wavelet transforms. We show that a significant performance improvement can be achieved by utilizing multiple estimates of the signal using sparsifying bases in the context of signal reconstruction from compressive samples. Further, we derive a customized interior-point method to jointly obtain multiple...... estimates of a 2-D signal (image) from compressive measurements utilizing multiple sparsifying bases as well as the fact that the images usually have a sparse gradient....

  18. Proposal and Implementation of a Robust Sensing Method for DVB-T Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyi; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a sensing method for TV signals of DVB-T standard to realize effective TV White Space (TVWS) Communication. In the TVWS technology trial organized by the Infocomm Development Authority (iDA) of Singapore, with regard to the sensing level and sensing time, detecting DVB-T signal at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with a sensing time below 1 second is required. To fulfill such a strict sensing requirement, we propose a smart sensing method which combines feature detection and energy detection (CFED), and is also characterized by using dynamic threshold selection (DTS) based on a threshold table to improve sensing robustness to noise uncertainty. The DTS based CFED (DTS-CFED) is evaluated by computer simulations and is also implemented into a hardware sensing prototype. The results show that the DTS-CFED achieves a detection probability above 0.9 for a target false alarm probability of 0.1 for DVB-T signals at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with the sensing time equals to 0.1 second.

  19. Digital signal processing with Matlab examples

    CERN Document Server

    Giron-Sierra, Jose Maria

    2017-01-01

    This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs. This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.

  20. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  1. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  2. Invariance algorithms for processing NDE signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandayam, Shreekanth; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.; Lord, William

    1996-11-01

    Signals that are obtained in a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes capture information not only about the characteristics of the flaw, but also reflect variations in the specimen's material properties. Such signal changes may be viewed as anomalies that could obscure defect related information. An example of this situation occurs during in-line inspection of gas transmission pipelines. The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method is used to conduct noninvasive measurements of the integrity of the pipe-wall. The MFL signals contain information both about the permeability of the pipe-wall and the dimensions of the flaw. Similar operational effects can be found in other NDE processes. This paper presents algorithms to render NDE signals invariant to selected test parameters, while retaining defect related information. Wavelet transform based neural network techniques are employed to develop the invariance algorithms. The invariance transformation is shown to be a necessary pre-processing step for subsequent defect characterization and visualization schemes. Results demonstrating the successful application of the method are presented.

  3. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  4. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  5. Signals, processes, and systems an interactive multimedia introduction to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This is a very new concept for learning Signal Processing, not only from the physically-based scientific fundamentals, but also from the didactic perspective, based on modern results of brain research. The textbook together with the DVD form a learning system that provides investigative studies and enables the reader to interactively visualize even complex processes. The unique didactic concept is built on visualizing signals and processes on the one hand, and on graphical programming of signal processing systems on the other. The concept has been designed especially for microelectronics, computer technology and communication. The book allows to develop, modify, and optimize useful applications using DasyLab - a professional and globally supported software for metrology and control engineering. With the 3rd edition, the software is also suitable for 64 bit systems running on Windows 7. Real signals can be acquired, processed and played on the sound card of your computer. The book provides more than 200 pre-pr...

  6. Haptic teleoperation systems signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-young

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the signal processing perspective in haptic teleoperation systems. This text covers the topics of prediction, estimation, architecture, data compression, and error correction that can be applied to haptic teleoperation systems. The authors begin with an overview of haptic teleoperation systems, then look at a Bayesian approach to haptic teleoperation systems. They move onto a discussion of haptic data compression, haptic data digitization and forward error correction.   ·         Presents haptic data prediction/estimation methods that compensate for unreliable networks   ·         Discusses haptic data compression that reduces haptic data size over limited network bandwidth and haptic data error correction that compensate for packet loss problem   ·         Provides signal processing techniques used with existing control architectures.

  7. Genomic signal processing for DNA sequence clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal-Ruiz, Gerardo; Román-Godínez, Israel; Torres-Ramos, Sulema; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Morales, J Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) methods which convert DNA data to numerical values have recently been proposed, which would offer the opportunity of employing existing digital signal processing methods for genomic data. One of the most used methods for exploring data is cluster analysis which refers to the unsupervised classification of patterns in data. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for performing cluster analysis of DNA sequences that is based on the use of GSP methods and the K-means algorithm. We also propose a visualization method that facilitates the easy inspection and analysis of the results and possible hidden behaviors. Our results support the feasibility of employing the proposed method to find and easily visualize interesting features of sets of DNA data.

  8. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  9. Visible light communications modulation and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Zhengyuan

    2018-01-01

    This informative new book on state-of-the-art visible light communication (VLC) provides, for the first time, a systematical and advanced treatment of modulation and signal processing for VLC. Visible Light Communications: Modulation and Signal Processing offers a practical guide to designing VLC, linking academic research with commercial applications. In recent years, VLC has attracted attention from academia and industry since it has many advantages over the traditional radio frequency, including wide unregulated bandwidth, high security, and low cost. It is a promising complementary technique in 5G and beyond wireless communications, especially in indoor applications. However, lighting constraints have not been fully considered in the open literature when considering VLC system design, and its importance has been underestimated. That’s why this book—written by a team of experts with both academic research experience and industrial development experience in the field—is so welcome. To help readers u...

  10. Electron quantum optics as quantum signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Roussel, B.; Cabart, C.; Fève, G.; Thibierge, E.; Degiovanni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The recent developments of electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels have given us new ways to probe the behavior of electrons in quantum conductors. It has brought new quantities called electronic coherences under the spotlight. In this paper, we explore the relations between electron quantum optics and signal processing through a global review of the various methods for accessing single- and two-electron coherences in electron quantum optics. We interpret electron quantum optics...

  11. Confinement Sensing and Signal Optimization via Piezo1/PKA and Myosin II Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chien Hung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cells adopt distinct signaling pathways to optimize cell locomotion in different physical microenvironments. However, the underlying mechanism that enables cells to sense and respond to physical confinement is unknown. Using microfabricated devices and substrate-printing methods along with FRET-based biosensors, we report that, as cells transition from unconfined to confined spaces, intracellular Ca2+ level is increased, leading to phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1-dependent suppression of PKA activity. This Ca2+ elevation requires Piezo1, a stretch-activated cation channel. Moreover, differential regulation of PKA and cell stiffness in unconfined versus confined cells is abrogated by dual, but not individual, inhibition of Piezo1 and myosin II, indicating that these proteins can independently mediate confinement sensing. Signals activated by Piezo1 and myosin II in response to confinement both feed into a signaling circuit that optimizes cell motility. This study provides a mechanism by which confinement-induced signaling enables cells to sense and adapt to different physical microenvironments. : Hung et al. demonstrate that a Piezo1-dependent intracellular calcium increase negatively regulates protein kinase A (PKA as cells transit from unconfined to confined spaces. The Piezo1/PKA and myosin II signaling modules constitute two confinement-sensing mechanisms. This study provides a paradigm by which signaling enables cells to sense and adapt to different microenvironments.

  12. Hot topics: Signal processing in acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, Charles F.

    2005-09-01

    Signal processing in acoustics is a multidisciplinary group of people that work in many areas of acoustics. We have chosen two areas that have shown exciting new applications of signal processing to acoustics or have shown exciting and important results from the use of signal processing. In this session, two hot topics are shown: the use of noiselike acoustic fields to determine sound propagation structure and the use of localization to determine animal behaviors. The first topic shows the application of correlation on geo-acoustic fields to determine the Greens function for propagation through the Earth. These results can then be further used to solve geo-acoustic inverse problems. The first topic also shows the application of correlation using oceanic noise fields to determine the Greens function through the ocean. These results also have utility for oceanic inverse problems. The second topic shows exciting results from the detection, localization, and tracking of marine mammals by two different groups. Results from detection and localization of bullfrogs are shown, too. Each of these studies contributed to the knowledge of animal behavior. [Work supported by ONR.

  13. Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Llewellyn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology.

  14. Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Amy; Foey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology. PMID:29065562

  15. Nutrient sensing and TOR signaling in yeast and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Asier; Hall, Michael N

    2017-02-15

    Coordinating cell growth with nutrient availability is critical for cell survival. The evolutionarily conserved TOR (target of rapamycin) controls cell growth in response to nutrients, in particular amino acids. As a central controller of cell growth, mTOR (mammalian TOR) is implicated in several disorders, including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Here, we review how nutrient availability is sensed and transduced to TOR in budding yeast and mammals. A better understanding of how nutrient availability is transduced to TOR may allow novel strategies in the treatment for mTOR-related diseases. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Signal processing for the profoundly deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothyroyd, A

    1990-01-01

    Profound deafness, defined here as a hearing loss in excess of 90 dB, is characterized by high thresholds, reduced hearing range in the intensity and frequency domains, and poor resolution in the frequency and time domains. The high thresholds call for hearing aids with unusually high gains or remote microphones that can be placed close to the signal source. The former option creates acoustic feedback problems for which digital signal processing may yet offer solutions. The latter option calls for carrier wave technology that is already available. The reduced frequency and intensity ranges would appear to call for frequency and/or amplitude compression. It might also be argued, however, that any attempts to compress the acoustic signal into the limited hearing range of the profoundly deaf will be counterproductive because of poor frequency and time resolution, especially when the signal is present in noise. In experiments with a 2-channel compression system, only 1 of 9 subjects showed an improvement of perception with the introduction of fast-release (20 ms) compression. The other 8 experienced no benefit or a slight deterioration of performance. These results support the concept of providing the profoundly deaf with simpler, rather than more complex, patterns, perhaps through the use of feature extraction hearing aids. Data from users of cochlear implants already employing feature extraction techniques also support this concept.

  17. VanT, a central regulator of quorum sensing signalling in Vibrio anguillarum

    OpenAIRE

    Croxatto, Antony

    2006-01-01

    Many bacteria produce signal molecules that serve in a cell-to-cell communication system termed quorum sensing. This signalling system allows a bacterial population to co-ordinately regulate functions according to their cell number in a defined environment. As bacterial growth progresses towards the stationary phase, signalling molecules accumulate in the growth medium and, above a certain threshold level, regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse functions. Most of the functions m...

  18. Poisson point processes imaging, tracking, and sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2010-01-01

    This overview of non-homogeneous and multidimensional Poisson point processes and their applications features mathematical tools and applications from emission- and transmission-computed tomography to multiple target tracking and distributed sensor detection.

  19. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance... and spatial co-ordinates into discrete components. The mathematical concepts involved are the sampling and transform theory. Two dimensional transforms are used for image enhancement, restoration, encoding and description too. The main objective of the image...

  20. Research on distributed optical fiber sensing data processing method based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Meifang; Wang, Luling; Wang, Jinming; Yan, Junhong; Zuo, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The pipeline leak detection and leak location problem have gotten extensive attention in the industry. In this paper, the distributed optical fiber sensing system is designed based on the heat supply pipeline. The data processing method of distributed optical fiber sensing based on LabVIEW is studied emphatically. The hardware system includes laser, sensing optical fiber, wavelength division multiplexer, photoelectric detector, data acquisition card and computer etc. The software system is developed using LabVIEW. The software system adopts wavelet denoising method to deal with the temperature information, which improved the SNR. By extracting the characteristic value of the fiber temperature information, the system can realize the functions of temperature measurement, leak location and measurement signal storage and inquiry etc. Compared with traditional negative pressure wave method or acoustic signal method, the distributed optical fiber temperature measuring system can measure several temperatures in one measurement and locate the leak point accurately. It has a broad application prospect.

  1. General programmed system for physiological signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, E; Monge, J; Magnet, C; Sonrel, C

    1975-01-01

    Improvements made to the general programmed signal acquisition and processing system, Plurimat S, are described, the aim being to obtain a less specialized system adapted to the biological and medical field. In this modified system the acquisition will be simplified. The standard processings offered will be integrated to a real advanced language which will enable the user to create his own processings, the loss of speed being compensated by a greater flexibility and universality. The observation screen will be large and the quality of the recording very good so that a large signal fraction may be displayed. The data will be easily indexed and filed for subsequent display and processing. This system will be used for two kinds of task: it can either be specialized, as an integral part of measurement and diagnostic preparation equipment used routinely in clinical work (e.g. vectocardiographic examination), or its versatility can be used for studies of limited duration to gain information in a given field or to study new diagnosis or treatment methods.

  2. Unique portable signal acquisition/processing station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garron, R.D.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, there are experimental applications requiring digital signal acquisition as well as data reduction and analysis. A prototype Signal Acquisition/Processing Station (SAPS) has been constructed and is currently undergoing tests. The system employs an LSI-11/23 computer with Data Translation analog-to-digital hardware. SAPS is housed in a roll-around cart which has been designed to withstand most subtle EMI/RFI environments. A user-friendly menu allows a user to access powerful data acquisition packages with a minimum of training. The software architecture of SAPS involves two operating systems, each being transparent to the user. Since this is a general purpose workstation with several units being utilized, an emphasis on low cost, reliability, and maintenance was stressed during conception and design. The system is targeted for mid-range frequency data acquisition; between a data logger and a transient digitizer

  3. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  4. Role of Nutrient-Sensing Signals in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kume

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The multipronged drug approach still fails to fully prevent the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, a new therapeutic target to improve the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy is urgently required. Nutrient-sensing signals and their related intracellular machinery have evolved to combat prolonged periods of starvation in mammals; and these systems are conserved in the kidney. Recent studies have suggested that the activity of three nutrient-sensing signals, mTORC1, AMPK, and Sirt1, is altered in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, autophagy activity, which is regulated by the above-mentioned nutrient-sensing signals, is also altered in both podocytes and proximal tubular cells under diabetic conditions. Under diabetic conditions, an altered nutritional state owing to nutrient excess may disturb cellular homeostasis regulated by nutrient-responsible systems, leading to exacerbation of organelle dysfunction and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we discuss new findings showing relationships between nutrient-sensing signals, autophagy, and diabetic nephropathy and suggest the therapeutic potential of nutrient-sensing signals in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    Full Text Available Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  6. Researching on the process of remote sensing video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-rao; Zheng, Xin-qi; Sun, Yi-bo; Jia, Zong-ren; Wang, He-zhan

    Unmanned air vehicle remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude has the advantages of higher revolution, easy-shooting, real-time accessing, etc. It's been widely used in mapping , target identification, and other fields in recent years. However, because of conditional limitation, the video images are unstable, the targets move fast, and the shooting background is complex, etc., thus it is difficult to process the video images in this situation. In other fields, especially in the field of computer vision, the researches on video images are more extensive., which is very helpful for processing the remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude. Based on this, this paper analyzes and summarizes amounts of video image processing achievement in different fields, including research purposes, data sources, and the pros and cons of technology. Meantime, this paper explores the technology methods more suitable for low-altitude video image processing of remote sensing.

  7. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  8. Digital signal processing at GEND's data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion and recording of analog signals in digital form has been an active element in the manufacturing operations of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) since 1966. The first computerized data system for these digitized waveforms was implemented at GEND's data center approximately two years later during 1968. The evolution and integration of these two activities at GEND are addressed in this paper. Beginning with the tester--data center interface, emphasis is placed on previous approaches, current capabilities, near-term trends, and future requirements. The digitizing process has developed into a firmly established set of hardware and associated software techniques which has proven itself as an accurate, reliable procedure for capturing waveform characteristics. The most important aspect of this process is the recent trend toward increased sampling rates and a greater number of digitized parameters per operation. The combined effect is a tremendous increase in output data volumes. Since digital signal processing carries the potential for significant contributions to manufacturing quality and reliability, as well as engineering design and development, increased activity in this area appears extremely desirable. 11 figures

  9. OPTIMAL SIGNAL PROCESSING METHODS IN GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Karamzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, a lot of various applications of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR took place in real life. There are important challenges of this radar in civil applications and also in military applications. In this paper, the fundamentals of GPR systems will be covered and three important signal processing methods (Wavelet Transform, Matched Filter and Hilbert Huang will be compared to each other in order to get most accurate information about objects which are in subsurface or behind the wall.

  10. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  11. Ultrafast Optical Signal Processing with Bragg Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase, amplitude, speed, and polarization, in addition to many other properties of light, can be modulated by photonic Bragg structures. In conjunction with nonlinearity and quantum effects, a variety of ensuing micro- or nano-photonic applications can be realized. This paper reviews various optical phenomena in several exemplary 1D Bragg gratings. Important examples are resonantly absorbing photonic structures, chirped Bragg grating, and cholesteric liquid crystals; their unique operation capabilities and key issues are considered in detail. These Bragg structures are expected to be used in wide-spread applications involving light field modulations, especially in the rapidly advancing field of ultrafast optical signal processing.

  12. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  13. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  14. Detection, Characterization, and Biological Effect of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecules in Peanut-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Giordano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium are able to establish a symbiotic relationship with peanut (Arachis hypogaea root cells and to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to nitrogenous compounds. Quorum sensing (QS is a cell-cell communication mechanism employed by a variety of bacterial species to coordinate behavior at a community level through regulation of gene expression. The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. Some previous reports have shown the production of QS signaling molecules by various rhizobia, but little is known regarding mechanisms of communication among peanut-nodulating strains. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize QS signals produced by peanut-nodulating bradyrhizobial strains and to evaluate their effects on processes related to cell interaction. Detection of AHLs in 53 rhizobial strains was performed using the biosensor strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for AHLs with long and short acyl chains, respectively. None of the strains screened were found to produce AHLs with short acyl chains, but 14 strains produced AHLs with long acyl chains. These 14 AHL-producing strains were further studied by quantification of β-galactosidase activity levels (AHL-like inducer activity in NTL4 (pZLR4. Strains displaying moderate to high levels of AHL-like inducer activity were subjected to chemical identification of signaling molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. For each AHL-producing strain, we found at least four different AHLs, corresponding to N-hexanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C6, N-(3-oxodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC10, N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12, and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC14. Biological roles of 3OC10, 3OC12, and 3OC14 AHLs

  15. BURAR: Detection and signal processing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Radulian, Mircea; Popa, Mihaela

    2004-01-01

    Since July 2002, a new seismic monitoring station, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been installed in the northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 short-period and one broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Centre (ROM N DC), at Bucharest and to the National Data Center of USA, in Florida. The statistical analysis for the seismic information gathered at ROM N DC by the BURAR in the August 2002 - December 2003 time interval points out a much better efficiency of the BURAR system in detecting teleseismic events and local events occurred in the N-NE part of Romanian territory, in comparison with the actual Romanian Telemetered Network. Furthermore, the BURAR monitoring system has proven to be an important source of reliable data for NIEP efforts in elaborating of the seismic bulletins. Signal processing capability of the system provides useful information in order to improve the location of the local seismic events, using the array beamforming facility. This method increases significantly the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signal by summing up the coherent signals from the array components. In this way, eventual source nucleation phases can be detected. At the same time, using the slowness and backazimuth estimations by f-k analysis, locations for the seismic events can be performed based only on the information recorded by the BURAR array, acting like a single seismic station recording system. Additionally, f-k analysis techniques are useful in the local site effects estimation and interpretation of the local geological structure. (authors)

  16. Interspecies Quorum Sensing as a Stress-Anticipation Signal in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin

    in the bacterial cell-cell communication field is why E. coli harbors SdiA, an orphan quorum sensing receptor that is activated in response to AHL quorum sensing molecules produced by other Gram-negative species. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate to what degree AHL quorum sensing signals...... are exploited by E. coli to increase its chances of surviving potential environmental threats. This thesis uncovers the first quorum sensing-regulated bacteriophage defense mechanism, which serves to protect E. coli against infection by the bacteriophage viruses λ and χ. Investigating the regulatory mechanism...... underlying the quorum sensing regulated defense mechanism, led to the discovery that AHL activates expression of cnu, encoding an Hha-family protein that interacts with the global regulatory protein H-NS, and potentially modifies its functions. Inspired by the discovery that AHL protects E. coli from...

  17. Thiol/disulfide redox states in signaling and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in redox systems biology are creating new opportunities to understand complexities of human disease and contributions of environmental exposures. New understanding of thiol-disulfide systems have occurred during the past decade as a consequence of the discoveries that thiol and disulfide systems are maintained in kinetically controlled steady-states displaced from thermodynamic equilibrium, that a widely distributed family of NADPH oxidases produces oxidants that function in cell signaling, and that a family of peroxiredoxins utilize thioredoxin as a reductant to complement the well-studied glutathione antioxidant system for peroxide elimination and redox regulation. This review focuses on thiol/disulfide redox state in biologic systems and the knowledge base available to support development of integrated redox systems biology models to better understand the function and dysfunction of thiol-disulfide redox systems. In particular, central principles have emerged concerning redox compartmentalization and utility of thiol/disulfide redox measures as indicators of physiologic function. Advances in redox proteomics show that, in addition to functioning in protein active sites and cell signaling, cysteine residues also serve as redox sensors to integrate biologic functions. These advances provide a framework for translation of redox systems biology concepts to practical use in understanding and treating human disease. Biological responses to cadmium, a widespread environmental agent, are used to illustrate the utility of these advances to the understanding of complex pleiotropic toxicities. PMID:23356510

  18. Production of quorum-sensing signals by bacteria in the coral mucus layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Kuang, Weiqi; Long, Lijuan; Zhang, Si

    2017-12-01

    Quorum sensing is an integral part of bacterial communication and interaction, but has not been well characterized in coral mucus microbiota. In this study, of 61 coral mucus isolates, five alphaproteobacteria and one Vibrio species were found to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), a quorum-sensing signal in bacteria. Eight gammaproteobacteria isolates were found to produce autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing signals along with two actinobacteria of the genus Rothia. Coral mucus is rich in the antioxidant dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the concentration of which has been found to increase under heat stress. Neither AHL nor AI-2 activity was induced by DMSP in those coral mucus isolates that did not initially produce quorum-sensing signals. However, the AI-2 activities of one Rothia isolate (SCSIO 13017) from coral mucus and of Vibrio shilonii (DSM 13774 isolated from a bleached coral) were found to increase in response to 5 μM DMSP but decreased in response to 50 μM DMSP for the first time. These findings suggest that the production of quorum-sensing signals in the coral mucus microbiota may play a role in structuring the surface microbial community as they respond to environmental stress.

  19. Frequency-Selective Signal Sensing with Sub-Nyquist Uniform Sampling Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss a problem of acquisition and reconstruction of a signal polluted by adjacent- channel interference. The authors propose a method to find a sub-Nyquist uniform sampling pattern which allows for correct reconstruction of selected frequencies. The method is inspired...... by the Restricted Isometry Property, which is known from the field of compressed sensing. Then, compressed sensing is used to successfully reconstruct a wanted signal even if some of the uniform samples were randomly lost, e. g. due to ADC saturation. An experiment which tests the proposed method in practice...

  20. Hydrogen peroxide sensing, signaling and regulation of transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Susana Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory mechanisms by which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 modulates the activity of transcription factors in bacteria (OxyR and PerR, lower eukaryotes (Yap1, Maf1, Hsf1 and Msn2/4 and mammalian cells (AP-1, NRF2, CREB, HSF1, HIF-1, TP53, NF-κB, NOTCH, SP1 and SCREB-1 are reviewed. The complexity of regulatory networks increases throughout the phylogenetic tree, reaching a high level of complexity in mammalians. Multiple H2O2 sensors and pathways are triggered converging in the regulation of transcription factors at several levels: (1 synthesis of the transcription factor by upregulating transcription or increasing both mRNA stability and translation; (ii stability of the transcription factor by decreasing its association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex or by inhibiting this complex; (iii cytoplasm–nuclear traffic by exposing/masking nuclear localization signals, or by releasing the transcription factor from partners or from membrane anchors; and (iv DNA binding and nuclear transactivation by modulating transcription factor affinity towards DNA, co-activators or repressors, and by targeting specific regions of chromatin to activate individual genes. We also discuss how H2O2 biological specificity results from diverse thiol protein sensors, with different reactivity of their sulfhydryl groups towards H2O2, being activated by different concentrations and times of exposure to H2O2. The specific regulation of local H2O2 concentrations is also crucial and results from H2O2 localized production and removal controlled by signals. Finally, we formulate equations to extract from typical experiments quantitative data concerning H2O2 reactivity with sensor molecules. Rate constants of 140 M−1 s−1 and ≥1.3 × 103 M−1 s−1 were estimated, respectively, for the reaction of H2O2 with KEAP1 and with an unknown target that mediates NRF2 protein synthesis. In conclusion, the multitude of H2O2 targets and mechanisms provides an opportunity for

  1. Intelligent sensor networks the integration of sensor networks, signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Although governments worldwide have invested significantly in intelligent sensor network research and applications, few books cover intelligent sensor networks from a machine learning and signal processing perspective. Filling this void, Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning focuses on the close integration of sensing, networking, and smart signal processing via machine learning. Based on the world-class research of award-winning authors, the book provides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of intelligent sensor networks, incl

  2. Generalization of the Wide-Sense Markov Concept to a Widely Linear Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Pulido, Juan Antonio; Navarro-Moreno, Jesús; Fernández-Alcalá, Rosa María; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Carlos; Oya-Lechuga, Antonia; Ruiz-Fuentes, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the classical definition and the associated characterizations of wide-sense Markov (WSM) signals are not valid for improper complex signals. For that, we propose an extension of the concept of WSM to a widely linear (WL) setting and the study of new characterizations. Specifically, we introduce a new class of signals, called widely linear Markov (WLM) signals, and we analyze some of their properties based either on second-order properties or on state-space models from a WL processing standpoint. The study is performed in both the forwards and backwards directions of time. Thus, we provide two forwards and backwards Markovian representations for WLM signals. Finally, different estimation recursive algorithms are obtained for these models

  3. Signal Integration in Quorum Sensing Enables Cross-Species Induction of Virulence in Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Rita S; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Carvalho, André F P; Vieira, Filipe J D; Xavier, Karina B

    2017-05-23

    Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora ), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources. IMPORTANCE Quorum-sensing mechanisms enable bacteria to communicate through small signal molecules and coordinate group behaviors. Often, bacteria have various quorum-sensing receptors and integrate information with other signal transduction pathways, presumably allowing them to respond to different ecological contexts. The plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has two N-acyl homoserine lactone

  4. BURAR: Detection and signal processing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Radulian, Mircea; Popa, Mihaela

    2004-01-01

    Since July 2002, a new seismic monitoring station, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been installed in the northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 short-period and one broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km 2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Centre (ROM N DC), in Bucharest and to the National Data Center of USA, in Florida. The statistical analysis for the seismic information gathered at ROM N DC by the BURAR in the August 2002 - December 2003 time interval points out a much better efficiency of the BURAR system in detecting teleseismic events and local events occurred in the N-NE part of Romanian territory, in comparison with the actual Romanian Telemetered Network. Furthermore, the BURAR monitoring system has proven to be an important source of reliable data for NIEP efforts in issuing the seismic bulletins. Signal processing capability of the system provides useful information in order to improve the location of the local seismic events, using the array beamforming procedure. This method increases significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components. In this way, possible source nucleation phases can be detected. At the same time, using the slowness and back azimuth estimations by f-k analysis, locations for the seismic events can be established based only on the information recorded by the BURAR array, acting like a single seismic station recording system. (authors)

  5. Pyrogen sensing and signaling: old views and new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteis, C M; Sehic, E; Li, S

    2000-10-01

    Fever is thought to be caused by endogenous pyrogenic cytokines, which are elaborated and released into the circulation by systemic mononuclear phagocytes that are activated by exogenous inflammatory agents and transported to the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (POA) of the brain, where they act. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is thought to be an essential, proximal mediator in the POA, and induced by these cytokines. It seems unlikely, however, that these factors could directly account for early production of PGE2 following the intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPS), because PGE2 is generated before the cytokines that induce it are detectable in the blood and the before cyclooxygenase-2, the synthase that they stimulate, is expressed. Hence other, more quickly evoked mediators are presumed to be involved in initiating the febrile response; moreover, their message may be conveyed to the brain by a neural rather than a humoral pathway. This article reviews current conceptions of pyrogen signalling from the periphery to the brain and presents new, developing hypotheses about the mechanism by which LPS initiates fever.

  6. Signal processing issues in reflection tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadalli, Nail

    2001-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on signal modeling and processing issues of the following problems in reflection tomography: synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging of a runway and surroundings from an aircraft approaching for landing, acoustic imaging of objects buried in soil, and lidar imaging of underwater objects. The highly squinted geometry of runway imaging necessitates the incorporation of wavefront curvature into the signal model. We investigate the feasibility of using the wavenumber-domain (ω - k) SAR inversion algorithm, which models the actual curvature of the wavefront, for runway imaging. We demonstrate the aberrations that the algorithm can produce when the squint angle is close to 90° and show that high-quality reconstruction is still possible provided that the interpolation is performed accurately enough, which can be achieved by increasing the temporal sampling rate. We compare the performance with that of a more general inversion method (GIM) that solves the measurement equation directly. The performances of both methods are comparable in the noise- free case. Being inherently robust to noise, GIM produces superior results in the noisy case. We also present a solution to the left-right ambiguity of runway imaging using interferometric processing. In imaging of objects buried in soil, we pursue an acoustic approach primarily for detection and imaging of cultural artifacts. We have developed a mathematical model and associated computer software in order to simulate the signals acquired by the actual experimental system, and a bistatic SAR-type algorithm for reconstruction. In the reconstructions from simulated data, objects were detectable, but near-field objects suffered from shifts and smears. To account for wavefront curvature, we formulated processing of the simulated data using the 3-D version of the monostatic ω - k algorithm. In lidar imaging of underwater objects, we formulate the problem as a 3-D tomographic reconstruction problem. We have

  7. Signal Integration in Quorum Sensing Enables Cross-Species Induction of Virulence in Pectobacterium wasabiae

    OpenAIRE

    Rita S. Valente; Pol Nadal-Jimenez; André F. P. Carvalho; Filipe J. D. Vieira; Karina B. Xavier; Bonnie Bassler

    2017-01-01

    This deposit is composed by the main article plus the supplementary materials of the publication. Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts....

  8. Proceedings of the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing XVII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The seventeenth of a series of workshops sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society and organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee (MLSP-TC). The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has...... become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected in this collection, machine learning for signal processing combines many ideas from adaptive signal/image processing, learning theory and models, and statistics in order to solve complex real-world signal processing......, and two papers from the winners of the Data Analysis Competition. The program included papers in the following areas: genomic signal processing, pattern recognition and classification, image and video processing, blind signal processing, models, learning algorithms, and applications of machine learning...

  9. Signal Processing for Improved Wireless Receiver Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with signal processing for improving the performance of wireless communication receivers for well-established cellular networks such as the GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA systems. The goal of doing so, is to improve the end-user experience and/or provide a higher system capacity...... by allowing an increased reuse of network resources. To achieve this goal, one must first understand the nature of the problem and an introduction is therefore provided. In addition, the concept of graph-based models and approximations for wireless communications is introduced along with various Belief...... Propagation (BP) methods for detecting the transmitted information, including the Turbo principle. Having established a framework for the research, various approximate detection schemes are discussed. First, the general form of linear detection is presented and it is argued that this may be preferable...

  10. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  11. A simple approach to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Marven, Craig

    1996-01-01

    A readable, understandable introduction to DSP for professionals and students alike . . . This practical guide is a welcome alternative to more complicated introductions to DSP. It assumes no prior DSP experience and takes the reader step-by-step through the most basic signal processing concepts to more complex functions and devices, including sampling, filtering, frequency transforms, data compression, and even DSP design decisions. The guide provides clear, concise explanations and examples, while keeping mathematics to a minimum, to help develop a fundamental understanding of DSP. Other features include: * An extensive resource bibliography of more advanced DSP books. * An example of a typical DSP system development cycle, including tool descriptions. * A complete glossary of DSP-related acronyms Whether you're a working engineer looking into DSP for the first time or an undergraduate struggling to comprehend the subject, this engaging introduction provides easy access to the basic knowledge that will l...

  12. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  13. Integrated Gis-remote sensing processing applied to vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A remotely sensed digital image of SPOT by its linear enhancement on a large memory, high speed, and digital electronic computer revealed from false colour composite that vegetation is expressed as red. Further processing of SPOT digital image for arithmetic banding of Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) ...

  14. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  15. Mobile Sensing of Pedestrian Flocks in Indoor Environments using WiFi Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Wirz, Martin; Roggen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    a cohesive whole - specifically flocks - with clustering approaches operating on three different feature sets derived from WiFi signals which are comparatively analysed. Automatic detection of flocks has several important applications, including social and psychological sensing and emergency research studies...

  16. A Spectrum Sensing Method Based on Signal Feature and Clustering Algorithm in Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of difficulty in determining the threshold in spectrum sensing technologies based on the random matrix theory, a spectrum sensing method based on clustering algorithm and signal feature is proposed for Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. Firstly, the wireless communication signal features are obtained according to the sampling signal covariance matrix. Then, the clustering algorithm is used to classify and test the signal features. Different signal features and clustering algorithms are compared in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better sensing performance.

  17. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing is a technology that engages electromagnetic sensors to measure and monitor changes in the earth's surface and atmosphere. Normally this is accomplished through the use of a satellite or aircraft. This book, in its 3rd edition, seamlessly connects the art and science of earth remote sensing with the latest interpretative tools and techniques of computer-aided image processing. Newly expanded and updated, this edition delivers more of the applied scientific theory and practical results that helped the previous editions earn wide acclaim and become classroom and industry standa

  18. Optical microphone with fiber Bragg grating and signal processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Olivero, Massimo; Perrone, Guido

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the realization of an optical microphone array using fiber Bragg gratings as sensing elements. The wavelength shift induced by acoustic waves perturbing the sensing Bragg grating is transduced into an intensity modulation. The interrogation unit is based on a fixed-wavelength laser source and - as receiver - a photodetector with proper amplification; the system has been implemented using devices for standard optical communications, achieving a low-cost interrogator. One of the advantages of the proposed approach is that no voltage-to-strain calibration is required for tracking dynamic shifts. The optical sensor is complemented by signal processing tools, including a data-dependent frequency estimator and adaptive filters, in order to improve the frequency-domain analysis and mitigate the effects of disturbances. Feasibility and performances of the optical system have been tested measuring the output of a loudspeaker. With this configuration, the sensor is capable of correctly detecting sounds up to 3 kHz, with a frequency response that exhibits a top sensitivity within the range 200-500 Hz; single-frequency input sounds inducing an axial strain higher than ~10nɛ are correctly detected. The repeatability range is ~0.1%. The sensor has also been applied for the detection of pulsed stimuli generated from a metronome.

  19. Portable remote sensing image processing system; Kahangata remote sensing gazo shori system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, S; Uchida, K; Tanaka, S; Jingo, H [Dowa Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Recently, geological analysis using remote sensing data has been put into practice due to data with high spectral resolution and high spatial resolution. There has been a remarkable increase in both software and hardware of personal computer. Software is independent of hardware due to Windows. It has become easy to develop softwares. Under such situation, a portable remote sensing image processing system coping with Window 95 has been developed. Using this system, basic image processing can be conducted, and present location can be displayed on the image in real time by linking with GPS. Accordingly, it is not required to bring printed images for the field works of image processing. This system can be used instead of topographic maps for overseas surveys. Microsoft Visual C++ ver. 2.0 is used for the software. 1 fig.

  20. Signal processing issues for the exploitation of pulse-to-pulse encoding SAR transponders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Schiavon, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    -encoding point scatterers and distributed ones. A time-domain processing algorithm and a code synchronization procedure are proposed and validated on simulated data and on a European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 data set containing prototypes of such a device. The interaction of the transponder signal with terrain...

  1. Distributed Sensing and Processing for Multi-Camera Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C.; Chellappa, Rama; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    Sensor networks with large numbers of cameras are becoming increasingly prevalent in a wide range of applications, including video conferencing, motion capture, surveillance, and clinical diagnostics. In this chapter, we identify some of the fundamental challenges in designing such systems: robust statistical inference, computationally efficiency, and opportunistic and parsimonious sensing. We show that the geometric constraints induced by the imaging process are extremely useful for identifying and designing optimal estimators for object detection and tracking tasks. We also derive pipelined and parallelized implementations of popular tools used for statistical inference in non-linear systems, of which multi-camera systems are examples. Finally, we highlight the use of the emerging theory of compressive sensing in reducing the amount of data sensed and communicated by a camera network.

  2. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...

  3. Online sensing and control of oil in process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, Irina B.; Soukhomlinoff, Alexander D.; Mitchell, T. F.; Selenow, Alexander E.

    2002-02-01

    Industrial processes, which eliminate high concentration of oil in their waste stream, find it extremely difficult to measure and control the water purification process. Most oil separation processes involve chemical separation using highly corrosive caustics, acids, surfactants, and emulsifiers. Included in the output of this chemical treatment process are highly adhesive tar-like globules, emulsified and surface oils, and other emulsified chemicals, in addition to suspended solids. The level of oil/hydrocarbons concentration in the wastewater process may fluctuate from 1 ppm to 10,000 ppm, depending upon the specifications of the industry and level of water quality control. The authors have developed a sensing technology, which provides the accuracy of scatter/absorption sensing in a contactless environment by combining these methodologies with reflective measurement. The sensitivity of the sensor may be modified by changing the fluid level control in the flow cell, allowing for a broad range of accurate measurement from 1 ppm to 10,000 ppm. Because this sensing system has been designed to work in a highly invasive environment, it can be placed close to the process source to allow for accurate real time measurement and control.

  4. Luminescence, virulence and quorum sensing signal production by pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, T; Verstraete, W; Bossier, P

    2008-05-01

    To study the relationship between luminescence, autoinducer production and virulence of pathogenic vibrios. Luminescence, quorum sensing signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp nauplii of 13 Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi strains were studied. Although only two of the tested strains were brightly luminescent, all of them were shown to produce the three different types of quorum sensing signals known to be produced by Vibrio harveyi. Cell-free culture fluids of all strains significantly induced bioluminescence in the cholerae autoinducer 1, autoinducer 2 and harveyi autoinducer 1 reporter strains JAF375, JMH597 and JMH612, respectively. There was no relation between luminescence and signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp. There is a large difference between different strains of Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi with respect to bioluminescence. However, this is not reflected in signal production and virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp. Moreover, there seems to be no relation between quorum sensing signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp. The results presented here indicate that strains that are most brightly luminescent are not necessarily the most virulent ones and that the lower virulence of some of the strains is not due to a lack of autoinducer production.

  5. Sensing the fuels: glucose and lipid signaling in the CNS controlling energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sabine D; Könner, A Christine; Brüning, Jens C

    2010-10-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is capable of gathering information on the body's nutritional state and it implements appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in fuel availability. This feedback signaling of peripheral tissues ensures the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The hypothalamus is a primary site of convergence and integration for these nutrient-related feedback signals, which include central and peripheral neuronal inputs as well as hormonal signals. Increasing evidence indicates that glucose and lipids are detected by specialized fuel-sensing neurons that are integrated in these hypothalamic neuronal circuits. The purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of fuel-sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus, to integrate the recent findings in this field, and to address the potential role of dysregulation in these pathways in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Wavelet-Based Signal Processing of Electromagnetic Pulse Generated Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardolino, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared alternative signal processing techniques that used wavelet-based methods instead of traditional frequency domain methods for processing measured electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waveforms...

  7. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  8. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  9. Signal Processing Model for Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H

    2008-07-28

    This note describes the design of a simplified gamma ray transport model for use in designing a sequential Bayesian signal processor for low-count detection and classification. It uses a simple one-dimensional geometry to describe the emitting source, shield effects, and detector (see Fig. 1). At present, only Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are implemented for the shield and the detector. Other effects may be incorporated in the future by revising the expressions for the probabilities of escape and absorption. Pair production would require a redesign of the simulator to incorporate photon correlation effects. The initial design incorporates the physical effects that were present in the previous event mode sequence simulator created by Alan Meyer. The main difference is that this simulator transports the rate distributions instead of single photons. Event mode sequences and other time-dependent photon flux sequences are assumed to be marked Poisson processes that are entirely described by their rate distributions. Individual realizations can be constructed from the rate distribution using a random Poisson point sequence generator.

  10. Closed orbit feedback with digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1994-01-01

    The closed orbit feedback experiment conducted on the SPEAR using the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique and digital signal processing (DSP) is presented. The beam response matrix, defined as beam motion at beam position monitor (BPM) locations per unit kick by corrector magnets, was measured and then analyzed using SVD. Ten BPMs, sixteen correctors, and the eight largest SVD eigenvalues were used for closed orbit correction. The maximum sampling frequency for the closed loop feedback was measured at 37 Hz. Using the proportional and integral (PI) control algorithm with the gains Kp = 3 and K I = 0.05 and the open-loop bandwidth corresponding to 1% of the sampling frequency, a correction bandwidth (-3 dB) of approximately 0.8 Hz was achieved. Time domain measurements showed that the response time of the closed loop feedback system for 1/e decay was approximately 0.25 second. This result implies ∼ 100 Hz correction bandwidth for the planned beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring with the projected 4-kHz sampling frequency

  11. Pilotless recovery of clipped OFDM signals by compressive sensing over reliable data carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method of clipping mitigation in OFDM using compressive sensing that completely avoids using reserved tones or channel-estimation pilots. The method builds on selecting the most reliable perturbations from the constellation lattice upon decoding at the receiver (in the frequency domain), and performs compressive sensing over these observations in order to completely recover the sparse nonlinear distortion in the time domain. As such, the method provides a practical solution to the problem of initial erroneous decoding decisions in iterative ML methods, and the ability to recover the distorted signal in one shot. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Pilotless recovery of clipped OFDM signals by compressive sensing over reliable data carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method of clipping mitigation in OFDM using compressive sensing that completely avoids using reserved tones or channel-estimation pilots. The method builds on selecting the most reliable perturbations from the constellation lattice upon decoding at the receiver (in the frequency domain), and performs compressive sensing over these observations in order to completely recover the sparse nonlinear distortion in the time domain. As such, the method provides a practical solution to the problem of initial erroneous decoding decisions in iterative ML methods, and the ability to recover the distorted signal in one shot. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. RMP: Reduced-set matching pursuit approach for efficient compressed sensing signal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Abdel-Sayed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing enables the acquisition of sparse signals at a rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. Compressed sensing initially adopted ℓ1 minimization for signal reconstruction which is computationally expensive. Several greedy recovery algorithms have been recently proposed for signal reconstruction at a lower computational complexity compared to the optimal ℓ1 minimization, while maintaining a good reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the Reduced-set Matching Pursuit (RMP greedy recovery algorithm is proposed for compressed sensing. Unlike existing approaches which either select too many or too few values per iteration, RMP aims at selecting the most sufficient number of correlation values per iteration, which improves both the reconstruction time and error. Furthermore, RMP prunes the estimated signal, and hence, excludes the incorrectly selected values. The RMP algorithm achieves a higher reconstruction accuracy at a significantly low computational complexity compared to existing greedy recovery algorithms. It is even superior to ℓ1 minimization in terms of the normalized time-error product, a new metric introduced to measure the trade-off between the reconstruction time and error. RMP superior performance is illustrated with both noiseless and noisy samples.

  14. RMP: Reduced-set matching pursuit approach for efficient compressed sensing signal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sayed, Michael M; Khattab, Ahmed; Abu-Elyazeed, Mohamed F

    2016-11-01

    Compressed sensing enables the acquisition of sparse signals at a rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. Compressed sensing initially adopted [Formula: see text] minimization for signal reconstruction which is computationally expensive. Several greedy recovery algorithms have been recently proposed for signal reconstruction at a lower computational complexity compared to the optimal [Formula: see text] minimization, while maintaining a good reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the Reduced-set Matching Pursuit (RMP) greedy recovery algorithm is proposed for compressed sensing. Unlike existing approaches which either select too many or too few values per iteration, RMP aims at selecting the most sufficient number of correlation values per iteration, which improves both the reconstruction time and error. Furthermore, RMP prunes the estimated signal, and hence, excludes the incorrectly selected values. The RMP algorithm achieves a higher reconstruction accuracy at a significantly low computational complexity compared to existing greedy recovery algorithms. It is even superior to [Formula: see text] minimization in terms of the normalized time-error product, a new metric introduced to measure the trade-off between the reconstruction time and error. RMP superior performance is illustrated with both noiseless and noisy samples.

  15. Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception-cognition-action and i...... of categorical sensing and perception with the equally hierarchical issues of the "binding problem", "triadic causality", the "emergent interpretant" and the increasing semiotic freedom observed in biological and cognitive systems....

  16. Diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum sensing in pathogenic bacteria and its exploitation for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, J M

    2017-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signals of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids of differing chain length and branching pattern. DSF signalling has been described in diverse bacteria to include plant and human pathogens where it acts to regulate functions such as biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and the production of virulence factors. DSF family signals can also participate in interspecies signalling with other bacteria and interkingdom signalling such as with the yeast Candida albicans. Interference with DSF signalling may afford new opportunities for the control of bacterial disease. Such strategies will depend in part on detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of signal synthesis, perception and turnover. Here, I review both recent progress in understanding DSF signalling at the molecular level and prospects for translating this knowledge into approaches for disease control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Silicon Photonics for Signal Processing of Tbit/s Serial Data Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent work on signal processing of terabit per second optical serial data signals using pure silicon waveguides. We employ nonlinear optical signal processing in nanoengineered silicon waveguides to perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28-Tbit/...

  18. Microwave signal processing with photorefractive dynamic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Edeline B.

    Have you ever found yourself listening to the music playing from the closest stereo rather than to the bromidic (uninspiring) person speaking to you? Your ears receive information from two sources but your brain listens to only one. What if your cell phone could distinguish among signals sharing the same bandwidth too? There would be no "full" channels to stop you from placing or receiving a call. This thesis presents a nonlinear optical circuit capable of distinguishing uncorrelated signals that have overlapping temporal bandwidths. This so called autotuning filter is the size of a U.S. quarter dollar and requires less than 3 mW of optical power to operate. It is basically an oscillator in which the losses are compensated with dynamic holographic gain. The combination of two photorefractive crystals in the resonator governs the filter's winner-take-all dynamics through signal-competition for gain. This physical circuit extracts what is mathematically referred to as the largest principal component of its spatio-temporal input space. The circuit's practicality is demonstrated by its incorporation in an RF-photonic system. An unknown mixture of unknown microwave signals, received by an antenna array, constitutes the input to the system. The output electronically returns one of the original microwave signals. The front-end of the system down converts the 10 GHz microwave signals and amplifies them before the signals phase modulate optical beams. The optical carrier is suppressed from these beams so that it may not be considered as a signal itself to the autotuning filter. The suppression is achieved with two-beam coupling in a single photorefractive crystal. The filter extracts the more intense of the signals present on the carrier-suppressed input beams. The detection of the extracted signal restores the microwave signal to an electronic form. The system, without the receiving antenna array, is packaged in a 13 x 18 x 6″ briefcase. Its power consumption equals that

  19. Signal processing for liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the effects of thermal and pileup noise in liquid ionization calorimeters operating in a high luminosity calorimeters operating in a high luminosity environment. The method of optimal filtering of multiply-sampled signals which may be used to improve the timing and amplitude resolution of calorimeter signals is described, and its implications for signal shaping functions are examined. The dependence of the time and amplitude resolution on the relative strength of the pileup and thermal noise, which varies with such parameters as luminosity, rapidity and calorimeter cell size, is examined

  20. Knee joint vibroarthrographic signal processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the cutting-edge technologies of knee joint vibroarthrographic signal analysis for the screening and detection of knee joint injuries. It describes a number of effective computer-aided methods for analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary biomedical signals generated by complex physiological mechanics. This book also introduces several popular machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms for biomedical signal classifications. The book is well-suited for all researchers looking to better understand knee joint biomechanics and the advanced technology for vibration arthrometry. Dr. Yunfeng Wu is an Associate Professor at the School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

  1. Hypothalamic glucose-sensing: role of Glia-to-neuron signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, M C; Lanfray, D; Castel, H; Vaudry, H; Morin, F

    2013-12-01

    The hypothalamus senses hormones and nutrients in order to regulate energy balance. In particular, detection of hypothalamic glucose levels has been shown to regulate both feeding behavior and peripheral glucose homeostasis, and impairment of this regulatory system is believed to be involved in the development of obesity and diabetes. Several data clearly demonstrate that glial cells are key elements in the perception of glucose, constituting with neurons a "glucose-sensing unit". Characterization of this interplay between glia and neurons represents an exciting challenge, and will undoubtedly contribute to identify new candidates for therapeutic intervention. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current data that stress the importance of glia in central glucose-sensing. The nature of the glia-to-neuron signaling is discussed, with a special focus on the endozepine ODN, a potent anorexigenic peptide that is highly expressed in hypothalamic glia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Signal Integration in Quorum Sensing Enables Cross-Species Induction of Virulence in Pectobacterium wasabiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. Valente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora, two signaling networks—the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway—control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources.

  3. Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Machado, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the en......Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae...... violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were...

  4. Electrical measurement, signal processing, and displays

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, John G

    2003-01-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC VARIABLES MEASUREMENTVoltage MeasurementCurrent Measurement Power Measurement Power Factor Measurement Phase Measurement Energy Measurement Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity Charge Measurement Capacitance and Capacitance Measurements Permittivity Measurement Electric Field Strength Magnetic Field Measurement Permeability and Hysteresis MeasurementInductance Measurement Immittance MeasurementQ Factor Measurement Distortion Measurement Noise Measurement.Microwave Measurement SIGNAL PROCESSINGAmplifiers and Signal ConditionersModulation Filters Spectrum Analysis and Correlat

  5. Transforming Growth Factor β/Activin Signaling Functions as a Sugar-Sensing Feedback Loop to Regulate Digestive Enzyme Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Alfred Chng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Organisms need to assess their nutritional state and adapt their digestive capacity to the demands for various nutrients. Modulation of digestive enzyme production represents a rational step to regulate nutriment uptake. However, the role of digestion in nutrient homeostasis has been largely neglected. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism underlying glucose repression of digestive enzymes in the adult Drosophila midgut. We demonstrate that glucose represses the expression of many carbohydrases and lipases. Our data reveal that the consumption of nutritious sugars stimulates the secretion of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β ligand, Dawdle, from the fat body. Dawdle then acts via circulation to activate TGF-β/Activin signaling in the midgut, culminating in the repression of digestive enzymes that are highly expressed during starvation. Thus, our study not only identifies a mechanism that couples sugar sensing with digestive enzyme expression but points to an important role of TGF-β/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism. : Organisms modulate their digestive processes to reflect their nutritional state. In this study, Chng et al. demonstrate that the TGF-β/Activin pathway functions as a carbohydrate-sensing mechanism in the adult Drosophila midgut to regulate digestive enzyme expression. They show that the TGF-β ligand, Dawdle, and the canonical TGF-β/Activin signaling are essential to couple carbohydrate sensing with digestive enzyme expression. Thus, their study highlights an unexpected function of TGF-β/Activin signaling that is beyond their established roles in development and immunity.

  6. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Stable transmission of radio frequency signals on fiber links using interferomectric delay sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Russell B.; Byrd, J.M.; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang; Staples, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors demonstrate distribution of a 2850 MHz rf signal over stabilized optical fiber links. For a 2.2 km link they measure an rms drift of 19.4 fs over 60 h, and for a 200 m link an rms drift of 8.4 fs over 20 h. The rf signals are transmitted as amplitude modulation on a continuous optical carrier. Variations in the delay length are sensed using heterodyne interferometry and used to correct the rf phase. The system uses standard fiber telecommunications components.

  8. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  9. From deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in Epsilonproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bolognini, Marie; Ricci, Jessica; Bini, Elisabetta; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-05-01

    Chemosynthetic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. In many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. Within the Epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxS/autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mechanism to control the expression of some of these functions. In this study we showed that luxS is conserved in Epsilonproteobacteria and that pathogenic and mesophilic members of this class inherited this gene from a thermophilic ancestor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the luxS gene is expressed--and a quorum-sensing signal is produced--during growth of Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Caminibacter mediatlanticus, two Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Finally, we detected luxS transcripts in Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm communities collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, our findings indicate that the epsiloproteobacterial lineage of the LuxS enzyme originated in high-temperature geothermal environments and that, in vent Epsilonproteobacteria, luxS expression is linked to the production of AI-2 signals, which are likely produced in situ at deep-sea vents. We conclude that the luxS gene is part of the ancestral epsilonproteobacterial genome and represents an evolutionary link that connects thermophiles to human pathogens.

  10. Receivers for processing electron beam pick-up electrode signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    There are several methods of determining the transverse position of the electron beam, based upon sensing either the electric field, the magnetic field, or both. At the NSLS the transverse beam position monitors each consist of a set of four circular electrodes. There are 48 sets of pick-up electrodes in the X-ray ring and 24 in the VUV storage ring for determining the electron orbit, and a few extra sets installed for specialized purposes. When the beam passes between the four electrodes, charge is induced on each electrode, the amount depending upon the distance of the beam from that electrode. If V a , V b , V c and V d given by a difference between pairs of electrodes normalized for variations in beam current by dividing by the sum of electrode voltages. The method of processing these signals depends upon their time structure. The electrons circulating around the vacuum chamber are concentrated in short bunches within stability buckets produced by the accelerating voltage in the RF cavities. The charges induced on the pickup electrodes then are narrow pulses, a fraction of a nanosecond long, and would result in a monopolar voltage pulses if it were not for the impedance of the cable connecting the electrode to the processing apparatus. The capacitance between each electrode and the chamber wall is only a few picofarads and is effectively in parallel with the cable impedance (50 ohms). Thus an appreciable amount of the charge flows off the electrode while the bunch is between the electrodes, resulting in potential of opposite sign as the bunch is leaving the vicinity of the electrode. The resulting signal consists of a series of bipolar pulses, each of less than one nanosecond duration

  11. Signal processing for LED lighting systems : illumination rendering and sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solid state lighting, employing high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs), is becoming increasingly widely used. The advantages of LEDs include high radiative efficiency, long lifetime, limited heat generation and superior tolerance to humidity. Another important advantage of LED lighting systems

  12. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    and the continuum. Additional to the conventional time-domain modeling scheme, a small-signal perturbation analysis has been used to assist the investigation of harmonic modulation properties. The static properties of quantum dot devices, for example high saturation power, have been quantitatively analyzed....... Additional to the static linear amplication properties, we focus on exploring the gain dynamics on the time scale ranging from sub-picosecond to nanosecond. In terms of optical signals that have been investigated, one is the simple sinusoidally modulated optical carrier with a typical modulation frequency....... We also investigate the gain dynamics in the presence of pulsed signals, in particular the steady gain response to a periodic pulse trains with various time periods. Additional to the analysis of high speed patterning free amplication up to 150-200 Gb/s in quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers...

  13. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the Fifteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP’2005), held in Mystic, Connecticut, USA, September 28-30, 2005. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP) organized...... by the NNSP Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized...... by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started two years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees...

  14. Wavelet-Based Processing for Fiber Optic Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamory, Philip J. (Inventor); Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of processing conglomerate data. The method employs a Triband Wavelet Transform that decomposes and decimates the conglomerate signal to obtain a final result. The invention may be employed to improve performance of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry systems.

  15. Identification of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecule of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Cuiping; Lyu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Ma, Changlu; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-12-14

    Many bacteria in nature use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate gene expression. The quorum sensing system plays critical roles in the adaptation of bacteria to the surrounding environment. Previous studies have shown that during high-density fermentation, the autolysis of lactic acid bacteria was regulated by the QS system, and the two-component system (TCS, LBUL_RS00115/LBUL_RS00110) is involved in the autolysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. However, the QS signal molecule, which regulates this pathway, has not been identified. In this study, we compared the genome of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365 with the locus of seven lactobacillus QS systems; the position of the QS signal molecule of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365 was predicted by bioinformatics tool. Its function was identified by in vitro experiments. Construction of TCS mutant by gene knockout of LBUL_RS00115 confirmed that the signal molecule regulates the density of the flora by the TCS (LBUL_RS00115/LBUL_RS00110). This study indicated that quorum quenching and inhibition based on the signal molecule might serve as an approach to reduce the rate of autolysis of LAB and increase the number of live bacteria in fermentation.

  16. Arcuate NPY neurons sense and integrate peripheral metabolic signals to control feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Yada, Toshihiko

    2012-12-01

    NPY neuron in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is a key feeding center. Studies have shown that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus has a role to induce food intake. The arcuate nucleus is structurally unique with lacking blood brain barrier. Peripheral energy signals including hormones and nutrition can reach the arcuate nucleus. In this review, we discuss sensing and integrating peripheral signals in NPY neurons. In the arcuate nucleus, ghrelin mainly activates NPY neurons. Leptin and insulin suppress the ghrelin-induced activation in 30-40% of the ghrelin-activated NPY neurons. Lowering glucose concentration activates 40% of NPY neurons. These results indicate that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus is a feeding center in which major peripheral energy signals are directly sensed and integrated. Furthermore, there are subpopulations of NPY neurons in regard to their responsiveness to peripheral signals. These findings suggest that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus is an essential feeding center to induce food intake in response to peripheral metabolic state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Signal Conditioning An Introduction to Continuous Wave Communication and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2012-01-01

    "Signal Conditioning” is a comprehensive introduction to electronic signal processing. The book presents the mathematical basics including the implications of various transformed domain representations in signal synthesis and analysis in an understandable and lucid fashion and illustrates the theory through many applications and examples from communication systems. The ease to learn is supported by well-chosen exercises which give readers the flavor of the subject. Supplementary electronic materials available on http://extras.springer.com including MATLAB codes illuminating applications in the domain of one dimensional electrical signal processing, image processing and speech processing. The book is an introduction for students with a basic understanding in engineering or natural sciences.

  18. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  19. A spatial-spectral approach for deriving high signal quality eigenvectors for remote sensing image transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Derek; Bachmann, Martin; Rivard, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Spectral decorrelation (transformations) methods have long been used in remote sensing. Transformation of the image data onto eigenvectors that comprise physically meaningful spectral properties (signal) can be used to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral images as the number of spectrally...... distinct signal sources composing a given hyperspectral scene is generally much less than the number of spectral bands. Determining eigenvectors dominated by signal variance as opposed to noise is a difficult task. Problems also arise in using these transformations on large images, multiple flight...... and spectral subsampling to the data, which is accomplished by deriving a limited set of eigenvectors for spatially contiguous subsets. These subset eigenvectors are compiled together to form a new noise reduced data set, which is subsequently used to derive a set of global orthogonal eigenvectors. Data from...

  20. Signal Sensing and Transduction by Histidine Kinases as Unveiled through Studies on a Temperature Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A; Albanesi, Daniela; Dal Peraro, Matteo; de Mendoza, Diego

    2017-06-20

    Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory proteins of two-component systems, responsible for a large fraction of bacterial responses to stimuli and environmental changes. Prototypical HKs are membrane-bound proteins that phosphorylate cognate response regulator proteins in the cytoplasm upon signal detection in the membrane or periplasm. HKs stand as potential drug targets but also constitute fascinating systems for studying proteins at work, specifically regarding the chemistry and mechanics of signal detection, transduction through the membrane, and regulation of catalytic outputs. In this Account, we focus on Bacillus subtilis DesK, a membrane-bound HK part of a two-component system that maintains appropriate membrane fluidity at low growth temperatures. Unlike most HKs, DesK has no extracytoplasmic signal-sensing domains; instead, sensing is carried out by 10 transmembrane helices (coming from two protomers) arranged in an unknown structure. The fifth transmembrane helix from each protomer connects, without any of the intermediate domains found in other HKs, into the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain located in the cytoplasm, which is followed by the ATP-binding domains (ABD). Throughout the years, genetic, biochemical, structural, and computational studies on wild-type, mutant, and truncated versions of DesK allowed us to dissect several aspects of DesK's functioning, pushing forward a more general understanding of its own structure/function relationships as well as those of other HKs. We have shown that the sensing mechanism is rooted in temperature-dependent membrane properties, most likely a combination of thickness, fluidity, and water permeability, and we have proposed possible mechanisms by which DesK senses these properties and transduces the signals. X-ray structures and computational models have revealed structural features of TM and cytoplasmic regions in DesK's kinase- and phosphatase-competent states. Biochemical and genetic

  1. Development of an Ontology-Directed Signal Processing Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen W. Lang

    2011-05-27

    This project was focused on the development of tools for the automatic configuration of signal processing systems. The goal is to develop tools that will be useful in a variety of Government and commercial areas and useable by people who are not signal processing experts. In order to get the most benefit from signal processing techniques, deep technical expertise is often required in order to select appropriate algorithms, combine them into a processing chain, and tune algorithm parameters for best performance on a specific problem. Therefore a significant benefit would result from the assembly of a toolbox of processing algorithms that has been selected for their effectiveness in a group of related problem areas, along with the means to allow people who are not signal processing experts to reliably select, combine, and tune these algorithms to solve specific problems. Defining a vocabulary for problem domain experts that is sufficiently expressive to drive the configuration of signal processing functions will allow the expertise of signal processing experts to be captured in rules for automated configuration. In order to test the feasibility of this approach, we addressed a lightning classification problem, which was proposed by DOE as a surrogate for problems encountered in nuclear nonproliferation data processing. We coded a toolbox of low-level signal processing algorithms for extracting features of RF waveforms, and demonstrated a prototype tool for screening data. We showed examples of using the tool for expediting the generation of ground-truth metadata, for training a signal recognizer, and for searching for signals with particular characteristics. The public benefits of this approach, if successful, will accrue to Government and commercial activities that face the same general problem - the development of sensor systems for complex environments. It will enable problem domain experts (e.g. analysts) to construct signal and image processing chains without

  2. Robust digital processing of speech signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Branko; Veinović, Mladen; Marković, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on speech signal phenomena, presenting a robustification of the usual speech generation models with regard to the presumed types of excitation signals, which is equivalent to the introduction of a class of nonlinear models and the corresponding criterion functions for parameter estimation. Compared to the general class of nonlinear models, such as various neural networks, these models possess good properties of controlled complexity, the option of working in “online” mode, as well as a low information volume for efficient speech encoding and transmission. Providing comprehensive insights, the book is based on the authors’ research, which has already been published, supplemented by additional texts discussing general considerations of speech modeling, linear predictive analysis and robust parameter estimation.

  3. SIGNAL PROCESSING UTILIZING RADIO FREQUENCY PHOTONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-07

    has many advantages over these electronic counterparts. The ability to cover larger bandwidths, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low weight...is unlimited. 4.1 RF Photonics Sampling with Electronic ADCs Figure 7 shows a photonic sampling scheme. The amplitude of the pulses from a laser are...modified by the RF signal to be sampled. The pulses are time demultiplexed and passed to multiple ADCs. The hybrid configuration combines parallel

  4. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods

  5. 14-3-3 Proteins Buffer Intracellular Calcium Sensing Receptors to Constrain Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Grant

    Full Text Available Calcium sensing receptors (CaSR interact with 14-3-3 binding proteins at a carboxyl terminal arginine-rich motif. Mutations identified in patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, pancreatitis or idiopathic epilepsy support the functional importance of this motif. We combined total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and biochemical approaches to determine the mechanism of 14-3-3 protein regulation of CaSR signaling. Loss of 14-3-3 binding caused increased basal CaSR signaling and plasma membrane levels, and a significantly larger signaling-evoked increase in plasma membrane receptors. Block of core glycosylation with tunicamycin demonstrated that changes in plasma membrane CaSR levels were due to differences in exocytic rate. Western blotting to quantify time-dependent changes in maturation of expressed wt CaSR and a 14-3-3 protein binding-defective mutant demonstrated that signaling increases synthesis to maintain constant levels of the immaturely and maturely glycosylated forms. CaSR thus operates by a feed-forward mechanism, whereby signaling not only induces anterograde trafficking of nascent receptors but also increases biosynthesis to maintain steady state levels of net cellular CaSR. Overall, these studies suggest that 14-3-3 binding at the carboxyl terminus provides an important buffering mechanism to increase the intracellular pool of CaSR available for signaling-evoked trafficking, but attenuates trafficking to control the dynamic range of responses to extracellular calcium.

  6. Resolving the range ambiguity in OFDR using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, Nicolas; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H

    2014-01-01

    A digitally range-gated variant of optical frequency domain reflectometry is demonstrated which overcomes the beat note ambiguity when sensing beyond a single frequency sweep. The range-gating is achieved using a spread spectrum technique involving time-stamping of the optical signal using high-frequency pseudorandom phase modulation. The reflections from different sections of fiber can then be isolated in the time domain by digitally inverting the phase modulation using appropriately-delayed copies of the pseudorandom noise code. Since the technique overcomes the range ambiguity in OFDR, it permits high sweep repetition rates without sacrificing range, thus allowing for high-bandwidth sensing over long lengths of fiber. This is demonstrated for the case of quasi-distributed sensing. (paper)

  7. Application of wavelet transform in seismic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, M. R.; Mohammadzadeh, A.; Salajeghe, E.

    2005-01-01

    Wavelet transform is a new tool for signal analysis which can perform a simultaneous signal time and frequency representations. Under Multi Resolution Analysis, one can quickly determine details for signals and their properties using Fast Wavelet Transform algorithms. In this paper, for a better physical understanding of a signal and its basic algorithms, Multi Resolution Analysis together with wavelet transforms in a form of Digital Signal Processing will be discussed. For a Seismic Signal Processing, sets of Orthonormal Daubechies Wavelets are suggested. when dealing with the application of wavelets in SSP, one may discuss about denoising from the signal and data compression existed in the signal, which is important in seismic signal data processing. Using this techniques, EL-Centro and Nagan signals were remodeled with a 25% of total points, resulted in a satisfactory results with an acceptable error drift. Thus a total of 1559 and 2500 points for EL-centro and Nagan seismic curves each, were reduced to 389 and 625 points respectively, with a very reasonable error drift, details of which are recorded in the paper. Finally, the future progress in signal processing, based on wavelet theory will be appointed

  8. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  9. Neural Signaling of Food Healthiness Associated with Emotion Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake.

  10. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  11. Molecular Basis of the Extracellular Ligands Mediated Signaling by the Calcium Sensing Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSRs play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o homeostasis and many (pathophysiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca2+, Mg2+, amino acids and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis. In this review, we summarize efforts directed at identifying binding sites for calcium and amino acids. Both homotropic cooperativity among multiple calcium binding sites and heterotropic cooperativity between calcium and amino acid were revealed using computational modeling, predictions, and site-directed mutagenesis coupled with functional assays. The hinge region of the bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT domain of CaSR plays a pivotal role in coordinating multiple extracellular stimuli, leading to cooperative responses from the receptor. We further highlight the extensive number of disease-associated mutations that have also been shown to affect CaSR’s cooperative action via several types of mechanisms. These results provide insights into the molecular bases of the structure and functional cooperativity of this receptor and other members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptors (cGPCRs in health and disease states, and may assist in the prospective development of novel receptor-based therapeutics.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTONOMOUS DIVING ON SENSES AND MENTAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Diving is classified within a group of sports accompanied with an increased risk, yet it is a sport of full biological significance. Diving implies change of immediate human environment. Water, as the natural ambient for diving issues specific demands to the organism, which in turn influence decrease in psychophysical abilities when underwater, and in some instances, immediately after emerging from it. The most important factors influencing decrease in psychophysical abilities are: immersion, increased ambient pressure, characteristics of diving equipment and atmosphere separation. The senses and the mental processes of the diver are significantly altered during the autonomous diving. Loss of self-weight perception and pressure put on joints cause disorders in function of kinesthetic senses and vestibular apparatus, which in turn becomes reflected on proprioception. Coldness of water, especially at grater depths, induces decline in pain sensation as well as in aptness and mobility of fingers. Sight remains normal, but the image received is slightly changed due to refraction of light on boundary surfaces. Visual field is narrowed down to fit the limited diving mask field of view. At the same time, diffusion of light and color absorption brings about the loss of both ability to perceive things and contrasts when at depths .Objects tend to appear bigger and closer underwater. Hearing is changed owing to the fact that the sound is not carried through the air but through the water, yet the speed of transmission causes only slight difference of left and right ear stimulation. Mental processes, informationassessment, creation of clear mental images of the actual moment, abstract thinking, decision making, etc. are not effective and precise. This state can be partly ascribed to the above mentioned problems with senses, partly to the greater influence of emotional as opposed to rational, but also to the narcotic effect of nitrogen that is produced while

  13. Innovative signal processing for Johnson Noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report summarizes the newly developed algorithm that subtracted the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The EMI performance is very important to this measurement because any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Two methods of removing EMI were developed and tested at various locations. This report also summarizes the testing performed at different facilities outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory using both EMI removal techniques. The first EMI removal technique reviewed in previous milestone reports and therefore this report will detail the second method.

  14. Signal processing for underclad crack sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Lane, S.S.; Paradiso, T.J.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques developed in this work provide a means of sizing underclad cracks and quality control methods for assessing the accuracy of the data. Data were collected with a minicomputer (LSI 11-02), a transient recorder (Biomaton 8100) and anti-aliasing filter. Three techniques were developed: the calibration curve, phase velocity and epicentral. The phase reversal characteristic in the data is a strong indication of the nature of the signal source. That is, cracks are clearly seperable from two isolated inclusions on the basis of observed phase reversal. These methods have been implemented on a computer and appear to provide an accurate rapid method to discriminate and size underclad cracks

  15. Subspace Signal Processing in Structured Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    1.7 Motivation for the Model ....... ........................... 8 1.8 E x am p les...S). We do not require that H be orthogonal to S. * 1.7 Motivation for the Model The linear model is quite versatile in terms of the types of signals...cross terms zero, we choose . = (SHs)- mS~u’ (3.69) This implies that = Ps4 , (3.70) and S t s (3.71) : = Ps . RPs -. The last step is to maximize

  16. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  17. All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Hill, M.T.; Calabretta, N.; Tangdiongga, E.; Geldenhuys, R.; Zhang, S.; Li, Z.; Waardt, de H.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Iftekharuddin, K.M.; awwal, A.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how all-optical signal processing might play a role in future all-optical packet switched networks. We introduce a concept of optical packet switches that employ entirely all-optical signal processing technology. The optical packet switch is made out of three functional blocks: the

  18. Electrical Characterization of Signal Processing Microcircuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    4000014 92%.04 140500" MOM.150 ui 1132 150084j sense& 3.40 5.05004 5.80041.00 Table-4. (cant) 11-40 #)Se eaqsc16 -81~~a ... 54 .000 3350 .19.6004...LEAKAkGF CURRENT [I(CEX);25 DEG. C 1.6 1.19P PA MIT. LEAKAGE CURRENT [I(CEX)J;25 PEG . C TEST ? 2.0 1.307 V V(CE)SAT;I(C)=350f’A;I(B) =500,A;25 E(,. C...CE)SAT;I(C)=200tA;I(R)=35OUA;25 DEG. C 3.3 I.05I V V(CE)SAT;I(C)=200thA;I(P)=35OUA;25 DEG. C 3.4 1.047 V V(CE)SAT;I(C)=200A;I(B)=350U,;25 PEG . C 3.5

  19. Motion-compensated processing of image signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In a motion-compensated processing of images, input images are down-scaled (scl) to obtain down-scaled images, the down-scaled images are subjected to motion- compensated processing (ME UPC) to obtain motion-compensated images, the motion- compensated images are up-scaled (sc2) to obtain up-scaled

  20. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the sixteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP'2006), held in Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP......). The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee...... the same standard as the printed version and facilitates the reading and searching of the papers. The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected...

  1. REAL TIME DATA PROCESSING FOR OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING PAYLOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wohlfeil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of operational systems for remote sensing requires new approaches for data processing. It has to be the goal to derive user relevant information close the sensor itself and to downlink this information to a ground station or to provide them as input to an actuator of the space-borne platform. A complete automation of data processing is an essential first step for a thematic onboard data processing. In a second step, an appropriate onboard computer system has to be de-signed being able to fulfill the requirements. In this paper, standard data processing steps will be introduced correcting systematic errors during image capturing. A new hardware operating system, which is the interface between FPGA hardware and data processing algorithms, gives the opportunity to implement complex data processing modules in an effective way. As an example the derivation the camera's orientation based on data of an optical payload is described in detail. The thereby derived absolute or relative orientation is essential for high level data products. This will be illustrated by means of an onboard image matcher

  2. TOR Complex 2-Ypk1 Signaling Maintains Sphingolipid Homeostasis by Sensing and Regulating ROS Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Niles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability.

  3. Continuous diffusion signal, EAP and ODF estimation via Compressive Sensing in diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Sylvain L; Deriche, Rachid

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we exploit the ability of Compressed Sensing (CS) to recover the whole 3D Diffusion MRI (dMRI) signal from a limited number of samples while efficiently recovering important diffusion features such as the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) and the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF). Some attempts to use CS in estimating diffusion signals have been done recently. However, this was mainly an experimental insight of CS capabilities in dMRI and the CS theory has not been fully exploited. In this work, we also propose to study the impact of the sparsity, the incoherence and the RIP property on the reconstruction of diffusion signals. We show that an efficient use of the CS theory enables to drastically reduce the number of measurements commonly used in dMRI acquisitions. Only 20-30 measurements, optimally spread on several b-value shells, are shown to be necessary, which is less than previous attempts to recover the diffusion signal using CS. This opens an attractive perspective to measure the diffusion signals in white matter within a reduced acquisition time and shows that CS holds great promise and opens new and exciting perspectives in diffusion MRI (dMRI). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear pulse signal processing technique based on blind deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Pengfei; Yang Lei; Fu Tingyan; Qi Zhong; Li Dongcang; Ren Zhongguo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for measurement and analysis of nuclear pulse signal, with which pile-up signal is removed, the signal baseline is restored, and the original signal is obtained. The data acquisition system includes FPGA, ADC and USB. The FPGA controls the high-speed ADC to sample the signal of nuclear radiation, and the USB makes the ADC work on the Slave FIFO mode to implement high-speed transmission status. Using the LabVIEW, it accomplishes online data processing of the blind deconvolution algorithm and data display. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate advantages of the method. (authors)

  5. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  6. Production of acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals is widespread in gram-negative Methylobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tongmin

    2007-02-01

    Members of Methylobacterium, referred as pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria, are frequently associated with terrestrial and aquatic plants, tending to form aggregates on the phyllosphere. We report here that the production of autoinducer molecules involved in the cell-to-cell signaling process, which is known as quorum sensing, is common among Methylobacterium species. Several strains of Methylobacterium were tested for their ability to produce N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules using different indicators. Most strains of Methylobacterium tested could elicit a positive response in Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring lacZ fused to a gene that is regulated by autoinduction. The synthesis of these compounds was cell-density dependent, and the maximal activity was reached during the late exponential to stationary phases. The bacterial extracts were separated by thin-layer chromatography and bioassayed with A. tumefaciens NT1 (traR, tra::lacZ749). They revealed the production of various patterns of the signal molecules, which are strain dependent. At least two signal molecules could be detected in most of the strains tested, and comparison of their relative mobilities suggested that they are homologs of N-octanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL).

  7. Mechanisms of amino acid sensing in mTOR signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunjung

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are fundamental nutrients for protein synthesis and cell growth (increase in cell size). Recently, many compelling evidences have shown that the level of amino acids is sensed by extra- or intra-cellular amino acids sensor(s) and regulates protein synthesis/degradation. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is placed in a central position in cell growth regulation and dysregulation of mTOR signaling pathway has been implicated in many serious human diseases including ca...

  8. Digital signals processing using non-linear orthogonal transformation in frequency domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanichenko E.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress of computer technology in recent decades led to a wide introduction of methods of digital information processing practically in all fields of scientific research. In this case, among various applications of computing one of the most important places is occupied by digital processing systems signals (DSP that are used in data processing remote solution tasks of navigation of aerospace and marine objects, communications, radiophysics, digital optics and in a number of other applications. Digital Signal Processing (DSP is a dynamically developing an area that covers both technical and software tools. Related areas for digital signal processing are theory information, in particular, the theory of optimal signal reception and theory pattern recognition. In the first case, the main problem is signal extraction against a background of noise and interference of a different physical nature, and in the second - automatic recognition, i.e. classification and signal identification. In the digital processing of signals under a signal, we mean its mathematical description, i.e. a certain real function, containing information on the state or behavior of a physical system under an event that can be defined on a continuous or discrete space of time variation or spatial coordinates. In the broad sense, DSP systems mean a complex algorithmic, hardware and software. As a rule, systems contain specialized technical means of preliminary (or primary signal processing and special technical means for secondary processing of signals. Means of pretreatment are designed to process the original signals observed in general case against a background of random noise and interference of a different physical nature and represented in the form of discrete digital samples, for the purpose of detecting and selection (selection of the useful signal and evaluation characteristics of the detected signal. A new method of digital signal processing in the frequency

  9. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  10. The complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1 reveals a processing system involved in the quorumsensing signal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte, Vinicius da Silva; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1. The 2.3-Mbp genome contains an extremely interesting AI-2 transporter and processing system related to the quorum-sensing signal response. This specific feature is described in this species for the first time and might be ...... be responsible for a new pathogenic behavior.......We present here the complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1. The 2.3-Mbp genome contains an extremely interesting AI-2 transporter and processing system related to the quorum-sensing signal response. This specific feature is described in this species for the first time and might...

  11. Quorum sensing signal molecules (acylated homoserine lactones) in Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the production of quorum sensing signals (specifically acylated homoserine lactones, AHLs) among a selection of strains of Gram-negative fish bacterial pathogens. These signals are involved in the regulation of virulence factors in some human...... salmonicida and Vibrio splendidus were also positive. Aeromonas species produced N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (BHL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (HHL) and 1 additional product, whereas N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (OHHL) and HHL were detected in Vibrio salmonicida. N-3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine...... lactone (OOHL) and N-3-octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) were detected in Y. ruckeii. AHLs were not detected from strains of Photobacterium damselae, Flavobacterium psychrophilum or Moritella viscosa. AHLs were extracted from fish infected with Y. ruckeri but not from fish infected with A. salmonicida...

  12. Enhancing the Teaching of Digital Processing of Remote Sensing Image Course through Geospatial Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, L.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Remote sensing (RS) is an essential method to collect data for Earth science research. Huge amount of remote sensing data, most of them in the image form, have been acquired. Almost all geography departments in the world offer courses in digital processing of remote sensing images. Such courses place emphasis on how to digitally process large amount of multi-source images for solving real world problems. However, due to the diversity and complexity of RS images and the shortcomings of current data and processing infrastructure, obstacles for effectively teaching such courses still remain. The major obstacles include 1) difficulties in finding, accessing, integrating and using massive RS images by students and educators, and 2) inadequate processing functions and computing facilities for students to freely explore the massive data. Recent development in geospatial Web processing service systems, which make massive data, computing powers, and processing capabilities to average Internet users anywhere in the world, promises the removal of the obstacles. The GeoBrain system developed by CSISS is an example of such systems. All functions available in GRASS Open Source GIS have been implemented as Web services in GeoBrain. Petabytes of remote sensing images in NASA data centers, the USGS Landsat data archive, and NOAA CLASS are accessible transparently and processable through GeoBrain. The GeoBrain system is operated on a high performance cluster server with large disk storage and fast Internet connection. All GeoBrain capabilities can be accessed by any Internet-connected Web browser. Dozens of universities have used GeoBrain as an ideal platform to support data-intensive remote sensing education. This presentation gives a specific example of using GeoBrain geoprocessing services to enhance the teaching of GGS 588, Digital Remote Sensing taught at the Department of Geography and Geoinformation Science, George Mason University. The course uses the textbook "Introductory

  13. All-optical signal processing and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David

    2001-01-01

    of a detailed large-signal model. An important parameter for SOA-based gates is the input power dynamic range (IPDR) as it determines the cascadability of the devices. Guidelines on how to maximise the IPDR are therefore established. Important trends are that short SOAs with low confinement factors and a low...... is discussed and two approaches are described and demonstrated experimentally. The first solution is based on a dual-stage converter employing an XGM-converter in the first stage and an IWC in the second stage. An assessment of the dual-stage converter at 20 Gbit/s shows an insertion penalty of -1.5 d......B. The second approach is based on a dual-order mode (DOMO) MZI and a detailed investigation at 10 Gbit/s is presented. In addition, a conversion scheme that exhibits excellent transmission and speed performance will be described and evaluated at 10 Gbit/s. Besides wavelength conversion, IWCs are also...

  14. On-chip photonic microsystem for optical signal processing based on silicon and silicon nitride platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Jiachen; Yu, Hongchen; Yu, Hai; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Sigang; Chen, Minghua

    2018-04-01

    The explosive growth of data centers, cloud computing and various smart devices is limited by the current state of microelectronics, both in terms of speed and heat generation. Benefiting from the large bandwidth, promising low power consumption and passive calculation capability, experts believe that the integrated photonics-based signal processing and transmission technologies can break the bottleneck of microelectronics technology. In recent years, integrated photonics has become increasingly reliable and access to the advanced fabrication process has been offered by various foundries. In this paper, we review our recent works on the integrated optical signal processing system. We study three different kinds of on-chip signal processors and use these devices to build microsystems for the fields of microwave photonics, optical communications and spectrum sensing. The microwave photonics front receiver was demonstrated with a signal processing range of a full-band (L-band to W-band). A fully integrated microwave photonics transceiver without the on-chip laser was realized on silicon photonics covering the signal frequency of up 10 GHz. An all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) de-multiplier was also demonstrated and used for an OFDM communication system with the rate of 64 Gbps. Finally, we show our work on the monolithic integrated spectrometer with a high resolution of about 20 pm at the central wavelength of 1550 nm. These proposed on-chip signal processing systems potential applications in the fields of radar, 5G wireless communication, wearable devices and optical access networks.

  15. Deep Learning in Visual Computing and Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Danfeng; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Li

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, which aims to learn a hierarchy of features from input data. Nowadays, researchers have intensively investigated deep learning algorithms for solving challenging problems in many areas such as image classification, speech recognition, signal processing, and natural language processing. In this study, we not only review typical deep learning algorithms in computer vision and signal processing but also provide detailed information on how to apply...

  16. Grating geophone signal processing based on wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Zhang, Huan; Tao, Zhifei

    2008-12-01

    Grating digital geophone is designed based on grating measurement technique benefiting averaging-error effect and wide dynamic range to improve weak signal detected precision. This paper introduced the principle of grating digital geophone and its post signal processing system. The signal acquisition circuit use Atmega 32 chip as core part and display the waveform on the Labwindows through the RS232 data link. Wavelet transform is adopted this paper to filter the grating digital geophone' output signal since the signal is unstable. This data processing method is compared with the FIR filter that widespread use in current domestic. The result indicates that the wavelet algorithm has more advantages and the SNR of seismic signal improve obviously.

  17. Signal Processing of Underwater Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-11-01

    for the interest they have shown in the work and for many helpful discussions. The book was supported by Naval Ship Systems Corn- mand tinder ...inclination of the ray. The relationship is such that for the maximum values of dnldz just quoted radius of 0ectromapnetic ray 2,0 radius of acoustic... relationship for the angles, in, of the geometric ray, and carry out the limiting process as h -- 0. Show that when the velocity func- tion c(z) is

  18. Signal processing for mobile communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ibnkahla, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal Processing for Future Mobile Communications Systems: Challenges and Perspectives; Quazi Mehbubar Rahman and Mohamed IbnkahlaCHANNEL MODELING AND ESTIMATIONMultipath Propagation Models for Broadband Wireless Systems; Andreas F. Molisch and Fredrik TufvessonModeling and Estimation of Mobile Channels; Jitendra K. TugnaitMobile Satellite Channels: Statistical Models and Performance Analysis; Giovanni E. Corazza, Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli, Raffaella Pedone, and Massimo NeriMobile Velocity Estimation for Wireless Communications; Bouchra Senadji, Ghazem Azemi, and Boualem Boashash

  19. On the mechanisms of interference between mobile phones and pacemakers: parasitic demodulation of GSM signal by the sensing amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, V; Bartolini, P; Calcagnini, G; Censi, F; Beard, B; Ruggera, P; Witters, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which the radiated radiofrequency (RF) GSM (global system for mobile communication) signal may affect pacemaker (PM) function. We measured the signal at the output of the sensing amplifier of PMs with various configurations of low-pass filters. We used three versions of the same PM model: one with a block capacitor which short circuits high-frequency signals; one with a ceramic feedthrough capacitor, a hermetically sealed mechanism connecting the internal electronics to the external connection block, and one with both. The PMs had been modified to have an electrical shielded connection to the output of the sensing amplifier. For each PM, the output of the sensing amplifier was monitored under exposure to modulated and non-modulated RF signals, and to GSM signals (900 and 1800 MHz). Non-modulated RF signals did not alter the response of the PM sensing amplifier. Modulated RF signals showed that the block capacitor did not succeed in short circuiting the RF signal, which is somehow demodulated by the PM internal non-linear circuit elements. Such a demodulation phenomenon poses a critical problem because digital cellular phones use extremely low-frequency modulation (as low as 2 Hz), which can be mistaken for normal heartbeat

  20. Compressed sensing of ECG signal for wireless system with new fast iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfic, Israa; Kayhan, Sema

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments in wireless body area network (WBAN) show that compressive sensing (CS) is a promising tool to compress the Electrocardiogram signal ECG signal. The performance of CS is based on algorithms use to reconstruct exactly or approximately the original signal. In this paper, we present two methods work with absence and presence of noise, these methods are Least Support Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (LS-OMP) and Least Support Denoising-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (LSD-OMP). The algorithms achieve correct support recovery without requiring sparsity knowledge. We derive an improved restricted isometry property (RIP) based conditions over the best known results. The basic procedures are done by observational and analytical of a different Electrocardiogram signal downloaded them from PhysioBankATM. Experimental results show that significant performance in term of reconstruction quality and compression rate can be obtained by these two new proposed algorithms, and help the specialist gathering the necessary information from the patient in less time if we use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) application, or reconstructed the patient data after sending it through the network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compressing Sensing Based Source Localization for Controlled Acoustic Signals Using Distributed Microphone Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the accuracy of sound source localization in noisy and reverberant environments, this paper proposes an adaptive sound source localization method based on distributed microphone arrays. Since sound sources lie at a few points in the discrete spatial domain, our method can exploit this inherent sparsity to convert the localization problem into a sparse recovery problem based on the compressive sensing (CS theory. In this method, a two-step discrete cosine transform- (DCT- based feature extraction approach is utilized to cover both short-time and long-time properties of acoustic signals and reduce the dimensions of the sparse model. In addition, an online dictionary learning (DL method is used to adjust the dictionary for matching the changes of audio signals, and then the sparse solution could better represent location estimations. Moreover, we propose an improved block-sparse reconstruction algorithm using approximate l0 norm minimization to enhance reconstruction performance for sparse signals in low signal-noise ratio (SNR conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation results and experimental results where substantial improvement for localization performance can be obtained in the noisy and reverberant conditions.

  2. Cross-kingdom signalling: exploitation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint, Ian; Tait, Karen; Wheeler, Glen

    2007-07-29

    The green seaweed Ulva has been shown to detect signal molecules produced by bacteria. Biofilms that release N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) attract zoospores--the motile reproductive stages of Ulva. The evidence for AHL involvement is based on several independent lines of evidence, including the observation that zoospores are attracted to wild-type bacteria that produce AHLs but are not attracted to mutants that do not produce signal molecules. Synthetic AHL also attracts zoospores and the attraction is lost in the presence of autoinducer inactivation (AiiA) protein. The mechanism of attraction is not chemotactic but involves chemokinesis. When zoospores detect AHLs, the swimming rate is reduced and this results in accumulation of cells at the source of the AHL. It has been demonstrated that the detection of AHLs results in calcium influx into the zoospore. This is the first example of a calcium signalling event in a eukaryote in response to bacterial quorum sensing molecules. The role of AHLs in the ecology of Ulva is discussed. It is probable that AHLs act as cues for the settlement of zoospores, rather than being directly involved as a signalling mechanism.

  3. Signal Processing in Medical Ultrasound B-mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tai Kyong

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is the most widely used modality among modern imaging device for medical diagnosis and the system performance has been improved dramatically since early 90's due to the rapid advances in DSP performance and VLSI technology that made it possible to employ more sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes 'main stream' digital signal processing functions along with the associated implementation considerations in modern medical ultrasound imaging systems. Topics covered include signal processing methods for resolution improvement, ultrasound imaging system architectures, roles and necessity of the applications of DSP and VLSI technology in the development of the medical ultrasound imaging systems, and array signal processing techniques for ultrasound focusing

  4. Discrete random signal processing and filtering primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2013-01-01

    Engineers in all fields will appreciate a practical guide that combines several new effective MATLAB® problem-solving approaches and the very latest in discrete random signal processing and filtering.Numerous Useful Examples, Problems, and Solutions - An Extensive and Powerful ReviewWritten for practicing engineers seeking to strengthen their practical grasp of random signal processing, Discrete Random Signal Processing and Filtering Primer with MATLAB provides the opportunity to doubly enhance their skills. The author, a leading expert in the field of electrical and computer engineering, offe

  5. Signal and image processing for monitoring and testing at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Garreau, D.

    1992-04-01

    The quality of monitoring and non destructive testing devices in plants and utilities today greatly depends on the efficient processing of signal and image data. In this context, signal or image processing techniques, such as adaptive filtering or detection or 3D reconstruction, are required whenever manufacturing nonconformances or faulty operation have to be recognized and identified. This paper reviews the issues of industrial image and signal processing, by briefly considering the relevant studies and projects under way at EDF. (authors). 1 fig., 11 refs

  6. Quorum Sensing Signaling and Quenching in the Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Huedo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen with increasing incidence in clinical settings. The most critical aspect of S. maltophilia is its frequent resistance to a majority of the antibiotics of clinical use. Quorum Sensing (QS systems coordinate bacterial populations and act as major regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis in both pure cultures and poly-microbial communities. Disruption of QS systems, a phenomenon known as Quorum Quenching (QQ, represents a new promising paradigm for the design of novel antimicrobial strategies. In this context, we review the main advances in the field of QS in S. maltophilia by paying special attention to Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF signaling, Acyl Homoserine Lactone (AHL responses and the controversial Ax21 system. Advances in the DSF system include regulatory aspects of DSF synthesis and perception by both rpf-1 and rpf-2 variant systems, as well as their reciprocal communication. Interaction via DSF of S. maltophilia with unrelated organisms including bacteria, yeast and plants is also considered. Finally, an overview of the different QQ mechanisms involving S. maltophilia as quencher and as object of quenching is presented, revealing the potential of this species for use in QQ applications. This review provides a comprehensive snapshot of the interconnected QS network that S. maltophilia uses to sense and respond to its surrounding biotic or abiotic environment. Understanding such cooperative and competitive communication mechanisms is essential for the design of effective anti QS strategies.

  7. Investigation of Genetic Disturbances in Oxygen Sensing and Erythropoietin Signaling Pathways in Cases of Idiopathic Erythrocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luana Dinardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Idiopathic erythrocytosis is the term reserved for cases with unexplained origins of abnormally increased hemoglobin after initial investigation. Extensive molecular investigation of genes associated with oxygen sensing and erythropoietin signaling pathways, in those cases, usually involves sequencing all of their exons and it may be time consuming. Aim. To perform a strategy for molecular investigation of patients with idiopathic erythrocytosis regarding oxygen sensing and erythropoietin signaling pathways. Methods. Samples of patients with idiopathic erythrocytosis were evaluated for the EPOR, VHL, PHD2, and HIF-2α genes using bidirectional sequencing of their hotspots. Results. One case was associated with HIF-2α mutation. Sequencing did not identify any pathogenic mutation in 4 of 5 cases studied in any of the studied genes. Three known nonpathogenic polymorphisms were found (VHL p.P25L, rs35460768; HIF-2α p.N636N, rs35606117; HIF-2α p.P579P, rs184760160. Conclusion. Extensive molecular investigation of cases considered as idiopathic erythrocytosis does not frequently change the treatment of the patient. However, we propose a complementary molecular investigation of those cases comprising genes associated with erythrocytosis phenotype to meet both academic and genetic counseling purposes.

  8. Modeling laser velocimeter signals as triply stochastic Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Previous models of laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) systems have not adequately described dual-scatter signals in a manner useful for analysis and simulation of low-level photon-limited signals. At low photon rates, an LDV signal at the output of a photomultiplier tube is a compound nonhomogeneous filtered Poisson process, whose intensity function is another (slower) Poisson process with the nonstationary rate and frequency parameters controlled by a random flow (slowest) process. In the present paper, generalized Poisson shot noise models are developed for low-level LDV signals. Theoretical results useful in detection error analysis and simulation are presented, along with measurements of burst amplitude statistics. Computer generated simulations illustrate the difference between Gaussian and Poisson models of low-level signals.

  9. Surface light scattering: integrated technology and signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, L.; Dam-Hansen, C.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-01-01

    systems representing increasing levels of integration are considered. It is demonstrated that efficient signal and data processing can be achieved by evaluation of the statistics of the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the detector signal. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America....

  10. Distortions caused by the signal processing in analog AM modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    Complete analytical expressions for distortions caused by signal processing in analog AM modulators are developed. The salient features in these expressions are shown to be consistent with displays of actual spectra of AM signals. Finally suggestions are given on how the distortions may be practically minimized. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  11. Sensor kinase KinB and its pathway-associated key factors sense the signal of nutrition starvation in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weipeng; He, Zeying; Gao, Feng; Yan, Jinyuan; Huang, Xiaowei

    2018-01-03

    Bacillus subtilis responds to environmental stress cues and develops endospores for survival. In the process of endospore formation, sporulation initiation is a vital stage and this stage is governed by autophosphorylation of the sensor histidine kinases. The second major sensor kinase KinB perceives the intracellular changes of GTP and ATP during sporulation. However, determination of the environmental signals as well as its related signaling pathway of KinB requires further elucidation. Our current study found that, contrary to the sporulation failure induced by ΔkinA in the nutrient-rich 2× SG medium, the sensor kinase KinB sensed the environmental cues in the nutrient-poor MM medium. Two other membrane proteins, KapB and KbaA, also responded similarly to the same external signal as KinB. Both KapB and KbaA acted upstream of KinB, but they exerted their regulation upon KinB independently. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both the SH3 domain and the α-helix structure in KapB are required for sensing or transducing the signal of sporulation initiation. Collectively, our work here supplied the direct evidences that KinB and its pathway sense the external signal of nutrient starvation in MM medium, and further analyzes the interrelationship among KinB, KbaA, and KapB. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nuclear pulse signal processing techniques based on blind deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Pengfei; Yang Lei; Qi Zhong; Meng Xiangting; Fu Yanyan; Li Dongcang

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method of measurement and analysis of nuclear pulse signal, the FPGA to control high-speed ADC measurement of nuclear radiation signals and control the high-speed transmission status of the USB to make it work on the Slave FIFO mode, using the LabVIEW online data processing and display, using the blind deconvolution method to remove the accumulation of signal acquisition, and to restore the nuclear pulse signal with a transmission speed, real-time measurements show that the advantages. (authors)

  13. Software for biomedical engineering signal processing laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Willis J; Wilson, J

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990's we developed a special computer program called UW DigiScope to provide a mechanism for anyone interested in biomedical digital signal processing to study the field without requiring any other instrument except a personal computer. There are many digital filtering and pattern recognition algorithms used in processing biomedical signals. In general, students have very limited opportunity to have hands-on access to the mechanisms of digital signal processing. In a typical course, the filters are designed non-interactively, which does not provide the student with significant understanding of the design constraints of such filters nor their actual performance characteristics. UW DigiScope 3.0 is the first major update since version 2.0 was released in 1994. This paper provides details on how the new version based on MATLAB! works with signals, including the filter design tool that is the programming interface between UW DigiScope and processing algorithms.

  14. Measuring methods, registration and signal processing for magnetic field research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiello, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Some measuring methods and signal processing systems based on analogue and digital technics, which have been applied in magnetic field research using magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers, are presented. (author)

  15. Array signal processing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Jongeling, Andre P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the benefits of arraying and past as well as expected future use of this application. The signal processing aspects of array system are described. Field measurements via actual tracking spacecraft are also presented.

  16. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-01-01

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications

  17. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  18. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  19. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  20. Time reversal signal processing in acoustic emission testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef; Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Chlada, Milan; Dos Santos, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic emission (AE) * ultrasonic testing (UT) * signal processing * source location * time reversal acoustic s * acoustic emission * signal processing and transfer Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Slides/637_Prevorovsky.pdf

  1. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching.......Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  2. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  3. Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....

  4. Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping.......We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....

  5. Registration and processing of acoustic signal in rock drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futó Jozef

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of an effective rock disintegration for a given tool and rock type it is needed to define an optimal disintegration regime. Optimisation of the disintegration process by drilling denotes the finding out an appropriate couple of input parameters of disintegration, i.e. the thrust and revolutions for a quasi-equal rock environment. The disintegration process can be optimised to reach the maximum immediate drilling rate, to reach the minimum specific disintegration energy or to reach the maximum ratio of immediate drilling rate and specific disintegration energy. For the determination of the optimal thrust and revolutions it is needed to monitor the disintegration process. Monitoring of the disintegration process in real conditions is complicated by unfavourable factors, such as the presence of water, dust, vibrations etc. Following our present experience in the monitoring of drilling or full-profile driving, we try to replace the monitoring of input values by monitoring of the scanned acoustic signal. This method of monitoring can extend the optimisation of disintegration process in the technical practice. Its advantage consists in the registration of one acoustic signal by an appropriate microphone. Monitoring of acoustic signal is used also in monitoring of metal machining by milling and turning jobs. The research results of scanning of the acoustic signal in machining of metals are encouraging. Acoustic signal can be processed by different statistical parameters. The paper decribes some results of monitoring of the acoustic signal in rock disintegration on the drilling stand of the Institute of Geotechnics SAS in Košice. The acoustic signal has been registered and processed in no-load run of electric motor, in no-load run of electric motor with a drilling fluid, and in the Ruskov andesite drilling. Registration and processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research

  6. A Computer- Based Digital Signal Processing for Nuclear Scintillator Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.A.; Abo Shosha, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Computer-based system for the nuclear scintillation signals with exponential decay is presented. The main objective of this work is to identify the characteristics of the acquired signals smoothly, this can be done by transferring the signal environment from random signal domain to deterministic domain using digital manipulation techniques. The proposed system consists of two major parts. The first part is the high performance data acquisition system (DAQ) that depends on a multi-channel Logic Scope. Which is interfaced with the host computer through the General Purpose Interface Board (GPIB) Ver. IEEE 488.2. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been designed for this purpose using the graphical programming facilities. The second of the system is the DSP software Algorithm which analyses, demonstrates, monitoring these data to obtain the main characteristics of the acquired signals; the amplitude, the pulse count, the pulse width, decay factor, and the arrival time

  7. A Study on Signal Group Processing of AUTOSAR COM Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Hyun Yong; Han, Tae Man; Ahn, Yong Hak

    2013-01-01

    In vehicle, there are many ECU(Electronic Control Unit)s, and ECUs are connected to networks such as CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and so on. AUTOSAR COM(Communication) which is a software platform of AUTOSAR(AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) in the international industry standards of automotive electronic software processes signals and signal groups for data communications between ECUs. Real-time and reliability are very important for data communications in the vehicle. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze functions of signals and signal groups used in COM, and represent that functions of signal group are more efficient than signals in real-time data synchronization and network resource usage between the sender and receiver.

  8. A Study on Signal Group Processing of AUTOSAR COM Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Hyun Yong; Han, Tae Man; Ahn, Yong Hak

    2013-06-01

    In vehicle, there are many ECU(Electronic Control Unit)s, and ECUs are connected to networks such as CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and so on. AUTOSAR COM(Communication) which is a software platform of AUTOSAR(AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) in the international industry standards of automotive electronic software processes signals and signal groups for data communications between ECUs. Real-time and reliability are very important for data communications in the vehicle. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze functions of signals and signal groups used in COM, and represent that functions of signal group are more efficient than signals in real-time data synchronization and network resource usage between the sender and receiver.

  9. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.S.; Ahmadov, Q.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing make possible to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions. Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a digital storage oscilloscope. This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit (256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5 * 10 8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252. To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages.

  10. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  11. Decoding Signal Processing at the Single-Cell Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2017-12-01

    The ability of cells to detect and decode information about their extracellular environment is critical to generating an appropriate response. In multicellular organisms, cells must decode dozens of signals from their neighbors and extracellular matrix to maintain tissue homeostasis while still responding to environmental stressors. How cells detect and process information from their surroundings through a surprisingly limited number of signal transduction pathways is one of the most important question in biology. Despite many decades of research, many of the fundamental principles that underlie cell signal processing remain obscure. However, in this issue of Cell Systems, Gillies et al present compelling evidence that the early response gene circuit can act as a linear signal integrator, thus providing significant insight into how cells handle fluctuating signals and noise in their environment.

  12. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR): pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conigrave, Arthur D; Ward, Donald T

    2013-06-01

    In this article we consider the mechanisms by which the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) induces its cellular responses via the control (activation or inhibition) of signaling pathways. We consider key features of CaSR-mediated signaling including its control of the heterotrimeric G-proteins Gq/11, Gi/o and G12/13 and the downstream consequences recognizing that very few CaSR-mediated cell phenomena have been fully described. We also consider the manner in which the CaSR contributes to the formation of specific signaling scaffolds via peptide recognition sequences in its intracellular C-terminal along with the origins of its high level of cooperativity, particularly for Ca(2+)o, and its remarkable resistance to desensitization. We also consider the nature of the mechanisms by which the CaSR controls oscillatory and sustained Ca(2+)i mobilizing responses and inhibits or elevates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels dependent on the cellular and signaling context. Finally, we consider the diversity of the receptor's ligands, ligand binding sites and broader compartment-dependent physiological roles leading to the identification of pronounced ligand-biased signaling for agonists including Sr(2+) and modulators including l-amino acids and the clinically effective calcimimetic cinacalcet. We note the implications of these findings for the development of new designer drugs that might target the CaSR in pathophysiological contexts beyond those established for the treatment of disorders of calcium metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  14. Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Barker Rasmussen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial quorum sensing (QS and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl (OH-C6 and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl (OH-C10 homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7 HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria.

  15. The Signal Validation method of Digital Process Instrumentation System on signal conditioner for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hee Gun; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jung Seon; Shon, Chang Ho; Park, Heui Youn; Koo, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    The function of PIS(Process Instrumentation System) for SMART is to acquire the process data from sensor or transmitter. The PIS consists of signal conditioner, A/D converter, DSP(Digital Signal Process) and NIC(Network Interface Card). So, It is fully digital system after A/D converter. The PI cabinet and PDAS(Plant Data Acquisition System) in commercial plant is responsible for data acquisition of the sensor or transmitter include RTD, TC, level, flow, pressure and so on. The PDAS has the software that processes each sensor data and PI cabinet has the signal conditioner, which is need for maintenance and test. The signal conditioner has the potentiometer to adjust the span and zero for test and maintenance. The PIS of SMART also has the signal conditioner which has the span and zero adjust same as the commercial plant because the signal conditioner perform the signal condition for AD converter such as 0∼10Vdc. But, To adjust span and zero is manual test and calibration. So, This paper presents the method of signal validation and calibration, which is used by digital feature in SMART. There are I/E(current to voltage), R/E(resistor to voltage), F/E(frequency to voltage), V/V(voltage to voltage). Etc. In this paper show only the signal validation and calibration about I/E converter that convert level, pressure, flow such as 4∼20mA into signal for AD conversion such as 0∼10Vdc

  16. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  17. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo; Arredondo, Luis; Gonzalez, AgustIn

    2007-01-01

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home

  18. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo [Department of Electronics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, ValparaIso (Chile); Arredondo, Luis [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Universidad de ValparaIso, Casilla 123-V, ValparaIso (Chile); Gonzalez, AgustIn [Department of Electronics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Casilla 110-V, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home.

  19. Mathematical principles of signal processing Fourier and wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brémaud, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools in many applied sciences. The recent developments of wavelet analysis indicates that in spite of its long history and well-established applications, the field is still one of active research. This text bridges the gap between engineering and mathematics, providing a rigorously mathematical introduction of Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis and related mathematical methods, while emphasizing their uses in signal processing and other applications in communications engineering. The interplay between Fourier series and Fourier transforms is at the heart of signal processing, which is couched most naturally in terms of the Dirac delta function and Lebesgue integrals. The exposition is organized into four parts. The first is a discussion of one-dimensional Fourier theory, including the classical results on convergence and the Poisson sum formula. The second part is devoted to the mathematical foundations of signal processing - sampling, filtering, digital signal proc...

  20. Methods and systems for the processing of physiological signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnac, B. de; Gariod, R.; Max, J.; Monge, V.

    1975-01-01

    This note is a general survey of the processing of physiological signals. After an introduction about electrodes and their limitations, the physiological nature of the main signals are shortly recalled. Different methods (signal averaging, spectral analysis, shape morphological analysis) are described as applications to the fields of magnetocardiography, electro-encephalography, cardiography, electronystagmography. As for processing means (single portable instruments and programmable), they are described through the example of application to rheography and to the Plurimat'S general system. As a conclusion the methods of signal processing are dominated by the morphological analysis of curves and by the necessity of a more important introduction of the statistical classification. As for the instruments, microprocessors will appear but specific operators linked to computer will certainly grow [fr

  1. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo; Arredondo, Luis; González, Agustín

    2007-11-01

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home.

  2. High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiqi; Shi Guohua; Zhang Yudong

    2011-01-01

    The signal processing speed of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become a bottleneck in many medical applications. Recently, a time-domain interpolation method was proposed. This method not only gets a better signal-to noise ratio (SNR) but also gets a faster signal processing time for the SD-OCT than the widely used zero-padding interpolation method. Furthermore, the re-sampled data is obtained by convoluting the acquired data and the coefficients in time domain. Thus, a lot of interpolations can be performed concurrently. So, this interpolation method is suitable for parallel computing. An ultra-high optical coherence tomography signal processing can be realized by using graphics processing unit (GPU) with computer unified device architecture (CUDA). This paper will introduce the signal processing steps of SD-OCT on GPU. An experiment is performed to acquire a frame SD-OCT data (400A-linesx2048 pixel per A-line) and real-time processed the data on GPU. The results show that it can be finished in 6.208 milliseconds, which is 37 times faster than that on Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  3. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  4. Evanescent-wave and ambient chiral sensing by signal-reversing cavity ringdown polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikitis, Dimitris; Bougas, Lykourgos; Katsoprinakis, Georgios E; Spiliotis, Alexandros K; Loppinet, Benoit; Rakitzis, T Peter

    2014-10-02

    Detecting and quantifying chirality is important in fields ranging from analytical and biological chemistry to pharmacology and fundamental physics: it can aid drug design and synthesis, contribute to protein structure determination, and help detect parity violation of the weak force. Recent developments employ microwaves, femtosecond pulses, superchiral light or photoionization to determine chirality, yet the most widely used methods remain the traditional methods of measuring circular dichroism and optical rotation. However, these signals are typically very weak against larger time-dependent backgrounds. Cavity-enhanced optical methods can be used to amplify weak signals by passing them repeatedly through an optical cavity, and two-mirror cavities achieving up to 10(5) cavity passes have enabled absorption and birefringence measurements with record sensitivities. But chiral signals cancel when passing back and forth through a cavity, while the ubiquitous spurious linear birefringence background is enhanced. Even when intracavity optics overcome these problems, absolute chirality measurements remain difficult and sometimes impossible. Here we use a pulsed-laser bowtie cavity ringdown polarimeter with counter-propagating beams to enhance chiral signals by a factor equal to the number of cavity passes (typically >10(3)); to suppress the effects of linear birefringence by means of a large induced intracavity Faraday rotation; and to effect rapid signal reversals by reversing the Faraday rotation and subtracting signals from the counter-propagating beams. These features allow absolute chiral signal measurements in environments where background subtraction is not feasible: we determine optical rotation from α-pinene vapour in open air, and from maltodextrin and fructose solutions in the evanescent wave produced by total internal reflection at a prism surface. The limits of the present polarimeter, when using a continuous-wave laser locked to a stable, high

  5. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  6. The sensing of respiratory gases in fish: Mechanisms and signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; Tzaneva, V

    2016-04-01

    Chemoreception in fish is critical for sensing changes in the chemical composition of the external and internal environments and is often the first step in a cascade of events leading to cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments. Of paramount importance is the ability to sense changes in the levels of the three respiratory gases, oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3). In this review, we discuss the role of piscine neuroepithelial cells (NEC), putative peripheral chemoreceptors, as tri-modal sensors of O2, CO2 and NH3. Where possible, we elaborate on the signalling pathways linking NEC stimulation to afferent responses, the potential role of neurotransmitters in activating downstream neuronal pathways and the impact of altered levels of the respiratory gases on NEC structure and function. Although serotonin, the major neurotransmitter contained within NECs, is presumed to be the principal agent eliciting the reflex responses to altered levels of the respiratory gases, there is accumulating evidence for the involvement of "gasomitters", a class of gaseous neurotransmitters which includes nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Recent data suggest that CO inhibits and H2S stimulates NEC activity whereas NO can either be inhibitory or stimulatory depending on developmental age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  8. Measurement of elastic constants by simultaneously sensing longitudinal and shear waves as an overlapped signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data.

  9. Measurement of elastic constants by simultaneously sensing longitudinal and shear waves as an overlapped signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data

  10. Signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    At the Specialists' Meeting on Sodium Boiling Detection organized by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency at Chester in the United Kingdom in 1981 various methods of detecting sodium boiling were reported. But, it was not possible to make a comparative assessment of these methods because the signal condition in each experiment was different from others. That is why participants of this meeting recommended that a benchmark test should be carried out in order to evaluate and compare signal processing methods for boiling detection. Organization of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection was also recommended at the 16th meeting of the IWGFR. The CRP on Signal Processing Techniques for Sodium Boiling Noise Detection was set up in 1984. Eight laboratories from six countries have agreed to participate in this CRP. The overall objective of the programme was the development of reliable on-line signal processing techniques which could be used for the detection of sodium boiling in an LMFBR core. During the first stage of the programme a number of existing processing techniques used by different countries have been compared and evaluated. In the course of further work, an algorithm for implementation of this sodium boiling detection system in the nuclear reactor will be developed. It was also considered that the acoustic signal processing techniques developed for boiling detection could well make a useful contribution to other acoustic applications in the reactor. This publication consists of two parts. Part I is the final report of the co-ordinated research programme on signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection. Part II contains two introductory papers and 20 papers presented at four research co-ordination meetings since 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 22 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  12. Tunable signal processing in synthetic MAP kinase cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Ellen C; Palani, Santhosh; Collins, James J; Sarkar, Casim A

    2011-01-07

    The flexibility of MAPK cascade responses enables regulation of a vast array of cell fate decisions, but elucidating the mechanisms underlying this plasticity is difficult in endogenous signaling networks. We constructed insulated mammalian MAPK cascades in yeast to explore how intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations affect the flexibility of these synthetic signaling modules. Contrary to biphasic dependence on scaffold concentration, we observe monotonic decreases in signal strength as scaffold concentration increases. We find that augmenting the concentration of sequential kinases can enhance ultrasensitivity and lower the activation threshold. Further, integrating negative regulation and concentration variation can decouple ultrasensitivity and threshold from the strength of the response. Computational analyses show that cascading can generate ultrasensitivity and that natural cascades with different kinase concentrations are innately biased toward their distinct activation profiles. This work demonstrates that tunable signal processing is inherent to minimal MAPK modules and elucidates principles for rational design of synthetic signaling systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  14. LEOS 2002: summer electronics and signal processing symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadzhinov, Ljupcho; Ivanovski, Zoran

    2002-01-01

    LEOS 2002 was the first Macedonian symposium on electronics and signal processing. It was organized in recognition to a growing need to exchange the research results as well as to raise competent discussions among different research groups from both academic and industrial environment in Macedonia. The topics covered in this meeting were defined by the IEEE experts as follows: Power Electronics, Industrial Electronics, Signal Processing, Image and Video Processing, Instrumentation and Measurements, Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Electron Devices and Automatic Control. Papers were mainly from Macedonia, but there was one invited lecture

  15. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  16. All-Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Pu, Minhao; Ding, Yunhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent wo rk on the use of silicon waveguides for processing optical data signals. We will describe ultra-fast, ultra-broadband, polarisation-insensitive and phase-sensitive applications including processing of spectrally-efficient data formats and optical phase...

  17. Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Lacava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review on silicon-based nonlinear devices for all optical nonlinear processing of complex telecommunication signals. We discuss some recent developments achieved by our research group, through extensive collaborations with academic partners across Europe, on optical signal processing using silicon-germanium and amorphous silicon based waveguides as well as novel materials such as silicon rich silicon nitride and tantalum pentoxide. We review the performance of four wave mixing wavelength conversion applied on complex signals such as Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 64-QAM that dramatically enhance the telecom signal spectral efficiency, paving the way to next generation terabit all-optical networks.

  18. Extracellular Ca2+ is a danger signal activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossol, Manuela; Pierer, Matthias; Raulien, Nora

    2012-01-01

    calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors. Activation is mediated by signalling through the calcium-sensing receptor and GPRC6A via the phosphatidyl inositol/Ca(2+) pathway. The resulting increase in the intracellular calcium concentration......, and this effect was inhibited in GPRC6A(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that G-protein-coupled receptors can activate the inflammasome, and indicate that increased extracellular calcium has a role as a danger signal and amplifier of inflammation....

  19. The mathematical theory of signal processing and compression-designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2006-05-01

    The mathematical theory of signal processing, named processor coding, will be shown to inherently arise as the computational time dual of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication which is also known as source coding. Source coding is concerned with signal source memory space compression while processor coding deals with signal processor computational time compression. Their combination is named compression-designs and referred as Conde in short. A compelling and pedagogically appealing diagram will be discussed highlighting Conde's remarkable successful application to real-world knowledge-aided (KA) airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) radar.

  20. A soft-core processor architecture optimised for radar signal processing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -performance soft-core processing architecture is proposed. To develop such a processing architecture, data and signal-flow characteristics of common radar signal processing algorithms are analysed. Each algorithm is broken down into signal processing...

  1. Indoor Location Sensing with Invariant Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Husen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of location fingerprinting based on the Wi-Fi received signal strength (RSS in an indoor environment is presented. The method aims to overcome the RSS instability due to varying channel disturbances in time by introducing the concept of invariant RSS statistics. The invariant RSS statistics represent here the RSS distributions collected at individual calibration locations under minimal random spatiotemporal disturbances in time. The invariant RSS statistics thus collected serve as the reference pattern classes for fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is carried out at an unknown location by identifying the reference pattern class that maximally supports the spontaneous RSS sensed from individual Wi-Fi sources. A design guideline is also presented as a rule of thumb for estimating the number of Wi-Fi signal sources required to be available for any given number of calibration locations under a certain level of random spatiotemporal disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only provides 17% higher success rate than conventional ones but also removes the need for recalibration. Furthermore, the resolution is shown finer by 40% with the execution time more than an order of magnitude faster than the conventional methods. These results are also backed up by theoretical analysis.

  2. Quorum sensing communication between bacteria and human cells: signals, targets and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eHolm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Both direct and long-range interactions between pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts are important in the outcome of infections. For cell-to-cell communication, these bacteria employ the quorum sensing (QS system to pass on information of the density of the bacterial population and collectively switch on virulence factor production, biofilm formation and resistance development. Thus, QS allows bacteria to behave as a community to perform tasks which would be impossible for individual cells, e.g. to overcome defense and immune systems and establish infections in higher organisms. This review highlights these aspects of QS and our own recent research on how P.aeruginosa communicates with human cells using the small QS signal molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL. We focus on how this conversation changes the behavior and function of neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells and on how the signaling machinery in human cells responsible for the recognition of AHL. Understanding the bacteria-host relationships at both cellular and molecular levels is essential for the identification of new targets and for the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections in the future.

  3. Pattern Recognition in Optical Remote Sensing Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoderov, Vladimir; Kondranin, Timofei; Dmitriev, Egor; Kamentsev, Vladimir

    Computational procedures of the land surface biophysical parameters retrieval imply that modeling techniques are available of the outgoing radiation description together with monitoring techniques of remote sensing data processing using registered radiances between the related optical sensors and the land surface objects called “patterns”. Pattern recognition techniques are a valuable approach to the processing of remote sensing data for images of the land surface - atmosphere system. Many simplified codes of the direct and inverse problems of atmospheric optics are considered applicable for the imagery processing of low and middle spatial resolution. Unless the authors are not interested in the accuracy of the final information products, they utilize these standard procedures. The emerging necessity of processing data of high spectral and spatial resolution given by imaging spectrometers puts forward the newly defined pattern recognition techniques. The proposed tools of using different types of classifiers combined with the parameter retrieval procedures for the forested environment are maintained to have much wider applications as compared with the image features and object shapes extraction, which relates to photometry and geometry in pixel-level reflectance representation of the forested land cover. The pixel fraction and reflectance of “end-members” (sunlit forest canopy, sunlit background and shaded background for a particular view and solar illumination angle) are only a part in the listed techniques. It is assumed that each pixel views collections of the individual forest trees and the pixel-level reflectance can thus be computed as a linear mixture of sunlit tree tops, sunlit background (or understory) and shadows. Instead of these photometry and geometry constraints, the improved models are developed of the functional description of outgoing spectral radiation, in which such parameters of the forest canopy like the vegetation biomass density for

  4. Static Mapping of Functional Programs: An Example in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack B. Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex signal-processing problems are naturally described by compositions of program modules that process streams of data. In this article we discuss how such compositions may be analyzed and mapped onto multiprocessor computers to effectively exploit the massive parallelism of these applications. The methods are illustrated with an example of signal processing for an optical surveillance problem. Program transformation and analysis are used to construct a program description tree that represents the given computation as an acyclic interconnection of stream-processing modules. Each module may be mapped to a set of threads run on a group of processing elements of a target multiprocessor. Performance is considered for two forms of multiprocessor architecture, one based on conventional DSP technology and the other on a multithreaded-processing element design.

  5. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  6. 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Wai; Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Saat, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This book presents important research findings and recent innovations in the field of machine learning and signal processing. A wide range of topics relating to machine learning and signal processing techniques and their applications are addressed in order to provide both researchers and practitioners with a valuable resource documenting the latest advances and trends. The book comprises a careful selection of the papers submitted to the 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing (MALSIP 2015), which was held on 15–17 December 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam with the aim of offering researchers, academicians, and practitioners an ideal opportunity to disseminate their findings and achievements. All of the included contributions were chosen by expert peer reviewers from across the world on the basis of their interest to the community. In addition to presenting the latest in design, development, and research, the book provides access to numerous new algorithms for machine learni...

  7. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed

  8. Digital signal processing for wireless communication using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2016-01-01

    This book examines signal processing techniques used in wireless communication illustrated by using the Matlab program. The author discusses these techniques as they relate to Doppler spread; delay spread; Rayleigh and Rician channel modeling; rake receiver; diversity techniques; MIMO and OFDM -based transmission techniques; and array signal processing. Related topics such as detection theory, link budget, multiple access techniques, and spread spectrum are also covered.   ·         Illustrates signal processing techniques involved in wireless communication using Matlab ·         Discusses multiple access techniques such as Frequency division multiple access, Time division multiple access, and Code division multiple access ·         Covers band pass modulation techniques such as Binary phase shift keying, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature phase shift keying, Binary frequency shift keying, Minimum shift keying, and Gaussian minimum shift keying.

  9. Frames and operator theory in analysis and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, David R; Nashed, Zuhair; Nguyen, Minh Chuong; Papadakis, Manos

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains articles based on talks presented at the Special Session Frames and Operator Theory in Analysis and Signal Processing, held in San Antonio, Texas, in January of 2006. Recently, the field of frames has undergone tremendous advancement. Most of the work in this field is focused on the design and construction of more versatile frames and frames tailored towards specific applications, e.g., finite dimensional uniform frames for cellular communication. In addition, frames are now becoming a hot topic in mathematical research as a part of many engineering applications, e.g., matching pursuits and greedy algorithms for image and signal processing. Topics covered in this book include: Application of several branches of analysis (e.g., PDEs; Fourier, wavelet, and harmonic analysis; transform techniques; data representations) to industrial and engineering problems, specifically image and signal processing. Theoretical and applied aspects of frames and wavelets. Pure aspects of operator theory empha...

  10. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, Q.S.; Institute of Radiation Problems, ANAS, Baku

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing allow us to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions.Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors [1] [2]. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a OTSZS-02 (250USB)-4 digital storage oscilloscope from ZAO R UDNEV-SHILYAYEV . This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit(256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5.10''8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252.To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages

  11. Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejnalova, O.; Zejnalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms are provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter on the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionization chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer is investigated in terms of the distance between pile-up pulses. The efficiency of the developed algorithms is compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature

  12. Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.

  13. Research on Remote Sensing Image Template Processing Based on Global Subdivision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong Delan; Du Genyuan

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the questions of vast data, complex operation, and time consuming processing for remote sensing image, subdivision template was proposed based on global subdivision theory, which can set up high level of abstraction and generalization for remote sensing image. The paper emphatically discussed the model and structure of subdivision template, and put forward some new ideas for remote sensing image template processing, key technology and quickly applied demonstration. The research has ...

  14. Ultra-Low Voltage Sixth-Order Low Pass Filter for Sensing the T-Wave Signal in ECGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Bertsias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-low voltage sixth-order low pass filter topology, suitable for sensing the T-wave signal in an electrocardiogram (ECG, is presented in this paper. This is realized using a cascade connection of second-order building blocks constructed from a sinh-domain two-integrator loop. The performance of the filter has been evaluated using the Cadence Analog Design Environment and the design kit provided by the Austria Mikro Systeme (AMS 0.35-µm CMOS process. The power consumption of filters was 7.21 nW, while a total harmonic distortion (THD level of 4% was observed for an input signal of 220 pA. The RMS value of the input referred noise was 0.43 pA, and the simulated value of the dynamic range (DR was 51.1 dB. A comparison with already published counterparts shows that the proposed topology offers the benefits of 0.5-V supply voltage operation and significantly improved power efficiency.

  15. An implementation of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, L.; Stepinski, T.

    1994-01-01

    Probability of detection flaws during ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection is often limited by the presence of backscattered echoes from the material structure. A digital signal processing technique for removal of this material noise, referred to as split spectrum processing (SSP), has been developed and verified using laboratory experiments during the last decade. The authors have performed recently a limited scale evaluation of various SSP techniques for ultrasonic signals acquired during the inspection of welds in austenitic steel. They have obtained very encouraging results that indicate promising capabilities of the SSP for inspection of nuclear power plants. Thus, a more extensive investigation of the technique using large amounts of ultrasonic data is motivated. This analysis should employ different combinations of materials, flaws and transducers. Due to the considerable number of ultrasonic signals required to verify the technique for future practical use, a custom-made computer software is necessary. At the request of the Swedish nuclear power industry the authors have developed such a program package. The program provides a user-friendly graphical interface and is intended for processing of B-scan data in a flexible way. Assembled in the program are a number of signal processing algorithms including traditional Split Spectrum Processing and the more recent Cut Spectrum Processing algorithm developed by them. The program and some results obtained using the various algorithms are presented in the paper

  16. Combining machine learning and remotely sensed bandratios to investigate chlorophyll content and photosynthetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Hamed

    Photosynthesis in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is the key component of the food chain and the most important driver of the global carbon cycle. Therefore, estimation of photosynthesis at large spatial scales is of great scientific importance and can only practically be achieved by remote sensing data and techniques. In this dissertation, remotely sensed information and techniques, as well as field measurements, are used to improve current approaches of assessing photosynthetic processes. More specifically, three topics are the focus here: (1) investigating the application of spectral vegetation indices as proxies for terrestrial chlorophyll in a mangrove ecosystem, (2) evaluating and improving one of the most common empirical ocean-color algorithms (OC4), and (3) developing an improved approach based on sunlit-to-shaded scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) ratios for detecting drought signals in a deciduous forest at eastern United States. The results indicated that although the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) is an efficient proxy for terrestrial chlorophyll content, there are opportunities to improve the performance of vegetation indices by optimizing the band weights. In regards to the second topic, we concluded that the parameters of the OC4 algorithm and similar empirical models should be tuned regionally and the addition of sea-surface temperature makes the global ocean-color approaches more valid. Results obtained from the third topic showed that considering shaded and sunlit portions of the canopy (i.e., two-leaf models instead of single big leaf models) and taking into account the divergent stomatal behavior of the species (i.e. isohydric and anisohydric) can improve the capability of sPRI in detecting drought. In addition to investigating the photosynthetic processes, the other common theme of the three research topics is the evaluation of "off- the-shelf" solutions to remote-sensing problems. Although widely used

  17. Making sense of Wnt signaling – linking hair cell regeneration to development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJansson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway crucial for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions. In the developing mouse inner ear, Wnt signaling plays diverse roles, including specification of the otic placode and patterning of the otic vesicle. At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.

  18. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  19. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.P.; Elliott, A.

    1992-01-01

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented

  20. PC add on card for processing of LSC signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, S.R.; Nikhare, D.M.; Gurna, R.K.; Paulson, Molly; Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes PC- add on card developed at Electronics Division for processing of LSC signals. This card uses highly integrated digital and analog circuits, for entire processing of signals available from preamplifiers to get complete beta energy spectrum corresponding to coincident events in Liquid Scintillation Counting. LSC card along with High Voltage PC-add on card gives complete electronics required for LSC system. This card is also used in automatic LSC system along with interface circuits, which are used to control mechanical movements. (author)

  1. Processing of seismic signals from a seismometer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Warburton, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    A description is given of the Seismometer Network Analysis Computer (SNAC) which processes short period data from a network of seismometers (UKNET). The nine stations of the network are distributed throughout the UK and their outputs are transmitted to a control laboratory (Blacknest) where SNAC monitors the data for seismic signals. The computer gives an estimate of the source location of the detected signals and stores the waveforms. The detection logic is designed to maintain high sensitivity without excessive ''false alarms''. It is demonstrated that the system is able to detect seismic signals at an amplitude level consistent with a network of single stations and, within the limitations of signal onset time measurements made by machine, can locate the source of the seismic disturbance. (author)

  2. Crosstalk between Wnt Signaling and RNA Processing in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bordonaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA processing involves a variety of processes affecting gene expression, including the removal of introns through RNA splicing, as well as 3' end processing (cleavage and polyadenylation. Alternative RNA processing is fundamentally important for gene regulation, and aberrant processing is associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Deregulated Wnt signaling, which is the initiating event in the development of most cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC, has been linked to modified RNA processing, which may contribute to Wnt-mediated colonic carcinogenesis. Crosstalk between Wnt signaling and alternative RNA splicing with relevance to CRC includes effects on the expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced gene associated with tumorigenesis, which exhibits alternative RNA splicing that is influenced by Wnt activity. In addition, Tcf4, a crucial component of Wnt signaling, also exhibits alternative splicing, which is likely involved in colonic tumorigenesis. Modulation of 3' end formation, including of the Wnt target gene COX-2, also can influence the neoplastic process, with implications for CRC. While many human genes are dependent on introns and splicing for normal levels of gene expression, naturally intronless genes exist with a unique metabolism that allows for intron-independent gene expression. Effects of Wnt activity on the RNA metabolism of the intronless Wnt-target gene c-jun is a likely contributor to cancer development. Further, butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates Wnt activity in CRC cells, and also modulates RNA processing; therefore, the interplay between Wnt activity, the modulation of this activity by butyrate, and differential RNA metabolism in colonic cells can significantly influence tumorigenesis. Determining the role played by altered RNA processing in Wnt-mediated neoplasia may lead to novel interventions aimed at restoring normal RNA metabolism for

  3. Crosstalk between Wnt Signaling and RNA Processing in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael

    2013-01-01

    RNA processing involves a variety of processes affecting gene expression, including the removal of introns through RNA splicing, as well as 3' end processing (cleavage and polyadenylation). Alternative RNA processing is fundamentally important for gene regulation, and aberrant processing is associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Deregulated Wnt signaling, which is the initiating event in the development of most cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC), has been linked to modified RNA processing, which may contribute to Wnt-mediated colonic carcinogenesis. Crosstalk between Wnt signaling and alternative RNA splicing with relevance to CRC includes effects on the expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced gene associated with tumorigenesis, which exhibits alternative RNA splicing that is influenced by Wnt activity. In addition, Tcf4, a crucial component of Wnt signaling, also exhibits alternative splicing, which is likely involved in colonic tumorigenesis. Modulation of 3' end formation, including of the Wnt target gene COX-2, also can influence the neoplastic process, with implications for CRC. While many human genes are dependent on introns and splicing for normal levels of gene expression, naturally intronless genes exist with a unique metabolism that allows for intron-independent gene expression. Effects of Wnt activity on the RNA metabolism of the intronless Wnt-target gene c-jun is a likely contributor to cancer development. Further, butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates Wnt activity in CRC cells, and also modulates RNA processing; therefore, the interplay between Wnt activity, the modulation of this activity by butyrate, and differential RNA metabolism in colonic cells can significantly influence tumorigenesis. Determining the role played by altered RNA processing in Wnt-mediated neoplasia may lead to novel interventions aimed at restoring normal RNA metabolism for therapeutic benefit

  4. Signal Processing Device (SPD) for networked radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmapurikar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Sawhney, A.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    A networked radiation and parameter monitoring system with three tier architecture is being developed. Signal Processing Device (SPD) is a second level sub-system node in the network. SPD is an embedded system which has multiple input channels and output communication interfaces. It acquires and processes data from first level parametric sensor devices, and sends to third level devices in response to request commands received from host. It also performs scheduled diagnostic operations and passes on the information to host. It supports inputs in the form of differential digital signals and analog voltage signals. SPD communicates with higher level devices over RS232/RS422/USB channels. The system has been designed with main requirements of minimal power consumption and harsh environment in radioactive plants. This paper discusses the hardware and software design details of SPD. (author)

  5. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  6. Signal processing for non-destructive testing of railway tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Thomas; Casperson, Ralf; Rühe, Sven; Mook, Gerhard

    2018-04-01

    Increased speed, heavier loads, altered material and modern drive systems result in an increasing number of rail flaws. The appearance of these flaws also changes continually due to the rapid change in damage mechanisms of modern rolling stock. Hence, interpretation has become difficult when evaluating non-destructive rail testing results. Due to the changed interplay between detection methods and flaws, the recorded signals may result in unclassified types of rail flaws. Methods for automatic rail inspection (according to defect detection and classification) undergo continual development. Signal processing is a key technology to master the challenge of classification and maintain resolution and detection quality, independent of operation speed. The basic ideas of signal processing, based on the Glassy-Rail-Diagram for classification purposes, are presented herein. Examples for the detection of damages caused by rolling contact fatigue also are given, and synergetic effects of combined evaluation of diverse inspection methods are shown.

  7. Myoelectric signal processing for control of powered limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P; Englehart, K; Hudgins, B

    2006-12-01

    Progress in myoelectric control technology has over the years been incremental, due in part to the alternating focus of the R&D between control methodology and device hardware. The technology has over the past 50 years or so moved from single muscle control of a single prosthesis function to muscle group activity control of multifunction prostheses. Central to these changes have been developments in the means of extracting information from the myoelectric signal. This paper gives an overview of the myoelectric signal processing challenge, a brief look at the challenge from an historical perspective, the state-of-the-art in myoelectric signal processing for prosthesis control, and an indication of where this field is heading. The paper demonstrates that considerable progress has been made in providing clients with useful and reliable myoelectric communication channels, and that exciting work and developments are on the horizon.

  8. A model system for targeted drug release triggered by biomolecular signals logically processed through enzyme logic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Shay; Halámek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-03-07

    A new Sense-and-Act system was realized by the integration of a biocomputing system, performing analytical processes, with a signal-responsive electrode. A drug-mimicking release process was triggered by biomolecular signals processed by different logic networks, including three concatenated AND logic gates or a 3-input OR logic gate. Biocatalytically produced NADH, controlled by various combinations of input signals, was used to activate the electrochemical system. A biocatalytic electrode associated with signal-processing "biocomputing" systems was electrically connected to another electrode coated with a polymer film, which was dissolved upon the formation of negative potential releasing entrapped drug-mimicking species, an enzyme-antibody conjugate, operating as a model for targeted immune-delivery and consequent "prodrug" activation. The system offers great versatility for future applications in controlled drug release and personalized medicine.

  9. Humidity sensing in insects-from ecology to neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders

    2017-12-01

    Humidity is an omnipresent climatic factor that influences the fitness, reproductive behavior and geographic distribution of animals. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment. Although the sensory neurons of this elusive sense were first described more than fifty years ago, the transduction mechanism of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains unknown. Recent work has uncovered some of the key molecules involved, opening up for novel approaches to study hygrosensory transduction. In this review, I will discuss this progress made toward understanding hygrosensation in insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Total focusing method with correlation processing of antenna array signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyak, O. A.; Bortalevich, S. I.; Loginov, E. L.; Shinyakov, Y. A.; Sukhorukov, M. P.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes a method of preliminary correlation processing of a complete set of antenna array signals used in the image reconstruction algorithm. The results of experimental studies of 3D reconstruction of various reflectors using and without correlation processing are presented in the article. Software ‘IDealSystem3D’ by IDeal-Technologies was used for experiments. Copper wires of different diameters located in a water bath were used as a reflector. The use of correlation processing makes it possible to obtain more accurate reconstruction of the image of the reflectors and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results were processed using an original program. This program allows varying the parameters of the antenna array and sampling frequency.

  11. Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009’s special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the

  12. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders

    1998-01-01

    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...

  13. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  14. A practicable signal processing algorithm for industrial nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yaogeng; Gao Song; Yang Wujiao

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce the statistical error and to improve dynamic performances of the industrial nuclear instrument, a practicable method of nuclear measurement signal processing is developed according to industrial nuclear measurement features. The algorithm designed is implemented with a single-chip microcomputer. The results of application in (radiation level gauge has proved the effectiveness of this method). (authors)

  15. Tutorial: Signal Processing in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research in Electroencephalogram (EEG) based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) has been considerably expanding during the last few years. Such an expansion owes to a large extent to the multidisciplinary and challenging nature of BCI research. Signal processing undoubtedly constitutes an essential

  16. Programming signal processing applications on heterogeneous wireless sensor platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buondonno, L.; Fortino, G.; Galzarano, S.; Giannantonio, R.; Giordano, A.; Gravina, R.; Guerrieri, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the SPINE frameworks (SPINE1.x and SPINE2) for the programming of signal processing applications on heterogeneous wireless sensor platforms. In particular, two integrable approaches based on the proposed frameworks are described that allow to develop applications for wireless

  17. Some recent work on lattice structures for digital signal processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Digital signal processing (DSP); lattice structures; finite impulse ... fascinated this author for a long time, and for the known non-canonical ...... where M

  18. Multiplexing and data processing of in-core signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.

    1983-01-01

    The application of multiplexing and signal processing techniques used for reactor operation and utilisation of data from the in-core instrumentation system is described. After a brief recall about in-core instrumentation, the aims, the advantages of multiplexing are presented. One of the aims of this realization is to show the compatibity between the technologies used with a PWR environment [fr

  19. Nonlinear signal processing for ultrasonic imaging of material complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 108-117 ISSN 1736-6046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear signal processing * TR-NEWS * symmetry analysis * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2010 www.eap.ee/proceedings

  20. Signal processing in an acousto-optical spectral colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeljanov, Sergey P.; Kludzin, Victor V.; Kochin, Leonid B.; Medvedev, Sergey V.; Polosin, Lev L.; Sokolov, Vladimir K.

    2002-02-01

    The algorithms of spectrometer signals processing in the acousto-optical spectral colorimeter, proposed earlier are discussed. This processing is directional on distortion elimination of an optical system spectral characteristics and photoelectric transformations, and also for calculation of tristimulus coefficients X,Y,Z in an international colorimetric system of a CIE - 31 and transformation them in coordinates of recommended CIE uniform contrast systems LUV and LAB.

  1. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.

    2015-01-01

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples

  2. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczyński, L., E-mail: lech.raczynski@ncbj.gov.pl [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Moskal, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W. [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kapłon, Ł. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Kochanowski, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2015-06-21

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples.

  3. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2015-06-01

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples.

  4. Generation and coherent detection of QPSK signal using a novel method of digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Hu, Bingliang; He, Zhen-An; Xie, Wenjia; Gao, Xiaohui

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate an optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal transmitter and an optical receiver for demodulating optical QPSK signal with homodyne detection and digital signal processing (DSP). DSP on the homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). In this paper, we present an extracting one-dimensional array of down-sampling method for reducing unwanted samples of constellation diagram measurement. Such a novel scheme embodies the following major advantages over the other conventional optical QPSK signal detection methods. First, this homodyne detection scheme does not need strict requirement on LO in comparison with linear optical sampling, such as having a flat spectral density and phase over the spectral support of the source under test. Second, the LabVIEW software is directly used for recovering the QPSK signal constellation without employing complex DSP circuit. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-ary PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or higher speed signals by making minor changes.

  5. Quorum sensing is a language of chemical signals and plays an ecological role in algal-bacterial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Lyu, Yihua; Richlen, Mindy; Anderson, Donald M; Cai, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Algae are ubiquitous in the marine environment, and the ways in which they interact with bacteria are of particular interest in marine ecology field. The interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape microbial diversity. Although algal-bacterial interactions are well known and studied, information regarding the chemical-ecological role of this relationship remains limited, particularly with respect to quorum sensing (QS), which is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. In the microbial biosphere, QS is pivotal in driving community structure and regulating behavioral ecology, including biofilm formation, virulence, antibiotic resistance, swarming motility, and secondary metabolite production. Many marine habitats, such as the phycosphere, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms and various signal languages (such as QS-based autoinducers). QS-mediated interactions widely influence algal-bacterial symbiotic relationships, which in turn determine community organization, population structure, and ecosystem functioning. Understanding infochemicals-mediated ecological processes may shed light on the symbiotic interactions between algae host and associated microbes. In this review, we summarize current achievements about how QS modulates microbial behavior, affects symbiotic relationships, and regulates phytoplankton chemical ecological processes. Additionally, we present an overview of QS-modulated co-evolutionary relationships between algae and bacterioplankton, and consider the potential applications and future perspectives of QS.

  6. Probing safety of nanoparticles by outlining sea urchin sensing and signaling cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijagic, Andi; Pinsino, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    Among currently identified issues presenting risks and benefits to human and ocean health, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) represent a priority. Predictions of their economic and social impact appear extraordinary, but their release in the environment at an uncontrollable rate is in striking contrast with the extremely limited number of studies on environmental impact, especially on the marine environment. The sea urchin has a remarkable sensing environmental system whose function and diversity came into focus during the recent years, after sea urchin genome sequencing. The complex immune system may be the basis wherefore sea urchins can adapt to a dynamic environment and survive even in hazardous conditions both in the adult and in the embryonic life. This review is aimed at discussing the literature in nanotoxicological/ecotoxicological studies with a focus on stress and innate immune signaling in sea urchins. In addition, here we introduce our current development of in vitro-driven probes that could be used to dissect ENP aftermaths, suggesting their future use in immune-nanotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synaptically released zinc triggers metabotropic signaling via a zinc-sensing receptor in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Limor; Chorin, Ehud; Sekler, Israel; Silverman, William F; Atkin, Stan; Russell, James T; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2009-03-04

    Zn(2+) is coreleased with glutamate from mossy fiber terminals and can influence synaptic function. Here, we demonstrate that synaptically released Zn(2+) activates a selective postsynaptic Zn(2+)-sensing receptor (ZnR) in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. ZnR activation induced intracellular release of Ca(2+), as well as phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase and Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II. Blockade of synaptic transmission by tetrodotoxin or CdCl inhibited the ZnR-mediated Ca(2+) rises. The responses mediated by ZnR were largely attenuated by the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, CaEDTA, and in slices from mice lacking vesicular Zn(2+), suggesting that synaptically released Zn(2+) triggers the metabotropic activity. Knockdown of the expression of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) attenuated ZnR activity in a neuronal cell line. Importantly, we observed widespread GPR39 labeling in CA3 neurons, suggesting a role for this receptor in mediating ZnR signaling in the hippocampus. Our results describe a unique role for synaptic Zn(2+) acting as the physiological ligand of a metabotropic receptor and provide a novel pathway by which synaptic Zn(2+) can regulate neuronal function.

  8. Remote sensing, airborne radiometric survey and aeromagnetic survey data processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiuzhen; Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Xuan Yanxiu

    2009-01-01

    Taking remote sensing data, airborne radiometric data and aero magnetic survey data as an example, the authors elaborate about basic thinking of remote sensing data processing methods, spectral feature analysis and adopted processing methods, also explore the remote sensing data combining with the processing of airborne radiometric survey and aero magnetic survey data, and analyze geological significance of processed image. It is not only useful for geological environment research and uranium prospecting in the study area, but also reference to applications in another area. (authors)

  9. Algorithm-Architecture Matching for Signal and Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Gogniat, Guy; Morawiec, Adam; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Advances in signal and image processing together with increasing computing power are bringing mobile technology closer to applications in a variety of domains like automotive, health, telecommunication, multimedia, entertainment and many others. The development of these leading applications, involving a large diversity of algorithms (e.g. signal, image, video, 3D, communication, cryptography) is classically divided into three consecutive steps: a theoretical study of the algorithms, a study of the target architecture, and finally the implementation. Such a linear design flow is reaching its li

  10. Low-power signal processing devices for portable ECG detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shuenn-Yuh; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Pin; Kao, Wei-Chun

    2008-01-01

    An analog front end for diagnosing and monitoring the behavior of the heart is presented. This sensing front end has two low-power processing devices, including a 5(th)-order Butterworth operational transconductance-C (OTA-C) filter and an 8-bit successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAADC). The components fabricated in a 0.18-microm CMOS technology feature with power consumptions of 453 nW (filter) and 940 nW (ADC) at a supply voltage of 1 V, respectively. The system specifications in terms of output noise and linearity associated with the two integrated circuits are described in this paper.

  11. Signal processing for 5G algorithms and implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fa-Long

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive and invaluable guide to 5G technology, implementation and practice in one single volume. For all things 5G, this book is a must-read. Signal processing techniques have played the most important role in wireless communications since the second generation of cellular systems. It is anticipated that new techniques employed in 5G wireless networks will not only improve peak service rates significantly, but also enhance capacity, coverage, reliability , low-latency, efficiency, flexibility, compatibility and convergence to meet the increasing demands imposed by applications such as big data, cloud service, machine-to-machine (M2M) and mission-critical communications. This book is a comprehensive and detailed guide to all signal processing techniques employed in 5G wireless networks. Uniquely organized into four categories, New Modulation and &n sp;Coding, New Spatial Processing, New Spectrum Opportunities and New System-level Enabling Technologies, it covers everything from network architecture...

  12. A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1991-01-01

    A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

  13. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  14. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  15. New challenges in signal processing in astrophysics: the SKA case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, Andrew; Zarb-Adami, Kristian; De Vaate, Jan Geralt Bij

    2015-01-01

    Signal processing and communications are driving the latest generation of radio telescopes with major developments taking place for use on the Square Kilometre Array, SKA, the next generation low frequency radio telescope. The data rates and processing performance that can be achieved with currently available components means that concepts from the earlier days of radio astronomy, phased arrays, can be used at higher frequencies, larger bandwidths and higher numbers of beams. Indeed it has been argued that the use of dishes as a mechanical beamformer only gained strong acceptance to mitigate the processing load from phased array technology. The balance is changing and benefits in both performance and cost can be realised. In this paper we will mostly consider the signal processing implementation and control for very large phased arrays consisting of hundreds of thousands of antennas or even millions of antennas. They can use current technology for the initial deployments. These systems are very large extending to hundreds of racks with thousands of signal processing modules that link through high-speed, but commercially available data networking devices. There are major challenges to accurately calibrate the arrays, mitigate power consumption and make the system maintainable

  16. Social multimedia signals a signal processing approach to social network phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Suman Deb

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art in understanding media popularity and trends in online social networks through social multimedia signals. With insights from the study of popularity and sharing patterns of online media, trend spread in social media, social network analysis for multimedia and visualizing diffusion of media in online social networks. In particular, the book will address the following important issues: Understanding social network phenomena from a signal processing point of view; The existence and popularity of multimedia as shared and social me

  17. A Versatile Multichannel Digital Signal Processing Module for Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Collins, J. W.; Walby, M.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W. K.; Grudberg, P.

    2012-06-01

    Different techniques have been developed for reading out microcalorimeter sensor arrays: individual outputs for small arrays, and time-division or frequency-division or code-division multiplexing for large arrays. Typically, raw waveform data are first read out from the arrays using one of these techniques and then stored on computer hard drives for offline optimum filtering, leading not only to requirements for large storage space but also limitations on achievable count rate. Thus, a read-out module that is capable of processing microcalorimeter signals in real time will be highly desirable. We have developed multichannel digital signal processing electronics that are capable of on-board, real time processing of microcalorimeter sensor signals from multiplexed or individual pixel arrays. It is a 3U PXI module consisting of a standardized core processor board and a set of daughter boards. Each daughter board is designed to interface a specific type of microcalorimeter array to the core processor. The combination of the standardized core plus this set of easily designed and modified daughter boards results in a versatile data acquisition module that not only can easily expand to future detector systems, but is also low cost. In this paper, we first present the core processor/daughter board architecture, and then report the performance of an 8-channel daughter board, which digitizes individual pixel outputs at 1 MSPS with 16-bit precision. We will also introduce a time-division multiplexing type daughter board, which takes in time-division multiplexing signals through fiber-optic cables and then processes the digital signals to generate energy spectra in real time.

  18. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  19. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997...... discrimination with pure tones and broadband noise, tone-in-noise detection, spectral masking with narrow-band signals and maskers, forward masking with tone signals and tone or noise maskers, and amplitude-modulation detection with narrow- and wideband noise carriers. The model can account for most of the key...... properties of the data and is more powerful than the original model. The model might be useful as a front end in technical applications....

  20. Analog integrated circuits design for processing physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2010-01-01

    Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this paper, techniques for designing the analog front-end circuits with these three characteristics will be reviewed, including subthreshold circuits, bulk-driven MOSFETs, floating gate MOSFETs, and log-domain circuits to reduce power consumption; methods for designing fully integrated low cutoff frequency circuits; as well as chopper stabilization (CHS) and other techniques that can be used to achieve a high signal-to-noise performance. Novel applications using these techniques will also be discussed.

  1. Azimuth-Variant Signal Processing in High-Altitude Platform Passive SAR with Spaceborne/Airborne Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizong Shao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAP or near-space vehicle offers several advantages over current low earth orbit (LEO satellite and airplane, because HAP is not constrained by orbital mechanics and fuel consumption. These advantages provide potential for some specific remote sensing applications that require persistent monitoring or fast-revisiting frequency. This paper investigates the azimuth-variant signal processing in HAP-borne bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR with spaceborne or airborne transmitter for high-resolution remote sensing. The system configuration, azimuth-variant Doppler characteristics and two-dimensional echo spectrum are analyzed. Conceptual system simulation results are also provided. Since the azimuth-variant BiSAR geometry brings a challenge for developing high precision data processing algorithms, we propose an image formation algorithm using equivalent velocity and nonlinear chirp scaling (NCS to address the azimuth-variant signal processing problem. The proposed algorithm is verified by numerical simulation results.

  2. Statistical 21-cm Signal Separation via Gaussian Process Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, F. G.; Ghosh, A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2018-05-01

    Detecting and characterizing the Epoch of Reionization and Cosmic Dawn via the redshifted 21-cm hyperfine line of neutral hydrogen will revolutionize the study of the formation of the first stars, galaxies, black holes and intergalactic gas in the infant Universe. The wealth of information encoded in this signal is, however, buried under foregrounds that are many orders of magnitude brighter. These must be removed accurately and precisely in order to reveal the feeble 21-cm signal. This requires not only the modeling of the Galactic and extra-galactic emission, but also of the often stochastic residuals due to imperfect calibration of the data caused by ionospheric and instrumental distortions. To stochastically model these effects, we introduce a new method based on `Gaussian Process Regression' (GPR) which is able to statistically separate the 21-cm signal from most of the foregrounds and other contaminants. Using simulated LOFAR-EoR data that include strong instrumental mode-mixing, we show that this method is capable of recovering the 21-cm signal power spectrum across the entire range k = 0.07 - 0.3 {h cMpc^{-1}}. The GPR method is most optimal, having minimal and controllable impact on the 21-cm signal, when the foregrounds are correlated on frequency scales ≳ 3 MHz and the rms of the signal has σ21cm ≳ 0.1 σnoise. This signal separation improves the 21-cm power-spectrum sensitivity by a factor ≳ 3 compared to foreground avoidance strategies and enables the sensitivity of current and future 21-cm instruments such as the Square Kilometre Array to be fully exploited.

  3. Blind I/Q Signal Separation-Based Solutions for Receiver Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visa Koivunen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some novel digital signal processing (DSP-based approaches to some of the most fundamental tasks of radio receivers, namely, channel equalization, carrier synchronization, and I/Q mismatch compensation. The leading principle is to show that all these problems can be solved blindly (i.e., without training signals by forcing the I and Q components of the observed data as independent as possible. Blind signal separation (BSS is then introduced as an efficient tool to carry out these tasks, and simulation examples are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed approaches. The main application area of the presented carrier synchronization and I/Q mismatch compensation techniques is in direct-conversion type receivers, while the proposed channel equalization principles basically apply to any radio architecture.

  4. Process and circuiting arrangement for the conversion of analog signals to digital signals and digital signals to analog signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintzer, K.

    1977-01-01

    Process for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion in telecommunication systems whose outstations each have an analog transmitter and an analog receiver. The invention illustrates a method of reducing the power demand of the converters at times when no conversion processes take place. (RW) [de

  5. Piezoelectric self-sensing actuator for active vibration control of motorized spindle based on adaptive signal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Chen, Xiaoan; Liu, Zhi; Qin, Yi

    2018-06-01

    The motorized spindle is the core component of CNC machine tools, and the vibration of it reduces the machining precision and service life of the machine tools. Owing to the fast response, large output force, and displacement of the piezoelectric stack, it is often used as the actuator in the active vibration control of the spindle. A piezoelectric self-sensing actuator (SSA) can reduce the cost of the active vibration control system and simplify the structure by eliminating the use of a sensor, because a SSA can have both actuating and sensing functions at the same time. The signal separation method of a SSA based on a bridge circuit is widely applied because of its simple principle and easy implementation. However, it is difficult to maintain dynamic balance of the circuit. Prior research has used adaptive algorithm to balance of the bridge circuit on the flexible beam dynamically, but those algorithms need no correlation between sensing and control voltage, which limit the applications of SSA in the vibration control of the rotor-bearing system. Here, the electromechanical coupling model of the piezoelectric stack is established, followed by establishment of the dynamic model of the spindle system. Next, a new adaptive signal separation method based on the bridge circuit is proposed, which can separate relative small sensing voltage from related mixed voltage adaptively. The experimental results show that when the self-sensing signal obtained from the proposed method is used as a displacement signal, the vibration of the motorized spindle can be suppressed effectively through a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) algorithm.

  6. Monitoring of drilling process with the application of acoustic signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labaš Milan

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of rock disintegration process at drilling, scanning of input quantities: thrust F, revolution n and the course of some output quantities: the drilling rate v and the power input P are needed for the control of this process. We can calculate the specific volume work of rock disintegration w and ϕ - quotient of drilling rate v and the specific volume work of disintegration w from the presented quantities.Works on an expertimental stand showed that the correlation relationships between the input and output quantities can be found by scanning the accompanying sound of the drilling proces.Research of the rock disintegration with small-diameter diamond drill tools and different rock types is done at the Institute of Geotechnics. The aim of this research is the possibility of monitoring and controlling the rock disintegration process with the application of acoustic signal. The acoustic vibrations accompanying the drilling process are recorded by a microphone placed in a defined position in the acoustic space. The drilling device (drilling stand, the drilling tool and the rock are the source of sound. Two basic sound states exist in the drilling stand research : the noise at no-load running and the noise at the rotary drilling of rock. Suitable quantities for optimizing the rock disintegration process are searched by the study of the acoustic signal. The dominant frequencies that characterize the disintegration process for the given rock and tool are searched by the analysis of the acoustic signal. The analysis of dominant frequencies indicates the possibility of determining an optimal regime for the maximal drilling rate. Extreme of the specific disintegration energy is determinated by the dispersion of the dominant frequency.The scanned acoustic signal is processed by the Fourier transformation. The Fourier transformation facilitates the distribution of the general non-harmonic periodic process into harmonic components. The harmonic

  7. A review of channel selection algorithms for EEG signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaiby, Turky; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2015-12-01

    Digital processing of electroencephalography (EEG) signals has now been popularly used in a wide variety of applications such as seizure detection/prediction, motor imagery classification, mental task classification, emotion classification, sleep state classification, and drug effects diagnosis. With the large number of EEG channels acquired, it has become apparent that efficient channel selection algorithms are needed with varying importance from one application to another. The main purpose of the channel selection process is threefold: (i) to reduce the computational complexity of any processing task performed on EEG signals by selecting the relevant channels and hence extracting the features of major importance, (ii) to reduce the amount of overfitting that may arise due to the utilization of unnecessary channels, for the purpose of improving the performance, and (iii) to reduce the setup time in some applications. Signal processing tools such as time-domain analysis, power spectral estimation, and wavelet transform have been used for feature extraction and hence for channel selection in most of channel selection algorithms. In addition, different evaluation approaches such as filtering, wrapper, embedded, hybrid, and human-based techniques have been widely used for the evaluation of the selected subset of channels. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in the field of EEG channel selection methods along with their applications and classify these methods according to the evaluation approach.

  8. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  9. Fetal QRS extraction from abdominal recordings via model-based signal processing and intelligent signal merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghpanahi, Masoumeh; Borkholder, David A

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive fetal ECG (fECG) monitoring has potential applications in diagnosing congenital heart diseases in a timely manner and assisting clinicians to make more appropriate decisions during labor. However, despite advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques, the analysis of fECG signals has still remained in its preliminary stages. In this work, we describe an algorithm to automatically locate QRS complexes in noninvasive fECG signals obtained from a set of four electrodes placed on the mother’s abdomen. The algorithm is based on an iterative decomposition of the maternal and fetal subspaces and filtering of the maternal ECG (mECG) components from the fECG recordings. Once the maternal components are removed, a novel merging technique is applied to merge the signals and detect the fetal QRS (fQRS) complexes. The algorithm was trained and tested on the fECG datasets provided by the PhysioNet/CinC challenge 2013. The final results indicate that the algorithm is able to detect fetal peaks for a variety of signals with different morphologies and strength levels encountered in clinical practice. (paper)

  10. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David

    2010-01-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  11. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  12. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.

  13. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... the structure of the receiver with the hope that the resulting heuristic architecture will exhibit the desired behavior and performance. On the other hand, one can employ analytical frameworks to pose the problem as the optimization of a global objective function subject to certain constraints. This work...

  14. Systolic pocessing and an implementation for signal and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.V.; Yen, D.W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Many signal and image processing applications impose a severe demand on the I/O bandwidth and computation power of general-purpose computers. The systolic concept offers guidelines in building cost-effective systems that balance I/O with computation. The resulting simplicity and regularity of such systems leads to modular designs suitable for VLSI implementation. The authors describe a linear systolic array capable of evaluating a large class of inner-product functions used in signal and image processing. These include matrix multiplications, multidimensional convolutions using fixed or time-varying kernels, as well as various nonlinear functions of vectors. The system organization of a working prototype is also described. 11 references.

  15. Signal processing methods for in-situ creep specimen monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guers, Manton J.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Previous work investigated using guided waves for monitoring creep deformation during accelerated life testing. The basic objective was to relate observed changes in the time-of-flight to changes in the environmental temperature and specimen gage length. The work presented in this paper investigated several signal processing strategies for possible application in the in-situ monitoring system. Signal processing methods for both group velocity (wave-packet envelope) and phase velocity (peak tracking) time-of-flight were considered. Although the Analytic Envelope found via the Hilbert transform is commonly applied for group velocity measurements, erratic behavior in the indicated time-of-flight was observed when this technique was applied to the in-situ data. The peak tracking strategies tested had generally linear trends, and tracking local minima in the raw waveform ultimately showed the most consistent results.

  16. Study on algorithm of process neural network for soft sensing in sewage disposal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaiwen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Lu, Siying

    2006-11-01

    A new method of soft sensing based on process neural network (PNN) for sewage disposal system is represented in the paper. PNN is an extension of traditional neural network, in which the inputs and outputs are time-variation. An aggregation operator is introduced to process neuron, and it makes the neuron network has the ability to deal with the information of space-time two dimensions at the same time, so the data processing enginery of biological neuron is imitated better than traditional neuron. Process neural network with the structure of three layers in which hidden layer is process neuron and input and output are common neurons for soft sensing is discussed. The intelligent soft sensing based on PNN may be used to fulfill measurement of the effluent BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) from sewage disposal system, and a good training result of soft sensing was obtained by the method.

  17. Signal Processing for Time-Series Functions on a Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Figures Fig. 1 Time -series function on a fixed graph.............................................2 iv Approved for public release; distribution is...φi〉`2(V)φi (39) 6= f̄ (40) Instead, we simply recover the average of f over time . 13 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This...ARL-TR-8276• FEB 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Signal Processing for Time -Series Functions on a Graph by Humberto Muñoz-Barona, Jean Vettel, and

  18. Synthesis of computational structures for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Cosmin Radu

    2011-01-01

    Presents the most important classes of computational structures for analog signal processing, including differential or multiplier structures, squaring or square-rooting circuits, exponential or Euclidean distance structures and active resistor circuitsIntroduces the original concept of the multifunctional circuit, an active structure that is able to implement, starting from the same circuit core, a multitude of continuous mathematical functionsCovers mathematical analysis, design and implementation of a multitude of function generator structures

  19. Nonlinear signal processing using neural networks: Prediction and system modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapedes, A.; Farber, R.

    1987-06-01

    The backpropagation learning algorithm for neural networks is developed into a formalism for nonlinear signal processing. We illustrate the method by selecting two common topics in signal processing, prediction and system modelling, and show that nonlinear applications can be handled extremely well by using neural networks. The formalism is a natural, nonlinear extension of the linear Least Mean Squares algorithm commonly used in adaptive signal processing. Simulations are presented that document the additional performance achieved by using nonlinear neural networks. First, we demonstrate that the formalism may be used to predict points in a highly chaotic time series with orders of magnitude increase in accuracy over conventional methods including the Linear Predictive Method and the Gabor-Volterra-Weiner Polynomial Method. Deterministic chaos is thought to be involved in many physical situations including the onset of turbulence in fluids, chemical reactions and plasma physics. Secondly, we demonstrate the use of the formalism in nonlinear system modelling by providing a graphic example in which it is clear that the neural network has accurately modelled the nonlinear transfer function. It is interesting to note that the formalism provides explicit, analytic, global, approximations to the nonlinear maps underlying the various time series. Furthermore, the neural net seems to be extremely parsimonious in its requirements for data points from the time series. We show that the neural net is able to perform well because it globally approximates the relevant maps by performing a kind of generalized mode decomposition of the maps. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Signal Processing Effects for Ultrasonic Guided Wave Scanning of Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.J.; Cosgriff, L.M.; Martin, R.E.; Burns, E.A.; Teemer, L.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this ongoing work is to optimize experimental variables for a guided wave scanning method to obtain the most revealing and accurate images of defect conditions in composite materials. This study focuses on signal processing effects involved in forming guided wave scan images. Signal processing is involved at two basic levels for deriving ultrasonic guided wave scan images. At the primary level, NASA GRC has developed algorithms to extract over 30 parameters from the multimode signal and its power spectral density. At the secondary level, there are many variables for which values must be chosen that affect actual computation of these parameters. In this study, a ceramic matrix composite sample having a delamination is characterized using the ultrasonic guided wave scan method. Energy balance and decay rate parameters of the guided wave at each scan location are calculated to form images. These images are compared with ultrasonic c-scan and thermography images. The effect of the time portion of the waveform processed on image quality is assessed by comparing with images formed using the total waveform acquired

  1. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  2. Low power signal processing electronics for wearable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Custom designed microchips, known as Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), offer the lowest possible power consumption electronics. However, this comes at the cost of a longer, more complex and more costly design process compared to one using generic, off-the-shelf components. Nevertheless, their use is essential in future truly wearable medical devices that must operate for long periods of time from physically small, energy limited batteries. This presentation will demonstrate the state-of-the-art in ASIC technology for providing online signal processing for use in these wearable medical devices.

  3. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D Critchley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body, to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviours, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain’s representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.

  4. Wireless receiver architectures and design antennas, RF, synthesizers, mixed signal, and digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rouphael, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Receiver Architectures and Design presents the various designs and architectures of wireless receivers in the context of modern multi-mode and multi-standard devices. This one-stop reference and guide to designing low-cost low-power multi-mode, multi-standard receivers treats analog and digital signal processing simultaneously, with equal detail given to the chosen architecture and modulating waveform. It provides a complete understanding of the receiver's analog front end and the digital backend, and how each affects the other. The book explains the design process in great detail, s

  5. A signal processing analysis of Purkinje cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev R Abrams

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar Purkinje cells in vitro fire recurrent sequences of Sodium and Calcium spikes. Here, we analyze the Purkinje cell using harmonic analysis, and our experiments reveal that its output signal is comprised of three distinct frequency bands, which are combined using Amplitude and Frequency Modulation (AM/FM. We find that the three characteristic frequencies - Sodium, Calcium and Switching – occur in various combinations in all waveforms observed using whole-cell current clamp recordings. We found that the Calcium frequency can display a frequency doubling of its frequency mode, and the Switching frequency can act as a possible generator of pauses that are typically seen in Purkinje output recordings. Using a reversibly photo-switchable kainate receptor agonist, we demonstrate the external modulation of the Calcium and Switching frequencies. These experiments and Fourier analysis suggest that the Purkinje cell can be understood as a harmonic signal oscillator, enabling a higher level of interpretation of Purkinje signaling based on modern signal processing techniques.

  6. Uniform, optimal signal processing of mapped deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vibhor; Muratani, Masafumi; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Kraus, Petra; Lufkin, Thomas; Ng, Huck Hui; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2013-07-01

    Despite their apparent diversity, many problems in the analysis of high-throughput sequencing data are merely special cases of two general problems, signal detection and signal estimation. Here we adapt formally optimal solutions from signal processing theory to analyze signals of DNA sequence reads mapped to a genome. We describe DFilter, a detection algorithm that identifies regulatory features in ChIP-seq, DNase-seq and FAIRE-seq data more accurately than assay-specific algorithms. We also describe EFilter, an estimation algorithm that accurately predicts mRNA levels from as few as 1-2 histone profiles (R ∼0.9). Notably, the presence of regulatory motifs in promoters correlates more with histone modifications than with mRNA levels, suggesting that histone profiles are more predictive of cis-regulatory mechanisms. We show by applying DFilter and EFilter to embryonic forebrain ChIP-seq data that regulatory protein identification and functional annotation are feasible despite tissue heterogeneity. The mathematical formalism underlying our tools facilitates integrative analysis of data from virtually any sequencing-based functional profile.

  7. On the Convergence of Implicit Iterative Processes for Asymptotically Pseudocontractive Mappings in the Intermediate Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Qin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An implicit iterative process is considered. Strong and weak convergence theorems of common fixed points of a finite family of asymptotically pseudocontractive mappings in the intermediate sense are established in a real Hilbert space.

  8. Dysphagia Screening: Contributions of Cervical Auscultation Signals and Modern Signal-Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Coyle, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical auscultation is the recording of sounds and vibrations caused by the human body from the throat during swallowing. While traditionally done by a trained clinician with a stethoscope, much work has been put towards developing more sensitive and clinically useful methods to characterize the data obtained with this technique. The eventual goal of the field is to improve the effectiveness of screening algorithms designed to predict the risk that swallowing disorders pose to individual patients’ health and safety. This paper provides an overview of these signal processing techniques and summarizes recent advances made with digital transducers in hopes of organizing the highly varied research on cervical auscultation. It investigates where on the body these transducers are placed in order to record a signal as well as the collection of analog and digital filtering techniques used to further improve the signal quality. It also presents the wide array of methods and features used to characterize these signals, ranging from simply counting the number of swallows that occur over a period of time to calculating various descriptive features in the time, frequency, and phase space domains. Finally, this paper presents the algorithms that have been used to classify this data into ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ categories. Both linear as well as non-linear techniques are presented in this regard. PMID:26213659

  9. DBPM signal processing with field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Zhang Ning; Yang Guisen; Wang Baopeng; Xiong Yun; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing

    2011-01-01

    DBPM system performance is determined by the design and implementation of beam position signal processing algorithm. In order to develop the system, a beam position signal processing algorithm is implemented on FPGA. The hardware is a PMC board ICS-1554A-002 (GE Corp.) with FPGA chip XC5VSX95T. This paper adopts quadrature frequency mixing to down convert high frequency signal to base. Different from conventional method, the mixing is implemented by CORDIC algorithm. The algorithm theory and implementation details are discussed in this paper. As the board contains no front end gain controller, this paper introduces a published patent-pending technique that has been adopted to realize the function in digital logic. The whole design is implemented with VHDL language. An on-line evaluation has been carried on SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility)storage ring. Results indicate that the system turn-by-turn data can measure the real beam movement accurately,and system resolution is 1.1μm. (authors)

  10. Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel Agha [Oviedo, FL; Perez, Frank [Tujunga, CA

    2012-01-17

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

  11. Perspectives of using spin waves for computing and signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csaba, György, E-mail: gcsaba@gmail.com [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Papp, Ádám [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Porod, Wolfgang [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Highlights: • We give an overview of spin wave-based computing with emphasis on non-Boolean signal processors. • Spin waves can combine the best of electronics and photonics and do it in an on-chip and integrable way. • Copying successful approaches from microelectronics may not be the best way toward spin-wave based computing. • Practical devices can be constructed by minimizing the number of required magneto-electric interconnections. - Abstract: Almost all the world's information is processed and transmitted by either electric currents or photons. Now they may get a serious contender: spin-wave-based devices may just perform some information-processing tasks in a lot more efficient and practical way. In this article, we give an engineering perspective of the potential of spin-wave-based devices. After reviewing various flavors for spin-wave-based processing devices, we argue that the niche for spin-wave-based devices is low-power, compact and high-speed signal-processing devices, where most traditional electronics show poor performance.

  12. Wigner Ville Distribution in Signal Processing, using Scilab Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wigner Ville distribution offers a visual display of quantitative information about the way a signal’s energy is distributed in both, time and frequency. Through that, this distribution embodies the fundamentally concepts of the Fourier and time-domain analysis. The energy of the signal is distributed so that specific frequencies are localized in time by the group delay time and at specifics instants in time the frequency is given by the instantaneous frequency. The net positive volum of the Wigner distribution is numerically equal to the signal’s total energy. The paper shows the application of the Wigner Ville distribution, in the field of signal processing, using Scilab environment.

  13. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Digital Signal Processing; CAS 2007

    2008-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-first specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic being Digital Signal Processing. The course was held in Sigtuna, Sweden, from 31 May–9 June 2007. This is the first time this topic has been selected for a specialized course. Taking into account the number of related applications currently in use in accelerators around the world, it was recognized that such a topic should definitively be incorporated into the CAS series of specialized courses. The specific aim of the course was to introduce the participants to the use and programming of Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) evaluation boards. The course consisted of lectures in the mornings covering fundamental background knowledge in mathematics, controls theory, design tools, programming hardware platforms, and implementation details. In the afternoons the students split into two groups with people working in pairs. One group w...

  14. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    with a photonic layer on top to interconnect them. For such systems, silicon is an attractive candidate enabling both electronic and photonic control. For some network scenarios, it may be beneficial to use optical on-chip packet switching, and for high data-density environments one may take advantage...... of the ultra-fast nonlinear response of silicon photonic waveguides. These chips offer ultra-broadband wavelength operation, ultra-high timing resolution and ultra-fast response, and when used appropriately offer energy-efficient switching. In this presentation we review some all-optical functionalities based...... on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show...

  15. Autonomous data acquisition system for Paks NPP process noise signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipcsei, S.; Kiss, S.; Czibok, T.; Dezso, Z.; Horvath, Cs.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of a new concept noise diagnostics data acquisition system has been developed recently to renew the aged present system. This new system is capable of collecting the whole available noise signal set simultaneously. Signal plugging and data acquisition are performed by autonomous systems (installed at each reactor unit) that are controlled through the standard plant network from a central computer installed at a suitable location. Experts can use this central unit to process and archive data series downloaded from the reactor units. This central unit also provides selected noise diagnostics information for other departments. The paper describes the hardware and software architecture of the new system in detail, emphasising the potential benefits of the new approach. (author)

  16. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  17. Role of Nonneuronal TRPV4 Signaling in Inflammatory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, Pradeep; Poole, Daniel P; Veldhuis, Nicholas A

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are important signaling components in nociceptive and inflammatory pathways. This is attributed to their ability to function as polymodal sensors of environmental stimuli (chemical and mechanical) and as effector molecules in receptor signaling pathways. TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by multiple endogenous stimuli including shear stress, membrane stretch, and arachidonic acid metabolites. TRPV4 contributes to many important physiological processes and dysregulation of its activity is associated with chronic conditions of metabolism, inflammation, peripheral neuropathies, musculoskeletal development, and cardiovascular regulation. Mechanosensory and receptor- or lipid-mediated signaling functions of TRPV4 have historically been attributed to central and peripheral neurons. However, with the development of potent and selective pharmacological tools, transgenic mice and improved molecular and imaging techniques, many new roles for TRPV4 have been revealed in nonneuronal cells. In this chapter, we discuss these recent findings and highlight the need for greater characterization of TRPV4-mediated signaling in nonneuronal cell types that are either directly associated with neurons or indirectly control their excitability through release of sensitizing cellular factors. We address the integral role of these cells in sensory and inflammatory processes as well as their importance when considering undesirable on-target effects that may be caused by systemic delivery of TRPV4-selective pharmaceutical agents for treatment of chronic diseases. In future, this will drive a need for targeted drug delivery strategies to regulate such a diverse and promiscuous protein. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. REMOTE SENSING IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT EXPERIMENT WITH POST-PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the post-processing influence assessment experiment, the experiment includes three steps: the physical simulation, image processing, and image quality assessment. The physical simulation models sampled imaging system in laboratory, the imaging system parameters are tested, the digital image serving as image processing input are produced by this imaging system with the same imaging system parameters. The gathered optical sampled images with the tested imaging parameters are processed by 3 digital image processes, including calibration pre-processing, lossy compression with different compression ratio and image post-processing with different core. Image quality assessment method used is just noticeable difference (JND subject assessment based on ISO20462, through subject assessment of the gathered and processing images, the influence of different imaging parameters and post-processing to image quality can be found. The six JND subject assessment experimental data can be validated each other. Main conclusions include: image post-processing can improve image quality; image post-processing can improve image quality even with lossy compression, image quality with higher compression ratio improves less than lower ratio; with our image post-processing method, image quality is better, when camera MTF being within a small range.

  19. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Mench, Matthew M; Manahan, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities. (paper)

  20. High signal-to-noise ratio sensing with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor based on auto gain control of electron multiplying CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhao-Yi; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Mu Quan-Quan; Yang Cheng-Liang; Cao Zhao-Liang; Xuan Li

    2016-01-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in the Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (S–H WFS) in adaptive optics (AO). However, when the brightness of the target changes in a large scale, the fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain will not be suited to the sensing limitation. Therefore an auto-gain-control method based on the brightness of light-spots array in S–H WFS is proposed in this paper. The control value is the average of the maximum signals of every light spot in an array, which has been demonstrated to be kept stable even under the influence of some noise and turbulence, and sensitive enough to the change of target brightness. A goal value is needed in the control process and it is predetermined based on the characters of EMCCD. Simulations and experiments have demonstrated that this auto-gain-control method is valid and robust, the sensing SNR reaches the maximum for the corresponding signal level, and especially is greatly improved for those dim targets from 6 to 4 magnitude in the visual band. (special topic)

  1. A sole multi-analyte receptor responds with three distinct fluorescence signals: traffic signal like sensing of Al(3+), Zn(2+) and F(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Barun Kumar; Thiyagarajan, Durairaj; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2015-08-07

    A dialdehyde-based multi-analyte sensor renders distinctive emission spectra for Al(3+), Zn(2+) and F(-) ions. The ligand exhibited different types of interactions with these three different ions resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity at three different wavelengths. All the sensing processes were studied in detail by absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy and (1)H-NMR titration experiment. The ligand has the working ability in a wide pH range including the physiological pH. The ligand is non-toxic and amicable for sensing intracellular Al(3+) and Zn(2+) in live HeLa cells.

  2. Fiber sensing based on new structures and post-processing enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marta Sofia dos Anjos

    The work described in this PhD Thesis focuses on the post-processing of optical fibers and their enhancement as sensing element. Since the majority of sensors presented are based in Fabry-Perot interferometers, an historical overview of this category of optical fiber sensors is firstly presented. This review considers the works published since the early years, in the beginning of the 1980s, until the middle of 2015. The incorporation of microcavities at the tip of a single mode fiber was extensively studied, particularly for the measurement of nitrogen and methane gas pressure. These cavities were fabricated using hollow core silica tubes and a hollow core photonic crystal fiber. Following a different approach, the microcavities were incorporated between two sections of single mode fiber. In this case, the low sensitivity to temperature makes these microcavities highly desirable for the measurement of strain at high temperatures. Competences in post-processing techniques such as the chemical etching and the writing of periodical structures in the fiber core by means of an excimer or a femtosecond laser were also acquired in the course of the PhD programme. One of the works consisted in the design and manufacturing of a double clad optical fiber. The refractive index of the inner cladding was higher than the one of the outer cladding and the core. Thus, light was guided in the inner cladding instead of propagating in the core. This situation was overcome by applying chemical etching, thus removing the inner cladding. The core, surrounded by air, was then able to guide light. Two different applications were found for this fiber, as a temperature sensor and as an optical refractometer. In the last, the optical phase changes with the liquid refractive index. Two different types of fiber Bragg gratings were characterized in strain and temperature. Sensing structures obtained through the phase mask technique at the tip of an optical fiber were subjected to chemical

  3. Bacterial Biofilm Control by Perturbation of Bacterial Signaling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Holm Jakobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective strategies to combat biofilm infections by means of either mechanical or chemical approaches could dramatically change today’s treatment procedures for the benefit of thousands of patients. Remarkably, considering the increased focus on biofilms in general, there has still not been invented and/or developed any simple, efficient and reliable methods with which to “chemically” eradicate biofilm infections. This underlines the resilience of infective agents present as biofilms and it further emphasizes the insufficiency of today’s approaches used to combat chronic infections. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. In particular, bacterial cell to cell signaling called “Quorum Sensing” together with intracellular signaling by bis-(3′-5′-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cyclic-di-GMP have gained a lot of attention over the last two decades. More recently, regulatory processes governed by two component regulatory systems and small non-coding RNAs have been increasingly investigated. Here, we review novel findings and potentials of using small molecules to target and modulate these regulatory processes in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to decrease its pathogenic potential.

  4. Enhancement of MS Signal Processing For Improved Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Qian

    Technological advances in proteomics have shown great potential in detecting cancer at the earliest stages. One way is to use the time of flight mass spectroscopy to identify biomarkers, or early disease indicators related to the cancer. Pattern analysis of time of flight mass spectra data from blood and tissue samples gives great hope for the identification of potential biomarkers among the complex mixture of biological and chemical samples for the early cancer detection. One of the keys issues is the pre-processing of raw mass spectra data. A lot of challenges need to be addressed: unknown noise character associated with the large volume of data, high variability in the mass spectroscopy measurements, and poorly understood signal background and so on. This dissertation focuses on developing statistical algorithms and creating data mining tools for computationally improved signal processing for mass spectrometry data. I have introduced an advanced accurate estimate of the noise model and a half-supervised method of mass spectrum data processing which requires little knowledge about the data.

  5. Use of fuzzy logic in signal processing and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.; Holbert, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of fuzzy logic technology has afforded another opportunity to reexamine the signal processing and validation process (SPV). The features offered by fuzzy logic can lend themselves to a more reliable and perhaps fault-tolerant approach to SPV. This is particularly attractive to complex system operations, where optimal control for safe operation depends on reliable input data. The reason for the use of fuzzy logic as the tool for SPV is its ability to transform information from the linguistic domain to a mathematical domain for processing and then transformation of its result back into the linguistic domain for presentation. To ensure the safe and optimal operation of a nuclear plant, for example, reliable and valid data must be available to the human and computer operators. Based on these input data, the operators determine the current state of the power plant and project corrective actions for future states. This determination is based on available data and the conceptual and mathematical models for the plant. A fault-tolerant SPV based on fuzzy logic can help the operators meet the objective of effective, efficient, and safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The ultimate product of this project will be a code that will assist plant operators in making informed decisions under uncertain conditions when conflicting signals may be present

  6. Photonic Ultra-Wideband 781.25-Mb/s Signal Generation and Transmission Incorporating Digital Signal Processing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    The generation of photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse signals using an uncooled distributed-feedback laser is proposed. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit digital signal processing (DSP) bit-error-rate measurements for transmission of a 781.25-Mb/s photonic UWB signal...

  7. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  8. An adaptive signal-processing approach to online adaptive tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conventional intelligent or adaptive tutoring online systems rely on domain-specific models of learner behavior based on rules, deep domain knowledge, and other resource-intensive methods. We have developed and studied a domain-independent methodology of adaptive tutoring based on domain-independent signal-processing approaches that obviate the need for the construction of explicit expert and student models. A key advantage of our method over conventional approaches is a lower barrier to entry for educators who want to develop adaptive online learning materials.

  9. Modeling, estimation and optimal filtration in signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najim, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide graduate students and practitioners with traditional methods and more recent results for model-based approaches in signal processing.Firstly, discrete-time linear models such as AR, MA and ARMA models, their properties and their limitations are introduced. In addition, sinusoidal models are addressed.Secondly, estimation approaches based on least squares methods and instrumental variable techniques are presented.Finally, the book deals with optimal filters, i.e. Wiener and Kalman filtering, and adaptive filters such as the RLS, the LMS and the

  10. Diffraction and signal processing experiments with a liquid crystal microdisplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, Jose Luis; Moreno, Ignacio; Ahouzi, Esmail

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we show some diffraction experiments performed with a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows how useful this device can be to teach and experience diffraction optics and signal processing experiments. The LCD acts as a programmable pixelated diffractive mask. The Fourier spectrum of the image displayed in the LCD is visualized through a simple free propagation diffraction experiment. This optical system allows easy testing of different diffractive elements. As a demonstration we include experimental results with well-known diffractive elements like diffraction gratings or Fresnel lenses, and with more complicated elements like computer-generated holograms

  11. Diffraction and signal processing experiments with a liquid crystal microdisplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, Jose Luis [Departamento de Ciencia y TecnologIa de Materiales, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante (Spain); Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia y TecnologIa de Materiales, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ahouzi, Esmail [Institut National des Postes et Telecomunications (INTP), Madinat Al Irfane, Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-09-01

    In this work, we show some diffraction experiments performed with a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows how useful this device can be to teach and experience diffraction optics and signal processing experiments. The LCD acts as a programmable pixelated diffractive mask. The Fourier spectrum of the image displayed in the LCD is visualized through a simple free propagation diffraction experiment. This optical system allows easy testing of different diffractive elements. As a demonstration we include experimental results with well-known diffractive elements like diffraction gratings or Fresnel lenses, and with more complicated elements like computer-generated holograms.

  12. Computational information geometry for image and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Frank; Dodson, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the application and development of information geometric methods in the analysis, classification and retrieval of images and signals. It provides introductory chapters to help those new to information geometry and applies the theory to several applications. This area has developed rapidly over recent years, propelled by the major theoretical developments in information geometry, efficient data and image acquisition and the desire to process and interpret large databases of digital information. The book addresses both the transfer of methodology to practitioners involved in database analysis and in its efficient computational implementation.

  13. Music Signal Processing Using Vector Product Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z. C.; Chan, T. S.; Yang, Y. H.; Jang, J. S. R.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a novel neural network model for music signal processing using vector product neurons and dimensionality transformations. Here, the inputs are first mapped from real values into three-dimensional vectors then fed into a three-dimensional vector product neural network where the inputs, outputs, and weights are all three-dimensional values. Next, the final outputs are mapped back to the reals. Two methods for dimensionality transformation are proposed, one via context windows and the other via spectral coloring. Experimental results on the iKala dataset for blind singing voice separation confirm the efficacy of our model.

  14. Oversampling of digitized images. [effects on interpolation in signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Oversampling is defined as sampling with a device whose characteristic width is greater than the interval between samples. This paper shows why oversampling should be avoided and discusses the limitations in data processing if circumstances dictate that oversampling cannot be circumvented. Principally, oversampling should not be used to provide interpolating data points. Rather, the time spent oversampling should be used to obtain more signal with less relative error, and the Sampling Theorem should be employed to provide any desired interpolated values. The concepts are applicable to single-element and multielement detectors.

  15. Information theory and signal transduction systems: from molecular information processing to network inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Siobhan S; Sim, Aaron; Filippi, Sarah; Johnson, Robert; Liepe, Juliane; Smith, Dominic; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-11-01

    Sensing and responding to the environment are two essential functions that all biological organisms need to master for survival and successful reproduction. Developmental processes are marshalled by a diverse set of signalling and control systems, ranging from systems with simple chemical inputs and outputs to complex molecular and cellular networks with non-linear dynamics. Information theory provides a powerful and convenient framework in which such systems can be studied; but it also provides the means to reconstruct the structure and dynamics of molecular interaction networks underlying physiological and developmental processes. Here we supply a brief description of its basic concepts and introduce some useful tools for systems and developmental biologists. Along with a brief but thorough theoretical primer, we demonstrate the wide applicability and biological application-specific nuances by way of different illustrative vignettes. In particular, we focus on the characterisation of biological information processing efficiency, examining cell-fate decision making processes, gene regulatory network reconstruction, and efficient signal transduction experimental design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eAvril

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyse communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviours (including synchrony. This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyses highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  17. Intelligent Sensing in Dynamic Environments Using Markov Decision Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Thrishantha; Halgamuge, Malka N.; Sridhar, Prasanna; Madni, Asad M.

    2011-01-01

    In a network of low-powered wireless sensors, it is essential to capture as many environmental events as possible while still preserving the battery life of the sensor node. This paper focuses on a real-time learning algorithm to extend the lifetime of a sensor node to sense and transmit environmental events. A common method that is generally adopted in ad-hoc sensor networks is to periodically put the sensor nodes to sleep. The purpose of the learning algorithm is to couple the sensor’s sleeping behavior to the natural statistics of the environment hence that it can be in optimal harmony with changes in the environment, the sensors can sleep when steady environment and stay awake when turbulent environment. This paper presents theoretical and experimental validation of a reward based learning algorithm that can be implemented on an embedded sensor. The key contribution of the proposed approach is the design and implementation of a reward function that satisfies a trade-off between the above two mutually contradicting objectives, and a linear critic function to approximate the discounted sum of future rewards in order to perform policy learning. PMID:22346624

  18. Intelligent Sensing in Dynamic Environments Using Markov Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad M. Madni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a network of low-powered wireless sensors, it is essential to capture as many environmental events as possible while still preserving the battery life of the sensor node. This paper focuses on a real-time learning algorithm to extend the lifetime of a sensor node to sense and transmit environmental events. A common method that is generally adopted in ad-hoc sensor networks is to periodically put the sensor nodes to sleep. The purpose of the learning algorithm is to couple the sensor’s sleeping behavior to the natural statistics of the environment hence that it can be in optimal harmony with changes in the environment, the sensors can sleep when steady environment and stay awake when turbulent environment. This paper presents theoretical and experimental validation of a reward based learning algorithm that can be implemented on an embedded sensor. The key contribution of the proposed approach is the design and implementation of a reward function that satisfies a trade-off between the above two mutually contradicting objectives, and a linear critic function to approximate the discounted sum of future rewards in order to perform policy learning.

  19. Common and uncommon sense about erosional processes in mountain lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1981-01-01

    Current knowledge of erosional processes in mountainous watersheds is reviewed with emphasis on the west coast of the United States. Appreciation of the relative magnitude of erosional processes may be distorted by the tendency for researchers to study ""problems"" and by the relatively short time span of their records

  20. Signal processing for passive detection and classification of underwater acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kil Woo

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation examines signal processing for passive detection, classification and tracking of underwater acoustic signals for improving port security and the security of coastal and offshore operations. First, we consider the problem of passive acoustic detection of a diver in a shallow water environment. A frequency-domain multi-band matched-filter approach to swimmer detection is presented. The idea is to break the frequency contents of the hydrophone signals into multiple narrow frequency bands, followed by time averaged (about half of a second) energy calculation over each band. Then, spectra composed of such energy samples over the chosen frequency bands are correlated to form a decision variable. The frequency bands with highest Signal/Noise ratio are used for detection. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated for experimental data collected for a diver in the Hudson River. We also propose a new referenceless frequency-domain multi-band detector which, unlike other reference-based detectors, does not require a diver specific signature. Instead, our detector matches to a general feature of the diver spectrum in the high frequency range: the spectrum is roughly periodic in time and approximately flat when the diver exhales. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by using experimental data collected from the Hudson River. Moreover, we present detection, classification and tracking of small vessel signals. Hydroacoustic sensors can be applied for the detection of noise generated by vessels, and this noise can be used for vessel detection, classification and tracking. This dissertation presents recent improvements aimed at the measurement and separation of ship DEMON (Detection of Envelope Modulation on Noise) acoustic signatures in busy harbor conditions. Ship signature measurements were conducted in the Hudson River and NY Harbor. The DEMON spectra demonstrated much better temporal stability compared with the full ship

  1. Crop status sensing system by multi-spectral imaging sensor, 1: Image processing and paddy field sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sugiura, R.; Fukagawa, T.; Noguchi, N.; Shibata, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to construct a sensing system for precision farming. A Multi-Spectral Imaging Sensor (MSIS), which can obtain three images (G. R and NIR) simultaneously, was used for detecting growth status of plants. The sensor was mounted on an unmanned helicopter. An image processing method for acquiring information of crop status with high accuracy was developed. Crop parameters that were measured include SPAD, leaf height, and stems number. Both direct seeding variety and transplant variety of paddy rice were adopted in the research. The result of a field test showed that crop status of both varieties could be detected with sufficient accuracy to apply to precision farming

  2. Channel modeling, signal processing and coding for perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    With the increasing areal density in magnetic recording systems, perpendicular recording has replaced longitudinal recording to overcome the superparamagnetic limit. Studies on perpendicular recording channels including aspects of channel modeling, signal processing and coding techniques are presented in this dissertation. To optimize a high density perpendicular magnetic recording system, one needs to know the tradeoffs between various components of the system including the read/write transducers, the magnetic medium, and the read channel. We extend the work by Chaichanavong on the parameter optimization for systems via design curves. Different signal processing and coding techniques are studied. Information-theoretic tools are utilized to determine the acceptable region for the channel parameters when optimal detection and linear coding techniques are used. Our results show that a considerable gain can be achieved by the optimal detection and coding techniques. The read-write process in perpendicular magnetic recording channels includes a number of nonlinear effects. Nonlinear transition shift (NLTS) is one of them. The signal distortion induced by NLTS can be reduced by write precompensation during data recording. We numerically evaluate the effect of NLTS on the read-back signal and examine the effectiveness of several write precompensation schemes in combating NLTS in a channel characterized by both transition jitter noise and additive white Gaussian electronics noise. We also present an analytical method to estimate the bit-error-rate and use it to help determine the optimal write precompensation values in multi-level precompensation schemes. We propose a mean-adjusted pattern-dependent noise predictive (PDNP) detection algorithm for use on the channel with NLTS. We show that this detector can offer significant improvements in bit-error-rate (BER) compared to conventional Viterbi and PDNP detectors. Moreover, the system performance can be further improved by

  3. A Parallel Processing Algorithm for Remote Sensing Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, J. Anthony

    2005-01-01

    A current thread in parallel computation is the use of cluster computers created by networking a few to thousands of commodity general-purpose workstation-level commuters using the Linux operating system. For example on the Medusa cluster at NASA/GSFC, this provides for super computing performance, 130 G(sub flops) (Linpack Benchmark) at moderate cost, $370K. However, to be useful for scientific computing in the area of Earth science, issues of ease of programming, access to existing scientific libraries, and portability of existing code need to be considered. In this paper, I address these issues in the context of tools for rendering earth science remote sensing data into useful products. In particular, I focus on a problem that can be decomposed into a set of independent tasks, which on a serial computer would be performed sequentially, but with a cluster computer can be performed in parallel, giving an obvious speedup. To make the ideas concrete, I consider the problem of classifying hyperspectral imagery where some ground truth is available to train the classifier. In particular I will use the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach as applied to hyperspectral imagery. The approach will be to introduce notions about parallel computation and then to restrict the development to the SVM problem. Pseudocode (an outline of the computation) will be described and then details specific to the implementation will be given. Then timing results will be reported to show what speedups are possible using parallel computation. The paper will close with a discussion of the results.

  4. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices for Nonlinear Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi

    , membranization of InP/InGaAs structure and wet etching. Experimental investigation of the switching dynamics of InP photonic crystal nanocavity structures are carried out using short-pulse homodyne pump-probe techniques, both in the linear and nonlinear region where the cavity is perturbed by a relatively small......This thesis deals with the investigation of InP material based photonic crystal cavity membrane structures, both experimentally and theoretically. The work emphasizes on the understanding of the physics underlying the structures’ nonlinear properties and their applications for all-optical signal...... processing. Based on the previous fabrication recipe developed in our III-V platform, several processing techniques are developed and optimized for the fabrication of InP photonic crystal membrane structures. Several key issues are identified to ensure a good device quality such as air hole size control...

  5. Mathematical model with autoregressive process for electrocardiogram signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaristo, Ronaldo M.; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Iarosz, Kelly C.; Szezech, José D., Jr.; Godoy, Moacir F. de

    2018-04-01

    The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood and blood vessels. Regarding the heart, cardiac conditions are determined by the electrocardiogram, that is a noninvasive medical procedure. In this work, we propose autoregressive process in a mathematical model based on coupled differential equations in order to obtain the tachograms and the electrocardiogram signals of young adults with normal heartbeats. Our results are compared with experimental tachogram by means of Poincaré plot and dentrended fluctuation analysis. We verify that the results from the model with autoregressive process show good agreement with experimental measures from tachogram generated by electrical activity of the heartbeat. With the tachogram we build the electrocardiogram by means of coupled differential equations.

  6. Influence of signal processing strategy in auditory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Tatiana Mendes de; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Costa, Orozimbo Alves; Moret, Adriane Lima Mortari

    2013-01-01

    The signal processing strategy is a parameter that may influence the auditory performance of cochlear implant and is important to optimize this parameter to provide better speech perception, especially in difficult listening situations. To evaluate the individual's auditory performance using two different signal processing strategy. Prospective study with 11 prelingually deafened children with open-set speech recognition. A within-subjects design was used to compare performance with standard HiRes and HiRes 120 in three different moments. During test sessions, subject's performance was evaluated by warble-tone sound-field thresholds, speech perception evaluation, in quiet and in noise. In the silence, children S1, S4, S5, S7 showed better performance with the HiRes 120 strategy and children S2, S9, S11 showed better performance with the HiRes strategy. In the noise was also observed that some children performed better using the HiRes 120 strategy and other with HiRes. Not all children presented the same pattern of response to the different strategies used in this study, which reinforces the need to look at optimizing cochlear implant clinical programming.

  7. Acoustic monitoring of rotating machine by advanced signal processing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic data remotely measured by hand held type microphones are investigated for monitoring and diagnosing the rotational machine integrity in nuclear power plants. The plant operator's patrol monitoring is one of the important activities for condition monitoring. However, remotely measured sound has some difficulties to be considered for precise diagnosis or quantitative judgment of rotating machine anomaly, since the measurement sensitivity is different in each measurement, and also, the sensitivity deteriorates in comparison with an attached type sensor. Hence, in the present study, several advanced signal processing methods are examined and compared in order to find optimum anomaly monitoring technology from the viewpoints of both sensitivity and robustness of performance. The dimension of pre-processed signal feature patterns are reduced into two-dimensional space for the visualization by using the standard principal component analysis (PCA) or the kernel based PCA. Then, the normal state is classified by using probabilistic neural network (PNN) or support vector data description (SVDD). By using the mockup test facility of rotating machine, it is shown that the appropriate combination of the above algorithms gives sensitive and robust anomaly monitoring performance. (author)

  8. Degradation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules by the Microscopic Yeast Trichosporon loubieri Isolated from Tropical Wetland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Siang Wong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones as signaling molecules, which will bind to their cognate receptor and activate quorum sensing-mediated phenotypes in a population-dependent manner. Although quorum sensing signaling molecules can be degraded by bacteria or fungi, there is no reported work on the degradation of such molecules by basidiomycetous yeast. By using a minimal growth medium containing N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone as the sole source of carbon, a wetland water sample from Malaysia was enriched for microbial strains that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, and consequently, a basidiomycetous yeast strain WW1C was isolated. Morphological phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that WW1C was a strain of Trichosporon loubieri. We showed that WW1C degraded AHLs with N-acyl side chains ranging from 4 to 10 carbons in length, with or without oxo group substitutions at the C3 position. Re-lactonisation bioassays revealed that WW1C degraded AHLs via a lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degradation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and utilization of N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine as carbon and nitrogen source for growth by basidiomycetous yeast from tropical wetland water; and the degradation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by an eukaryotic yeast.

  9. Real-time numerical processing for HPGE detectors signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Barat; Thomas Dautremer; Laurent Laribiere; Jean Christophe Trama

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Concerning the gamma spectrometry, technology progresses in the processor field makes very conceivable and attractive executing complex real-time digital process. Only some simplified and rigid treatments can be find in the market up to now. Indeed, the historical solution used for 50 years consists of performing a so-called 'cusp' filtering and disturbing the optimal shape in order to shrink and/or truncate it. This tuning largely determined by the input count rate (ICR) the user expects to measure is then a compromise between the resolution and the throughput. Because it is not possible to tune it for each pulse, that is a kind of 'leveling down' which is made: the energy of each pulse is not as well estimated as it could be. The new approach proposed here avoids totally this restricting hand tuning. The innovation lies in the modelling of the shot-noise signal as a Jump Markov Linear System. The jump is the occurrence of a pulse in the signal. From this model, we developed an algorithm which makes possible the on-line estimation of the energies without having to temporally enlarge the pulses as the cusp filter does. The algorithm first determines whether there is a pulse or not at each time, then conditionally to this information, it performs an optimal Kalman smoother. Thanks to this global optimization, this allows us to dramatically increase the compromise throughput versus resolution, gaining an important factor on a commercial device concerning the admissible ICR (more than 1 million counts per second admissible). A huge advantage of the absence of hand tuning is that the system accepts fluctuating ICR. To validate the concept we built a real time demonstrator. First, our equipment is composed of an electronic stage which prepared the signal coming from the preamplifier of the detector and optimized the signal-to-noise ratio. Then the signal is sampled at 10 MHz and the powerful of two Pentium running at 3 GHz is enough to

  10. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Guan, Pengyu; Lillieholm, Mads

    2017-01-01

    In the talk, we will review recent work on optical signal processing based on time lenses. Various applications of optical Fourier transformation for optical communications will be discussed.......In the talk, we will review recent work on optical signal processing based on time lenses. Various applications of optical Fourier transformation for optical communications will be discussed....

  11. A Non-Intrusive GMA Welding Process Quality Monitoring System Using Acoustic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayo, Eber Huanca; Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo Absi

    2009-01-01

    Most of the inspection methods used for detection and localization of welding disturbances are based on the evaluation of some direct measurements of welding parameters. This direct measurement requires an insertion of sensors during the welding process which could somehow alter the behavior of the metallic transference. An inspection method that evaluates the GMA welding process evolution using a non-intrusive process sensing would allow not only the identification of disturbances during welding runs and thus reduce inspection time, but would also reduce the interference on the process caused by the direct sensing. In this paper a nonintrusive method for weld disturbance detection and localization for weld quality evaluation is demonstrated. The system is based on the acoustic sensing of the welding electrical arc. During repetitive tests in welds without disturbances, the stability acoustic parameters were calculated and used as comparison references for the detection and location of disturbances during the weld runs.

  12. Machine Vision and Advanced Image Processing in Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    This paper describes the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation which is based on the established canonical correlation analysis. It also proposes post-processing of the change detected by the MAD variates by means of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis. As opposed to mo...

  13. 2012 Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Mu, Jiasong; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming; Zhao, Chenglin

    2012-01-01

    Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems is a collection of contributions coming out of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held October 2012. This book provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, and their interactions in multidisciplinary fields, such as Smart Grid. The book also examines Radar Systems, Sensor Networks, Radar Signal Processing, Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems and Applications. Written by experts and students in the fields of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems.

  14. A Digital Signal Processor for Doppler Radar Sensing of Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    shows a small spike halfway each heartbeat. This is known as the dicrotic notch , which signifies a sudden drop in pressure after systolic contraction...It is caused by a small reflux flow of blood back into the aortic valve and coronary vessels. This dicrotic notch in the heart signal is clipped...signal, and amax was the maximum amplitude of the signal in the specified window. The user could set the factor k, and it determined the threshold at

  15. Luminescence, virulence and quorum sensing signal production by pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Defoirdt, T.; Verstraete, W.; Bossier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To study the relationship between luminescence, autoinducer production and virulence of pathogenic vibrios.Methods and Results: Luminescence, quorum sensing signal production and virulence towards brine shrimp nauplii of 13 Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi strains were studied. Although only two of the tested strains were brightly luminescent, all of them were shown to produce the three different types of quorum sensing signals known to be produced by Vibrio harveyi. Cell-free cultu...

  16. Investigating the Prospective Sense of Agency: Effects of Processing Fluency, Stimulus Ambiguity, and Response Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidarus, Nura; Vuorre, Matti; Metcalfe, Janet; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    How do we know how much control we have over our environment? The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions, and that, through them, we can control our external environment. Thus, agency clearly involves matching intentions, actions, and outcomes. The present studies investigated the possibility that processes of action selection, i.e., choosing what action to make, contribute to the sense of agency. Since selection of action necessarily precedes execution of action, such effects must be prospective. In contrast, most literature on sense of agency has focussed on the retrospective computation whether an outcome fits the action performed or intended. This hypothesis was tested in an ecologically rich, dynamic task based on a computer game. Across three experiments, we manipulated three different aspects of action selection processing: visual processing fluency, categorization ambiguity, and response conflict. Additionally, we measured the relative contributions of prospective, action selection-based cues, and retrospective, outcome-based cues to the sense of agency. Manipulations of action selection were orthogonally combined with discrepancy of visual feedback of action. Fluency of action selection had a small but reliable effect on the sense of agency. Additionally, as expected, sense of agency was strongly reduced when visual feedback was discrepant with the action performed. The effects of discrepant feedback were larger than the effects of action selection fluency, and sometimes suppressed them. The sense of agency is highly sensitive to disruptions of action-outcome relations. However, when motor control is successful, and action-outcome relations are as predicted, fluency or dysfluency of action selection provides an important prospective cue to the sense of agency. PMID:28450839

  17. FFT swept filtering: a bias-free method for processing fringe signals in absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křen, Petr; Pálinkáš, Vojtech; Mašika, Pavel; Val'ko, Miloš

    2018-05-01

    Absolute gravimeters, based on laser interferometry, are widely used for many applications in geoscience and metrology. Although currently the most accurate FG5 and FG5X gravimeters declare standard uncertainties at the level of 2-3 μGal, their inherent systematic errors affect the gravity reference determined by international key comparisons based predominately on the use of FG5-type instruments. The measurement results for FG5-215 and FG5X-251 clearly showed that the measured g-values depend on the size of the fringe signal and that this effect might be approximated by a linear regression with a slope of up to 0.030 μGal/mV . However, these empirical results do not enable one to identify the source of the effect or to determine a reasonable reference fringe level for correcting g-values in an absolute sense. Therefore, both gravimeters were equipped with new measuring systems (according to Křen et al. in Metrologia 53:27-40, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/53/1/27 applied for FG5), running in parallel with the original systems. The new systems use an analogue-to-digital converter HS5 to digitize the fringe signal and a new method of fringe signal analysis based on FFT swept bandpass filtering. We demonstrate that the source of the fringe size effect is connected to a distortion of the fringe signal due to the electronic components used in the FG5(X) gravimeters. To obtain a bias-free g-value, the FFT swept method should be applied for the determination of zero-crossings. A comparison of g-values obtained from the new and the original systems clearly shows that the original system might be biased by approximately 3-5 μGal due to improperly distorted fringe signal processing.

  18. Attitude Control of a Satellite by using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirelle C. Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article has discussed the development of a three-axis attitude digital controller for an artificial satellite using a digital signal processor. The main motivation of this study is the attitude control system of the satellite Multi-Mission Platform, developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research for application in different sort of missions. The controller design was based on the theory of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, synthesized from the linearized model of the motion of the satellite, i.e., the kinematics and dynamics of attitude. The attitude actuators considered in this study are pairs of cold gas jets powered by a pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. In the first stage of the project development, a system controller for continuous time was studied with the aim of testing the adequacy of the adopted control. The next steps had included an analysis of discretization techniques, the setting time of sampling rate, and the testing of the digital version of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator controller in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. To fulfill the study, the controller was implemented in a digital signal processor, specifically the Blackfin BF537 from Analog Devices, along with the pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. The validation tests used a scheme of co-simulation, where the model of the satellite was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, while the controller and modulator were processed in the digital signal processor with a tool called Processor-In-the-Loop, which acted as a data communication link between both environments.function and required time to achieve a given mission accuracy are determined, and results are provided as illustration.

  19. The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Piñeros, Miguel A; Kochian, Leon V

    2014-03-01

    As researchers have gained a better understanding in recent years into the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis of how plants deal with aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics, it has become clear that an important component of these responses is the triggering and regulation of cellular pathways and processes by Al. In this review of plant Al signaling, we begin by summarizing the understanding of physiological mechanisms of Al resistance, which first led researchers to realize that Al stress induces gene expression and modifies protein function during the activation of Al resistance responses. Subsequently, an overview of Al resistance genes and their function provides verification that Al induction of gene expression plays a major role in Al resistance in many plant species. More recent research into the mechanistic basis for Al-induced transcriptional activation of resistance genes has led to the identification of several transcription factors as well as cis-elements in the promoters of Al resistance genes that play a role in greater Al-induced gene expression as well as higher constitutive expression of resistance genes in some plant species. Finally, the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of Al resistance proteins is addressed, where recent research has shown that Al can both directly bind to and alter activity of certain organic acid transporters, and also influence Al resistance proteins indirectly, via protein phosphorylation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Distributed Sensing and Processing Adaptive Collaboration Environment (D-SPACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    RISC 525 Brooks Road Rome NY 13441-4505 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL/RI 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2014-195 12...cloud” technologies are not appropriate for situation understanding in areas of denial, where computation resources are limited, data not easily...graph matching process. D-SPACE distributes graph exploitation among a network of autonomous computational resources, designs the collaboration policy

  1. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. → The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. → Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. → Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. → Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.

  2. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing Based on FPGAs for Electronic Skin Implementation †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enabling touch-sensing capability would help appliances understand interaction behaviors with their surroundings. Many recent studies are focusing on the development of electronic skin because of its necessity in various application domains, namely autonomous artificial intelligence (e.g., robots, biomedical instrumentation, and replacement prosthetic devices. An essential task of the electronic skin system is to locally process the tactile data and send structured information either to mimic human skin or to respond to the application demands. The electronic skin must be fabricated together with an embedded electronic system which has the role of acquiring the tactile data, processing, and extracting structured information. On the other hand, processing tactile data requires efficient methods to extract meaningful information from raw sensor data. Machine learning represents an effective method for data analysis in many domains: it has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in processing tactile sensor data. In this framework, this paper presents the implementation of digital signal processing based on FPGAs for tactile data processing. It provides the implementation of a tensorial kernel function for a machine learning approach. Implementation results are assessed by highlighting the FPGA resource utilization and power consumption. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed implementation when real-time classification of input touch modalities are targeted.

  3. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  4. Evaluation of signal processing for boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.L.; Ledwidge, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the co-ordinated research programme on the detection of sodium boiling some further analysis has been performed on the data from the test loop in Karlsruhe and some preliminary analysis of the data from the BOR 60 experiment. The work on the Karlsruhe data is concerned with the search for a reliable method by which the quality of signal processing strategies may be compared. The results show that the three novel methods previously reported are all markedly superior to the mean square method which is used as a benchmark. The three novel methods are nth order differentiation in the frequency domain, the mean square prediction based on nth order conditional expectation and the nth order probability density function. A preliminary analysis on the data from the BOR 60 reactor shows that 4th order differentiation is adequate for the detection of signals derived from a pressure transducer and that the map of spurious trip probability (S) and the probability of missing an event (M) is consistent with the theoretical model proposed herein, and the suggested procedures for evaluating the quality of detection strategies. (author). 15 figs, 1 tab

  5. Novel strategies in drug discovery of the calcium-sensing receptor based on biased signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie; Smajilovic, Sanela; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2012-01-01

    SR activating drug that selectively activates signaling pathways that inhibit PTH secretion while having no effect on signaling pathways involved in calcitonin secretion. Such a drug would have the same therapeutic value as cinacalcet in lowering PTH secretion while eliminating the side effect of hypocalcemia...

  6. Microcomputer-based real-time optical signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Cao, M. F.; Ludman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer-based real-time programmable optical signal processing system utilizing a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator (MOSLM) and a Liquid Crystal Light Valve (LCLV) is described. This system can perform a myriad of complicated optical operations, such as image correlation, image subtraction, matrix multiplication and many others. The important assets of this proposed system must be the programmability and the capability of real-time addressing. The design specification and the progress toward practical implementation of this proposed system are discussed. Some preliminary experimental demonstrations are conducted. The feasible applications of this proposed system to image correlation for optical pattern recognition, image subtraction for IC chip inspection and matrix multiplication for optical computing are demonstrated.

  7. Optimization of signal processing algorithm for digital beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing; Chen Zhichu

    2013-01-01

    Based on turn-by-turn (TBT) signal processing, the paper emphasizes on the optimization of system timing and implementation of digital automatic gain control, slow application (SA) modules. Beam position including TBT, fast application (FA) and SA data can be acquired. On-line evaluation on Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) shows that the processor is able to get the multi-rate position data which contain true beam movements. When the storage ring is 174 mA and 500 bunches filled, the resolutions of TBT data, FA data and SA data achieve 0.84, 0.44 and 0.23 μm respectively. The above results prove that the design could meet the performance requirements. (authors)

  8. Signal processing and control challenges for smart vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Braun, Simon G.

    2017-03-01

    Smart phones have changed not only the mobile phone market but also our society during the past few years. Could the next potential intelligent device may be the vehicle? Judging by the visibility, in all media, of the numerous attempts to develop autonomous vehicles, this is certainly one of the logical outcomes. Smart vehicles would be equipped with an advanced operating system such that the vehicles could communicate with others, optimize the operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, enhance safety, or even become self-driving. These combined new features of vehicles require instrumentation and hardware developments, fast signal processing/fusion, decision making and online optimization. Meanwhile, the inevitable increasing system complexity would certainly challenges the control unit design.

  9. Mathematical modeling and signal processing in speech and hearing sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an accessible introduction of mathematical models and signal processing methods in speech and hearing sciences for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students with basic knowledge of linear algebra, differential equations, numerical analysis, and probability. Speech and hearing sciences are fundamental to numerous technological advances of the digital world in the past decade, from music compression in MP3 to digital hearing aids, from network based voice enabled services to speech interaction with mobile phones. Mathematics and computation are intimately related to these leaps and bounds. On the other hand, speech and hearing are strongly interdisciplinary areas where dissimilar scientific and engineering publications and approaches often coexist and make it difficult for newcomers to enter.

  10. A Signal Processing Method to Explore Similarity in Protein Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Vasilache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of protein flexibility is of great importance to structural biology. The ability to detect similarities between proteins and their patterns is vital in discovering new information about unknown protein functions. A Distance Constraint Model (DCM provides a means to generate a variety of flexibility measures based on a given protein structure. Although information about mechanical properties of flexibility is critical for understanding protein function for a given protein, the question of whether certain characteristics are shared across homologous proteins is difficult to assess. For a proper assessment, a quantified measure of similarity is necessary. This paper begins to explore image processing techniques to quantify similarities in signals and images that characterize protein flexibility. The dataset considered here consists of three different families of proteins, with three proteins in each family. The similarities and differences found within flexibility measures across homologous proteins do not align with sequence-based evolutionary methods.

  11. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering...... of the incident acoustic energy. A highfrequency active sonar is selected to insonify the medium and receive the backscattered waves. High-frequency acoustic methods can both overcome the optical opacity of water (unlike methods based on electromagnetic waves) and resolve the small-scale structure...... of the submerged oil field (unlike low-frequency acoustic methods). The study shows that high-frequency acoustic methods are suitable not only for large-scale localization of the oil contamination in the water column but also for statistical characterization of the submerged oil field through inference...

  12. Modeling and processing of laser Doppler reactive hyperaemia signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huiller, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry is a non-invasive method used in the medical domain to monitor the microvascular blood cell perfusion through tissue. Most commercial laser Doppler flowmeters use an algorithm calculating the first moment of the power spectral density to give the perfusion value. Many clinical applications measure the perfusion after a vascular provocation such as a vascular occlusion. The response obtained is then called reactive hyperaemia. Target pathologies include diabetes, hypertension and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In order to have a deeper knowledge on reactive hyperaemia acquired by the laser Doppler technique, the present work first proposes two models (one analytical and one numerical) of the observed phenomenon. Then, a study on the multiple scattering between photons and red blood cells occurring during reactive hyperaemia is carried out. Finally, a signal processing that improves the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases is presented.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  14. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  15. Virulence Effects and Signaling Partners Modulated by Brucella melitensis Light-sensing Histidine Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Christopher R.

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis utilizes diverse virulence factors. A Brucella light sensing histidine kinase can influence in vitro virulence of the bacteria during intracellular infection. First, we demonstrated that the B. melitensis light sensing kinase (BM-LOV-HK) affects virulence in an IRF-1-/- mouse model of infection. Infection with a Δ BM-LOV-HK strain resulted in less bacterial colonization of IRF-1-/- spleens and extended survivorship compared to mice infected with wild type B. melitensis 16M. Second, using PCR arrays, we observed less expression of innate and adaptive immune system activation markers in ΔBM-LOV-HK infected mouse spleens than wild type B. melitensis 16M infected mouse spleens 6 days after infection. Third, we demonstrated by microarray analysis of B. melitensis that deletion of BM-LOV-HK alters bacterial gene expression. Downregulation of genes involved in control of the general stress response system included the alternative sigma factor RpoE1 and its anti-anti sigma factor PhyR. Conversely, genes involved in flagella production, quorum sensing, and the type IV secretion system (VirB operon) were upregulated in the Δ BM-LOV-HK strain compared to the wild type B. melitensis 16M. Analysis of genes differentially regulated in Δ BM-LOV-HK versus the wild type strain indicated an overlap of 110 genes with data from previous quorum sensing regulator studies of Δ vjbR and/ΔblxR(babR) strains. Also, several predicted RpoE1 binding sites located upstream of genes were differentially regulated in the ΔBM-LOV-HK strain. Our results suggest BM-LOV-HK is important for in vivo Brucella virulence, and reveals that BM-LOV-HK directly or indirect regulates members of the Brucella quorum sensing, type IV secretion, and general stress systems.

  16. SENSE-MAKING TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Abakumova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into psychotechnics used in education and contributing to initiating logic among students, their personal growth and characterizes psychological features of “sense-deducting”. Here you will find a review of the sense-making techniques considering as one of the categories of psychotechnics. The described techniques are based on the human psychology, they improve the quality of instruction, create a favorable and unique system of values, take into account the individual characteristics of all types of education, and influence the sense-making process development among children. Sense-making techniques are stated in the author’s classification and extended by practical methods. The study of psychological features of influence of sense-making techniques on the personality of a student lets us see new patterns in personal, subjective and “meta-subjective” results of acquiring of the school program via transformation and development of value/logic consciousness of a child. The work emphasizes that the use of sense-making techniques is effective in the educational and after-school activities of the educational organization. The achieved results make it possible to understand, to substantiate the naturalness and relevance of the sense-technical approach according to personal and academic indicators of students. In the process of competent and correct use of the semantic techniques, we see the possibility of conveying the best, productive and quality pedagogical experience, as well as the perspective of innovative developments in the psychological and pedagogical sciences. For children and adolescents, information, thanks to sense-techniques, starts to be personal in nature, knowledge is objectified, learning activity becomes an individual need.

  17. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  18. Real-time radar signal processing using GPGPU (general-purpose graphic processing unit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanxing; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Cai, Jingxiao; Palmer, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a practical approach to develop real-time signal processing chain for general phased array radar on NVIDIA GPUs(Graphical Processing Units) using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) libraries such as cuBlas and cuFFT, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. The processed results are rigorously verified against those from the CPUs. Performance benchmarked in computation time with various input data cube sizes are compared across GPUs and CPUs. Through the analysis, it will be demonstrated that GPGPUs (General Purpose GPU) real-time processing of the array radar data is possible with relatively low-cost commercial GPUs.

  19. Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shynk, John J

    2012-01-01

    Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app

  20. Autonomous control systems: applications to remote sensing and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2001-11-01

    One of the main challenges of any control (or image processing) paradigm is being able to handle complex systems under unforeseen uncertainties. A system may be called complex here if its dimension (order) is too high and its model (if available) is nonlinear, interconnected, and information on the system is uncertain such that classical techniques cannot easily handle the problem. Examples of complex systems are power networks, space robotic colonies, national air traffic control system, and integrated manufacturing plant, the Hubble Telescope, the International Space Station, etc. Soft computing, a consortia of methodologies such as fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms and genetic programming, has proven to be powerful tools for adding autonomy and semi-autonomy to many complex systems. For such systems the size of soft computing control architecture will be nearly infinite. In this paper new paradigms using soft computing approaches are utilized to design autonomous controllers and image enhancers for a number of application areas. These applications are satellite array formations for synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and enhancement of analog and digital images.