Filippova, Tatyana V.
The article presents information subsystem of shadow economy deactivation aimed at minimizing negative effects caused by its reproduction. In Russia, as well as in other countries, efficient implementation of the suggested system of shadow economy deactivation can be ensured by the developed information subsystem.
Nyashina Galina S.
Full Text Available Information-measurement subsystem oil pumping station (OPS “Parabel”, located on the site of the main pipeline “Alexandrov-Anzhero” (OJSC “AK” Transneft "”. Developed on the basis of a modern microprocessor equipment, automation, as well as high-speed digital data channels. The simple solution to meet the requirements set out in the guidance document "Automation and remote control of trunk pipelines. «General provisions» (RD-35.240.0000-KTN-207-08.
Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.
The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and
Gawron, James H; Keoleian, Gregory A; De Kleine, Robert D; Wallington, Timothy J; Kim, Hyung Chul
Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission. However, when potential operational effects of CAVs are included (e.g., eco-driving, platooning, and intersection connectivity), the net result is up to a 9% reduction in energy and GHG emissions in the base case. Overall, this study highlights opportunities where CAVs can improve net energy and environmental performance.
Hayden, Patrick; Preskill, John
We study information retrieval from evaporating black holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already proceeded past the ''half-way'' point, where half of the initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel. Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time, based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely compatible with the black hole complementarity hypothesis
Full Text Available Records of inconsistencies arise as a result of incompliance of certain requirements during the execution of the process for the quality management system (QMS functioning. In this study, the established connection between QMS and projected information sub-system for inconsistencies management is presented. The information model of inconsistencies management provides a possibility to analyse inconsistencies from the aspect of interactive analytical data processing (OLAPsystems on the basis of multi-dimensional tables (OLAPcubes created in MSSQL Server-Analysis Services programme.
...) Systems, and 33-2, Information Protection. This instruction prescribes the requirements, responsibilities and procedures for the security program for the Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS...
Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin
This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.
Abad, S.; Araujo, F.; Pinto, F.; González Torres, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Moreno, M. A.
Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) technology presents long recognized advantages which enable to mitigate deficient performance of conventional technology in hazard-environments common in spacecraft monitoring applications, such as: multiplexing capability, immunity to EMI/RFI, remote monitoring, small size and weight, electrical insulation, intrinsically safe operation, high sensibility and long term reliability. A key advantage is also the potential reduction of Assembly Integration and Testing (AIT) time achieved by the multiplexing capability and associated reduced harness. In the frame of the ESA's ARTES5.2 and FLPP-Phase 3 programs, Airbus DS-Crisa and FiberSensing are developing a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) - based temperature monitoring system for application in space telecommunication platforms and launchers. The development encompasses both the interrogation unit and the FBG temperature sensors and associated fiber harness. In parallel Airbus DS - Crisa is developing a modular RTU (RTU2015) to provide maximum flexibility and mission-customization capability for RTUs maintaining the ESA's standards at I/O interface level . In this context, the FBG interrogation unit is designed as a module to be compatible, in both physical dimensions and electrical interfaces aspects, with the Electrical Internal Interface Bus of the RTU2015, thus providing the capability for a hybrid electrical and optical monitoring system.
Miyake, Robert N.
The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.
Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...
Zhuravel', V.I.; Prosyannikov, E.V.; Zenin, A.G.; Vishnyakov, V.A.; Prosyannikova, S.P.
A concept of formation of agricultural and ecological information control subsystem is presented. The subsystem is considered to perform information and control functions. To the information function refer: processing of initial data; input of data and modification in the data base; presentation of information; mapping of radioactive contamination; calculation of soil radioactive index. To the control function belong: possibility of utilization of agricultural products; estimation of possible utilization of arable lands; estimation of necessary of decontamination; estimation of necessity of agrochemical measures; taking decisions as to the change of agricultural technology; taking decisions as to the use of meat and milk by the population. A conceptual model the agricultural soil radioecological data base is presented. 10 refs.; 1 figs
Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.
Seebach, Lucia Maria
the need for harmonised forest information can be satisfied using remote sensing methods. In conclusion, the study showed that it is possible to derive harmonised forest information of high spatial detail in Europe with remote sensing. The study also highlighted the imperative provision of accuracy...
Lutton, Stephen M.
Remote sensing is providing voluminous data and value added information products. Electronic sensors, communication electronics, computer software, hardware, and network communications technology have matured to the point where a distributed infrastructure for remotely sensed information is a reality. The amount of remotely sensed data and information is making distributed infrastructure almost a necessity. This infrastructure provides data collection, archiving, cataloging, browsing, processing, and viewing for applications from scientific research to economic, legal, and national security decision making. The remote sensing field is entering a new exciting stage of commercial growth and expansion into the mainstream of government and business decision making. This paper overviews this new distributed infrastructure and then focuses on describing a software system for on-line catalog access and distribution of remotely sensed information.
Kaptein, Ad A; Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres - novels, films, paintings and music - are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications.
Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres – novels, films, paintings and music – are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications. PMID:29552350
Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.
Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.
Kitzmiller, Rebecca Rutherford
Background: Hospital adoption of health information technology (HIT) systems is promoted as essential to decreasing medical error and their associated 44,000 annual deaths and $17 billion in healthcare costs (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Kohn, Corrigan, & Donaldson, 1999). Leading national healthcare groups, such as the Institute of Medicine,…
Abbott-McCune, Sam; Kobezak, Philip; Tront, Joseph; Marchany, Randy; Wicks, Al
Unmanned Ground vehicles (UGVs) are becoming prolific in the heterogeneous superset of robotic platforms. The sensors which provide odometry, localization, perception, and vehicle diagnostics are fused to give the robotic platform a sense of the environment it is traversing. The automotive industry CAN bus has dominated the industry due to the fault tolerance and the message structure allowing high priority messages to reach the desired node in a real time environment. UGVs are being researched and produced at an accelerated rate to preform arduous, repetitive, and dangerous missions that are associated with a military action in a protracted conflict. The technology and applications of the research will inevitably be turned into dual-use platforms to aid civil agencies in the performance of their various operations. Our motivation is security of the holistic system; however as subsystems are outsourced in the design, the overall security of the system may be diminished. We will focus on the CAN bus topology and the vulnerabilities introduced in UGVs and recognizable security vulnerabilities that are inherent in the communications architecture. We will show how data can be extracted from an add-on CAN bus that can be customized to monitor subsystems. The information can be altered or spoofed to force the vehicle to exhibit unwanted actions or render the UGV unusable for the designed mission. The military relies heavily on technology to maintain information dominance, and the security of the information introduced onto the network by UGVs must be safeguarded from vulnerabilities that can be exploited.
Chen, Xiao; Zhen; Qian; Rajagopal, Ram; Stiers, Todd; Flores, Christopher; Kavaler, Robert; Williams III, Floyd
This paper describes a smart parking sensing and information system that disseminates the parking availability information for public users in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The hardware framework of the system is built on advanced wireless sensor networks and cloud service over the Internet, and the system is highly scalable. The parking information provided to the users is set in the form of occupancy rates and expected cruising time. Both are obtained from our analytical algorithm ...
Full Text Available In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line. Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.
Ye, Zhoujing; Wang, Linbing; Xu, Wen; Gao, Zhifei; Yan, Guannan
In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line). Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.
Information that is intended to be a guide for installation, operation, and maintenance of the various solar subsystems is presented. The subsystems consist of the following: collectors, storage, transport (air handler) and controller for heat pump and peak storage. Two prototype residential systems were installed at Akron, Ohio, and Duffield, Virginia.
.... It prescribes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for operation, security, and configuration management of the Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS...
This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit
Cantwell, R.A.; Davis, J.S.
The primary objective of this research was to develop the air module for the Work Information Management System Environmental Subsystem (WIMSES). The air module will provide Air Force environmental managers with a management information system (MIS) to control the growing amount of air pollution data required to stay in compliance with the newly amended Clean Air Act. To develop the air module, the Air Force's air pollution management requirements were researched first. These requirements were then compared to the capabilities of existing air pollution MISs used in the Department of Defense, the Environmental Protection Agency, and in commercial industry. The research led to a draft air nodule that tracks a base's source inventory and associated permit, control equipment, and emission information. Each base's data will be fully accessible to headquarters personnel through the fully networked WIMS-ES. The draft air nodule was validated through an Air Staff review, an Air Force review, and finally, a workshop with Air Force air pollution experts. The finalized air module has been forwarded to the WIMS-ES programmers and will become the Air Force-wide air pollution MIS in early 1993.... Air pollution, Environmental management, Data management, Data bases, Management information systems, Information systems.
Hayati, Samad; Lee, Thomas S.; Tso, Kam; Backes, Paul; Kan, Edwin; Lloyd, J.
The Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) subsystem of the telerobot system provides the real-time control of the robot manipulators in autonomous and teleoperated modes and real time input/output for a variety of sensors and actuators. Substantial hardware and software are included in this subsystem which interfaces in the hierarchy of the telerobot system with the other subsystems. The other subsystems are: run time control, task planning and reasoning, sensing and perception, and operator control subsystem. The architecture of the MCM subsystem, its capabilities, and details of various hardware and software elements are described. Important improvements in the MCM subsystem over the first version are: dual arm coordinated trajectory generation and control, addition of integrated teleoperation, shared control capability, replacement of the ultimate controllers with motor controllers, and substantial increase in real time processing capability.
Geli, H. M. E.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Senay, G. B.
Recent research findings on modeling actual evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing data and methods have proven the ability of these methods to address wide range of hydrological and water resources issues including river basin water balance for improved water resources management, drought monitoring, drought impact and socioeconomic responses, agricultural water management, optimization of land-use for water conservations, water allocation agreement among others. However, there is still a critical need to identify appropriate type of ET information that can address each of these issues. The current trend of increasing demand for water due to population growth coupled with variable and limited water supply due to drought especially in arid and semiarid regions with limited water supply have highlighted the need for such information. To properly address these issues different spatial and temporal resolutions of ET information will need to be used. For example, agricultural water management applications require ET information at field (30-m) and daily time scales while for river basin hydrologic analysis relatively coarser spatial and temporal scales can be adequate for such regional applications. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the potential of using an integrated ET information that can be used to address some of these issues collectively. This analysis will highlight efforts to address some of the issues that are applicable to New Mexico including assessment of statewide water budget as well as drought impact and socioeconomic responses which all require ET information but at different spatial and temporal scales. This analysis will provide an evaluation of four remote sensing based ET models including ALEXI, DisALEXI, SSEBop, and SEBAL3.0. The models will be compared with ground-based observations from eddy covariance towers and water balance calculations. Remote sensing data from Landsat, MODIS, and VIIRS sensors will be used to provide ET
Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.
Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.
Luis Fernando Bolaños Gordillo
Full Text Available Censorship prevalent historically in the practice of journalism in Chiapas, several organizations have taken over the use of new information technologies to inform and comment on the events in Chiapas, including his own, thus creating an autonomous way of exercising this important activity.This article is the product of research done in 2010, which analyzed the influence of the EZLN in the development of a regional sense in the online journalism in Chiapas as well as the presence that gradually increases in several pages, blogs and social networks.
The physical resources available to access and manipulate the degrees of freedom of a quantum system define the set A of operationally relevant observables. The algebraic structure of A selects a preferred tensor product structure, i.e., a partition into subsystems. The notion of compoundness for quantum systems is accordingly relativized. Universal control over virtual subsystems can be achieved by using quantum noncommutative holonomies
Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.
Alpatov, S.V.; Golovanova, Eh.Z.; Gorskaya, E.A.; Dobryanskij, V.M.; Makan'kin, A.M.; Puzynin, V.I.; Samojlov, V.N.; Cheker, A.V.
The substantiation of choice of the hardware and software for integration in program-technical complex is given. The complex is intended for automation of the physical experiments connected with chain nuclear reaction investigations. The subsystem for energy supplying control of experiment is considered in detail. For building the subsystem the 'client-server' architecture is used. The subsystem includes the work station and VMEbus measuring modules in the net. The description of the programs and result formats are given. 5 refs., 6 figs
Jingxiong, Zhang; Ke, Yang; Jianzhong, Guo
Compressed sensing (CS) is a new framework for sampling and reconstructing sparse signals from measurements significantly fewer than those prescribed by Nyquist rate in the Shannon sampling theorem. This new strategy, applied in various application areas including synthetic aperture radar (SAR), relies on two principles: sparsity, which is related to the signals of interest, and incoherence, which refers to the sensing modality. An important question in CS-based SAR system design concerns sampling rate necessary and sufficient for exact or approximate recovery of sparse signals. In the literature, bounds of measurements (or sampling rate) in CS have been proposed from the perspective of information theory. However, these information-theoretic bounds need to be reviewed and, if necessary, validated for CS-based SAR imaging, as there are various assumptions made in the derivations of lower and upper bounds on sub-Nyquist sampling rates, which may not hold true in CS-based SAR imaging. In this paper, information-theoretic bounds of sampling rate will be analyzed. For this, the SAR measurement system is modeled as an information channel, with channel capacity and rate-distortion characteristics evaluated to enable the determination of sampling rates required for recovery of sparse scenes. Experiments based on simulated data will be undertaken to test the theoretic bounds against empirical results about sampling rates required to achieve certain detection error probabilities
Full Text Available This paper presents a method on the semantic access environment, which can solve the problem about how to identify the correct natural disaster emergency knowledge and return to the demanders. The study data is natural disaster knowledge text set. Firstly, based on the remote sensing emergency knowledge database, we utilize the sematic network to extract the key words in the input documents dataset. Then, using the semantic analysis based on words segmentation and PLSA, to establish the sematic access environment to identify the requirement of users and match the emergency knowledge in the database. Finally, the user preference model was established, which could help the system to return the corresponding information to the different users. The results indicate that semantic analysis can dispose the natural disaster knowledge effectively, which will realize diversified information service, enhance the precision of information retrieval and satisfy the requirement of users.
Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas
In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different
Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas
In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different
Stephane P. Flasse; Simon N. Trigg; Pietro N. Ceccato; Anita H. Perryman; Andrew T. Hudak; Mark W. Thompson; Bruce H. Brockett; Moussa Drame; Tim Ntabeni; Philip E. Frost; Tobias Landmann; Johan L. le Roux
In the last decade, research has proven that remote sensing can provide very useful support to fire managers. This chapter provides an overview of the types of information remote sensing can provide to the fire community. First, it considers fire management information needs in the context of a fire management information system. An introduction to remote sensing then...
Didion, Jeffrey R.
Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.
Hilverda, Marie-Susanne Dieudonnée
When individuals encounter new information about food issues, such as organic food risks, they have to make sense of this information. Sense-making is the process by which individuals give meaning to the world around them. How the process of sense-making is influenced by the online social
Albrecht, F.; Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.; Szabó, G.; Barsi, Á.; Batini, C.; Bartsch, A.; Kugler, Zs.; Tiede, D.; Huang, G.
The availability and accessibility of remote sensing (RS) data, cloud processing platforms and provided information products and services has increased the size and diversity of the RS user community. This development also generates a need for validation approaches to assess data quality. Validation approaches employ quality criteria in their assessment. Data Quality (DQ) dimensions as the basis for quality criteria have been deeply investigated in the database area and in the remote sensing domain. Several standards exist within the RS domain but a general classification - established for databases - has been adapted only recently. For an easier identification of research opportunities, a better understanding is required how quality criteria are employed in the RS lifecycle. Therefore, this research investigates how quality criteria support decisions that guide the RS lifecycle and how they relate to the measured DQ dimensions. Subsequently follows an overview of the relevant standards in the RS domain that is matched to the RS lifecycle. Conclusively, the required research needs are identified that would enable a complete understanding of the interrelationships between the RS lifecycle, the data sources and the DQ dimensions, an understanding that would be very valuable for designing validation approaches in RS.
Li, C. R.; Tang, L. L.; Ma, L. L.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, C. X.; Wang, N.; Li, X. H.; Wang, X. H.; Zhu, X. H.
As a naturally part of information technology, Remote Sensing (RS) is strongly required to provide very precise and accurate information product to serve industry, academy and the public at this information economic era. To meet the needs of high quality RS product, building a fully functional and advanced calibration system, including measuring instruments, measuring approaches and target site become extremely important. Supported by MOST of China via national plan, great progress has been made to construct a comprehensive calibration and validation (Cal&Val) site, which integrates most functions of RS sensor aviation testing, EO satellite on-orbit caration and performance assessment and RS product validation at this site located in Baotou, 600km west of Beijing. The site is equipped with various artificial standard targets, including portable and permanent targets, which supports for long-term calibration and validation. A number of fine-designed ground measuring instruments and airborne standard sensors are developed for realizing high-accuracy stepwise validation, an approach in avoiding or reducing uncertainties caused from nonsynchronized measurement. As part of contribution to worldwide Cal&Val study coordinated by CEOS-WGCV, Baotou site is offering its support to Radiometric Calibration Network of Automated Instruments (RadCalNet), with an aim of providing demonstrated global standard automated radiometric calibration service in cooperation with ESA, NASA, CNES and NPL. Furthermore, several Cal&Val campaigns have been performed during the past years to calibrate and validate the spaceborne/airborne optical and SAR sensors, and the results of some typical demonstration are discussed in this study.
Bi, Siwen; Zhen, Ming; Yang, Song; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang
According to the development and application needs of Remote Sensing Science and technology, Prof. Siwen Bi proposed quantum remote sensing. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the background of quantum remote sensing, the research status and related researches at home and abroad on the theory, information mechanism and imaging experiments of quantum remote sensing and the production of principle prototype.Then, the quantization of pure remote sensing radiation field, the state function and squeezing effect of quantum remote sensing radiation field are emphasized. It also describes the squeezing optical operator of quantum light field in active imaging information transmission experiment and imaging experiments, achieving 2-3 times higher resolution than that of coherent light detection imaging and completing the production of quantum remote sensing imaging prototype. The application of quantum remote sensing technology can significantly improve both the signal-to-noise ratio of information transmission imaging and the spatial resolution of quantum remote sensing .On the above basis, Prof.Bi proposed the technical solution of active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing, launched researches on its system composition and operation principle and on quantum noiseless amplifying devices, providing solutions and technical basis for implementing active imaging information technology of satellite borne Quantum Remote Sensing.
Yu, Youngjin; Murata, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Koji; Yoshida, Susumu
Reliable detection of other radio systems is crucial for systems that share the same frequency band. In wireless communication channels, there is uncertainty in the received signal level due to multipath fading and shadowing. Cooperative sensing techniques in which radio stations share their sensing information can improve the detection probability of other systems. In this paper, a new cooperative sensing scheme that reduces the false detection probability while maintaining the outage probability of other systems is investigated. In the proposed system, sensing information is collected using multi-hop transmission from all sensing stations that detect other systems, and transmission decisions are based on the received sensing information. The proposed system also controls the transmit power based on the received CINRs from the sensing stations. Simulation results reveal that the proposed system can reduce the outage probability of other systems, or improve its link success probability.
Digital map products and spatial inventories are becoming increasingly available from geological surveys, agricultural, natural resource, environmental, energy, transportation and forestry departments. As well there are now multitudes of specialized digital airborne and satellite image products available. This wide availability of geographically referenced data and the advances in spatial data analysis software are providing geoscientists with new tools and new ways of viewing traditionally used data. Through several examples, this paper will demonstrate how remote sensing and GIS technologies can contribute to environmental assessment of an urban fringe area. Nowhere is the need for spatial inventories and mapping greater than in such areas, where pre-existing information becomes rapidly outdated. A 260-km 2 site, north of Metropolitan Toronto was chosen as a study area. A spatial data base was constructed which included imagery from three different satellite sensors, a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), and digital drainage network, and a digital copy of the Ontario Geological Survey's Quaternary geological map. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs
Dobrea Valentina Alina
Full Text Available The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, the social subsystem, thetechnical subsystem, the informative subsystem. The relationship between those subsystems leads to the continuous improvement of quality in health services.
Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan
Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.
Jiang, Qijun; Bregt, Arnold K.; Kooistra, Lammert
Environmental sensing data provide crucial information for environment-related decision-making. Formal data are provided by official environmental institutes. Beyond those, however, there is a growing body of so-called informal sensing data, which are contributed by citizens using low-cost sensors.
Backe, K. R.
This paper describes a program in which several experimental timing subsystem prototypes were designed, fabricated, and field tested using a small network of troposcatter and microwave digital communication links. This equipment was responsible for modem/radio interfacing, time interval measurement, clock adjustment and distribution, synchronization technique, and node to node information exchange. Presented are discussions of the design approach, measurement plan, and performance assessment methods. Recommendations are made based on the findings of the test program and an evaluation of the design of both the hardware and software elements of the timing subsystem prototypes.
Heipke, Christian; Madden, Marguerite; Li, Zhilin; Dowman, Ian
Over the past few years, photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science have witnessed great changes in virtually every stage of information from imagery. Indeed, we have seen, for example, a sharply increased interest in unmanned aerial vehicles,
Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
between the sensing channels to overcome the fading and shadowing effects which allows reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Information can be exchanged between cooperating users in different formats from the binary hard information
The higher recording density of magnetic disk realized today has brought larger storage capacity per unit and smaller form factors. If the required access performance per MB is constant, the performance of large subsystems has to be several times better. This article describes mainly the technology for improving the performance of the magnetic disk subsystems and the prospects of their future evolution. Also considered are 'crosscall pathing' which makes the data transfer channel more effective, 'disk cache' which improves performance coupling with solid state memory technology, and 'RAID' which improves the availability and integrity of disk subsystems by organizing multiple disk drives in a subsystem. As a result, it is concluded that since the performance of the subsystem is dominated by that of the disk cache, maximation of the performance of the disk cache subsystems is very important.
Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.
Campbell, W.J.; Imhoff, M.L.; Robinson, J.; Gunther, F.; Boyd, R.; Anuta, M.
The utility and cost effectiveness of incorporating digitized aircraft and satellite remote sensing data into a geographic information system for facility siting and environmental impact assessments was evaluated. This research focused on the evaluation of several types of multisource remotely sensed data representing a variety of spectral band widths and spatial resolution. High resolution aircraft photography, Landsat MSS, and 7 band Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were acquired, analyzed, and evaluated for their suitability as input to an operational geographic information system (GIS). 78 references, 59 figures, 74 tables
Full Text Available Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.
Tan, X.; Jing, X.; Chen, R.; Ming, Z.; He, L.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Yan, L.
Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.
Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem
an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with sensing information to achieve optimal energy-efficient systems. The proposed schemes maximize EE and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality-of-service constraints
The advancement of remote sensing technology and the analysing capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) can very well be used in the science of Archaeology. Though these subjects look apart, they can be studied in conjunction with each...
EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory Several new too...
Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem
communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service
Bikesh Kumar Singh
Full Text Available There is rapid increase in image databases of remote sensing images due to image satellites with high resolution, commercial applications of remote sensing & high available bandwidth in last few years. The problem of content-based image retrieval (CBIR of remotely sensed images presents a major challenge not only because of the surprisingly increasing volume of images acquired from a wide range of sensors but also because of the complexity of images themselves. In this paper, a software system for content-based retrieval of remote sensing images using RGB and HSV color spaces is presented. Further, we also compare our results with spatiogram based content retrieval which integrates spatial information along with color histogram. Experimental results show that the integration of spatial information in color improves the image analysis of remote sensing data. In general, retrievals in HSV color space showed better performance than in RGB color space.
Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til
Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V
Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)
The study aimed at better understanding of specific information needs as well as of how the public perceives the issue of radioactive contamination. Main conclusions of the study:1. Information is lacking 2. Great concern for health effects of radiation 3. Poverty is a worry. Study results are very much consistent with the ideas of 2002 UN Report: Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident: A Strategy for Recovery
Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)
In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Karman vortex streets. After generating a Karman street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Karman street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Karman vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.
Lauer, D.T.; Estes, J.E.; Jensen, J.R.; Greenlee, D.D.
The developers as well as the users of remotely sensed data and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are associated with nearly all types of institutions in government, industry, and academia. Individuals in these various institutions often find the barriers to accepting remote sensing and GIS are not necessarily technical in nature, but can be attributed to the institutions themselves. Several major institutional issues that affect the technologies of remote sensing and GIS are data availability, data marketing and costs, equipment availability and costs, standards and practices, education and training, and organizational infrastructures. Not only are problems associated with these issues identified, but needs and opportunities also are discussed. -from Authors
With the rapid development of economic, the Internet of Things based on Internet technology is more and more concerned by all circles of society, and the Internet of Things begins to penetrate into various fields of society. The Internet of things is an extension of the Internet, the difference between the Internet and the Internet of Things is that the purpose of things aims to achieve the exchange and exchange of information and data, contract the people and goods through a variety of technologies and equipment from items to items. Information perception and interaction technology are two very important technologies in the development of things, but also is the important technology in the history of the development of network technology. This paper briefly analyzes the characteristics of the original information perception, and the difference between the interactive technology of the Internet of Things and the human-computer interaction technology. On this basis, this paper mainly elaborates from the two aspects of information perception and interactive technology.
Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper
This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hyperspectral radiometers will be integrated with an optical scanning subsystem to measure remote sensing reflectance spectra over the ocean. The entire scanning...
Full Text Available TO INFORM INTERGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT GISSA Western Cape Regional Meeting Wesley Roberts & Melanie Luck-Vogel 2 June 2010 CSIR NRE Ecosystems Earth Observation Group What is Integrated Coastal Zone Management? Integrated coastal management... D1D1 B a n d 1 Band 2 Quick theory of CVA Magnitude Direction ( ) ( )22 xaxbyaybM ?+?= Quadrant 1 (++) Accretion Quadrant 2 (-+) Quadrant 4 (+-) Quadrant 3 (--) Erosion CVA Results & Conclusions ? Change in image time series...
Gorshkov, A G; Popov, M V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '
The concentration of statistically complete sampling radiosources of the Ohiof scanning with plane spectra towards the Galaxy centre has been discovered. Quantitative calculations have showed that the sources form a spheric subsystem, which is close in parameters to such old formations in the Galaxy as globular clusters and the RRLsub(YR) type stars. The luminosity of the galaxy spheric subsystem object equals 10/sup 33/ erg/sec, the total number of objects being 7000. The existence of such a subsystem explains s the anomalously by low incline of statistics lgN-lgS in HF scanning PKS (..gamma..-2700Mgz) and the Michigan University scanning (..gamma..=8000Mgz) because the sources of galaxy spheric subsystem make up a considerable share in the total number of sources, especially at high frequencies (50% of sources with a flux greater than a unit of flux per 8000Mgz). It is very probable that the given subsystem consists of the representatives of one of the following class of objects: a) heat sources - the H2H regions with T=10/sup 40/K, Nsub(e)=10/sup 3/, l=1 ps b) supermass black holes with mass M/Mo approximately 10/sup 5/.
Graves, J. R. (Compiler)
The technology issues involved in power subsystem automation and the reasonable objectives to be sought in such a program were discussed. The complexities, uncertainties, and alternatives of power subsystem automation, along with the advantages from both an economic and a technological perspective were considered. Whereas most spacecraft power subsystems now use certain automated functions, the idea of complete autonomy for long periods of time is almost inconceivable. Thus, it seems prudent that the technology program for power subsystem automation be based upon a growth scenario which should provide a structured framework of deliberate steps to enable the evolution of space power subsystems from the current practice of limited autonomy to a greater use of automation with each step being justified on a cost/benefit basis. Each accomplishment should move toward the objectives of decreased requirement for ground control, increased system reliability through onboard management, and ultimately lower energy cost through longer life systems that require fewer resources to operate and maintain. This approach seems well-suited to the evolution of more sophisticated algorithms and eventually perhaps even the use of some sort of artificial intelligence. Multi-hundred kilowatt systems of the future will probably require an advanced level of autonomy if they are to be affordable and manageable.
Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei
Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762
Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi
Spectrum sensing is the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of the spectrum. Cooperation among cognitive radio users is a technique employed to improve the sensing performance by exploiting the diversity between the sensing channels to overcome the fading and shadowing effects which allows reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Information can be exchanged between cooperating users in different formats from the binary hard information to the full soft information. Quantized information has shown its efficiency as a trade-off between binary hard and full soft for other cooperative schemes, in this paper, we investigate the use of quantized information between cooperating cognitive users. We derive closed-form expressions of the cooperative average false alarm and detection probabilities over fading channels for a generalized system model with not necessarily identical average sensing Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and imperfect reporting channels. Numerical simulations allow us to conclude a tradeoff between the quantization size and the reporting energy in order to achieve the optimal cooperative error probability. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.
You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.
Laidre, Mark E; Lamb, Alex; Shultz, Susanne; Olsen, Megan
Information from others can be unreliable. Humans nevertheless act on such information, including gossip, to make various social calculations, thus raising the question of whether individuals can sort through social information to identify what is, in fact, true. Inspired by empirical literature on people's decision-making when considering gossip, we built an agent-based simulation model to examine how well simple decision rules could make sense of information as it propagated through a network. Our simulations revealed that a minimalistic decision-rule 'Bit-wise mode' - which compared information from multiple sources and then sought a consensus majority for each component bit within the message - was consistently the most successful at converging upon the truth. This decision rule attained high relative fitness even in maximally noisy networks, composed entirely of nodes that distorted the message. The rule was also superior to other decision rules regardless of its frequency in the population. Simulations carried out with variable agent memory constraints, different numbers of observers who initiated information propagation, and a variety of network types suggested that the single most important factor in making sense of information was the number of independent sources that agents could consult. Broadly, our model suggests that despite the distortion information is subject to in the real world, it is nevertheless possible to make sense of it based on simple Darwinian computations that integrate multiple sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kittel, Cecile Marie Margaretha; Nielsen, Karina; Tøttrup, C.
with publicly available and free remote sensing observations. We used a rainfall–runoff model based on the Budyko framework coupled with a Muskingum routing approach. We parametrized the model using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) and forced it using precipitation from......Remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to inform and constrain a hydrological model and to increase its value as a decision-support tool. In this study, we applied a multi-mission approach to force, calibrate and validate a hydrological model of the ungauged Ogooué river basin in Africa...... model also captures overall total water storage change patterns, although the amplitude of storage change is generally underestimated. By combining hydrological modeling with multi-mission remote sensing from 10 different satellite missions, we obtain new information on an otherwise unstudied basin...
Consider the statement,'A system has two coupled subsystems, one of which dominates the design process. Each subsystem consists of discrete and continuous variables, and is solved using sequential analysis and solution.' To address this type of statement in the design of complex systems, three steps are required, namely, the embodiment of the statement in terms of entities on a computer, the mathematical formulation of subsystem models, and the resulting solution and system synthesis. In complex system decomposition, the subsystems are not isolated, self-supporting entities. Information such as constraints, goals, and design variables may be shared between entities. But many times in engineering problems, full communication and cooperation does not exist, information is incomplete, or one subsystem may dominate the design. Additionally, these engineering problems give rise to mathematical models involving nonlinear functions of both discrete and continuous design variables. In this dissertation an algorithm is developed to handle these types of scenarios for the domain-independent integration of subsystem embodiment, coordination, and system synthesis using constructs from Decision-Based Design, Game Theory, and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization. Implementation of the concept in this dissertation involves testing of the hypotheses using example problems and a motivating case study involving the design of a subsonic passenger aircraft.
This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…
Keskin, İ.; Akbaba, N.; Tosun, M.; Tüfekçi, M. K.; Bulut, D.; Avcı, F.; Gökçe, O.
The accelerated developments in information technology in recent years, increased the amount of usage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in disaster management considerably and the access from mobile and web-based platforms to continuous, accurate and sufficient data needed for decision-making became easier accordingly. The Disaster Management and Decision Support System (AYDES) has been developed with the purpose of managing the disaster and emergency manageme...
Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.
During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.
Cao, Qiong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Wang, Lang
Building extraction currently is important in the application of high-resolution remote sensing imagery. At present, quite a few algorithms are available for detecting building information, however, most of them still have some obvious disadvantages, such as the ignorance of spectral information, the contradiction between extraction rate and extraction accuracy. The purpose of this research is to develop an effective method to detect building information for Chinese GF-1 data. Firstly, the image preprocessing technique is used to normalize the image and image enhancement is used to highlight the useful information in the image. Secondly, multi-spectral information is analyzed. Subsequently, an improved morphological building index (IMBI) based on remote sensing imagery is proposed to get the candidate building objects. Furthermore, in order to refine building objects and further remove false objects, the post-processing (e.g., the shape features, the vegetation index and the water index) is employed. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the omission errors (OE), commission errors (CE), the overall accuracy (OA) and Kappa are used at final. The proposed method can not only effectively use spectral information and other basic features, but also avoid extracting excessive interference details from high-resolution remote sensing images. Compared to the original MBI algorithm, the proposed method reduces the OE by 33.14% .At the same time, the Kappa increase by 16.09%. In experiments, IMBI achieved satisfactory results and outperformed other algorithms in terms of both accuracies and visual inspection
Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.
Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.
Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke
COMPETITION SPONSORS SKIN is generously sponsored by Buro Happold through engineering support and the A. Zahner Co. is the competition’s fabrication sponsor. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT TEX-FAB is generously supported in its mission of collecting, disseminating and generating information on digital fab...... fabrication within the Texas region by the University of Houston, University of Texas at Arlington, University of Texas at Austin and the University of Texas at San Antonio....
This is an acceptance procedure for the Data Acquisition Subsystem of the Machine Interface Test System (MITS). Prerequisites, requirements, and detailed step-by-step instruction are presented for inspecting and performance testing the subsystem
Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.
Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.
Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.
This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.
Belfatti, Monica A.
Recently developed common core standards echo calls by educators for ensuring that upper elementary students become proficient readers of informational texts. Informational texts have been theorized as causing difficulty for students because they contain linguistic and visual features different from more familiar narrative genres (Lemke, 2004). It has been argued that learning to read informational texts, particularly those with science subject matter, requires making sense of words, images, and the relationships among them (Pappas, 2006). Yet, conspicuously absent in the research are empirical studies documenting ways students make use of textual resources to build textual and conceptual understandings during classroom literacy instruction. This 10-month practitioner research study was designed to investigate the ways a group of ethnically and linguistically diverse fourth graders in one metropolitan school made sense of science information books during dialogically organized literature discussions. In this nontraditional instructional context, I wondered whether and how young students might make use of science informational text features, both words and images, in the midst of collaborative textual and conceptual inquiry. Drawing on methods of constructivist grounded theory and classroom discourse analysis, I analyzed student and teacher talk in 25 discussions of earth and life science books. Digital voice recordings and transcriptions served as the main data sources for this study. I found that, without teacher prompts or mandates to do so, fourth graders raised a wide range of textual and conceptual inquiries about words, images, scientific figures, and phenomena. In addition, my analysis yielded a typology of ways students constructed relationships between words and images within and across page openings of the information books read for their sense-making endeavors. The diversity of constructed word-image relationships aided students in raising, exploring
Full Text Available The northern Tibet belongs to the Sub cold arid climate zone in the plateau. It is rarely visited by people. The geological working conditions are very poor. However, the stratum exposures are good and human interference is very small. Therefore, the research on the automatic classification and extraction of remote sensing geological information has typical significance and good application prospect. Based on the object-oriented classification in Northern Tibet, using the Worldview2 high-resolution remote sensing data, combined with the tectonic information and image enhancement, the lithological spectral features, shape features, spatial locations and topological relations of various geological information are excavated. By setting the threshold, based on the hierarchical classification, eight kinds of geological information were classified and extracted. Compared with the existing geological maps, the accuracy analysis shows that the overall accuracy reached 87.8561 %, indicating that the classification-oriented method is effective and feasible for this study area and provides a new idea for the automatic extraction of remote sensing geological information.
Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R.
The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status
Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others
The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.
Tourism geological resources are of high value in admiration, scientific research and universal education, which need to be protected and rationally utilized. In the past, most of the remote sensing investigations of tourism geological resources used two-dimensional remote sensing interpretation method, which made it difficult for some geological heritages to be interpreted and led to the omission of some information. This aim of this paper is to assess the value of a method using the three-dimensional visual remote sensing image to extract information of geological heritages. skyline software system is applied to fuse the 0.36 m aerial images and 5m interval DEM to establish the digital earth model. Based on the three-dimensional shape, color tone, shadow, texture and other image features, the distribution of tourism geological resources in Shandong Province and the location of geological heritage sites were obtained, such as geological structure, DaiGu landform, granite landform, Volcanic landform, sandy landform, Waterscapes, etc. The results show that using this method for remote sensing interpretation is highly recognizable, making the interpretation more accurate and comprehensive.
Rosenfeld, Leslie; Chao, Yi; Signell, Richard P.
Numerical modeling is vital to achieving the U.S. IOOS® goals of predicting, understanding and adapting to change in the ocean and Great Lakes. In the next decade IOOS should cultivate a holistic approach to coastal ocean prediction, and encourage more balanced investment among the observing, modeling and information management subsystems. We believe the vision of a prediction framework driven by observations, and leveraging advanced technology and understanding of the ocean and Great Lakes, would lead to a new era for IOOS that would not only produce more powerful information, but would also capture broad community support, particularly from the general public, thus allowing IOOS to develop into the comprehensive information system that was envisioned at the outset.
Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.
Golota, T.; De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Lesser, M.; Leibold, T.; Miller, D.; Meeks, R.; Hahn, T.; Storm, J.; Sargent, T.; Summers, D.; Hill, J.; Kraus, J.; Hooper, S.; Fisher, D.
The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has eight Acquisition, Guiding, and wavefront Sensing Units (AGw units). They provide guiding and wavefront sensing capability at eight different locations at both direct and bent Gregorian focal stations. Recent additions of focal stations for PEPSI and MODS instruments doubled the number of focal stations in use including respective motion, camera controller server computers, and software infrastructure communicating with Guiding Control Subsystem (GCS). This paper describes the improvements made to the LBT GCS and explains how these changes have led to better maintainability and contributed to increased reliability. This paper also discusses the current GCS status and reviews potential upgrades to further improve its performance.
Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli
Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.
In this paper we consider a cognitive radio multi-input multi-output environment in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency and signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service constraints. Since the optimization of energy efficiency problem is not a convex problem, we transform it into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) form to guarantee a global optimal solution. Analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the other scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.
Sparrow, B.; Schaefer, M.; Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Lowe, A. J.; O'Neill, S.; Thurgate, N.; Wundke, D.
Over the past year the TERN Ausplots facility has hosted a process to determine the definition of Biodiversity Condition in an Australian Continental Context, and conducted a wide collaborative process to determine which environmental attributes are required to be measures to accurately inform on biodiversity condition. A major output from this work was the acknowledgement that good quality data from both remotely sensed sources and good quality field collected data are both essential to provide the best information possible on biodiversity condition. This poster details some background to the project, the assesment of which attributes to measure, and if the are sources primarily from field based or remotely sensed measures. It then proceeds to provide three examples of ways in which the combination of data types provides a superior product as output, with one example being provided for the three cornerstone areas of condition: Structure, Function and Composition.
Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing
At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing
Covers several hot topics in current research of electromagnetic scattering, and radiative transfer in complex and random media, polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery technology, data validation and information retrieval from space-borne remote sensing, computational electromagnetics, etc.Including both forward modelling and inverse problems, analytic theory and numerical approachesAn overall summary of the author's works during most recent yearsAlso presents some insight for future research topics.
The author briefly describes the genesis and ore-formation mechanism of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area. Techniques such as remote sensing digital image data processing and data enhancement, as well as 3-dimension quantitative analysis of drill hole data are applied to extract information on metallogenic environment of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit and the distribution of paleo-channel
Full Text Available Because of the contradiction between the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing images (RSI and quality loss in the process of acquisition, it is of great significance to reconstruct RSI in remote sensing applications. Recent studies have demonstrated that reference image-based reconstruction methods have great potential for higher reconstruction performance, while lacking accuracy and quality of reconstruction. For this application, a new compressed sensing objective function incorporating a reference image as prior information is developed. We resort to the reference prior information inherent in interior and exterior data simultaneously to build a new generalized nonconvex low-rank approximation framework for RSI reconstruction. Specifically, the innovation of this paper consists of the following three respects: (1 we propose a nonconvex low-rank approximation for reconstructing RSI; (2 we inject reference prior information to overcome over smoothed edges and texture detail losses; (3 on this basis, we combine conjugate gradient algorithms and a single-value threshold (SVT simultaneously to solve the proposed algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm improves several dBs in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and preserves image details significantly compared to most of the current approaches without reference images as priors. In addition, the generalized nonconvex low-rank approximation of our approach is naturally robust to noise, and therefore, the proposed algorithm can handle low resolution with noisy inputs in a more unified framework.
Tian, Xiaomin; Liu, Dong; Xu, Jiwei; Wang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Bangxin; Wu, Decheng; Zhong, Zhiqing; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian
Lidar is a kind of active optical remote sensing instruments , can be applied to sound atmosphere with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Many parameter of atmosphere can be get by using different inverse algorithm with lidar backscatter signal. The basic setup of a lidar consist of a transmitter and a receiver. To make sure the quality of lidar signal data, the lidar must be calibrated before being used to measure the atmospheric variables. It is really significant to character and analyze lidar optical subsystem because a well equiped lidar optical subsystem contributes to high quality lidar signal data. we pay close attention to telecover test to character and analyze lidar optical subsystem.The telecover test is called four quadrants method consisting in dividing the telescope aperture in four quarants. when a lidar is well configured with lidar optical subsystem, the normalized signal from four qudrants will agree with each other on some level. Testing our WARL-II lidar by four quadrants method ,we find the signals of the four basically consistent with each other both in near range and in far range. But in detail, the signals in near range have some slight distinctions resulting from overlap function, some signals distinctions are induced by atmospheric instability.
Full Text Available The principle of multiresolution segmentation was represented in detail in this study, and the canny algorithm was applied for edge-detection of a remotely sensed image based on this principle. The target image was divided into regions based on object-oriented multiresolution segmentation and edge-detection. Furthermore, object hierarchy was created, and a series of features (water bodies, vegetation, roads, residential areas, bare land and other information were extracted by the spectral and geometrical features. The results indicate that the edge-detection has a positive effect on multiresolution segmentation, and overall accuracy of information extraction reaches to 94.6% by the confusion matrix.
Full Text Available Image classification will still be a long way in the future, although it has gone almost half a century. In fact, researchers have gained many fruits in the image classification domain, but there is still a long distance between theory and practice. However, some new methods in the artificial intelligence domain will be absorbed into the image classification domain and draw on the strength of each to offset the weakness of the other, which will open up a new prospect. Usually, networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian Networks (TAN to texture classification of High-resolution remote sensing images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. Since 2013, China government has started the first national geographical information census project, which mainly interprets geographical information based on high-resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper tries to apply Bayesian network to remote sensing image classification, in order to improve image interpretation in the first national geographical information census project. In the experiment, we choose some remote sensing images in Beijing. Experimental results demonstrate TAN outperform than Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC and Maximum Likelihood Classification Method (MLC in the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the workload of field workers and improve the work efficiency. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method for assisting office operation of image interpretation.
Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.
A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.
Yu Baoshan; Wang Dianbai; Jin Shihua; Qiao Rui
Based on the whole areal geological map joint application rd exploitation, composite forming map, generalization analysis and field examination in detail of key region that mainly depend on remote sensing information and generalize the data of geology, geophysical and geochemical prospecting, and geohydrology, this paper reveals the structure framework, regional geological background, uranium metallogenic condition and space time distribution rule of orustal evolution and its result, and set up the interpretation marks of arc-shaped structure in different of rock area and discusses its geological genesis. The author also interprets volcanic apparatus, small type closed sedimentary basin, magmatic rock body which relate closely to uranium deposit, ore control structure and occurrence and type of mineralization alteration envelope. The thermal halo point of satellite image is emphatically interpreted and its geological meaning and its relation to uranium deposit is discussed. Remote sensing geological prospecting ore model and synthetic provision model is determined lastly
Based on the study on geologic metallogenic environment, temporal and spatial distribution and deposit features of uranium deposits in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region, summarizing mainly remote sensing information and synthesizing geologic, geophysical and geochemical as well as hydrological data, the author has implemented all-region joint-quadrangle analysis, composite mapping and applications, set up interpretation criteria for circular and arcuate structures of different lithological areas, and then expounded their geologic meaning. Volcanic apparatuses, small close sedimentary basins and magmatic rockbodies closely associated with uranium mineralizations, especially the altitude and types of ore-controlling structures and mineralized alteration zones have been interpreted. 'Heat halo spot' has also been interpreted on the satellite image and its geologic meaning and relation to uranium metallization have been discussed. Finally, remote sensing geologic prospecting model and comprehensive prediction model have been established
Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.
This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.
Shaw, W. M., Jr.
When circulation data are used as input parameters for a computer simulation of a library's circulation subsystem, the results of the simulation provide information on book availability and delays. The model may be used to simulate alternative loan policies. (Author/LS)
This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....
Full Text Available This work explores an innovative strategy for increasing the efficiency of compressed sensing applied on mm-wave SAR sensing using multiple weighted side information. The approach is tested on synthetic and on real non-destructive testing measurements performed on a 3D-printed object with defects while taking advantage of multiple previous SAR images of the object with different degrees of similarity. The tested algorithm attributes autonomously weights to the side information at two levels: (1 between the components inside the side information and (2 between the different side information. The reconstruction is thereby almost immune to poor quality side information while exploiting the relevant components hidden inside the added side information. The presented results prove that, in contrast to common compressed sensing, good SAR image reconstruction is achieved at subsampling rates far below the Nyquist rate. Moreover, the algorithm is shown to be much more robust for low quality side information compared to coherent background subtraction.
The overarching goal of this project was to integrate data from commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies to create a novel data-driven decision making framework that empowers the railroad industry to monitor, assess, an...
Niculae, C.; Treitz, M.; Geldermann, J.
Full text: The evaluation subsystem (ESY) of the RODOS aims to rank countermeasure strategies according to their potential benefit and preference weights provided by the decision makers (DMS). In the previous version of the ESY, the structure of the decision problem (attributes, strategies, etc.) had to be largely defined by the early modules in the RODOS chain (ASY-CSYESY). For this reason, the ESY runs would be initiated with a list of strategies, a comprehensive attribute tree and a consequence table giving the impacts for each attribute under each strategy. The first sub-module of the ESY allows the user to select the attributes to be analyzed and then filters out the remaining attributes. For instance, the CSY module LCMT passes over 100 attributes to the ESY, from which one would expect the analyst/DMS to select maybe 10 to 15 for the evaluation. This sub-module also adds a sub-tree of subjective attributes (qualitative information) to the attribute tree provided by the CSY and allows the user to select which of these should be passed forward for further analysis. In addition, data from the economic and health modules (e.g. costs, health effects, etc.) can be grafted on as a sub-tree. The second sub-module performs the ranking of the alternative strategies and outputs a short list of best strategies. The last component of the ESY contains an explanation facility that uses a fine set of rules to reason about the ranking of the strategies. Due to the complexity of the nuclear emergency management and the wide range of DMS and stakeholders involved in the decision process, it is difficult to predetermine the range of strategies they will consider. The current strategies or groups of strategies included in the system are only driven by radiological factors. Research in the field of multicriteria decision aid has shown that value focused approaches could result in new sets of alternatives, new criteria to be considered or different decision tree structures
Balgansurehn, Ya.; Dirner, A.; Ivanov, V.G.
A subsystem which is an element of the high-automated system for film data processing and intended for run with the scanning information is described. The subsystem consists of routines which allow to create, to edit and to print the file of scanning results both in batch and interactive mode on the CDC-6500 computer
Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Sardar, Dwaipayan; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit
This work is a preliminary study towards developing an alternative communication channel for conveying shape information to aid in recognition of items when tactile perception is hindered. Tactile data, acquired during object exploration by sensor fitted robot arm, are processed to recognize four basic geometric shapes. Patterns representing each shape, classified from tactile data, are generated using micro-controller-driven vibration motors which vibrotactually stimulate users to convey the particular shape information. These motors are attached on the subject's arm and their psychological (verbal) responses are recorded to assess the competence of the system to convey shape information to the user in form of vibrotactile stimulations. Object shapes are classified from tactile data with an average accuracy of 95.21 %. Three successive sessions of shape recognition from vibrotactile pattern depicted learning of the stimulus from subjects' psychological response which increased from 75 to 95 %. This observation substantiates the learning of vibrotactile stimulation in user over the sessions which in turn increase the system efficacy. The tactile sensing module and vibrotactile pattern generating module are integrated to complete the system whose operation is analysed in real-time. Thus, the work demonstrates a successful implementation of the complete schema of artificial tactile sensing system for object-shape recognition through vibrotactile stimulations.
Full Text Available Object tracking has always been a hot research topic in the field of computer vision; its purpose is to track objects with specific characteristics or representation and estimate the information of objects such as their locations, sizes, and rotation angles in the current frame. Object tracking in complex scenes will usually encounter various sorts of challenges, such as location change, dimension change, illumination change, perception change, and occlusion. This paper proposed a novel object tracking algorithm based on compressed sensing and information entropy to address these challenges. First, objects are characterized by the Haar (Haar-like and ORB features. Second, the dimensions of computation space of the Haar and ORB features are effectively reduced through compressed sensing. Then the above-mentioned features are fused based on information entropy. Finally, in the particle filter framework, an object location was obtained by selecting candidate object locations in the current frame from the local context neighboring the optimal locations in the last frame. Our extensive experimental results demonstrated that this method was able to effectively address the challenges of perception change, illumination change, and large area occlusion, which made it achieve better performance than existing approaches such as MIL and CT.
Favorskaya, Margarita N
This book presents the latest advances in remote-sensing and geographic information systems and applications. It is divided into four parts, focusing on Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Optical Measurements of Forests; Individual Tree Modelling; Landscape Scene Modelling; and Forest Eco-system Modelling. Given the scope of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in remote sensing and geographic information systems and applications.
This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the target positioner subsystem (WBS 1.8.2) of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8)
Xuan Yanxiu; Zhang Jielin
Based on the spectrum characteristics analysis of uranium mineralization alteration rocks and minerals, and using satellite multi-spectral remote sensing image data as the main information sources, multiple remote sensing data processing techniques and methods such as color compound, band ratio, principal component analysis and image color segmentation, are synthetically applied to extract uranium mineralization and alteration information from the remote sensing image. The results of this study provided basic data for analysis of uranium ore-formation conditions in the area. (authors)
Discussion on the correlation between geophysical and remote sensing information. Primary study on information correlation of research content and concept of post-remote sensing application technology for uranium exploration
Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang
Based on the research content of post-remote sensing application technology for uranium exploration, a preliminary discussion on the correlation between RS information and geophysical information from gravity, aero-magnetics, aero-radioactivity is made on five aspects: physical meaning, depth of geological rule meaning, time and phase, planar pattern and inter-reaction mechanism. It creates a good beginner for deeply studying the correlation in quality and quantity between RS information from post-remote sensing application technology and other geologic information. (authors)
Singh, Gurbachan; Bundela, D S; Sethi, Madhurama; Lal, Khajanchi; Kamra, S K
Quantification of the nature, extent, and spatial distribution of salt-affected soils (SAS) for India and the world is essential for planning and implementing reclamation programs in a timely and cost-effective manner for sustained crop production. The national extent of SAS for India over the last four decades was assessed by conventional and remote sensing approaches using diverse methodologies and class definitions and ranged from 6.0 to 26.1 million hectares (Mha) and 1.2 to 10.1 Mha, respectively. In 1966, an area of 6 Mha under SAS was first reported using the former approach. Three national estimates, obtained using remote sensing, were reconciled using a geographic information system, resulting in an acceptable extent of 6.73 Mha. Moderately and severely salt-encrusted lands having large contiguous area have been correctly mapped, but slightly salt-encrusted land having smaller affected areas within croplands has not been accurately mapped. Recent satellite sensors (e.g., Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-2, IKONOS-II, and RISAT-2), along with improved image processing techniques integrated with terrain and other spatial data using a geographic information system, are enabling mapping at large scale. Significant variations in salt encrustation at the surface caused by soil moisture, waterlogging conditions, salt-tolerant crops, and dynamics of subsurface salts present constraints in appraisal, delineation, and mapping efforts. The article provides an overview of development, identification, characterization, and delineation of SAS, past and current national scenarios of SAS using conventional and remote sensing approaches, reconciliation of national estimates, issues of SAS mapping, and future scope.
Salazar, Luis Alonso
This thesis explores various aspects of the use of remote sensing, geographic information system and digital signal processing technologies for broad-scale estimation of crop yield in Kansas. Recent dry and drought years in the Great Plains have emphasized the need for new sources of timely, objective and quantitative information on crop conditions. Crop growth monitoring and yield estimation can provide important information for government agencies, commodity traders and producers in planning harvest, storage, transportation and marketing activities. The sooner this information is available the lower the economic risk translating into greater efficiency and increased return on investments. Weather data is normally used when crop yield is forecasted. Such information, to provide adequate detail for effective predictions, is typically feasible only on small research sites due to expensive and time-consuming collections. In order for crop assessment systems to be economical, more efficient methods for data collection and analysis are necessary. The purpose of this research is to use satellite data which provides 50 times more spatial information about the environment than the weather station network in a short amount of time at a relatively low cost. Specifically, we are going to use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based vegetation health (VH) indices as proxies for characterization of weather conditions.
In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio multi-input-multi-output environment, in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency (EE) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with sensing information to achieve optimal energy-efficient systems. The proposed schemes maximize EE and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality-of-service constraints. The analysis of the proposed schemes is classified into two categories based on knowledge of the secondary-transmitter-to-primary-receiver channel. Since the optimizations of EE and SINR problems are not convex problems, we transform them into a standard semidefinite programming (SDP) form to guarantee that the optimal solutions are global. An analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the second scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.
With an increased availability of high (spatial) resolution remote sensing imagery since the late nineties, the need to develop operative workflows for the automated extraction, provision and communication of information from such data has grown. Monitoring requirements, aimed at the implementation of environmental or conservation targets, management of (environmental-) resources, and regional planning as well as international initiatives, especially the joint initiative of the European Commission and ESA (European Space Agency) for Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) play also a major part. This thesis addresses the development of an integrated workflow for the automated provision of information derived from remote sensing data. Considering applied data and fields of application, this work aims to design the workflow as generic as possible. Following research questions are discussed: What are the requirements of a workflow architecture that seamlessly links the individual workflow elements in a timely manner and secures accuracy of the extracted information effectively? How can the workflow retain its efficiency if mounds of data are processed? How can the workflow be improved with regards to automated object-based image analysis (OBIA)? Which recent developments could be of use? What are the limitations or which workarounds could be applied in order to generate relevant results? How can relevant information be prepared target-oriented and communicated effectively? How can the more recently developed freely available virtual globes be used for the delivery of conditioned information under consideration of the third dimension as an additional, explicit carrier of information? Based on case studies comprising different data sets and fields of application it is demonstrated how methods to extract and process information as well as to effectively communicate results can be improved and successfully combined within one workflow. It is shown that (1
Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond
We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)
Ong, James; Remolina, Emilio; Prompt, Axel; Robinson, Peter; Sweet, Adam; Nishikawa, David
under development and not yet sufficiently capable, the ANML model is translated into the New Domain Definition Language (NDDL) and sent to NASA's EUROPA planning system for plan generation. The adaptive controller executes the new plan, using augmented, hierarchical finite state machines to select and sequence actions based on the state of the ADAPT system. Real-time sensor data, commands, and plans are displayed in information-dense arrays of timelines and graphs that zoom and scroll in unison. A dynamic schematic display uses color to show the real-time fault state and utilization of the system components and resources. An execution manager coordinates the activities of the other subsystems. The subsystems are integrated using the Internet Communications Engine (ICE). an object-oriented toolkit for building distributed applications.
Lin, J.; Mahin, S.A.
Preliminary analysis are performed to obtain insight into the seismic response of subsystems supported on simple structures that yield during severe earthquake ground motions. Current design recommendations for subsystems accounting for yielding of the supporting structures are assessed and found to be unconservative. An amplification factor is defined to quantify the effects of inelastic deformations of the supporting structure on subsystem response. Design guidelines are formulated for predicting the amplification factor based on statistical evaluation of the results generated for ten earthquake ground motions. Using these values, design floor response spectra can be obtained from conventional linear elastic floor response spectra accounting for yielding of the supporting structure without having to perform inelastic analysis. The effects of non-zero subsystem mass are examined. The recommended amplification factors are found to be applicable even when the mass of subsystem approaches that of the supporting structure
Ramos Turci, Luiz Felipe; Macau, Elbert E.N.; Yoneyama, Takashi
In this work, we investigate the use of the Dynamical System Theory to increase the efficiency of the satellite power supply subsystems. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that more efficiency can be drawn from a power supply subsystem if the DC/DC converter operates in regions of high nonlinearity. In special, if it operates in a chaotic regime, is has an intrinsic sensitivity that can be exploited to efficiently drive the power subsystem over high ranges of power requests by using control of chaos techniques.
Ramos Turci, Luiz Felipe [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: email@example.com; Macau, Elbert E.N. [National Institute of Space Research (Inpe), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Yoneyama, Takashi [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: email@example.com
In this work, we investigate the use of the Dynamical System Theory to increase the efficiency of the satellite power supply subsystems. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that more efficiency can be drawn from a power supply subsystem if the DC/DC converter operates in regions of high nonlinearity. In special, if it operates in a chaotic regime, is has an intrinsic sensitivity that can be exploited to efficiently drive the power subsystem over high ranges of power requests by using control of chaos techniques.
Swantner, Stephen R.; Andrachek, James D.
equivalent to a single Operable ECCS train exists with those components out of service. This evaluation ensures that the safety analysis assumption associated with one train of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is still preserved by various combinations of components in opposite trains. An ECCS train is inoperable if it is not capable of delivering design flow to the reactor coolant system (RCS). Individual components are inoperable of they are not capable of performing their design function, or support systems are not available. Due to the redundancy of trains and the diversity of subsystems, the inoperability of one component in a train does render the ECCS incapable of performing its function. Neither does the inoperability of two different components, each in a different train, necessarily result in a loss of function for the ECCS. The intent of Condition A is to maintain a combination of components such that 100% of the ECCS flow equivalent to a single Operable ECCS train remains available. This allows increased flexibility in plant operations under circumstances when components in the required subsystem may be inoperable, but the ECCS remains capable of delivering 100% of the required flow equivalent. This paper presents a methodology for identifying the minimum set of components necessary for 100% of the ECCS flow equivalent to a single Operable ECCS train. An example of the implementation of this methodology is provided for a typical Westinghouse 3-loop ECCS design. (authors)
Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; Aldoroty, Lauren Nicole; Godon, David; Pelton, Russell; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Wright, Edward L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Paul D.; Moos, H. Warren; Riess, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Sahnow, David J.; Lampton, Michael; Perlmutter, Saul
ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to leverage significant technological advances in detectors, instruments, and the precision of the fundamental laboratory standards used to calibrate these instruments to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of laboratory absolute detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass.A cross wavelength calibration of the astrophysical flux scale to this level of precision over this broad a bandpass is relevant for the data used to probe fundamental astrophysical problems such as the SNeIa photometry based measurements used to constrain dark energy theories.We will describe the strategy for achieving this level of precision, the payload and calibration configuration, present sub-system test data, and the status and preliminary performance of the integration and test of the spectrograph and telescope. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX14AH48G supports this work.
Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Ousley, Wes; Valentini, Marc; Thomas, Jason; Dejoie, Joel
The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is a joint NASA-CNES mission to study the Earth s cloud and aerosol layers. The satellite is composed of a primary payload (built by Ball Aerospace) and a spacecraft platform bus (PROTEUS, built by Alcatel Alenia Space). The thermal control subsystem (TCS) for the CALIPSO satellite is a passive design utilizing radiators, multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, and both operational and survival surface heaters. The most temperature sensitive component within the satellite is the laser system. During thermal vacuum testing of the integrated satellite, the laser system s operational heaters were found to be inadequate in maintaining the lasers required set point. In response, a solution utilizing the laser system s survival heaters to augment the operational heaters was developed with collaboration between NASA, CNES, Ball Aerospace, and Alcatel-Alenia. The CALIPSO satellite launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on April 26th, 2006. Evaluation of both the platform and payload thermal control systems show they are performing as expected and maintaining the critical elements of the satellite within acceptable limits.
T. von Clarmann
Full Text Available Profiles of atmospheric state variables retrieved from remote measurements often contain a priori information which causes complication in the statistical use of data and in the comparison with other measured or modeled data. For such applications it often is desirable to remove the a priori information from the data product. If the retrieval involves an ill-posed inversion problem, formal removal of the a priori information requires resampling of the data on a coarser grid, which in some sense, however, is a prior constraint in itself. The fact that the trace of the averaging kernel matrix of a retrieval is equivalent to the number of degrees of freedom of the retrieval is used to define an appropriate information-centered representation of the data where each data point represents one degree of freedom. Since regridding implies further degradation of the data and thus causes additional loss of information, a re-regularization scheme has been developed which allows resampling without additional loss of information. For a typical ClONO2 profile retrieved from spectra as measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS, the constrained retrieval has 9.7 degrees of freedom. After application of the proposed transformation to a coarser information-centered altitude grid, there are exactly 9 degrees of freedom left, and the averaging kernel on the coarse grid is unity. Pure resampling on the information-centered grid without re-regularization would reduce the degrees of freedom to 7.1 (6.7 for a staircase (triangular representation scheme.
In national and international economics, geographic information plays a role which is generally acknowledged to be important but which is however, difficult to assess quantitatively, its applications being rather miscellaneous and indirect. Computer graphics and telecommunications increae that importance still more and justify many investments and research into new cartographic forms. As part of its responsibility for participating in the promotion of those developments, by taking into account needs expressed by public or private users, the National Council for Geographic Information (C.N.I.G.) has undertaken a general evaluation of the economic and social utility of geographic information in France. The study involves an estimation of the cost of production and research activities, which are probably about 0.1% of the Cross National Product—similar to many other countries. It also devised a method of estimating "cost/advantage" ratios applicable to these "intangible" benefits. Within that framework, remote sensing emphasizes particular aspects related both to the increase of economic performances in cartographic production and to the advent of new products and new ways of utilization. A review of some significant sectors shows effective earnings of about 10-20%, or even 50% or 100% of the costs, and these are doubtless much greater for the efficacy in the exploitation of products. Finally, many applications, entirely new result from extensions in various fields which would have been impossible without remote sensing: here the "cost advantage" ratio cannot even be compared with previous processes. Studies were undertaken in parallel for defining different types of products derived from satellite imagery, as well as those domains where development effort is required in order to make new advances.
Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.
Full Text Available As part of business analytics (BA technologies, reporting and visualization play essential roles in mitigating users’ limitations (i.e., being inexperienced, having limited knowledge, and relying on simplified information. Reporting and visualization can potentially enhance users’ sense-making, thus permitting them to focus more on the information’s message rather than numerical analysis. To better understand the role of reporting and visualization in a contextualized environment, we investigate using interactive data visualization (IDV within accounting. We aim to understand whether IDV can help enhance non-professional investors’ ability to make sense of foundational financial statement analyses. This study conducted an experiment using a sample of 324 nonprofessional investors. Our findings indicate that nonprofessional investors who use IDV are more heuristically adept than non-professional investors who use non-IDV. These findings enrich the theoretical understanding of business analytics’ use in accounting decision making. The results of this study also suggest several practical courses of action, such as promoting wider use of IDV and making affordable IDV more broadly available, particularly for non-professional investors.
Guenther, K.P.; Wisskirchen, K.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M. [DLR, Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center; Borg, E.; Fichtelmann, B. [DLR, Neustrelitz (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center
Earth observation from space has been successfully demonstrated over a wide range of monitoring activities, mostly with the aim of measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of biophysical and geophysical parameters as e.g. the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the land surface temperature (LST) or the land use classification (LCC). With the growing need for more reliable information of global biomass activity in the frame of climate change, the identification and quantification of carbon sinks and sources got of importance. The goal of our activities is to use time series of remote sensing data and carbon modeling to assess the biomass of large regions. Future activities will be discussed as reprocessing of archived time series (e.g. 30 years) of remote sensing data, which will be used as input to biomass modeling, improving the spatial resolution of local, historic land use maps by processing archived Landsat data (30m), using an innovative classification processor for deriving actual multi-temporal land use maps based MERIS data (300m) and delivering a biomass equivalent indicator as productivity indicator. (orig.)
Meshram, S. Gajbhiye; Sharma, S. K.; Tignath, S.
Watershed is an ideal unit for planning and management of land and water resources (Gajbhiye et al., IEEE international conference on advances in technology and engineering (ICATE), Bombay, vol 1, issue 9, pp 23-25, 2013a; Gajbhiye et al., Appl Water Sci 4(1):51-61, 2014a; Gajbhiye et al., J Geol Soc India (SCI-IF 0.596) 84(2):192-196, 2014b). This study aims to generate the curve number, using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) and the effect of slope on curve number values. The study was carried out in Kanhaiya Nala watershed located in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. Soil map, Land Use/Land cover and slope map were generated in GIS Environment. The CN parameter values corresponding to various soil, land cover, and land management conditions were selected from Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) standard table. Curve number (CN) is an index developed by the NRCS, to represent the potential for storm water runoff within a drainage area. The CN for a drainage basin is estimated using a combination of land use, soil, and antecedent soil moisture condition (AMC). In present study effect of slope on CN values were determined. The result showed that the CN unadjusted value are higher in comparison to CN adjusted with slope. Remote sensing and GIS is very reliable technique for the preparation of most of the input data required by the SCS curve number model.
Full Text Available Ensuring access to water and sanitation for all is Goal No. 6 of the 17 UN Sustainability Development Goals to transform our world. As one step towards this goal, we present an approach that leverages remote sensing data to plan optimal water supply networks for informal urban settlements. The concept focuses on slums within large urban areas, which are often characterized by a lack of an appropriate water supply. We apply methods of mathematical optimization aiming to find a network describing the optimal supply infrastructure. Hereby, we choose between different decentral and central approaches combining supply by motorized vehicles with supply by pipe systems. For the purposes of illustration, we apply the approach to two small slum clusters in Dhaka and Dar es Salaam. We show our optimization results, which represent the lowest cost water supply systems possible. Additionally, we compare the optimal solutions of the two clusters (also for varying input parameters, such as population densities and slum size development over time and describe how the result of the optimization depends on the entered remote sensing data.
Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Zhao Yingjun
Through analyzing remote sensing image, a special geological environment for uranium ore-formation in Dongsheng-Hangjinqi area consisting of fault-uplift, southern margin fault and annular structure is discovered in this paper. Then the extensional researches on fault-uplift, southern margin fault as well as annular structure are made by using the information-integrated technologies to overlap the remote sensing information with other geoscientific information such as geophysics, geology and so on. Finally, the unusual regional geological setting is analyzed in the view of uranium ore formation, and its influences on the occurrence of DS uranium deposit are also discussed. (authors)
Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Huang; Wang, Hui-Min
Ecosystem services evaluation is a hot topic in current ecosystem management, and has a close link with human beings welfare. This paper summarized the research progress on the evaluation of ecosystem services based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology, which could be reduced to the following three characters, i. e., ecological economics theory is widely applied as a key method in quantifying ecosystem services, GIS and RS technology play a key role in multi-source data acquisition, spatiotemporal analysis, and integrated platform, and ecosystem mechanism model becomes a powerful tool for understanding the relationships between natural phenomena and human activities. Aiming at the present research status and its inadequacies, this paper put forward an "Assembly Line" framework, which was a distributed one with scalable characteristics, and discussed the future development trend of the integration research on ecosystem services evaluation based on GIS and RS technologies.
Barry E Stein
Full Text Available Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD is characterized by anomalous reactions to, and integration of, sensory cues. Although the underlying etiology of SPD is unknown, one brain region likely to reflect these sensory and behavioral anomalies is the Superior Colliculus (SC; a structure involved in the synthesis of information from multiple sensory modalities and the control of overt orientation responses. In this review we describe normal functional properties of this structure, the manner in which its individual neurons integrate cues from different senses, and the overt SC-mediated behaviors that are believed to manifest this “multisensory integration.” Of particular interest here is how SC neurons develop their capacity to engage in multisensory integration during early postnatal life as a consequence of early sensory experience, and that it is the intimate communication between cortex and the midbrain makes this developmental process possible.
Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep
Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another.
Doicu, A.; Hilgers, S.; Bargen, A. von; Rozanov, A.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Savigny, C. von; Burrows, J.P.
In this study, we present the main features of the information operator approach for solving linear inverse problems arising in atmospheric remote sensing. This method is superior to the stochastic version of the Tikhonov regularization (or the optimal estimation method) due to its capability to filter out the noise-dominated components of the solution generated by an inappropriate choice of the regularization parameter. We extend this approach to iterative methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems and derive the truncated versions of the Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods. Although the paper mostly focuses on discussing the mathematical details of the inverse method, retrieval results have been provided, which exemplify the performances of the methods. These results correspond to the NO 2 retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb scatter measurements and have been obtained by using the retrieval processors developed at the German Aerospace Center Oberpfaffenhofen and Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen
Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS. In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.
Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt
The implementation of information systems (IS) in organizations often triggers new situations in which users experience a disruption of existing work patterns and routines. Sensemaking becomes central in making users’ meanings explicit, serving as a foundation for further actions and interactions...... with the new technology. The purpose of this paper is to study how users make sense of new technologies by building on existing response repertoires. Empirically, we present findings from a study of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system implementation in two Danish hospital wards. Our findings illustrate...... to existing literature by providing a detailed account of how users’ early sensemaking of a technology influences their subsequent actions and reactions towards it. Our findings support managers in understanding users’ perceptions of a new technology, helping them in planning and executing the implementation...
Parr, Stephen J.
The design and operation of the Data Transport Subsystem (DTS) for the JPL Space Flight Operation Center (SFOC) are described. The SFOC is the ground data system under development to serve interplanetary space probes; in addition to the DTS, it comprises a ground interface facility, a telemetry-input subsystem, data monitor and display facilities, and a digital TV system. DTS links the other subsystems via an ISO OSI presentation layer and an LAN. Here, particular attention is given to the DTS services and service modes (virtual circuit, datagram, and broadcast), the DTS software architecture, the logical-name server, the role of the integrated AI library, and SFOC as a distributed system.
Kittel, Cecile M. M.; Nielsen, Karina; Tøttrup, Christian; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter
Remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to inform and constrain a hydrological model and to increase its value as a decision-support tool. In this study, we applied a multi-mission approach to force, calibrate and validate a hydrological model of the ungauged Ogooué river basin in Africa with publicly available and free remote sensing observations. We used a rainfall-runoff model based on the Budyko framework coupled with a Muskingum routing approach. We parametrized the model using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) and forced it using precipitation from two satellite-based rainfall estimates, FEWS-RFE (Famine Early Warning System rainfall estimate) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 v.7, and temperature from ECMWF ERA-Interim. We combined three different datasets to calibrate the model using an aggregated objective function with contributions from (1) historical in situ discharge observations from the period 1953-1984 at six locations in the basin, (2) radar altimetry measurements of river stages by Envisat and Jason-2 at 12 locations in the basin and (3) GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) total water storage change (TWSC). Additionally, we extracted CryoSat-2 observations throughout the basin using a Sentinel-1 SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imagery water mask and used the observations for validation of the model. The use of new satellite missions, including Sentinel-1 and CryoSat-2, increased the spatial characterization of river stage. Throughout the basin, we achieved good agreement between observed and simulated discharge and the river stage, with an RMSD between simulated and observed water amplitudes at virtual stations of 0.74 m for the TRMM-forced model and 0.87 m for the FEWS-RFE-forced model. The hydrological model also captures overall total water storage change patterns, although the amplitude of storage change is generally underestimated. By combining hydrological modeling
Construction of analysis system on personal computer for slope disaster information using remote sensing technology. Remote sensing wo riyoshita pasokongata no shamen bosai joho kaiseki system no kochiku
Setojima, M [Kokusai Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Goto, K [Nagasaki Universtiy, Nagasaki (Japan). FAculty of Engineering
An analytical system with superposition of images which uses picture elements as a unit was developed to treat information obtained by remote sensing and other geographical information by superposing the images in order to extract the second information which expresses qualitatively and quantitatively the degree of slope disaster in the future, based on the first information about the damage caused by disaster and landform and geology. As necessary function for analytical system of the second information, precise correction of geometrical strain, superposition of images, visual reading treatment, and output of analytical result in map are listed and described respectively. Next, the detailed explanation of hardware and software of pilot system which used personal computer was given. The analytical procedure and result of land conditions around the landslide occurred at Nagano city in 1985 was shown. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.
Jin, Peiquan; Wan, Shouhong; Yue, Lihua
In this paper, a new approach to maintain spatial information acquiring from remote-sensing images is presented, which is based on Object-Relational DBMS. According to this approach, the detected and recognized results of targets are stored and able to be further accessed in an ORDBMS-based spatial database system, and users can access the spatial information using the standard SQL interface. This approach is different from the traditional ArcSDE-based method, because the spatial information management module is totally integrated into the DBMS and becomes one of the core modules in the DBMS. We focus on three issues, namely the general framework for the ORDBMS-based spatial database system, the definitions of the add-in spatial data types and operators, and the process to develop a spatial Datablade on Informix. The results show that the ORDBMS-based spatial database support for image-based target detecting and recognition is easy and practical to be implemented.
Full Text Available Organizations and institutions managing built heritage have to make use of increasingly detailed, elaborate and complex climate change impact assessments. It is a challenge to determine how, when and by whom climate predictions should be translated into risk estimates usable for decision-making. In this paper results from the Climate for Culture project are used to study how heritage decision-makers interpret future indoor climate-related risks to Swedish churches. Different sets of risk maps were presented to ten engineers, ten building conservators and five experts on indoor climate related risks. Interviews were used to understand how the interviewees made sense of the presented information and if they associated it with a perceived need for adaptation. The results show that the risks were interpreted and assessed largely dependent on their pre-understanding and familiarity with the individual risks. The magnitude of change and the lack of uncertainty estimates were subordinate to the overall impression of the information as being credible and salient. The major conclusion is that the dissemination of risk information, also from projects which at the outset have aimed at producing knowledge relevant for end-users, should be both customized and tested in collaborative efforts by stakeholders and scientists.
Full Text Available We consider distributed information retrieval for sensor networks with cluster heads or mobile access points. The performance metric used in the design is energy efficiency defined as the ratio of the average number of bits reliably retrieved by the access point to the total amount of energy consumed. A distributed opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed using a combination of carrier sensing and backoff strategy that incorporates channel state information (CSI of individual sensors. By selecting a set of sensors with the best channel states to transmit, the proposed protocol achieves the upper bound on energy efficiency when the signal propagation delay is negligible. For networks with substantial propagation delays, a backoff function optimized for energy efficiency is proposed. The design of this backoff function utilizes properties of extreme statistics and is shown to have mild performance loss in practical scenarios. We also demonstrate that opportunistic strategies that use CSI may not be optimal when channel acquisition at individual sensors consumes substantial energy. We show further that there is an optimal sensor density for which the opportunistic information retrieval is the most energy efficient. This observation leads to the design of the optimal sensor duty cycle.
He, Bo; Zhang, Hongjin; Li, Chao; Zhang, Shujing; Liang, Yan; Yan, Tianhong
This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.
Full Text Available This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China. Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM. All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.
Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail
Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele; Ceresoli, Davide
By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn–Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn–Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed
Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn-Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel texture image feature for Emotion Sensing in Speech (ESS. This idea is based on the fact that the texture images carry emotion-related information. The feature extraction is derived from time-frequency representation of spectrogram images. First, we transform the spectrogram as a recognizable image. Next, we use a cubic curve to enhance the image contrast. Then, the texture image information (TII derived from the spectrogram image can be extracted by using Laws’ masks to characterize emotional state. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed emotion recognition in different languages, we use two open emotional databases including the Berlin Emotional Speech Database (EMO-DB and eNTERFACE corpus and one self-recorded database (KHUSC-EmoDB, to evaluate the performance cross-corpora. The results of the proposed ESS system are presented using support vector machine (SVM as a classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed TII-based feature extraction inspired by visual perception can provide significant classification for ESS systems. The two-dimensional (2-D TII feature can provide the discrimination between different emotions in visual expressions except for the conveyance pitch and formant tracks. In addition, the de-noising in 2-D images can be more easily completed than de-noising in 1-D speech.
Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C
Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.
Hyon, Jason J.
The US National Research Council (NRC) recommended that: "The U.S. government, working in concert with the private sector, academe, the public, and its international partners, should renew its investment in Earth-observing systems and restore its leadership in Earth science and applications." in response to the NASA Earth Science Division's request to prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those objectives. In this presentation, we will discuss our approach to connect remote sensing science to decision support applications by establishing a framework to integrate direct measurements, earth system models, inventories, and other information to accurately estimate fresh water resources in global, regional, and local scales. We will discuss our demonstration projects and lessons learned from the experience. Deploying a monitoring system that offers sustained, accurate, transparent and relevant information represents a challenge and opportunity to a broad community spanning earth science, water resource accounting and public policy. An introduction to some of the scientific and technical infrastructure issues associated with monitoring systems is offered here to encourage future treatment of these topics by other contributors as a concluding remark.
Oladi, Jafar; Bozorgnia, Delavar
Ecotourism may be defined as voluntary travels to intact natural areas in order to enjoy the natural attractions as well as to get familiar with the culture of local communities. The main factor contributing to inappropriate land uses and natural resource destruction is overaggregation of ecotourists in some specific natural areas such as forests and rangelands; while other parts remain unvisited due to the lack of a proper propagation about those areas. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of each area would lead to a wider participation of local people in natural resource conservation activities. In order to properly introduce the ecotourism potential areas, at first, we carried out land preparation practices using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques; then, the maps of height, slope and orientation were produced using the digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Afterwards, we overlaid these maps and the ecotourism potential areas were identified on the map. These specified areas were classified into two land uses of mass and alternative ecotourism, with three subclasses (including class1, class2 and an inappropriate class) considered for each land use. To classify the image, the training areas determined on the ground using a GPS device (Ground Positioning System) were transferred on the RS image. Subsequently, the ecotourism potential areas were determined using a hybrid method. At the final phase, these areas were compared with the areas determined on the ecotourism potential map; as a result of this comparison, the overlaid ecotourism potential areas were distinguished on the Geographic information System.
Department of Transportation — Clinic Health Awareness Program Subystem (CHAPS) is a comprehensive system for recording, reporting, and analyzing a patient’s medical information and managing an...
The optical sensing subsystem of a LIGO interferometer is described. The system includes two complex interferometric sensing schemes to control test masses in length and alignment. The length sensing system is currently employed on all LIGO interferometers to lock coupled cavities on resonance. Auto-alignment is to be accomplished by a wavefront-sensing scheme which automatically corrects for angular fluctuations of the test masses. Improvements in lock stability and duration are noted when the wavefront auto-alignment system is employed. Preliminary results from the commissioning of the 2 km detector in Washington are shown.
Kizhner, Semion; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.
Future space missions are going to require large focal planes with many sensing arrays and hundreds of millions of pixels all read out at high data rates'' . This will place unique demands on the electrical and electronics (EE) subsystem design and it will be critically important to have high technology readiness level (TRL) EE concepts ready to support such missions. One such omission is the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) charged with making precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe to reveal vital clues about the nature of dark energy - a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of the expansion. One of three JDEM concept studies - the Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) was conducted in 2008 at the NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. This paper presents the EE subsystem framework, which evolved from the DESTINY science instrument study. It describes the main challenges and implementation concepts related to the design of an EE subsystem featuring multiple focal planes populated with dozens of large arrays and millions of pixels. The focal planes are passively cooled to cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K). The sensor mosaic is controlled by a large number of Readout Integrated Circuits and Application Specific Integrated Circuits - the ROICs/ASICs in near proximity to their sensor focal planes. The ASICs, in turn, are serviced by a set of "warm" EE subsystem boxes performing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital signal processing (DSP) computations of complex algorithms, such as sampling-up-the-ramp algorithm (SUTR), over large volumes of fast data streams. The SUTR boxes are supported by the Instrument Control/Command and Data Handling box (ICDH Primary and Backup boxes) for lossless data compression, command and low volume telemetry handling, power conversion and for communications with the spacecraft. The paper outlines how the JDEM DESTINY concept
Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F
Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.
Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.
Mann, L.W.; Claborn, G.W.; Nielson, C.W.
The Subsystem Control Software at the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) must control sophisticated chemical processes through the physical operation of valves, motor controllers, gas sampling devices, thermocouples, pressure transducers, and similar devices. Such control software has to be capable of passing stringent quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide for the safe handling of significant amounts of tritium on a routine basis. Since many of the chemical processes and physical components are experimental, the control software has to be flexible enough to allow for trial/error learning curve, but still protect the environment and personnel from exposure to unsafe levels of radiation. The software at TSTA is implemented in several levels as described in a preceding paper in these proceedings. This paper depends on information given in the preceding paper for understanding. The top level is the Subsystem Control level
Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock
Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.
Future wireless technologies, such as, 5G, are expected to support real-time applications with high data throughput, e.g., holographic meetings. From a bandwidth perspective, cognitive radio is a promising technology to enhance the system’s throughput via sharing the licensed spectrum. From a delay perspective, it is well known that increasing the number of decoding blocks will improve the system robustness against errors, while increasing the delay. Therefore, optimally allocating the resources to determine the tradeoff of tuning the length of decoding blocks while sharing the spectrum is a critical challenge for future wireless systems. In this work, we minimize the targeted outage probability over the block-fading channels while utilizing the spectrum-sharing concept. The secondary user’s outage region and the corresponding optimal power are derived, over twoblocks and M-blocks fading channels. We propose two suboptimal power strategies and derive the associated asymptotic lower and upper bounds on the outage probability with tractable expressions. These bounds allow us to derive the exact diversity order of the secondary user’s outage probability. To further enhance the system’s performance, we also investigate the impact of including the sensing information on the outage problem. The outage problem is then solved via proposing an alternating optimization algorithm, which utilizes the verified strict quasiconvex structure of the problem. Selected numerical results are presented to characterize the system’s behavior and show the improvements of several sharing concepts.
Mariela Palacios González
Full Text Available The biodiversity of the Andean Chocó in western Ecuador and Colombia is threatened by anthropogenic changes in land cover. The main goal of this study was to contribute to conservation of 12 threatened species of amphibians at a cloud forest site in northwestern Ecuador, by identifying and proposing protection of critical areas. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify land cover changes over 35 years and outline important areas for amphibian conservation. We performed a supervised classification of an IKONOS satellite image from 2011 and two aerial photographs from 1977 and 2000. The 2011 IKONOS satellite image classification was used to delineate areas important for conservation of threatened amphibians within a 200 m buffer around rivers and streams. The overall classification accuracy of the three images was ≥80%. Forest cover was reduced by 17% during the last 34 years. However, only 50% of the study area retained the initial (1977 forest cover, as land was cleared for farming and eventually reforested. Finally, using the 2011 IKONOS satellite image, we delineated areas of potential conservation interest that would benefit the long term survival of threatened amphibian species at the Ecuadorian cloud forest site studied.
Full Text Available Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. A growing body of evidence shows that unesterified membrane cholesterol modulates the ability of glia to sense and transduce ambient information. Cholesterol-dependence of Müller glia - which function as retinal sentinels for metabolic, mechanical, osmotic and inflammatory signals - is mediated in part by transient receptor potential V4 (TRPV4 channels. Cholesterol supplementation facilitates, whereas depletion suppresses, TRPV4-mediated transduction of temperature and lipid agonists in Müller cells. Acute effects of cholesterol supplementation/depletion on plasma membrane ion channels and calcium homeostasis differ markedly from the effects of chronic dyslipidemia, possibly due to differential modulation of modality-dependent energy barriers associated with the functionality of polymodal channels embedded within lipid rafts. Understanding of cholesterol-dependence of TRP channels is thus providing insight into dyslipidemic pathologies associated with diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and macular degeneration.
Muller, Marc Francois
Access to electricity remains an impediment to development in many parts of the world, particularly in rural areas with low population densities and prohibitive grid extension costs. In that context, community-scale run-of-river hydropower---micro-hydropower---is an attractive local power generation option, particularly in mountainous regions, where appropriate slope and runoff conditions occur. Despite their promise, micro hydropower programs have generally failed to have a significant impact on rural electrification in developing nations. In Nepal, despite very favorable conditions and approximately 50 years of experience, the technology supplies only 4% of the 10 million households that do not have access to the central electricity grid. These poor results point towards a major information gap between technical experts, who may lack the incentives or local knowledge needed to design appropriate systems for rural villages, and local users, who have excellent knowledge of the community but lack technical expertise to design and manage infrastructure. Both groups suffer from a limited basis for evidence-based decision making due to sparse environmental data available to support the technical components of infrastructure design. This dissertation draws on recent advances in remote sensing data, stochastic modeling techniques and open source platforms to bridge that information gap. Streamflow is a key environmental driver of hydropower production that is particularly challenging to model due to its stochastic nature and the complexity of the underlying natural processes. The first part of the dissertation addresses the general challenge of Predicting streamflow in Ungauged Basins (PUB). It first develops an algorithm to optimize the use of rain gauge observations to improve the accuracy of remote sensing precipitation measures. It then derives and validates a process-based model to estimate streamflow distribution in seasonally dry climates using the stochastic
Kontoes, C.; Papoutsis, I.; Michail, D.; Herekakis, Th.; Koubarakis, M.; Kyzirakos, K.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Nikolaou, C.; Sioutis, M.; Garbis, G.; Vassos, S.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kersten, M.; Manegold, S.; Pirk, H.
In the Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (ISARS/NOA) volumes of Earth Observation images of different spectral and spatial resolutions are being processed on a systematic basis to derive thematic products that cover a wide spectrum of applications during and after wildfire crisis, from fire detection and fire-front propagation monitoring, to damage assessment in the inflicted areas. The processed satellite imagery is combined with auxiliary geo-information layers, including land use/land cover, administrative boundaries, road and rail network, points of interest, and meteorological data to generate and validate added-value fire-related products. The service portfolio has become available to institutional End Users with a mandate to act on natural disasters and that have activated Emergency Support Services at a European level in the framework of the operational GMES projects SAFER and LinkER. Towards the goal of delivering integrated services for fire monitoring and management, ISARS/NOA employs observational capacities which include the operation of MSG/SEVIRI and NOAA/AVHRR receiving stations, NOA's in-situ monitoring networks for capturing meteorological parameters to generate weather forecasts, and datasets originating from the European Space Agency and third party satellite operators. The qualified operational activity of ISARS/NOA in the domain of wildfires management is highly enhanced by the integration of state-of-the-art Information Technologies that have become available in the framework of the TELEIOS (EC/ICT) project. TELEIOS aims at the development of fully automatic processing chains reliant on a) the effective storing and management of the large amount of EO and GIS data, b) the post-processing refinement of the fire products using semantics, and c) the creation of thematic maps and added-value services. The first objective is achieved with the use of advanced Array Database technologies, such
Vaegler, Sven; Sauer, Otto; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Juergen
The reduction of dose in cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) arises from the decrease of the tube current for each projection as well as from the reduction of the number of projections. In order to maintain good image quality, sophisticated image reconstruction techniques are required. The Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) incorporates prior images into the reconstruction algorithm and outperforms the widespread used Feldkamp-Davis-Kress-algorithm (FDK) when the number of projections is reduced. However, prior images that contain major variations are not appropriately considered so far in PICCS. We therefore propose the partial-PICCS (pPICCS) algorithm. This framework is a problem-specific extension of PICCS and enables the incorporation of the reliability of the prior images additionally. We assumed that the prior images are composed of areas with large and small deviations. Accordingly, a weighting matrix considered the assigned areas in the objective function. We applied our algorithm to the problem of image reconstruction from few views by simulations with a computer phantom as well as on clinical CBCT projections from a head-and-neck case. All prior images contained large local variations. The reconstructed images were compared to the reconstruction results by the FDK-algorithm, by Compressed Sensing (CS) and by PICCS. To show the gain of image quality we compared image details with the reference image and used quantitative metrics (root-mean-square error (RMSE), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR)). The pPICCS reconstruction framework yield images with substantially improved quality even when the number of projections was very small. The images contained less streaking, blurring and inaccurately reconstructed structures compared to the images reconstructed by FDK, CS and conventional PICCS. The increased image quality is also reflected in large RMSE differences. We proposed a modification of the original PICCS algorithm. The pPICCS algorithm
Hopson, T. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Broman, D.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.; Kettner, A.; Sampson, K. M.; Boehnert, J.; Priya, S.; Collins, D. C.; Rostkier-Edelstein, D.; Young, W.; Singh, D.; Islam, A. S.
South Asia is a flashpoint for natural disasters with profound societal impacts for the region and globally. Although close to 40% of the world's population depends on the Greater Himalaya's great rivers, $20 Billion of GDP is affected by river floods each year. The frequent occurrence of floods, combined with large and rapidly growing populations with high levels of poverty, make South Asia highly susceptible to humanitarian disasters. The challenges of mitigating such devastating disasters are exacerbated by the limited availability of real-time rain and stream gauge measuring stations and transboundary data sharing, and by constrained institutional commitments to overcome these challenges. To overcome such limitations, India and the World Bank have committed resources to the National Hydrology Project III, with the development objective to improve the extent, quality, and accessibility of water resources information and to strengthen the capacity of targeted water resources management institutions in India. The availability and application of remote sensing products and weather forecasts from ensemble prediction systems (EPS) have transformed river forecasting capability over the last decade, and is of interest to India. In this talk, we review the potential predictability of river flow contributed by some of the freely-available remotely-sensed and weather forecasting products within the framework of the physics of water migration through a watershed. Our specific geographical context is the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna river basin and a newly-available set of stream gauge measurements located over the region. We focus on satellite rainfall estimation, river height and width estimation, and EPS weather forecasts. For the later, we utilize the THORPEX-TIGGE dataset of global forecasts, and discuss how atmospheric predictability, as measured by an EPS, is transformed into hydrometeorological predictability. We provide an overview of the strengths and
Masek, T. D.; Ward, J. W.; Kami, S.
A review is presented of the current status of primary propulsion thrust subsystem (TSS) performance, packaging considerations, and certain operational characteristics. Thrust subsystem related work from recent studies by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL), Rockwell and Boeing is discussed. Existing performance for 30-cm thrusters, power processors and TSS is present along with projections for future improvements. Results of analyses to determine (1) magnetic field distributions resulting from an array of thrusters, (2) thruster emitted particle flux distributions from an array of thrusters, and (3) TSS element failure rates are described to indicate the availability of analytical tools for evaluation of TSS designs.
The new possibility of inversionless lasing is discussed. We have considered the resonant interaction of a two-level system (TLS) with photons and the adiabatic interaction with an ensemble of Bose particles. It is found out that a TLS with equally populated energy levels amplifies the coherent light with Stokes-shifted frequency. This becomes possible as photon emission is accompanied by Bose particles excitation. The energy flow from the TLS to the photon subsystem is realized due to the Bose subsystem being at finite temperature and playing the cooler role. The advantage of this new lasing principle is discussed. It is shown that lasing conditions strongly differ from conventional ones
Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz
We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR
Duarte, A.S.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Pisacka, J.; Hron, M.
Modern fusion experiments require the presence of several subsystems, responsible for the different parameters involved in the operation of the machine. With the migration from the pre-programmed to the real-time control paradigm, their integration in Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication (CODAC) systems became an important issue, as this implies not only the connection to a main central coordination system, but also communications with related diagnostics and actuators. A subsystem for the control and operation of the vacuum, gas injection and baking was developed and installed in the COMPASS tokamak. These tasks are performed by dsPIC microcontrollers that receive commands from a hub computer and send information regarding the status of the operation. Communications are done in the serial protocol RS-232 through fibre optics. Java software, with an intuitive graphical user interface, for controlling and monitoring of the subsystem was developed and installed in a hub computer. In order to allow operators to perform these tasks remotely besides locally, this was integrated in the FireSignal system. Taking advantage of FireSignal features, it was possible to provide the users with, not only the same functionalities of the local application but also a similar user interface. An independent FireSignal Java Node bridges the central server and the control application. This design makes possible to easily reuse the Node for other subsystems or integrate the vacuum slow control in the other CODAC systems. The complete system, with local and remote control, has been installed successfully on COMPASS and has been in operation since April this year.
Duarte, A.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.; Fernandes, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Cahyna, P.; Pisacka, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
Modern fusion experiments require the presence of several sub-systems, responsible for the different parameters involved in the operation of the machine. With the migration from the pre-programmed to the real-time control paradigm, their integration in Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication (CODAC) systems became an important issue, as this implies not only the connection to a main central coordination system, but also communications with related diagnostics and actuators. A sub-system for the control and operation of the vacuum, gas injection and baking was developed and installed in the COMPASS tokamak. These tasks are performed by 'dsPIC' micro-controllers that receive commands from a computer and send information regarding the status of the operation. Communications are done in the serial protocol RS-232 through fibre optics at speeds up to 1 Mbaud. A Java software, with an intuitive graphical user interface, for controlling and monitoring the sub-system was developed and installed in a hub computer. In order to allow operators to perform these tasks remotely besides locally, this was integrated in the FireSignal system. Taking advantage of FireSignal features, it was possible to provide the users with, not only the same functionalities of the local application but also a similar user interface. An independent FireSignal Java node bridges the central server and the control application. This design makes possible to easily reuse the node for other subsystems or integrate the vacuum slow control in the other CODAC systems. This document is composed of an abstract and a poster. (authors)
Dong, Bing; Lam, Khee Poh; Zhang, Rui; Chiou, Yun-Shang [Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Andrews, Burton; Hoeynck, Michael; Benitez, Diego [Research and Technology Center, Robert BOSCH LLC, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States)
This paper describes a large-scale wireless and wired environmental sensor network test-bed and its application to occupancy detection in an open-plan office building. Detection of occupant presence has been used extensively in built environments for applications such as demand-controlled ventilation and security; however, the ability to discern the actual number of people in a room is beyond the scope of current sensing techniques. To address this problem, a complex sensor network is deployed in the Robert L. Preger Intelligent Workplace comprising a wireless ambient-sensing system, a wired carbon dioxide sensing system, and a wired indoor air quality sensing system. A wired camera network is implemented as well for establishing true occupancy levels to be used as ground truth information for deriving algorithmic relationships with the environment conditions. To our knowledge, this extensive and diverse ambient-sensing infrastructure of the ITEST setup as well as the continuous data-collection capability is unprecedented. Final results indicate that there are significant correlations between measured environmental conditions and occupancy status. An average of 73% accuracy on the occupancy number detection was achieved by Hidden Markov Models during testing periods. This paper serves as an exploration to the research of ITEST for occupancy detection in offices. In addition, its utility extends to a wide variety of other building technology research areas such as human-centered environmental control, security, energy efficient and sustainable green buildings. (author)
Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells
Stubblefield, F.W.; Alberi, J.L.
A general-purpose mechanical positioning subsystem for open-loop control of experiment devices which have their positions established and read out by stepping motor-encoder combinations has been developed. The subsystem is to be used mainly for experiments to be conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The subsystem unit has been designed to be compatible with a wide variety of stepping motor and encoder types. The unit may be operated by any device capable of driving a standard RS-232-C asynchronous serial communication line. An informal survey has shown that several experiments at the Light Source will use one particular type of computer, operating system, and programming language. Accordingly, a library of subroutines compatible with this combination of computer system elements has been written to facilitate driving the positioning subsystem unit
Oredope, A.; Liotta, A.; Yang, K.; Tyrode-Goilo, D.H.; Magedanz, T.; Mauro Madeira, E.R.M.; Dini, P.
The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is the latest framework for a seamless conversion of the ordinary Internet with mobile cellular systems. As such it has the backing of all major companies since it aims to offer a unified solution to integrated mobile services, including mechanisms for security,
This procedure details the steps involved in establishing closed loop flows, providing UF 6 vapor to the FEED header of the Sampling Subsystem and returning it through the PRODUCT and TAILS headers via the F and W recycle valves. It is essentially a Startup Procedure
O'Malley, Terrence J.
Describes library use of Conversion of Serials Project's (CONSER) online national machine-readable database for serials to create online union lists of serials via OCLC's Serial Control Subsystem. Problems in selection of appropriate, accurate, and authenticated records and prospects for the future are discussed. Twenty sources and sample records…
Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.
The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.
Ashworth, Barry R.
Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.
This document details procedures for the operation of the MITS (Machine Interface Test System) Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem (F and W). Included are fill with UF 6 , establishment of recycle and thruput flows, shutdown, UF 6 makeup, dump to supply container, Cascade dump to F and W, and lights cold trap dump, all normal procedures, plus an alternate procedure for trapping light gases
An analog subsystem is described which monitors certain functions in the Plutonium Protection System. Rotary and linear potentiometer output signals are digitized, as are the outputs from thermistors and container ''bulge'' sensors. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program
This procedure details the steps involved in filling two of the four MITS (Machine Interface Test System) Feed and Withdrawal subsystem main traps and the Sample/Inventory Make-up Pipette with uranium hexafluoride from the ''AS RECEIVED'' UF 6 supply
Lin, L.; Liotta, A.
With an ever increasing penetration of Internet Protocol (IP) technologies, the wireless industry is evolving the mobile core network towards all-IP network. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardised Next Generation Network (NGN) architectural framework defined by the 3rd Generation
Long, Catherine; Maruschak, John; Patschke, Robert; Powers, Michael
Electronic subsystems of free-space laser communication system carry digital signals at 650 Mb/s over long distances. Applicable to general optical communications involving transfer of great quantities of data, and transmission and reception of video images of high definition.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.
The OCLC Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Communications Subsystem provides participating libraries with on-line control of ILL transactions. This user manual includes a glossary of terms related to the procedures in using the system. Sections describe computer entry, searching, loan request form, loan response form, ILL procedures, the special message…
This Subsystems Design Requirement (SSDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the subsystems design requirements for the major optical components. These optical components comprise those custom designed and fabricated for amplification and transport of the full aperture NIF beam and does not include those off-the-shelf components that may be part of other optical sub-systems (i.e. alignment or diagnostic systems). This document also describes the optical component processing requirements and the QA/damage testing necessary to ensure that the optical components meet or exceed the requirements
Gong, Enhao; Huang, Feng; Ying, Kui; Wu, Wenchuan; Wang, Shi; Yuan, Chun
A typical clinical MR examination includes multiple scans to acquire images with different contrasts for complementary diagnostic information. The multicontrast scheme requires long scanning time. The combination of partially parallel imaging and compressed sensing (CS-PPI) has been used to reconstruct accelerated scans. However, there are several unsolved problems in existing methods. The target of this work is to improve existing CS-PPI methods for multicontrast imaging, especially for two-dimensional imaging. If the same field of view is scanned in multicontrast imaging, there is significant amount of sharable information. It is proposed in this study to use manifold sharable information among multicontrast images to enhance CS-PPI in a sequential way. Coil sensitivity information and structure based adaptive regularization, which were extracted from previously reconstructed images, were applied to enhance the following reconstructions. The proposed method is called Parallel-imaging and compressed-sensing Reconstruction Of Multicontrast Imaging using SharablE information (PROMISE). Using L1 -SPIRiT as a CS-PPI example, results on multicontrast brain and carotid scans demonstrated that lower error level and better detail preservation can be achieved by exploiting manifold sharable information. Besides, the privilege of PROMISE still exists while there is interscan motion. Using the sharable information among multicontrast images can enhance CS-PPI with tolerance to motions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase two, volume 4 : web-based bridge information database--visualization analytics and distributed sensing.
This report introduces the design and implementation of a Web-based bridge information visual analytics system. This : project integrates Internet, multiple databases, remote sensing, and other visualization technologies. The result : combines a GIS ...
Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.
Flooding is extremely dangerous when a river overflows to inundate an urban area. From 1995 to 2016, North Korea (NK) experienced annual extensive damage to life and property almost each year due to a levee breach resulting from typhoons and heavy rainfall during the summer monsoon season. Recently, Hoeryeong City (2016) experienced heavy rainfall during typhoon Lionrock and the resulting flood killed and injured many people (68,900) and destroyed numerous buildings and settlements (11,600). The NK state media described it as the biggest national disaster since 1945. Thus, almost all annual repeat occurrences of floods in NK have had a serious impact, which makes it necessary to figure out the extent of floods in restoring the damaged environment. In addition, traditional hydrological model is impractical to delineate Flood Damaged Areas (FDAs) in NK due to the inaccessibility. Under such a situation, multiple optical Remote Sensing (RS) and radar RS along with a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis were utilized in this study (1) to develop modelling FDA delineation using multiple RS and GIS methods and (2) to conduct flood risk assessment in NK. Interpreting high-resolution web-based satellite imagery were also implemented to confirm the results of the study. From the study result, it was found that (1) on August 30th, 2016, an area of 117.2 km2 (8.6%) at Hoeryeong City was inundated. Most floods occurred in flat areas with a lower and middle stream order. (2) In the binary logistic regression model applied in this study, the distance from the nearest stream map and landform map variables are important factors to delineate FDAs because these two factors reflect heterogeneous mountainous NK topography. (3) Total annual flood risk of study area is estimated to be ₩454.13 million NKW ($504,417.24 USD, and ₩576.53 million SKW). The risk of the confluence of the Tumen River and Hoeryeong stream appears to be the highest. (4) High resolution
Susan Cordell; Erin J. Questad; Gregory P. Asner; Kealoha M. Kinney; Jarrod M. Thaxton; Amanda Uowolo; Sam Brooks; Mark W. Chynoweth
The use of remote sensing in ecosystem management has transformed how land managers, practitioners, and policymakers evaluate ecosystem loss, gain, and change at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Less developed is the use of these spatial tools for planning, implementing, and evaluating ecosystem restoration projects and especially so in multifunctional...
Alabbasi, Abdulrahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem
on the outage probability with tractable expressions. These bounds allow us to derive the exact diversity order of the secondary user’s outage probability. To further enhance the system’s performance, we also investigate the impact of including the sensing
Smallman, Thomas Luke; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, Anthony; Williams, Mathew
Forests are a critical component of the global carbon cycle, storing significant amounts of carbon, split between living biomass and dead organic matter. The carbon budget of forests is the most uncertain component of the global carbon cycle - it is currently impossible to quantify accurately the carbon source/sink strength of forest biomes due to their heterogeneity and complex dynamics. It has been a major challenge to generate robust carbon budgets across landscapes due to data scarcity. Models have been used for estimating carbon budgets, but outputs have lacked an assessment of uncertainty, making a robust assessment of their reliability and accuracy challenging. Here a Metropolis Hastings - Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC) data assimilation framework has been used to combine remotely sensed leaf area index (MODIS), biomass (where available) and deforestation estimates, in addition to forest planting information from the UK's national forest inventory, an estimate of soil carbon from the Harmonized World Database (HWSD) and plant trait information with a process model (DALEC) to produce a constrained analysis with a robust estimate of uncertainty of the UK forestry carbon budget between 2000 and 2010. Our analysis estimates the mean annual UK forest carbon sink at -3.9 MgC ha-1 yr-1 with a 95 % confidence interval between -4.0 and -3.1 MgC ha-1yr-1. The UK national forest inventory (NFI) estimates the mean UK forest carbon sink to be between -1.4 and -5.5 MgC ha-1 yr-1. The analysis estimate for total forest biomass stock in 2010 is estimated at 229 (177/232) TgC, while the NFI an estimated total forest biomass carbon stock of 216 TgC. Leaf carbon area (LCA) is a key plant trait which we are able to estimate using our analysis. Comparison of median estimates for (LCA) retrieved from the analysis and a UK land cover map show higher and lower values for LCA are estimated areas dominated by needle leaf and broad leaf forests forest respectively, consistent with
Cappellaro, P; Hodges, J S; Havel, T F; Cory, D G
Decoherence-free subsystems (DFSs) are a powerful means of protecting quantum information against noise with known symmetry properties. Although Hamiltonians that can implement a universal set of logic gates on DFS encoded qubits without ever leaving the protected subsystem theoretically exist, the natural Hamiltonians that are available in specific implementations do not necessarily have this property. Here we describe some of the principles that can be used in such cases to operate on encoded qubits without losing the protection offered by the DFSs. In particular, we show how dynamical decoupling can be used to control decoherence during the unavoidable excursions outside of the DFS. By means of cumulant expansions, we show how the fidelity of quantum gates implemented by this method on a simple two physical qubit DFS depends on the correlation time of the noise responsible for decoherence. We further show by means of numerical simulations how our previously introduced "strongly modulating pulses" for NMR quantum information processing can permit high-fidelity operations on multiple DFS encoded qubits in practice, provided that the rate at which the system can be modulated is fast compared to the correlation time of the noise. The principles thereby illustrated are expected to be broadly applicable to many implementations of quantum information processors based on DFS encoded qubits.
Chen, Y. P.; Kim, Yongmin
Not the least of the requirements of a workable PACS is the ability to store and archive vast amounts of information. A medium-size hospital will generate between 1 and 2 TBytes of data annually on a fully functional PACS. A high-speed image transmission network coupled with a comparably high-speed central data storage unit can make local memory and magnetic disks in the PACS workstations less critical and, in an extreme case, unnecessary. Under these circumstances, the capacity and performance of the central data storage subsystem and database is critical in determining the response time at the workstations, thus significantly affecting clinical acceptability. The central data storage subsystem not only needs to provide sufficient capacity to store about ten days worth of images (five days worth of new studies, and on the average, about one comparison study for each new study), but also supplies images to the requesting workstation in a timely fashion. The database must provide fast retrieval responses upon users' requests for images. This paper analyzes both advantages and disadvantages of multiple parallel transfer disks versus RAID disks for short-term central data storage subsystem, as well as optical disk jukebox versus digital recorder tape subsystem for long-term archive. Furthermore, an example high-performance cost-effective storage subsystem which integrates both the RAID disks and high-speed digital tape subsystem as a cost-effective PACS data storage/archival unit are presented.
Spangelo, Sara C.; Bennett, Matthew W.; Meinzer, Daniel C.; Klesh, Andrew T.; Arlas, Jessica A.; Cutler, James W.
This paper presents the design and implementation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer (RAX) CubeSat. The GPS subsystem provides accurate temporal and spatial information necessary to satisfy the science objectives of the RAX mission. There are many challenges in the successful design and implementation of a GPS subsystem for a CubeSat-based mission, including power, size, mass, and financial constraints. This paper presents an approach for selecting and testing the individual and integrated GPS subsystem components, including the receiver, antenna, low noise amplifier, and supporting circuitry. The procedures to numerically evaluate the GPS link budget and test the subsystem components at various stages of system integration are described. Performance results for simulated tests in the terrestrial and orbital environments are provided, including start-up times, carrier-to-noise ratios, and orbital position accuracy. Preliminary on-orbit GPS results from the RAX-1 and RAX-2 spacecraft are presented to validate the design process and pre-flight simulations. Overall, this paper provides a systematic approach to aid future satellite designers in implementing and verifying GPS subsystems for resource-constrained small satellites.
Guyenne, T.D.; Hunt, J.J.
New instruments with enormous information gathering abilities are being planned to provide data from all parts of the spectrum. New data processing and storage hardware, combined with fundamental advances in information systems concepts and algorithms are awaiting the research efforts to mold them for special use. Some topics covered in the proceedings are: Optical and infrared remote sensing systems; information transfer and Third World development; wave target interaction mechanisms; microwave remote sensing of sea ice; ERS-1 sensor performance, calibration, and data validation; geophysics; imaging spectrometry; image analysis systems; ocean radar scattering; marginal ice zone remote sensing; geomorphology; SAR applications; geology; multispectral image analysis; ocean wind scatterometry; passive microwave sensing; radar mapping and land use; meteorology and atmospheric sounding; and radar instrumentation.
Burt, R. W.; Lesh, J. R.
A procedure is described which partitions the recurring costs of the Deep Space Network (DSN) over the individual DSN subsystems. The procedure results in a table showing the maintenance, operations, sustaining engineering and supportive costs for each subsystems.
Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten
We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.
Bickford, W. J.; Brodsky, W. G.
A system review of the RF subsystems of (IFF) transponders, tropscatter receivers and SATCOM receivers is presented. The quantity potential for S-band and X-band IFF transponders establishes a baseline requirement. From this, the feasibility of a common design for these and other receivers is evaluated. Goals are established for a GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) device and related local oscillator preselector and self-test components.
Lazaro, J.A; Polo, V.; Schrenk, B.
Recent optical technologies are providing higher flexibility to next generation access networks: on the one hand, providing progressive FTTx and specifically FTTH deployment, progressively shortening the copper access network; on the other hand, also opening fixed-mobile convergence solutions...... in next generation PON architectures. It is provided an overview of the optical subsystems developed for the implementation of the proposed NG-Access Networks....
The PWR Pool Chiller System is not longer required for support of the Shippingport Blanket Fuel Assemblies Storage. The Engineering Work Plan will provide the overall coordination of the documentation and physical changes to deactivate the unneeded subsystem. The physical removal of all energy sources for the Chiller equipment will be covered under a one time work plan. The documentation changes will be covered using approved Engineering Change Notices and Procedure Change Authorizations as needed
Powers, Charles E.
Control subsystem closed-loop angular-position-control system causing motor and bearing under test to undergo any of variety of continuous or stepping motions. Also used to test bearing-and-motor assemblies, motors, angular-position sensors including rotating shafts, and like. Monitoring subsystem gathers data used to evaluate performance of bearing or other article under test. Monitoring subsystem described in article, "Monitoring Subsystem For Testing Bearings" (GSC-13432).
Crosswhite, Gregory M.; Bacon, Dave
Quantum error correction allows for faulty quantum systems to behave in an effectively error-free manner. One important class of techniques for quantum error correction is the class of quantum subsystem codes, which are relevant both to active quantum error-correcting schemes as well as to the design of self-correcting quantum memories. Previous approaches for investigating these codes have focused on applying theoretical analysis to look for interesting codes and to investigate their properties. In this paper we present an alternative approach that uses computational analysis to accomplish the same goals. Specifically, we present an algorithm that computes the optimal quantum subsystem code that can be implemented given an arbitrary set of measurement operators that are tensor products of Pauli operators. We then demonstrate the utility of this algorithm by performing a systematic investigation of the quantum subsystem codes that exist in the setting where the interactions are limited to two-body interactions between neighbors on lattices derived from the convex uniform tilings of the plane.
A. V. Semenets
The open-source MIS OpenMRS developer tools and software API are reviewed. The results of code refactoring of the dialog subsystem of the CDSS platform which is made as module for the open-source MIS OpenMRS are presented. The structure of information model of database of the CDSS dialog subsystem was updated according with MIS OpenMRS requirements. The Model-View-Controller (MVC based approach to the CDSS dialog subsystem architecture was re-implemented with Java programming language using Spring and Hibernate frameworks. The MIS OpenMRS Encounter portlet form for the CDSS dialog subsystem integration is developed as an extension. The administrative module of the CDSS platform is recreated. The data exchanging formats and methods for interaction of OpenMRS CDSS dialog subsystem module and DecisionTree GAE service are re-implemented with help of AJAX technology via jQuery library
The bioecosensing technology was studied which detects and identifies feeble signals generated by biosystem communication in wide biological environment. The following were reported as current notable environmental biosensing technologies: a quick measurement method of environmental contaminants using immunological measurement method, analysis method of ecological state of microorganism using DNA probes, observation of ecosystem by bioluminescent system, measurement method of environmental changes and contaminants using higher animals and plants, and detection method of chemical contaminants using chemotaxis of microorganism. As a result, the new bioecosensing/monitoring technology in molecular level was suggested for identifying comprehensive environmental changes which could not be measured by previous physical and chemical methods, as changes in ecosystem corresponding to environmental changes. As the wide area remote sensing technology of environmental ecological information, sensing technology on the earth, aircraft and satellite was also discussed. 247 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.
Mohammad H. Bitarafan
Full Text Available For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities—with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors—offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Bitarafan, Mohammad H; DeCorby, Ray G
For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities-with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors-offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Full Text Available Many remote sensing applications are devoted to the agricultural sector. Representative case studies are presented in the special issue “Advances in Remote Sensing of Agriculture”. To complement the examples published within the special issue, a few main applications with regional to global focus were selected for this review, where remote sensing contributions are traditionally strong. The selected applications are put in the context of the global challenges the agricultural sector is facing: minimizing the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. Five different applications have been selected, which are illustrated and described: (1 biomass and yield estimation, (2 vegetation vigor and drought stress monitoring, (3 assessment of crop phenological development, (4 crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping and (5 mapping of disturbances and land use/land cover (LULC changes. Many other applications exist, such as precision agriculture and irrigation management (see other special issues of this journal, but were not included to keep the paper concise. The paper starts with an overview of the main agricultural challenges. This section is followed by a brief overview of existing operational monitoring systems. Finally, in the main part of the paper, the mentioned applications are described and illustrated. The review concludes with some key recommendations.
The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error-correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error-correcting subspace any correctable error. In contrast, for operator error-correcting subsystems, the correction procedure need not undo the error which has occurred, but instead one must perform corrections only modulo the subsystem structure. This does not lead to codes which differ from subspace codes, but does lead to recovery routines which explicitly make use of the subsystem structure. Here we present two examples of such operator error-correcting subsystems. These examples are motivated by simple spatially local Hamiltonians on square and cubic lattices. In three dimensions we provide evidence, in the form a simple mean field theory, that our Hamiltonian gives rise to a system which is self-correcting. Such a system will be a natural high-temperature quantum memory, robust to noise without external intervening quantum error-correction procedures
Atkins, D.F.; Lillie, A.F.
As part of Rockwell's effort on the SP-100 Program, preliminary assessment has been completed of current nuclear technology as it relates to candidate reactor/shield subsystems for the SP-100 Program. The scope of the assessment was confined to the nuclear package (to the reactor and shield subsystems). The nine generic reactor subsystems presented in Rockwell's Subsystem Technology Assessment Report, ESG-DOE-13398, were addressed for the assessment
Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.
This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified
Kolodny, Michael A.
Today's battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. Adversaries are comprised of widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious activities. Situational understanding is needed by decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Information needed at any time is dependent on the mission/task at hand. Information sources potentially providing mission-relevant information are disparate and numerous; they include sensors, social networks, fusion engines, internet, etc. Management of these multi-dimensional informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of enhancing battlefield understanding by optimizing the utilization of available informational sources (means) to required missions/tasks as well as determining the "goodness'" of the information acquired in meeting the capabilities needed. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the "magic rabbits" was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the "required" technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent "magic rabbits" are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: "WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO PROVIDE YOU?" This paper will describe a new approach called Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources (MINI-DASS) that designs a process that builds information acquisition missions and determines what the "magic rabbits" need to provide in a manner that is machine understandable. Also described is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) model used, the process flow utilized, the approach to developing an ontology of information source means and the approach for determining the value of the information acquired.
Zhang, Yuanzhi; Chen, Zhengyi; Zhu, Boqin; Luo, Xiuyue; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Nie, Yueping
The objective of this study is to develop techniques for assessing and analysing land desertification in Yulin of Northwest China, as a typical monitoring region through the use of remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS). The methodology included the use of Landsat TM data from 1987, 1996 and 2006, supplemented by aerial photos in 1960, topographic maps, field work and use of other existing data. From this, land cover, the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), farmland, woodland and grassland maps at 1:100,000 were prepared for land desertification monitoring in the area. In the study, all data was entered into a GIS using ILWIS software to perform land desertification monitoring. The results indicate that land desertification in the area has been developing rapidly during the past 40 years. Although land desertification has to some extent been controlled in the area by planting grasses and trees, the issue of land desertification is still serious. The study also demonstrates an example of why the integration of remote sensing with GIS is critical for the monitoring of environmental changes in arid and semi-arid regions, e.g. in land desertification monitoring in the Yulin pilot area. However, land desertification monitoring using remote sensing and GIS still needs to be continued and also refined for the purpose of long-term monitoring and the management of fragile ecosystems in the area.
Popov, M.; Fedorovsky, O.; Stankevich, S.; Filipovich, V.; Khyzhniak, A.; Piestova, I.; Lubskyi, M.; Svideniuk, M.
The approach to implementing the remote sensing technologies and geospatial modelling for smart city support is presented. The hierarchical structure and basic components of the smart city information support subsystem are considered. Some of the already available useful practical developments are described. These include city land use planning, urban vegetation analysis, thermal condition forecasting, geohazard detection, flooding risk assessment. Remote sensing data fusion approach for comprehensive geospatial analysis is discussed. Long-term city development forecasting by Forrester - Graham system dynamics model is provided over Kiev urban area.
Umar, Z; Wan Mohd Akib, W A A; Ahmad, A
Flash flood is the most common environmental hazard worldwide. This phenomenon is usually occurs due to intense and prolonged rainfall spells on saturated ground. When there is a rapid rise in water levels and high flow-velocities of the stream occur, the channel overflows and the result is a flash flood. Flash floods normally cause a dangerous wall of roaring water carrying rocks, mud and other debris. On Tuesday, July 24, 2012 at 18:00 pm, a flash flood (debris flow) struck Kuranji River whereby 19 urban villages in seven (7) sub-districts in the city of Padang were affected by this flood disaster. The temporary loss estimated is 40 Billion US Dollar reported by the West Sumatra Provincial Government due to many damages of the built environment infrastructures. This include damaged houses of 878 units, mosque 15 units, irrigation damaged 12 units, bridges 6 units, schools 2 units and health posts 1 unit. Generally, widely used methods for making a landslide study are Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing techniques. The landslide information extracted from remotely sensed products is mainly related to morphology, vegetation and hydrologic conditions of a slope. While GIS is used to create a database, data management, data display and to analyze data such as thematic maps of land use/land cover, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), rainfall data and soil texture. This paper highlights the analysis of the condition of the Watershed Kuranji River experiencing flash floods, using remote sensing satellite image of Landsat ETM 7 in 2009 and 2012 and Geographic Information System (GIS). Furthermore, the data was analyzed to determine whether this flash flood occurred due to extreme rain or collapse of existing natural dams in the upstream of the Kuranji River
This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 18.104.22.168 Local Utility Services; WBS 22.214.171.124 Cable Trays; WBS 126.96.36.199 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 188.8.131.52 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 184.108.40.206.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 220.127.116.11.2 Target Bay Service Systems
Full Text Available as only the study conducted by Hofmann was available . The study reported how informal settlements can be detected from other land-use-forms by describing typical characteristics of colour, texture, shape and context using remote sensed data from.... This approach may be appropriate for larger buildings, but Hofmann found that individual shacks could not be identified on IKONOS imagery . QuickBird has a higher spatial resolution than IKONOS, at 0.6m vs 1m in the panchromatic band; this represents a...
James H. Wittebols
Full Text Available How well students conduct research online is an increasing concern for educators at all levels but especially higher education. The paper describes the evolution of a course that grew from a unit within a course to a whole course that examines confirmation bias, information searching and the political economy of information as keys to becoming more information and media literate. After a key assignment in which students assess their own tendency to engage in confirmation bias, students choose a social justice issue to investigate across web, news and academic research resources. Designed to build good analytical skills in assessing the trustworthiness of a variety of sources of information, the course empowers students as researchers, citizens and consumers.
... profanity, threats, information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information...-efficient products and use water-efficient practices. As part of strategic planning efforts, EPA encourages... Reporting Form Promotional partners 6100-09 Manufacturers (separate forms for plumbing and non- plumbing...
Harold, Dolly Amy
Information sharing is a fundamental goal of information systems (IS). Yet information sharing, although critical and much acclaimed, is complex in terms of its concepts and implementation. How to leverage this phenomenon while implementing an IS is discussed at length in the literature. Both academics and practitioners in IS are striving to…
S. H Sanaeinejad
Full Text Available Soil salinity is an important factor that affects plant growth and reduces production of plantat different growth stages Remote sensing technology and GIS have a great potential for monitoring dynamic soil processes such as salinity. In the present study the efficiency of remote sensing technology and its integration with GIS was examined to estimate soil salinity for Neyshabour basin. Different classification methods for soil salinity were also investigated. We used 6 bands of LandSat ETM+ for this study. Classification results obtained from applying mathematical models for the images were compared with different band combinations results. The area of saline and non saline soil classes were identified in the study area based on the both methods and also based on the combination of the two methods. The results showed that the best method for soil classification was using of the two methods in the first stage to separate two classes of saline and non saline soils and then classifying the non saline soils in the second stage. As the variation in the numerical values of the image for different soil salinity in the study area was small, it was concluded that there is a limit potential of LandSat ETM+ images for identifying and classification of soil salinity in such an area.
Full Text Available NASA is planning to launch a spacecraft on a mission to the Jovian moon Europa, in order to conduct a detailed reconnaissance and investigation of its habitability. The spacecraft would orbit Jupiter and perform a detailed science investigation of Europa, utilizing a number of science instruments including an ice-penetrating radar to determine the icy shell thickness and presence of subsurface oceans. The spacecraft would be exposed to harsh radiation and extreme temperature environments. To meet mission objectives, the spacecraft power subsystem is being architected and designed to operate efficiently, and with a high degree of reliability.
de La Beaujardière, J.; Mendelssohn, R.; Ortiz, C.; Signell, R.
We discuss progress to date and plans for the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Data Management and Communications (DMAC) subsystem. We begin by presenting a conceptual architecture of IOOS DMAC. We describe work done as part of a 3-year pilot project known as the Data Integration Framework and the subsequent assessment of lessons learned. We present work that has been accomplished as part of the initial version of the IOOS Data Catalog. Finally, we discuss near-term plans for augmenting IOOS DMAC capabilities.
Current knowledge is summed up of the structure of our galaxy consisting of more than 100 thousand million stars of an overal mass of 10 44 g, and of interstellar dust and gas. The galaxy comprises several subsystems, the oldest of which being of a spherical shape while the younger ones are more-or-less oblate rotational ellipsoids. It is considered on the basis of visual and radio observations that the galaxy has a spiral structure with many arms, similar to other galaxies. The structure of the galaxy nucleus has not yet been fully explained. (Ha)
Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E
Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s
Lall, U.; Allaire, M.; Ceccato, P.; Haraguchi, M.; Cian, F.; Bavandi, A.
Catastrophic floods can pose a significant challenge for response and recovery. A key bottleneck in the speed of response is the availability of funds to a country or regions finance ministry to mobilize resources. Parametric instruments, where the release of funs is tied to the exceedance of a specified index or threshold, rather than to loss verification are well suited for this purpose. However, designing and appropriate index, that is not subject to manipulation and accurately reflects the need is a challenge, especially in developing countries which have short hydroclimatic and loss records, and where rapid land use change has led to significant changes in exposure and hydrology over time. The use of long records of rainfall from climate re-analyses, flooded area and land use from remote sensing to design and benchmark a parametric index considering the uncertainty and representativeness of potential loss is explored with applications to Bangladesh and Thailand. Prospects for broader applicability and limitations are discussed.
Full Text Available The forest ecosystem is the largest land vegetation type, which plays the role of unreplacement with its unique value. And in the landscape scale, the research on forest landscape pattern has become the current hot spot, wherein the study of forest canopy structure is very important. They determines the process and the strength of forests energy flow, which influences the adjustments of ecosystem for climate and species diversity to some extent. The extraction of influencing factors of canopy structure and the analysis of the vegetation distribution pattern are especially important. To solve the problems, remote sensing technology, which is superior to other technical means because of its fine timeliness and large-scale monitoring, is applied to the study. Taking Lingkong Mountain as the study area, the paper uses the remote sensing image to analyze the forest distribution pattern and obtains the spatial characteristics of canopy structure distribution, and DEM data are as the basic data to extract the influencing factors of canopy structure. In this paper, pattern of trees distribution is further analyzed by using terrain parameters, spatial analysis tools and surface processes quantitative simulation. The Hydrological Analysis tool is used to build distributed hydrological model, and corresponding algorithm is applied to determine surface water flow path, rivers network and basin boundary. Results show that forest vegetation distribution of dominant tree species present plaque on the landscape scale and their distribution have spatial heterogeneity which is related to terrain factors closely. After the overlay analysis of aspect, slope and forest distribution pattern respectively, the most suitable area for stand growth and the better living condition are obtained.
Hohn, Rüdiger; Skegg, Michael P.; Hermsen, Markus; Hinger, Jürgen; Williges, Christian; Reulke, Ralf
The Sentinel 4 instrument is an imaging spectrometer, developed by Airbus under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program with the objective of monitoring trace gas concentrations. Sentinel 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties. Sentinel 4 is unique in being the first geostationary UVN mission. The SENTINEL 4 space segment will be integrated on EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation Sounder satellite (MTG-S). Sentinel 4 will provide coverage of Europe and adjacent regions. The Sentinel 4 instrument comprises as a major element two Focal Plane Subsystems (FPS) covering the wavelength ranges 305 nm to 500 nm (UVVIS) and 750 nm to 775 nm (NIR) respectively. The paper describes the Focal Plane Subsystems, comprising the detectors, the optical bench and the control electronics. Further the design and development approach will be presented as well as first measurement results of FPS Qualification Model.
Pinty, Bernard; Andredakis, Ioannis; Clerici, Marco; Kaminski, Thomas; Taberner, Malcolm; Stephen, Plummer
We present results from the application of an inversion method conducted using MODIS derived broadband visible and near-infrared surface albedo products. This contribution is an extension of earlier efforts to optimally retrieve land surface fluxes and associated two- stream model parameters based on the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP). The discussion focuses on products (based on the mean and one-sigma values of the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs)) obtained during the summer and winter and highlight specific issues related to snowy conditions. This paper discusses the retrieved model parameters including the effective Leaf Area Index (LAI), the background brightness and the scattering efficiency of the vegetation elements. The spatial and seasonal changes exhibited by these parameters agree with common knowledge and underscore the richness of the high quality surface albedo data sets. At the same time, the opportunity to generate global maps of new products, such as the background albedo, underscores the advantages of using state of the art algorithmic approaches capable of fully exploiting accurate satellite remote sensing datasets. The detailed analyses of the retrieval uncertainties highlight the central role and contribution of the LAI, the main process parameter to interpret radiation transfer observations over vegetated surfaces. The posterior covariance matrix of the uncertainties is further exploited to quantify the knowledge gain from the ingestion of MODIS surface albedo products. The estimation of the radiation fluxes that are absorbed, transmitted and scattered by the vegetation layer and its background is achieved on the basis of the retrieved PDFs of the model parameters. The propagation of uncertainties from the observations to the model parameters is achieved via the Hessian of the cost function and yields a covariance matrix of posterior parameter uncertainties. This matrix is propagated to the radiation
Datcu, M.; Seidel, K.; D'Elia, S.; Marchetti, P. G.
Users in all domains require information or information-related services that are focused, concise, reliable, low cost and timely and which are provided in forms and formats compatible with the user's own activities. In the current Earth Observation (EO) scenario, the archiving centres generally only offer data, images and other "low level" products. The user's needs are being only partially satisfied by a number of, usually small, value-adding companies applying time-consuming (mostly manual) and expensive processes relying on the knowledge of experts to extract information from those data or images.
The Honeywell collector subsystem features a low-profile, multifaceted heliostat designed to provide high reflectivity and accurate angular and spatial positioning of the redirected solar energy under all conditions of wind load and mirror attitude within the design operational envelope. The heliostats are arranged in a circular field around a cavity receiver on a tower halfway south of the field center. A calibration array mounted on the receiver tower provides capability to measure individual heliostat beam location and energy periodically. This information and weather data from the collector field are transmitted to a computerized control subsystem that addresses the individual heliostat to correct pointing errors and determine when the mirrors need cleaning. This volume contains a detailed subsystem design description, a presentation of the design process, and the results of the SRE heliostat test program.
Full Text Available Critical land classification can be analyzed using combination between Top Soil Thickness - Land erosion method, and BRLT methods. Both methods are needed soil erosion data as one of input data. The soil erosion data can be analyzed using USLE and MUSLE methods. The combination of two critical land analyses methods with input soil erosion data from two analyses methods will be produced four combinations of critical land classification. In this research, four of the critical land classification and two soil erosion classification will be analyzed using GIS. The best method to classify critical land will be investigated in this research. The best classified critical land is the classified critical land data is nearest with the field condition. Percentage of vegetation cover (PVC is one of the most important input data in the critical land classification analysis using BRLKT method. This data have 50% weight. PVC condition is classified into five categories i.e. very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor. Each category have score 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 respectively. To analyze this PVC classification, NDVI generated from satellite remote sensing data is used in this research. From the four methods of land critical classification analyses used in this research, critical land classified using BRLKT method with input soil erosion analyzed using method is produced the critical land classification nearest with the critical land condition in the field.
Genevieve Marie Johnson
Full Text Available Research findings suggest both positive and negative developmental consequences of Internet use during childhood (e.g., playing video games have been associated with enhanced visual skills as well as increased aggression. Several studies have concluded that environmental factors mediate the developmental impact of childhood online behaviour. From an ecological perspective, we propose the techno-subsystem, a dimension of the microsystem (i.e., immediate environments. The techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers and nonliving (e.g., hardware elements of communication, information, and recreation technologies in direct environments. By emphasizing the role of technology in child development, the ecological techno-subsystem encourages holistic exploration of the developmental consequences of Internet use (and future technological advances during childhood. L’usage d’Internet chez les enfants et le sous-système Techno écologique Résumé : Les résultats de recherche semblent indiquer que l’usage d’Internet chez les enfants aurait des conséquences développementales qui soit à la fois positives et négatives (ex. : l’usage des jeux vidéo auraient été associés à un accroissement des habileté visuelles ainsi qu’à un accroissement de l’agressivité. Plusieurs études ont aussi conclue que l’impact du comportement des enfants quand il sont en ligne sur leur développement serait affecté par des facteurs environnementaux. Dans une perspective écologique, nous proposons le sous-système Techno, une dimension du microsystème (ex :. les environnements immédiats. Le sous-système Techno comprend l’interaction de l’enfant avec des éléments vivants (e. : les paires et non vivants (ex; les ordinateurs de communication, d’information et de technologie de jeux dans des environnements directes.
Vera I. Aksenova
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to introduce the anthropological aspects of the communicative and information understanding of the meaning of life; to define the anthropological measurements of communicative and information understanding of the meaning of life connected with the introduction of information and informatization: to consider the models of the development of the information society which are introduced in the developed countries of the world for the solution of the anthropological problems; to analyse the problems of the new meaning of life connected with the development of the information society, and to find the ways of their optimization. Methodology. The new anthropological measurements of socialization of a person are revealed thanks to the analysis of the cognitive structures and epistemes. These measurements consist of mastering of codes and genres of the external discourse. Scientific novelty. The author offers the thesis that the social behaviour of people is significantly defined by the possible sign systems which are created by cultures of the concrete societies that represent a new approach in understanding of the communicative and information determinants of the semantic and vital key points of the person and society. The last ones are determined by the expansion of the communicative and information space which demands the formation of the new anthropological basis of life according to which a person enters socialization and forms a new way of life. Conclusions. Anthropological measurements of communicative and information understanding of the meaning of life are reduced to the fact, that they are affected by the network culture, the new types of communication caused by the information technologies, therefore there is a new type of the person – the virtual or network ones. The formation of the personality is defined by the procedure of interpretation which allows to establish within the discursive space the semantic
This report defines the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem (PWSS). This subsystem definition report fully describes and identifies the system boundaries of the PWSS. This definition provides a basis for developing functional, performance, and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the PWSS. The resultant PWSS specification will include the sampling requirements to support the transfer of waste from the DSTs to the Privatization Contractor during Phase 1 of Waste Feed Delivery
Belokurov, V.V.; Khrustalev, O.A.; Sadovnichij, V.A.; Timofeevskaya, O.D.
A new quantum mechanical notion - Conditional Density Matrix - is discussed and is applied to describe some physical processes. This notion is a natural generalization of von Neumann density matrix for such processes as divisions of quantum systems into subsystems and reunifications of subsystems into new joint systems. Conditional Density Matrix assigns a quantum state to a subsystem of a composite system on condition that another part of the composite system is in some pure state
Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.
Van der Slikke, JW
Introduction In the European collaboration "WOMAN"-project there is amongst others a set up for patient information and education about menopause on the WWW. One of the questions was how many women in Europe have access to Internet. Methods In our clinic (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the "de Heel" hospital) we used the WOMAN-questionnaire. In this form questions are asked about computer use (at work and at home), if the respondent knew Web sites that gave information about meno...
Morris-Jones, D. R.; Morgan, K. M.; Kiefer, R. W.; Scarpace, F. L.
In this study, methods for gathering the land use/land cover information required by the USLE were investigated with medium altitude, multi-date color and color infrared 70-mm positive transparencies using human and computer-based interpretation techniques. Successful results, which compare favorably with traditional field study methods, were obtained within the test site watershed with airphoto data sources and human airphoto interpretation techniques. Computer-based interpretation techniques were not capable of identifying soil conservation practices but were successful to varying degrees in gathering other types of desired land use/land cover information.
integrate MTL and semi-supervised learning into a single framework , thereby exploiting two forms of contextual information. A key new objective of the...this report we integrate MTL and semi-supervised learning into a single framework , thereby exploiting two forms of contextual information. A key new...process , denoted as X ∼ BeP (B), where B is a measure on Ω. If B is continuous, X is a Poisson process with intensity B and can be constructed as X = N
Full Text Available Water is one of the most critical natural resources that maintain the ecosystem and support people’s daily life. Pressures on water resources and disaster management are rising primarily due to the unequal spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and pollution, and also partially due to our poor knowledge about the distribution of water resources and poor management of their usage. Remote sensing provides critical data for mapping water resources, measuring hydrological fluxes, monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while geographic information systems (GIS provide the best tools for water resources, drought and flood risk management. This special issue presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models for water resource mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping, and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D surface model analysis and visualization of glaciers, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV video image classification for turfgrass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimation, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetography analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, and satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of those technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and allow better mitigation of and adaptation to the disastrous impact of droughts and flooding.
Full Text Available Abstract The study area is Karwadi-Nandapur watershed is a micro watershed which falls in the Kayadhu river watershed in Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Using the remotely sensed images of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P6 IRS P6 Linear Imaging Self Scanner IIILISS III images captured in October 2010 and November 2011 having resolution of 23.5m X 23.5m and images from Google Earth Pro of study area were used and cartosat satellites. Map of India with scale 11500000 and soil maps of India were used for the experimental study. The thematic maps like drainage map land use and land cover map soil maps and contour map were prepared adopting the PCI Geomatica10.0 software. The geographical information systems GIS analysis was made for the said themes using the Arc GIS ArcMap10.0. The Karwadi- Nandapur watershed was found to be the third order basin. The present study aims to assess the morphometric characteristics of the watershed basin and it has been assessed by applying GIS techniques. Strahlers method has been employed to assess the fluvial characteristics of the study watershed. Each morphometric characteristic is considered as a single parameter and knowledge based weight age has been assigned by considering its role in soil erosion. The morphometric properties determined for this watershed as a whole and for each watershed will be useful for the efficient planning of water harvesting and groundwater projects on watershed basis.
Branch, B. D.; Raskin, R. G.; Rock, B.; Gagnon, M.; Lecompte, M. A.; Hayden, L. B.
With the nation challenged to comply with Executive Order 12906 and its needs to augment the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, applied focus on geosciences pipelines issue may be at risk. The Geosciences pipeline may require intentional K-12 standard course of study consideration in the form of project based, science based and evidenced based learning. Thus, the K-12 to geosciences to informatics pipeline may benefit from an earth science experience that utilizes a community based “learning by doing” approach. Terms such as Community GIS, Community Remotes Sensing, and Community Based Ontology development are termed Community Informatics. Here, approaches of interdisciplinary work to promote and earth science literacy are affordable, consisting of low cost equipment that renders GIS/remote sensing data processing skills necessary in the workforce. Hence, informal community ontology development may evolve or mature from a local community towards formal scientific community collaboration. Such consideration may become a means to engage educational policy towards earth science paradigms and needs, specifically linking synergy among Math, Computer Science, and Earth Science disciplines.
A methodology was developed to analyze multi-supported subsystems (e.g., piping systems) for seismic or other dynamic forces using response spectrum input. Currently, subsystems which are supported at more than one location in a nuclear power plant building are analyzed either by the time-history method or by response spectrum procedures, where spectra which envelop all support locations are used. The former procedure is exceedingly expensive, while the latter procedure is inexpensive but very conservative. Improved analysis procedures are currently being developed which are either coupled- or uncoupled-system approaches. For the coupled-system approach, response feedback between the subsystem and building system is included. For the uncoupled-system approach, feedback is neglected; however, either time history or response spectrum methods can be used. The methodology developed for analyzing multi-supported subsystems is based on the assumption that the building response and the subsystem response are uncoupled. This is the same assumption implicitly made by analysts who design singly-supported subsystems using floor response spectrum input. This approach implies that there is no response feedback between the primary building system and the subsystem, which is generally found to be conservative. The methodology developed for multi-supported subsystems makes this same assumption and thus should produce results with the same ease and degree of accuracy as results obtained for singly-supported subsystems. (orig./HP)
Macie, T. W.; Macmedan, M. L.
A concept for automatic control of the thrust subsystem has been developed by JPL and participating NASA Centers. This paper reports on progress in implementing the concept at JPL. Control of the Thrust Subsystem (TSS) is performed by the spacecraft computer command subsystem, and telemetry data is extracted by the spacecraft flight data subsystem. The Data and Control Interface Unit, an element of the TSS, provides the interface with the individual elements of the TSS. The control philosophy and implementation guidelines are presented. Control requirements are listed, and the control mechanism, including the serial digital data intercommunication system, is outlined. The paper summarizes progress to Fall 1974.
Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich
Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.
Boschetti, Mirco; Holectz, Francesco; Manfron, Giacinto; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Nelson, Andrew
Updated information on crop typology and status are strongly required to support suitable action to better manage agriculture production and reduce food insecurity. In this field, remote sensing has been demonstrated to be a suitable tool to monitor crop condition however rarely the tested system became really operative. The ones today available, such as the European Commission MARS, are mainly based on the analysis of NDVI time series and required ancillary external information like crop mask to interpret the seasonal signal. This condition is not always guarantied worldwide reducing the potentiality of the remote sensing monitoring. Moreover in tropical countries cloud contamination strongly reduce the possibility of using optical remote sensing data for crop monitoring. In this framework we focused our analysis on the rice production monitoring in Asian tropical area. Rice is in fact the staple food for half of the world population (FAO 2004), in Asia almost 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed and Rice and poverty often coincide. In this contest the production of reliable rice production information is of extreme interest. We tried to address two important issue in terms of required geospatial information for crop monitoring: rice crop detection (rice map) and seasonal dynamics analysis (phenology). We use both SAR and Optical data in order to exploit the potential complementarity of this system. Multi-temporal ASAR Wide Swath data are in fact the best option to deal with cloud contamination. SAR can easily penetrate the clouds providing information on the surface target. Temporal analysis of archive ASAR data allowed to derived accurate map, at 100m spatial resolution, of permanent rice cultivated areas. On the other and high frequency revisiting optical data, in this case MODIS, have been used to extract seasonal information for the year under analysis. MOD09A1 Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m have been exploited to derive time series of
Many public and private sector organizations are supported by Management Information Systems (MIS) for collection, management, analysis, and distribution of the data needed for effective decision-making and enhanced organizational management. The existing body of research on MIS in education focuses on the systems' contribution to achieving…
... a current information collection). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations... application; 10 hours for the submission of a data protection plan; 5 hours for the submission of a plan... operations plan for restricting collection or dissemination of imagery of Israeli territory; 3 hours for...
Kutz, Daniel; Shankar, Kalpana; Connelly, Kay
A recent trend in personal health and wellness management is the development of computerized applications or information and communication technologies (ICTs) that support behavioral change, aid the management of chronic conditions, or help an individual manage their wellness and engage in a healthier lifestyle. To understand how individuals across 3 generations (young, middle-aged, and older) think about the design and use of collaborative health and wellness management technologies and what roles these could take in their lives. Face-to-face semistructured interviews, paper prototype systems, and video skits were used to assess how individuals from 3 age cohorts (young: 18-25 years; middle-aged: 35-50 years; and older: ≥65 years) conceptualize the role that health and wellness computing could take in their lives. A total of 21 participants in the 3 age cohorts took part (young: n=7; middle-aged: n=7; and older: n=7). Young adults expected to be able to actively manage the presentation of their health-related information. Middle-aged adults had more nuanced expectations that reflect their engagement with work and other life activities. Older adults questioned the sharing of health information with a larger audience, although they saw the value in 1-way sharing between family members or providing aggregated information. Our findings inform our suggestions for improving the design of future collaborative health and wellness applications that target specific age groups. We recommend that collaborative ICT health applications targeting young adults should integrate with existing social networking sites, whereas those targeting middle-aged and older adults should support small social networks that rely on intimate personal relationships. Systems that target middle-aged adults should support episodic needs, such as time-sensitive, perhaps intermittent, goal setting. They should also have a low barrier to entry, allowing individuals who do not normally engage with the
Selvaraj, John J; Rajasekharan, Maya; Guzman Angela I
Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques have been used increasingly for marine fisheries development and management over the last years. However, its applications continue to be scarce in Colombia. This paper briefly reviews use of spatial tools in marine fisheries management, both retrospectively and predictively. Case studies of RS and GIS in fisheries research in Colombia and challenges for future use for management measures are discussed. In order to harness the potential of GIS and RS tools in marine fisheries research and management, priority should be given for training fisheries scientists in RS and GIS, increasing collaboration among institutions, departments, standardize data collection, and development of a common platform for data sharing.
Public transit service is a promising transportation mode because of its potential to address urban sustainability. Current ridership of public transit, however, is very low in most urban regions, particularly those in the United States. This woeful transit ridership can be attributed to many factors, among which poor service quality is key. Given this, there is a need for transit planning and analysis to improve service quality. Traditionally, spatially aggregate data are utilized in transit analysis and planning. Examples include data associated with the census, zip codes, states, etc. Few studies, however, address the influences of spatially aggregate data on transit planning results. In this research, previous studies in transit planning that use spatially aggregate data are reviewed. Next, problems associated with the utilization of aggregate data, the so-called modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), are detailed and the need for fine resolution data to support public transit planning is argued. Fine resolution data is generated using intelligent interpolation techniques with the help of remote sensing imagery. In particular, impervious surface fraction, an important socio-economic indicator, is estimated through a fully constrained linear spectral mixture model using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data within the metropolitan area of Columbus, Ohio in the United States. Four endmembers, low albedo, high albedo, vegetation, and soil are selected to model heterogeneous urban land cover. Impervious surface fraction is estimated by analyzing low and high albedo endmembers. With the derived impervious surface fraction, three spatial interpolation methods, spatial regression, dasymetric mapping, and cokriging, are developed to interpolate detailed population density. Results suggest that cokriging applied to impervious surface is a better alternative for estimating fine resolution population density. With the derived fine resolution data, a multiple
Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.
SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community
Kutz, Daniel O.; Shankar, Kalpana; Connelly, Kay
Background A recent trend in personal health and wellness management is the development of computerized applications or information and communication technologies (ICTs) that support behavioral change, aid the management of chronic conditions, or help an individual manage their wellness and engage in a healthier lifestyle. Objective To understand how individuals across 3 generations (young, middle-aged, and older) think about the design and use of collaborative health and wellness management ...
Maurer, Martin H.
Whereas genomics describes the study of genome, mainly represented by its gene expression on the DNA or RNA level, the term proteomics denotes the study of the proteome, which is the protein complement encoded by the genome. In recent years, the number of proteomic experiments increased tremendously. While all fields of proteomics have made major technological advances, the biggest step was seen in bioinformatics. Biological information management relies on sequence and structure databases an...
information of G. Kucsko⇤, P. C. Maurer⇤, N. Yao, M. Kubo , H. J. Noh, P. Lo, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, Nanometer scale thermometry in a living cell, Nature 500, 54...appreciation goes to Minako Kubo , Prof. Peggy Lo and Prof. Hongkun Park from the chemistry department at Harvard for preparing biological sample...initio calculations . From such calculations one finds that the lowest lying energy level is located within the valence band of diamond and the
Full Text Available Disaster risk information is spatial in nature and Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS play an important key role by the services they provide to society. In this context, to risk management and governance, in general, and to civil protection, specifically (termed differently in many countries, and includes, for instance: civil contingencies in the UK, homeland security in the USA, disaster risk reduction at the UN level. The main impetus of this article is to summarize key contributions and challenges in utilizing and accepting GIS and RS methods and data for disaster risk governance, which includes public bodies, but also risk managers in industry and practitioners in search and rescue organizations. The article analyzes certain method developments, such as vulnerability indicators, crowdsourcing, and emerging concepts, such as Volunteered Geographic Information, but also investigates the potential of the topic Critical Infrastructure as it could be applied on spatial assets and GIS and RS itself. Intended to stimulate research on new and emerging fields, this article’s main contribution is to move spatial research toward a more reflective stance where opportunities and challenges are equally and transparently addressed in order to gain more scientific quality. As a conclusion, GIS and RS can play a pivotal role not just in delivering data but also in connecting and analyzing data in a more integrative, holistic way.
Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.
The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-
The system description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem establishes the system boundaries and describes the interface of the DST Monitor and Control Subsystem with new and existing systems that are required to accomplish the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission
Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Rexroth, V.G.
Details of subsystem costs are among the questions most frequently asked about the $14.4 million Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper presents a breakdown of cost components for each of the 20 major subsystems of TSTA. Also included are details to aid in adjusting the costs to other years, contracting conditions, or system sizes
Shapiro, Laura R.; Olson, Andrew C.
Category-specific disorders are frequently explained by suggesting that living and non-living things are processed in separate subsystems (e.g. Caramazza & Shelton, 1998). If subsystems exist, there should be benefits for normal processing, beyond the influence of structural similarity. However, no previous study has separated the relative…
Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej
Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.
Camperi, Marcelo; Tricas, Timothy C; Brown, Brandon R
Morphology typically enhances the fidelity of sensory systems. Sharks, skates, and rays have a well-developed electrosense that presents strikingly unique morphologies. Here, we model the dynamics of the peripheral electrosensory system of the skate, a dorsally flattened batoid, moving near an electric dipole source (e.g., a prey organism). We compute the coincident electric signals that develop across an array of the skate's electrosensors, using electrodynamics married to precise morphological measurements of sensor location, infrastructure, and vector projection. Our results demonstrate that skate morphology enhances electrosensory information. Not only could the skate locate prey using a simple population vector algorithm, but its morphology also specifically leads to quick shifts in firing rates that are well-suited to the demonstrated bandwidth of the electrosensory system. Finally, we propose electrophysiology trials to test the modeling scheme. PMID:17571918
Maurer, Martin H
Whereas genomics describes the study of genome, mainly represented by its gene expression on the DNA or RNA level, the term proteomics denotes the study of the proteome, which is the protein complement encoded by the genome. In recent years, the number of proteomic experiments increased tremendously. While all fields of proteomics have made major technological advances, the biggest step was seen in bioinformatics. Biological information management relies on sequence and structure databases and powerful software tools to translate experimental results into meaningful biological hypotheses and answers. In this resource article, I provide a collection of databases and software available on the Internet that are useful to interpret genomic and proteomic data. The article is a toolbox for researchers who have genomic or proteomic datasets and need to put their findings into a biological context.
Full Text Available Morphology typically enhances the fidelity of sensory systems. Sharks, skates, and rays have a well-developed electrosense that presents strikingly unique morphologies. Here, we model the dynamics of the peripheral electrosensory system of the skate, a dorsally flattened batoid, moving near an electric dipole source (e.g., a prey organism. We compute the coincident electric signals that develop across an array of the skate's electrosensors, using electrodynamics married to precise morphological measurements of sensor location, infrastructure, and vector projection. Our results demonstrate that skate morphology enhances electrosensory information. Not only could the skate locate prey using a simple population vector algorithm, but its morphology also specifically leads to quick shifts in firing rates that are well-suited to the demonstrated bandwidth of the electrosensory system. Finally, we propose electrophysiology trials to test the modeling scheme.
California Univ., Berkeley.
This report, the third in a series which presents the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level, is a technical manual for using the Academic Building Systems (ABS) approach in programing, designing, and constructing such facilities. The document presents (1) planning…
Full Text Available A set of simulation models of various subsystems of a coal mine was developed with the help of a new visual interactive simulation system of technological processes. This paper contains a brief description of this simulation system and its possibilities. The main possibilities provided by the simulation system are: the quick construction of models from library elements, 3D representation, and the communication of models with actual control systems. These simulation models were developed for the simulation of various subsystems of a coal mine: underground conveyor network subsystems, pumping subsystems and coal face subsystems. These simulation models were developed with the goal to be used as a quality and reliability assurance tool for new process control systems in coal mining.
Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.
Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.
Wilver Enrique Salinas Castillo
Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and classify artificial and natural inland wetlands in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, important for migratory aquatic birds. Historically, efforts nave been focused on natural coastal wetlands or specific water bodies located in highlands; however, these surveys have not reflected the dramatic changes in landscape due to farming development in northem Mexico in the Iatest decades. Agricultural fieids and dams associated to them provide food, water and shelterto many migratory birds and other species, a fact not well documented. Factors that may influence the use of wetlands were analyzed, including surface area, associated vegetation and proximity to agricultural fieids. The inventory of inland wetlands was based on the analysis of seven 2000 Landsat ETM satellite imagery and field data gathered from 261 sites surveyed in 2001. Baseline maps were created and GIS analyses were undertaken to classify these water bodies. More than 23 000 inland wetlands were identified, and the information derived from this study will be assist in the development of programs to manage and protect wetlands of importance for migratory aquatic birds in Tamaulipas.
Higgins, Allen; Vidolov, Simeon; Frößler, Frank; Mullaney, Doreen
This paper draws on Ciborra's insightful concept of xenia (i.e., hospitality) to analyze how successful infrastructural service innovation was managed at the local operations of an international financial services firm. The xenia concept problematizes the information system development (ISD) orthodoxy and points to issues and aspects that are often overlooked or considered irrelevant in structured methodologies. In interpreting the findings of the empirical study—in which a highly successful (but radical) big bang transition from one technology platform to another takes place over a single weekend—we suggest that IS implementation and development is an emergent process in which technology and users are continually redefined. This process resembles an emotional "meeting" between host and guest who, over time, develop mutual familiarity and acceptance. Further, we argue that the metaphor of xenia opens space for reconsidering conventional but socially sterile approaches to IS innovation; xenia offers a radically different way for understanding and acting upon ISD. Our analysis highlights the intrinsic socio-technical interplay underlying IS development and implementation, and raises questions about the importance of local cultures of "hospitality" and ways they may be cultivated and nurtured in order to alleviate the meeting between technology and organizations.
Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Eckardt, F. D.; Martinez, P.
Nigeria, the largest producer of crude oil in Africa occupies sixth position in the world. Despite such huge oil revenue potentials, its pipeline network system is consistently susceptible to leaks causing oil spills. We investigate ground based spill events which are caused by operational error, equipment failure and most importantly by deliberate attacks along the major pipeline transport system. Sometimes, these spills are accompanied with fire explosion caused by accidental discharge, natural or illegal refineries in the creeds, etc. MODIS satellites fires data corresponding to the times and spill events (i.e. ground based data) of the Area of Interest (AOI) show significant correlation. The open source Quantum Geographical Information System (QGIS) was used to validate the dataset and the spatiotemporal analyses of the oil spill fires were expressed. We demonstrate that through QGIS and Google Earth (using the time sliders), we can identify and monitor oil spills when they are attended with fire events along the pipeline transport system accordingly. This is shown through the spatiotemporal images of the fires. Evidence of such fire cases resulting from bunt vegetation as different from industrial and domestic fire is also presented. Detecting oil spill fires in the study location may not require an enormous terabyte of image processing: we can however rely on a near-real-time (NRT) MODIS data that is readily available twice daily to detect oil spill fire as early warning signal for those hotspots areas where cases of oil seepage is significant in Nigeria.
Full Text Available With an ever increasing penetration of Internet Protocol (IP technologies, the wireless industry is evolving the mobile core network towards all-IP network. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a standardised Next Generation Network (NGN architectural framework defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP to bridge the gap between circuit-switched and packet-switched networks and consolidate both sides into on single all-IP network for all services. In this paper, we provide an insight into the limitation of the presence service, one of the fundamental building blocks of the IMS. Our prototype-based study is unique of its kind and helps identifying the factors which limit the scalability of the current version of the presence service (3GPP TS 23.141 version 7.2.0 Release 7 , which will in turn dramatically limit the performance of advanced IMS services. We argue that the client-server paradigm behind the current IMS architecture does not suite the requirements of the IMS system, which defies the very purpose of its introduction. We finally elaborate on possible avenues for addressing this problem.
Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Ousley, Wes; Valentini, Marc; Thomas, Jason; Dejoie, Joel
The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is a joint NASA-CNES mission to study the Earth's cloud and aerosol layers. The satellite is composed of a primary payload (built by Ball Aerospace) and a spacecraft platform bus (PROTEUS, built by Alcatel Alenia Space). The thermal control subsystem (TCS) for the CALIPSO satellite is a passive design utilizing radiators, multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, and both operational and survival surface heaters. The most temperature sensitive component within the satellite is the laser system. During thermal vacuum testing of the integrated satellite, the laser system's operational heaters were found to be inadequate in maintaining the lasers required set point. In response, a solution utilizing the laser system's survival heaters to augment the operational heaters was developed with collaboration between NASA, CNES, Ball Aerospace, and Alcatel-Alenia. The CALIPSO satellite launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on April 26th, 2006. Evaluation of both the platform and payload thermal control systems show they are performing as expected and maintaining the critical elements of the satellite within acceptable limits.
Zhu, Xiaohua; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Lingli
Leaf area index (LAI) is a key structural characteristic of vegetation and plays a significant role in global change research. Several methods and remotely sensed data have been evaluated for LAI estimation. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of the look-up-table (LUT) approach for crop LAI retrieval from Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)-5 data and establish an LUT approach for LAI inversion based on scale information. The LAI inversion result was validated by in situ LAI measurements, indicating that the LUT generated based on the PROSAIL (PROSPECT+SAIL: properties spectra + scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves) model was suitable for crop LAI estimation, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of ˜0.31m2 / m2 and determination coefficient (R2) of 0.65. The scale effect of crop LAI was analyzed based on Taylor expansion theory, indicating that when the SPOT data aggregated by 200 × 200 pixel, the relative error is significant with 13.7%. Finally, an LUT method integrated with scale information was proposed in this article, improving the inversion accuracy with RMSE of 0.20 m2 / m2 and R2 of 0.83.
Shrestha, Roshan; Takara, Kaoru; Tachikawa, Yasuto; Jha, Raghu N.
Water resources assessment, which is an essential task in making development plans managing water resources, is considerably difficult to do in a data-poor region. In this study, we attempted to conduct a quantitative water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment, i.e. the River Indrawati catchment (1233 km2) in Nepal. This catchment is facing problems such as dry-season water scarcity and water use conflicts. However, the region lacks the basic data that this study needs. The data needed are supplemented from field surveys and global data (e.g. GTOPO30 DEM data, LandsatTM data and MODIS NDVI data). The global data have significantly helped us to draw out the information needed for a number of water-use scenarios. These data helped us determine that the available water quantity is enough at present to address the dry-season problems. The situation is not much worse for the immediate future; however, the threat of drought is noticed in a future scenario in which resources are consumed extensively. The study uses a geographical information system and remotely sensed data analysis tools extensively. Utilization of modern tools and global data is found effective for investigating practical problems and for detecting important features of water resources, even though the catchment is poorly gauged.
Full Text Available The services provided to users in the environment associated with the Internet of Things (hereinafter referred to as IoT begin with the information collected from sensors. It is imperative to transmit high-quality sensor data for providing better services. It is also required to collect data only from those authenticated sensors. Moreover, it is imperative to collect high-quality data on a sustainable and continuous basis in order to provide services anytime and anywhere in the IoT environment. Therefore, high-quality, authenticated sensor networks should be constructed. The most prominent routing protocol to enhance the energy consumption efficiency for the sustainable data collection in a sensor network is the LEACH routing protocol. The LEACH routing protocol transmits sensor data by measuring the energy of sensors and allocating sensor groups dynamically. However, these sensor networks have vulnerabilities such as key leakage, eavesdropping, replay attack and relay attack, given the nature of wireless network communication. A large number of security techniques have been studied in order to solve these vulnerabilities. Nonetheless, these studies still cannot support the dynamic sensor group allocation of the LEACH routing protocol. Furthermore, they are not suitable for the sensor nodes whose hardware computing ability and energy resources are limited. Therefore, this paper proposed a group sensor communication protocol that utilizes only the four fundamental arithmetic operations and logical operation for the sensor node authentication and secure data transmission. Through the security analysis, this paper verified that the proposed scheme was secure to the vulnerabilities resulting from the nature of wireless network communication. Moreover, this paper verified through the performance analysis that the proposed scheme could be utilized efficiently.
N. A. Brunsell
Full Text Available A more thorough understanding of the multi-scale spatial structure of land surface heterogeneity will enhance understanding of the relationships and feedbacks between land surface conditions, mass and energy exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere, and regional meteorological and climatological conditions. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify which spatial scales are dominant in determining the evapotranspiration flux between the surface and the atmosphere and (2 to quantify how different spatial scales of atmospheric and surface processes interact for different stages of the phenological cycle. We used the ALEXI/DisALEXI model for three days (DOY 181, 229 and 245 in 2002 over the Ft. Peck Ameriflux site to estimate the latent heat flux from Landsat, MODIS and GOES satellites. We then applied a multiresolution information theory methodology to quantify these interactions across different spatial scales and compared the dynamics across the different sensors and different periods. We note several important results: (1 spatial scaling characteristics vary with day, but are usually consistent for a given sensor, but (2 different sensors give different scalings, and (3 the different sensors exhibit different scaling relationships with driving variables such as fractional vegetation and near surface soil moisture. In addition, we note that while the dominant length scale of the vegetation index remains relatively constant across the dates, the contribution of the vegetation index to the derived latent heat flux varies with time. We also note that length scales determined from MODIS are consistently larger than those determined from Landsat, even at scales that should be detectable by MODIS. This may imply an inability of the MODIS sensor to accurately determine the fine scale spatial structure of the land surface. These results aid in identifying the dominant cross-scale nature of local to regional biosphere
V. I. Kryachko
The socioevaluative, autointentional, identificative attempts to explicate some ethnoreligious crosscorrelations between different significative structural fields in sociospace are based on the author’s Model of the structure of significative field of Catholicism, which consists of the following 12 basic significative structural subsystems: 1 anthropomorphic significative subsystem, which includes humansimilar (manlike and personificated symbolic constructions, monuments and architectural ensembles, as well as symbols of human body parts, their combinations and signals; 2 zoomorphic significative subsystem, which includes animalsimilar significative constructions and signs of their separate bodyparts, as well as symbols of their lifeproducts; 3 vegetomorphic significative subsystem, which includes plantsimilar significative elements and food products; 4 geomorphic significative subsystem; 5 geometric significative subsystem; 6 astralreferent significative subsystem; 7 coloristic significative subsystem; 8 toposinstalative significative subsystem; 9 objectiveinstrumental significative subsystem; 10 architectural exteriorinterior significative subsystem; 11 abstractive significative subsystem; 12 actional significative subsystem.
A 100 kWe liquid-cooled HT-PEMFC subsystem is integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem to provide electricity and cooling. The system is designed, modeled and simulated to investigate the potential of this technology for future novel energy system applications. Liquid-cooling can provide...
A review of the state-of-the-art of seismic qualification methods of subsystem has been completed. This task assesses the accuracy of seismic analysis techniques to predict dynamic response, and also identifies and quantifies sources of random and modeling undertainty in subsystem response determination. The subsystem has been classified as two categories according to the nature of support: multiply supported subsystems (e.g., piping systems) and singly supported subsystems (e.g., pumps, turbines, electrical control panels, etc.). The mutliply supported piping systems are analyzed by multisupport input time history method. The input motions are the responses of major structures. The dynamic models of the subsystems identified by the event/fault tree are created. The responses calculated by multisupport input time history method are consistent with the fragility parameters. These responses are also coordinated with the event/fault tree description. The subsystem responses are then evaluated against the fragility curves of components and systems and incorporated in the event/fault tree analysis. (orig./HP)
Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave
Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.
Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, A; Mateos, N; Sanjuan, J, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, c/Gran Capita 2-4, Edif. Nexus 104, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)
The Magnetic Diagnostics Subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at the positions they occupy. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses. Therefore, an interpolation method must be implemented to obtain this information. However, such interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable, and the number of magnetometer channels does not provide sufficient data to go beyond that poor approximation. Recent research points to a possible alternative to address the magnetic interpolation problem by means of neural network algorithms. The key point of this approach is the ability neural networks have to learn from suitable training data representing the magnetic field behaviour. Despite the large distance to the test masses and the insufficient magnetic readings, artificial neural networks are able to significantly reduce the estimation error to acceptable levels. The learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained from on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and under real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.
Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, A; Mateos, N; Sanjuan, J
The Magnetic Diagnostics Subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at the positions they occupy. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses. Therefore, an interpolation method must be implemented to obtain this information. However, such interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable, and the number of magnetometer channels does not provide sufficient data to go beyond that poor approximation. Recent research points to a possible alternative to address the magnetic interpolation problem by means of neural network algorithms. The key point of this approach is the ability neural networks have to learn from suitable training data representing the magnetic field behaviour. Despite the large distance to the test masses and the insufficient magnetic readings, artificial neural networks are able to significantly reduce the estimation error to acceptable levels. The learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained from on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and under real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.
Bond, Timothy A.; Metcalf, Jordan L.; Asuncion, Carmelo
The paper examines the design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) constructed for providing the vehicle and payload cooling during all phases of a mission and during ground turnaround operations. The operation of the Shuttle ATCS and some of the problems encountered during the first 39 flights of the Shuttle program are described, with special attention given to the major problems encountered with the degradation of the Freon flow rate on the Orbiter Columbia, the Flash Evaporator Subsystem mission anomalies which occurred on STS-26 and STS-34, and problems encountered with the Ammonia Boiler Subsystem. The causes and the resolutions of these problems are discussed.
Kennedy, R.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.
A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models. (author)
Cheng, Yih-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Yun; Huang, Ming-Hao
Low-complexity compressed sensing (CS) techniques for monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in wireless body sensor network (WBSN) are presented. The prior probability of ECG sparsity in the wavelet domain is first exploited. Then, variable orthogonal multi-matching pursuit (vOMMP) algorithm that consists of two phases is proposed. In the first phase, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is adopted to effectively augment the support set with reliable indices and in the second phase, the orthogonal multi-matching pursuit (OMMP) is employed to rescue the missing indices. The reconstruction performance is thus enhanced with the prior information and the vOMMP algorithm. Furthermore, the computation-intensive pseudo-inverse operation is simplified by the matrix-inversion-free (MIF) technique based on QR decomposition. The vOMMP-MIF CS decoder is then implemented in 90 nm CMOS technology. The QR decomposition is accomplished by two systolic arrays working in parallel. The implementation supports three settings for obtaining 40, 44, and 48 coefficients in the sparse vector. From the measurement result, the power consumption is 11.7 mW at 0.9 V and 12 MHz. Compared to prior chip implementations, our design shows good hardware efficiency and is suitable for low-energy applications.
Wang, N.; Yang, R.
Chinese high -resolution (HR) remote sensing satellites have made huge leap in the past decade. Commercial satellite datasets, such as GF-1, GF-2 and ZY-3 images, the panchromatic images (PAN) resolution of them are 2 m, 1 m and 2.1 m and the multispectral images (MS) resolution are 8 m, 4 m, 5.8 m respectively have been emerged in recent years. Chinese HR satellite imagery has been free downloaded for public welfare purposes using. Local government began to employ more professional technician to improve traditional land management technology. This paper focused on analysing the actual requirements of the applications in government land law enforcement in Guangxi Autonomous Region. 66 counties in Guangxi Autonomous Region were selected for illegal land utilization spot extraction with fusion Chinese HR images. The procedure contains: A. Defines illegal land utilization spot type. B. Data collection, GF-1, GF-2, and ZY-3 datasets were acquired in the first half year of 2016 and other auxiliary data were collected in 2015. C. Batch process, HR images were collected for batch preprocessing through ENVI/IDL tool. D. Illegal land utilization spot extraction by visual interpretation. E. Obtaining attribute data with ArcGIS Geoprocessor (GP) model. F. Thematic mapping and surveying. Through analysing 42 counties results, law enforcement officials found 1092 illegal land using spots and 16 suspicious illegal mining spots. The results show that Chinese HR satellite images have great potential for feature information extraction and the processing procedure appears robust.
Minale, Amare Sewnet; Alemu, Kalkidan
The main objective of this study was to develop a malaria risk map for Bahir Dar City, Amhara, which is situated south of Lake Tana on the Ethiopian plateau. Rainfall, temperature, altitude, slope and land use/land cover (LULC), as well as proximity measures to lake, river and health facilities, were investigated using remote sensing and geographical information systems. The LULC variable was derived from a 2012 SPOT satellite image by supervised classification, while 30-m spatial resolution measurements of altitude and slope came from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Metrological data were collected from the National Meteorological Agency, Bahir Dar branch. These separate datasets, represented as layers in the computer, were combined using weighted, multi-criteria evaluations. The outcome shows that rainfall, temperature, slope, elevation, distance from the lake and distance from the river influenced the malaria hazard the study area by 35%, 15%, 10%, 7%, 5% and 3%, respectively, resulting in a map showing five areas with different levels of malaria hazard: very high (11.2%); high (14.5%); moderate (63.3%); low (6%); and none (5%). The malaria risk map, based on this hazard map plus additional information on proximity to health facilities and current LULC conditions, shows that Bahir Dar City has areas with very high (15%); high (65%); moderate (8%); and low (5%) levels of malaria risk, with only 2% of the land completely riskfree. Such risk maps are essential for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating disease control as well as for contemplating prevention and elimination of epidemiological hazards from endemic areas.
Chen, Gongbo; Knibbs, Luke D; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Williams, Gail; Hamm, N A S; Guo, Yuming
PM 1 might be more hazardous than PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm and ≤2.5 μm, respectively). However, studies on PM 1 concentrations and its health effects are limited due to a lack of PM 1 monitoring data. To estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM 1 concentrations in China during 2005-2014 using satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information. Two types of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB), were combined. Generalised additive model (GAM) was developed to link ground-monitored PM 1 data with AOD data and other spatial and temporal predictors (e.g., urban cover, forest cover and calendar month). A 10-fold cross-validation was performed to assess the predictive ability. The results of 10-fold cross-validation showed R 2 and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for monthly prediction were 71% and 13.0 μg/m 3 , respectively. For seasonal prediction, the R 2 and RMSE were 77% and 11.4 μg/m 3 , respectively. The predicted annual mean concentration of PM 1 across China was 26.9 μg/m 3 . The PM 1 level was highest in winter while lowest in summer. Generally, the PM 1 levels in entire China did not substantially change during the past decade. Regarding local heavy polluted regions, PM 1 levels increased substantially in the South-Western Hebei and Beijing-Tianjin region. GAM with satellite-retrieved AOD, meteorology, and land use information has high predictive ability to estimate ground-level PM 1 . Ambient PM 1 reached high levels in China during the past decade. The estimated results can be applied to evaluate the health effects of PM 1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wootten, Al; Urbain, Denis; Grammer, Wes; Durand, S.
The VLA’s success over 35 years of operations stems in part from dramatically upgraded components over the years. The time has come to build a new array to lead the radio astronomical science into its next 40 years. To accomplish that, a next generation VLA (ngVLA) is envisioned to have 214 antennas with diameters of 18m. The core of the array will be centered at the current VLA location, but the arms will extend out to 1000km.The VLA cryogenic subsystem equipment and technology have remained virtually unchanged since the early 1980s. While adequate for a 27-antenna array, scaling the current system for an array of 214 antennas would be prohibitively expensive in terms of operating cost and maintenance. The overall goal is to limit operating cost to within three times the current level, despite having 8 times the number of antennas. To help realize this goal, broadband receivers and compact feeds will be utilized to reduce both the size and number of cryostats required. The current baseline front end concept calls for just two moderately-sized cryostats for the entire 1.2-116 GHz frequency range, as opposed to 8 in the VLA.For the ngVLA cryogenics, our objective is a well-optimized and efficient system that uses state-of-the-art technology to minimize per-antenna power consumption and maximize reliability. Application of modern technologies, such as variable-speed operation for the scroll compressors and cryocooler motor drives, allow the cooling capacity of the system to be dynamically matched to thermal loading in each cryostat. Significantly, power savings may be realized while the maintenance interval of the cryocoolers is also extended.Finally, a receiver designed to minimize thermal loading can produce savings directly translating to lower operating cost when variable-speed drives are used. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) on radiation shields and improved IR filters on feed windows can significantly reduce heat loading.Measurements done on existing cryogenic
Martin, R. B.; Erickson, A. C.
A preprototype water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated for NASA's advanced regenerative life support program. A solid polymer is used for the cell electrolyte. The electrolysis module has 12 cells that can generate 5.5 kg/day of oxygen for the metabolic requirements of three crewmembers, for cabin leakage, and for the oxygen and hydrogen required for carbon dioxide collection and reduction processes. The subsystem can be operated at a pressure between 276 and 2760 kN/sq m and in a continuous constant-current, cyclic, or standby mode. A microprocessor is used to aid in operating the subsystem. Sensors and controls provide fault detection and automatic shutdown. The results of development, demonstration, and parametric testing are presented. Modifications to enhance operation in an integrated and manned test are described. Prospective improvements for the electrolysis subsystem are discussed.
Pfeiffer, Hans C.; Dhaliwal, Rajinder S.; Golladay, Steven D.; Doran, Samuel K.; Gordon, Michael S.; Kendall, Rodney A.; Lieberman, Jon E.; Pinckney, David J.; Quickle, Robert J.; Robinson, Christopher F.; Rockrohr, James D.; Stickel, Werner; Tressler, Eileen V.
The IBM/Nikon alliance is continuing pursuit of an EPL stepper alpha tool based on the PREVAIL technology. This paper provides a status report of the alliance activity with particular focus on the Electron Optical Subsystem developed at IBM. We have previously reported on design features of the PREVAIL alpha system. The new state-of-the-art e-beam lithography concepts have since been reduced to practice and turned into functional building blocks of a production level lithography tool. The electron optical alpha tool subsystem has been designed, build, assembled and tested at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC) in East Fishkill, New York. After demonstrating subsystem functionality, the electron optical column and all associated control electronics hardware and software have been shipped during January 2001 to Nikon's facility in Kumagaya, Japan, for integration into the Nikon commercial e-beam stepper alpha tool. Early pre-shipment results obtained with this electron optical subsystem are presented.
Block, Roger F.
The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..
Komáromy, Dávid; Tezcan, Meniz; Schaeffer, Gaël; Marić, Ivana; Otto, Sijbren
In living systems processes like genome duplication and cell division are carefully synchronized through subsystem coupling. If we are to create life de novo, similar control over essential processes such as self-replication need to be developed. Here we report that coupling two dynamic combinatorial subsystems, featuring two separate building blocks, enables effector-mediated control over self-replication. The subsystem based on the first building block shows only self-replication, whereas that based on the second one is solely responsive toward a specific external effector molecule. Mixing the subsystems arrests replication until the effector molecule is added, resulting in the formation of a host-effector complex and the liberation of the building block that subsequently engages in self-replication. The onset, rate and extent of self-replication is controlled by the amount of effector present. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Cedric R Uytingco
Full Text Available The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB, but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences. The formation of these socially-transmitted food preferences requires the animal to integrate information about two types of olfactory stimuli: these specialized social chemosignals and the food odors themselves. However, the neural mechanisms with which the GC-D/necklace subsystem processes this information are unclear. We used stimulus-induced increases in intrinsic fluorescence signals to map functional circuitry associated with NGs and canonical glomeruli (CGs in the MOB. As expected, CG-associated activity spread laterally through both the glomerular and external plexiform layers associated with activated glomeruli. Activation of CGs or NGs resulted in activity spread between the two types of glomeruli; there was no evidence of preferential connectivity between individual necklace glomeruli. These results support previous anatomical findings that suggest the canonical and GC-D/necklace subsystems are functionally connected and may integrate general odor and semiochemical information in the MOB.
Ľubica Floreková; Ján Terpák; Marcela Čarnogurská
Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what), operation (how) and structure (why). Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirem...
Goodwin, F. E. (Inventor)
An opto-mechanical subsystem for supporting a laser structure which minimizes changes in the alignment of the laser optics in response to temperature variations is described. Both optical and mechanical structural components of the system are formed of the same material, preferably beryllium, which is selected for high mechanical strength and good thermal conducting qualities. All mechanical and optical components are mounted and assembled to provide thorough thermal coupling throughout the subsystem to prevent the development of temperature gradients.
Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz
We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with
An input/output-subsystem of one or several computers if formed by the external memory units and the peripheral units of a computer system. For these subsystems mathematical models are established, taking into account the special properties of the I/O-subsystems, in order to avoid planning errors and to allow for predictions of the capacity of such systems. Here an analytical model is presented for the magnetic discs of a I/O-subsystem, using analytical methods for the individual waiting queues or waiting queue networks. Only I/O-subsystems of IBM-computer configurations are considered, which can be controlled by the MVS operating system. After a description of the hardware and software components of these I/O-systems, possible solutions from the literature are presented and discussed with respect to their applicability in IBM-I/O-subsystems. Based on these models a special scheme is developed which combines the advantages of the literature models and avoids the disadvantages in part. (orig./RW) [de
Nagel, David J.
The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.
There are many tools to manage spatial data. They called Geographic Information System (GIS), which apart from data visualization in space, let users make various spatial analysis. Thanks to them, it is possible to obtain more, essential information for real estate market analysis. Many scientific research present GIS exploitation to future mass valuation, because it is necessary to use advanced tools to manage such a huge real estates' data sets gathered for mass valuation needs. In practice, appraisers use rarely these tools for single valuation, because there are not many available GIS tools to support real estate valuation. The paper presents the functionality of geoinformatic subsystem, that is used to support real estate market analysis and real estate valuation. There are showed a detailed description of the process relied to attributes' inputting into the database and the attributes' values calculation based on the proposed definition of attributes' scales. This work presents also the algorithm of similar properties selection that was implemented within the described subsystem. The main stage of this algorithm is the calculation of the price creative indicator for each real estate, using their attributes' values. The set of properties, chosen in this way, are visualized on the map. The geoinformatic subsystem is used for the un-built real estates and living premises. Geographic Information System software was used to worked out this project. The basic functionality of gvSIG software (open source software) was extended and some extra functions were added to support real estate market analysis.
Full Text Available Information has always presented an important factor of human activity. As a resource that guided human activity, information was gathered, stored, analysed and distributed in different ways throughout the history. Today, information system is a necessity in the global business system. Globalisation processes have changed the traditional concept of doing business and brought about the need for information management as an integral part of overall company assets and rapid development of information and communication technology. Regardless of the benefits and advantages that may be offered by the systems, companies do business to earn profit. In this sense information systems should be considered as investment. Although investment costs can be determined relatively precisely, benefits offered by the systems are more difficult to measure and they require comprehensive consideration of all aspects of doing business to which the systems refer. Accounting is an information subsystem of the single information system of a company. Its purpose is to provide comprehensive, systematic and permanent presentation of data and information, based on documents that refer to all elements contained in business subsystems and the business system of the company as a whole. Information resulting from accounting and information system is contained in accounting reports, i.e. calculations, estimates and analyses within which it is presented to the management.
Full Text Available In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L. in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1 identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2 modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3 simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2 and (3 to 4 locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix, Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9. Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29% would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2% and Alnus viridis (4.8%. The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the
Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël
In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L.) in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1) identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2) modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3) simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2) and (3) to 4) locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix), Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland) were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9). Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29%) would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2%) and Alnus viridis (4.8%). The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the spatial
Cracknell, Arthur P
Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo
Full Text Available is greatly increased, and resource reservation and QoS management by the RACS is also greatly increased. Index Terms—Traffic Engineering; Cross Layer; Cognitive Radio, IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) I. INTRODUCTION HE IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS...) is seen as the answer to the much talked-about convergence of data and telecommunication services. The original IMS design was by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for delivering IP Multimedia services to end users, using telecommunication...
Suzuki, Mai; Yamaguchi, Tomiko
Risk communication aims to promote health and understanding through information exchange; however, explanations regarding the basis of regulation values for the public are insufficient. Moreover, it is unclear how information presentation affects the public’s sense of safety and their consumption intentions. We first investigated the relationship between perception of mercury-risk in fish and shellfish and individual attributes and knowledge. We then examined how presenting information on regulation values and primary factors regarding perception affected sense of safety toward regulations and food-consumption intentions. An online survey was conducted with Japanese individuals (N = 1148). Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three groups based on the presentation level of regulation values. People who frequently consumed tuna had a high perception of dread risk of mercury. This suggests that the dread risk perception of mercury does not determine tuna-type consumption behavior; rather, individuals’ consumption behavior determines dread risk perception of mercury. Among those with high tuna-type consumption, those receiving information that a safety factor of 10 times had been considered showed a significantly greater sense of safety than did the group that was not presented with information on regulation values (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.04 (1.18–3.53), p values showed a weak but significantly positive correlation with excessive intake of tuna-type fish (odds ratio: 2.95 (0.93–9.32), p values increases sense of safety; however, it may also lead to excessive intake. PMID:29267301
Petrovich, Gorica D; Gallagher, Michela
A combination of behavioral studies and a neural systems analysis approach has proven fruitful in defining the role of the amygdala complex and associated circuits in fear conditioning. The evidence presented in this chapter suggests that this approach is also informative in the study of other adaptive functions that involve the amygdala. In this chapter we present a novel model to study learning in an appetitive context. Furthermore, we demonstrate that long-recognized connections between the amygdala and the hypothalamus play a crucial role in allowing learning to modulate feeding behavior. In the first part we describe a behavioral model for motivational learning. In this model a cue that acquires motivational properties through pairings with food delivery when an animal is hungry can override satiety and promote eating in sated rats. Next, we present evidence that a specific amygdala subsystem (basolateral area) is responsible for allowing such learned cues to control eating (override satiety and promote eating in sated rats). We also show that basolateral amygdala mediates these actions via connectivity with the lateral hypothalamus. Lastly, we present evidence that the amygdalohypothalamic system is specific for the control of eating by learned motivational cues, as it does not mediate another function that depends on intact basolateral amygdala, namely, the ability of a conditioned cue to support new learning based on its acquired value. Knowledge about neural systems through which food-associated cues specifically control feeding behavior provides a defined model for the study of learning. In addition, this model may be informative for understanding mechanisms of maladaptive aspects of learned control of eating that contribute to eating disorders and more moderate forms of overeating.
Qin, Changbo; Jia, Yangwen; Su, Z.(Bob); Zhou, Zuhao; Qiu, Yaqin; Suhui, Shen
This paper investigates whether remote sensing evapotranspiration estimates can be integrated by means of data assimilation into a distributed hydrological model for improving the predictions of spatial water distribution over a large river basin with an area of 317,800 km2. A series of available MODIS satellite images over the Haihe River basin in China are used for the year 2005. Evapotranspiration is retrieved from these 1×1 km resolution images using the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) algorithm. The physically-based distributed model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) is used to compute the water balance of the Haihe River basin in the same year. Comparison between model-derived and remote sensing retrieval basin-averaged evapotranspiration estimates shows a good piecewise linear relationship, but their spatial distribution within the Haihe basin is different. The remote sensing derived evapotranspiration shows variability at finer scales. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) data assimilation algorithm, suitable for non-linear problems, is used. Assimilation results indicate that remote sensing observations have a potentially important role in providing spatial information to the assimilation system for the spatially optical hydrological parameterization of the model. This is especially important for large basins, such as the Haihe River basin in this study. Combining and integrating the capabilities of and information from model simulation and remote sensing techniques may provide the best spatial and temporal characteristics for hydrological states/fluxes, and would be both appealing and necessary for improving our knowledge of fundamental hydrological processes and for addressing important water resource management problems. PMID:27879946
This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This subsystem specification establishes the interface and performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem. The DST Monitor and Control Subsystem consists of the new and existing equipment that will be used to provide tank farm operators with integrated local monitoring and control of the DST systems to support Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). New equipment will provide automatic control and safety interlocks where required and provide operators with visibility into the status of DST subsystem operations (e.g., DST mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers) and the ability to manually control specified DST functions as necessary. This specification is intended to be the basis for new project/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program
Predescu, C.; Stancalie, G.; Savin, E.
Floodings represent an important risk in many areas around the globe and especially in Romania. In the latest years floodings occurred quite frequently in Romania, some of which isolated, others were affecting wide areas of the countrySs territory. The paper assumes a modern approach for the flooding risk indices, associated to the physic- geographical, morpho-hydrographical and vulnerability characteristics of a region, in view to establish a methodology which should further allow to determine the flooding risk, using representatives indices at a scale compatible with a synthetic representa- tion of the territory. There are stressed the facilities supplied by the Geographic Infor- mation System (GIS) and the remotely sensed data to manage flooding during their characteristic phases: before, during and after flooding. Accent is laid on the pre and post-crisis phases. An important research topic was the study of the parameters that can be extracted from satellite images in view of organising a hierarchy of the geo- graphical space versus the flooding risk. Information obtained from satellite images proved to be useful for the determination of certain parameters necessary to monitor flooding: hydrographic network, water accumulation, size of floodable surface, land impermeability degree, water absorption capacity over the basin surface, resilience to in-soil water infiltration. The study encompassed both the risk degree levels related with various parameters, which condition and determine floodings, and the one, which takes into consideration the human presence in the sensitive areas. It was planned to design and build a database, which will help to elaborate the flooding hydrological risk indices. The application was developed for the Arges hydrographic basin in Romania, a critical area, keeping in mind that it withholds many localities, including the capital and also important economic centres. The database allows obtaining synthetic repre- sentations of the
The Churia region of Nepal is experiencing serious environmental degradation due to landslides, monsoon flooding, land use changes, and gravel excavation. The objectives of this study were to quantify the temporal change of landslides as related to changes in land use/deforestation/urbanization, to quantify the temporal change and extent of river inundation in the Terai, to quantify the extent to which stone quarrying exacerbates the degradation process, and to generate a landslide hazard risk map. Gravel extraction and precipitation data, along with field work and geospatial methods, were used to map degradation by focusing on the centrally located districts of Bara, Rautahat, and Makwanpur. Landsat land use classifications were conducted on imagery from 1976, 1988, 1999, and 2015. A modified Normalized Difference Mid-Infrared (NDMIDIR) algorithm was created by incorporating slope, elevation, and land use types to identify landslide scars. A GIS model using weighted landslide variables derived from remote sensing and GIS methods to predict landslide susceptibility was created. These variables include hydrology, settlement, lithology, geology, precipitation, infrastructure, elevation, slope, aspect, land use, and previous landslides. Gravel excavation in 2007/2008 was nearly 700% higher than in 2001/2002. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) results showed that the study area is losing 1.03% forest cover annually; in 1977, there was 70% forest cover, but only 32% forest cover remained in 2016. The accuracy assessment of the 2015 Landsat 8 land use classification was 79%. NDMIDIR results showed that from 1988 to 2016, the total area representing landslide scars increased from 7.26km2 to 8.73 km2. The weighted variable GIS model output map indicated that 70% of the Siwalik zone and southern Lesser Himalayan zone in the three study districts have significant risk of landslides. Landslides and flooding from heavy monsoon rain, deforestation to develop
Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yingjun; Yang Xu
Beginning with the analysis of the spectral characteristics of sandstone with reducing alteration of oil-gas in Bashibulake ore district, the extract technology of reducing alteration information based on ASTER data is presented. Several remote sensing anomaly zones of reducing alteration information similar with that in uranium deposit are interpreted in study area. On the basis of above study, these alteration anomaly information are further classified by using the advantage of ASTER data with multi-band in SWIR, the geological significance for alteration anomaly information is respectively discussed. As a result, alteration anomalies good for uranium prospecting are really selected, which provides some important information for uranium exploration in outland of Bashibulake uranium ore area. (authors)
Waleh, Ahmad; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Kanevsky, Valery
The dynamic control of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) in a closed space habitat is of critical importance. The development of a practical method of control is also a necessary step for the selection and design of realistic subsystems and processors for a CELSS. Diet is one of the dynamic factors that strongly influences, and is influenced, by the operational states of all major CELSS subsystems. The problems of design and maintenance of a stable diet must be obtained from well characterized expert subsystems. The general description of a mathematical model that forms the basis of an expert control program for a CELSS is described. The formulation is expressed in terms of a complete set of time dependent canonical variables. System representation is dynamic and includes time dependent storage buffers. The details of the algorithm are described. The steady state results of the application of the method for representative diets made from wheat, potato, and soybean are presented.
This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program
The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra
Dasarathy, B. V.
An algorithm is proposed for dimensionality reduction in the context of clustering techniques based on histogram analysis. The approach is based on an evaluation of the hills and valleys in the unidimensional histograms along the different features and provides an economical means of assessing the significance of the features in a nonparametric unsupervised data environment. The method has relevance to remote sensing applications.
Nitrogen (N) needs to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of...
Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G; Thomas, Kris G; Thomas, Matthew R
Adaptation to learning styles has been proposed to enhance learning. We hypothesized that learners with sensing learning style would perform better using a problem-first instructional method while intuitive learners would do better using an information-first method. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Resident ambulatory clinics. 123 internal medicine residents. Four Web-based modules in ambulatory internal medicine were developed in both "didactic" (information first, followed by patient problem and questions) and "problem" (case and questions first, followed by information) format. Knowledge posttest, format preference, learning style (Index of Learning Styles). Knowledge scores were similar between the didactic (mean +/- standard error, 83.0 +/- 0.8) and problem (82.3 +/- 0.8) formats (p = .42; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, -2.3 to 0.9). There was no difference between formats in regression slopes of knowledge scores on sensing-intuitive scores (p = .63) or in analysis of knowledge scores by styles classification (sensing 82.5 +/- 1.0, intermediate 83.7 +/- 1.2, intuitive 81.0 +/- 1.5; p = .37 for main effect, p = .59 for interaction with format). Format preference was neutral (3.2 +/- 0.2 [1 strongly prefers didactic, 6 strongly prefers problem], p = .12), and there was no association between learning styles and preference (p = .44). Formats were similar in time to complete modules (43.7 +/- 2.2 vs 43.2 +/- 2.2 minutes, p = .72). Starting instruction with a problem (versus employing problems later on) may not improve learning outcomes. Sensing and intuitive learners perform similarly following problem-first and didactic-first instruction. Results may apply to other instructional media.
Didion, Jeffrey R.
Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop
P. L. N. Raju
Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the
Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.
North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and
Severe, W.R.; Hagen, J.; Siebelist, R.; Wagner, R.P.; Olson, W.M.
Operation of a Dynamic Material Control (DYMAC) prototype system has yielded some useful information for installing the final system. We discovered a bias between two methods for measuring filtrates. Evaluation of a unit process dynamic balance brought to light an operating procedure that weakens the accountability goals of the DYMAC system. We were able to correct both situations for the final system and learned that we must regularly monitor the system once it is operational for similar discrepancies
Full Text Available Submission is focused on completing the information system about quality, operation, automatic testing and new evaluating method of vehicle subsystem. Numeric analysis is carried out on the base of automatic collection and systematic recording of commercial car operation. Proposed new information system about operation and trial process allows verification according to the proposed method. Critical components verified in laboratory conditions are detected by numeric analysis of reliability. Quality level increasing not only for final product, but also related automatic test laboratory for cars is the result of respecting these principles.
Božek, Pavol; Turygin, Yuri
Submission is focused on completing the information system about quality, operation, automatic testing and new evaluating method of vehicle subsystem. Numeric analysis is carried out on the base of automatic collection and systematic recording of commercial car operation. Proposed new information system about operation and trial process allows verification according to the proposed method. Critical components verified in laboratory conditions are detected by numeric analysis of reliability. Quality level increasing not only for final product, but also related automatic test laboratory for cars is the result of respecting these principles.
Quapp, W.J.; Watts, K.D.
Two major reactor facilities at the INEL have been identified as easily adaptable for supporting the nuclear testing of the SP-100 reactor subsystem. They are the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) and the Loss of Fluid Test Reactor (LOFT). In addition, there are machine shops, analytical laboratories, hot cells, and the supporting services (fire protection, safety, security, medical, waste management, etc.) necessary to conducting a nuclear test program. This paper presents the conceptual approach for modifying these reactor facilities for the ground engineering test facility for the SP-100 nuclear subsystem. 4 figs
The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs
Neighbors, W. K.; Rock, Stephen M.
A procedure is presented for calculating multiple subsystem specifications given a number of performance requirements on the integrated system. This procedure applies to problems where the control design must be performed in a partitioned manner. It is based on a structured singular value analysis, and generates specifications as magnitude bounds on subsystem uncertainties. The performance requirements should be provided in the form of bounds on transfer functions of the integrated system. This form allows the expression of model following, command tracking, and disturbance rejection requirements. The procedure is demonstrated on a STOVL aircraft design.
Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Grenier, Martin; Cottin, Pierre; Leclerc, Mélanie; Martin, Olivier; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Boucher, Marc-André; Nash, Reston; Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Hill, Alexis; Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Herriot, Glen; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Véran, Jean-Pierre
The adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is the Narrow-Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). Recently, INO has been involved in the optomechanical design of several subsystems of NFIRAOS, including the Instrument Selection Mirror (ISM), the NFIRAOS Beamsplitters (NBS), and the NFIRAOS Source Simulator system (NSS) comprising the Focal Plane Mask (FPM), the Laser Guide Star (LGS) sources, and the Natural Guide Star (NGS) sources. This paper presents an overview of these subsystems and the optomechanical design approaches used to meet the optical performance requirements under environmental constraints.
Rossoni, Peter; McGill, William
This paper describes several novel design elements of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft mechanical subsystem. The spacecraft structure itself takes a significant step in integrating electronics into the primary structure. The deployment system restrains the spacecraft during launch and imparts a predetermined spin rate upon release from its secondary payload accommodations. The deployable instrument boom incorporates some traditional as well as new techniques for lightweight and stiffness. Analysis and test techniques used to validate these technologies are described. Numerous design choices were necessitated due to the compact spacecraft size and strict mechanical subsystem requirements.
An engineering flight demonstration of a 100 kW3 Space Reactor Power System is planned for the mid to late 1990s. An arcjet based propulsion subsystem will be included on the flight demonstraction as a secondary experiment. Two studies, sponsored by the Kay Technologies Directorate of the SDI Organization and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are currently under way to define that propulsion subsystem. The principal tasks of those contracts and the plans for two later phases, an experimental verification of the concept and a flight qualification/delivery of a flight unit, are described. 9 refs
Fogelquist, J.; Kaul, M.K.; Koppe, R.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Thailer, H.; Uffer, R.
This project is directed toward a portion of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program which includes one link in the seismic methodology chain. The link addressed here is the structural subsystem dynamic response which consists of those components and systems whose behavior is often determined decoupled from the major structural response. Typically the mathematical model utilized for the major structural response will include only the mass effects of the subsystem and the main model is used to produce the support motion inputs for subsystem seismic qualification. The main questions addressed in this report have to do with the seismic response uncertainty of safety-related components or equipment whose seismic qualification is performed by (a) analysis, (b) tests, or (c) combinations of analysis and tests, and where the seismic input is assumed to have no uncertainty
On the basis of remote-sensing information and geological environments for the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits such as geomorphic features, distribution of drainage system, and paleo-alluvial (diluvial) fans and time-space distribution regularities of orehosting rocks and sandstone bodies in Songliao and Liaohe faulted-depressed basins, image features, tectonic patterns and paleo-geographic environment of the prospective areas are discussed for both basins, and based on a great number of petroleum-geological data and comparison analysis, a remote sensing-geological prospecting model for in-situ leachable sandstonetype uranium deposits in the region is established, providing indications for selection of prospective area
Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash
Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.
remote sensing and GIS techniques to monitor vectors and vector-borne disease in Mexico, Belize and, more recently, Peru (Roberts et al. 1999...parasite is severe hemolytic anemia in persons who are deficient in glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). Primaquine is the only drug currently...the denaturation of hemoglobin, resulting in hemoglobinuria, kidney damage and anemia . Erythrocytes are protected from oxidation by the hexose
Malenovský, Zbyněk; Clevers, J G P W.; Arkima, H.; Kuosmanen, V.; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.
Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 207-210 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * stress response * remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003
Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.
Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.
Wick, M. R.
The present configuration of the Mark 4A DSN Receiver-Exciter and Transmitter Subsystems is described. Functional requirements and key characteristics are given to show the differences in the capabilities required by the Networks Consolidation task for combined High Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network tracking support.
Komáromy, Dávid; Tezcan, Meniz; Schaeffer, Gaël; Marić, Ivana; Otto, Sijbren
In living systems processes like genome duplication and cell division are carefully synchronized through subsystem coupling. If we are to create life de novo, similar control over essential processes such as self-replication need to be developed. Here we report that coupling two dynamic
The Double-Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem is intended to support Waste Feed Delivery. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem specification describes the relationship of this system with the DST System, describes the functions that must be performed by the system, and establishes the performance requirements to be applied to the design of the system. It also provides references for the requisite codes and standards. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem will treat the waste for a more favorable waste transfer. This will be accomplished by diluting the waste, dissolving the soluble portion of the waste, and flushing waste residuals from the transfer line. The Diluent and Flush Subsystem will consist of the following: The Diluent and Flush Station(s) where chemicals will be off-loaded, temporarily stored, mixed as necessary, heated, and metered to the delivery system; and A piping delivery system to deliver the chemicals to the appropriate valve or pump pit Associated support structures. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program
Boisson, J.P.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
A method for solving the shell-model equations in terms of a basis which includes correlated subsystems is presented. It is shown that the method allows drastic truncations of the basis to be made. The corresponding calculations are easy to perform and can be carried out rapidly
Section 121 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Commission) to issue technical requirements and criteria, for the use of a system of multiple barriers in the design of the repository, that are not inconsistent with any comparable standard promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of the EPA is required to promulgate generally applicable standards for protection of the general environment from offsite releases from radioactive material in repositories. The Commission's regulations pertaining to geologic repositories are provided in 10 CFR part 60. The Commission has provided in 10 CFR 60.112 the overall post-closure system performance objective which is used to demonstrate compliance with the EPA high-level waste (HLW) disposal standard. In addition, the Commission has provided, in 10 CFR 60.113, subsystem performance requirements for substantially complete containment, fractional release rate, and groundwater travel time; however, none of these subsystem performance requirements have a causal technical nexus with the EPA HLW disposal standard. This paper examines the issue of compliance with the conflicting dual regulatory role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process and recommends several approaches that would appropriately define the role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process
Saukh Iryna V.
The article is aimed at studying the structure of the enterprise’s information potential, evaluating its subsystems and the depth of strategic analysis based on the level of strategic uncertainty. It has been proven that information potential as a system includes the subsystem of incoming strategic information; the subsystem of evaluation of the information received; the subsystem for processing and transmission of strategic information. An assessment of the level of information saturation of...
García, D.; González, M.A.; Prieto, J.I.; Herrero, S.; López, S.; Mesonero, I.; Villasante, C.
Highlights: • We review experimental data from a V160 engine developed for cogeneration. • We also investigate the V161 solar engine. • The possible margin of improvement is evaluated for each subsystem. • The procedure is based on similarity models and thermodynamic models. • The procedure may be of general interest for other prototypes. - Abstract: The development of systems based on Stirling machines is limited by the lack of data about the performance of the various subsystems that are located between the input and output power sections. The measurement of some of the variables used to characterise these internal subsystems presents difficulties, particularly in the working gas circuit and the drive mechanism, which causes experimental reports to rarely be comprehensive enough for analysing the whole performance of the machine. In this article, we review experimental data from a V160 engine developed for cogeneration to evaluate the general validity; we also investigate one of the most successful prototypes used in dish-Stirling systems, the V161 engine, for which a seemingly small mechanical efficiency value has been recently predicted. The procedure described in this article allows the possible margin of improvement to be evaluated for each subsystem. The procedure is based on similarity models, which have been previously developed through experimental data from very different prototypes. Thermodynamic models for the gas circuit are also considered. Deduced characteristic curves show that both prototypes have an advanced degree of development as evidenced by relatively high efficiencies for each subsystem. The analyses are examples that demonstrate the qualities of dimensionless numbers in representing physical phenomena with maximum generality and physical meaning
Tesser, D.; Hoang, L.; McDonald, K. C.
Efforts to improve municipal water supply systems increasingly rely on an ability to elucidate variables that drive hydrologic dynamics within large watersheds. However, fundamental model variables such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and soil freeze/thaw state remain difficult to measure empirically across large, heterogeneous watersheds. Satellite remote sensing presents a method to validate these spatially and temporally dynamic variables as well as better inform the watershed models that monitor the water supply for many of the planet's most populous urban centers. PALSAR 2 L-band, Sentinel 1 C-band, and SMAP L-band scenes covering the Cannonsville branch of the New York City (NYC) water supply watershed were obtained for the period of March 2015 - October 2017. The SAR data provides information on soil moisture, free/thaw state, seasonal surface inundation, and variable source areas within the study site. Integrating the remote sensing products with watershed model outputs and ground survey data improves the representation of related processes in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) utilized to monitor the NYC water supply. PALSAR 2 supports accurate mapping of the extent of variable source areas while Sentinel 1 presents a method to model the timing and magnitude of snowmelt runoff events. SMAP Active Radar soil moisture product directly validates SWAT outputs at the subbasin level. This blended approach verifies the distribution of soil wetness classes within the watershed that delineate Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) in the modified SWAT-Hillslope. The research expands the ability to model the NYC water supply source beyond a subset of the watershed while also providing high resolution information across a larger spatial scale. The global availability of these remote sensing products provides a method to capture fundamental hydrology variables in regions where current modeling efforts and in situ data remain limited.
Coiner, J. C.; Bruce, R. C.
An aircraft/Landsat change-detection study conducted 1948-1972 on Marinduque Province, Republic of the Philippines, is discussed, and a procedure using both remote sensing and information systems for collection, spatial analysis, and display of periodic data is described. Each of the 4,008 25-hectare cells representing Marinduque were observed, and changes in and between variables were measured and tested using nonparametric statistics to determine the effect of specific land cover changes. Procedures using Landsat data to obtain a more continuous updating of the data base are considered. The system permits storage and comparison of historical and current data.
Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd
This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...
The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had five tasks defined for the first year. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Upper Stage Use, and CER's for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume 1.
Laso, Pedro Merino; Brosset, David; Puentes, John
This article presents a dataset produced to investigate how data and information quality estimations enable to detect aNomalies and malicious acts in cyber-physical systems. Data were acquired making use of a cyber-physical subsystem consisting of liquid containers for fuel or water, along with its automated control and data acquisition infrastructure. Described data consist of temporal series representing five operational scenarios - Normal, aNomalies, breakdown, sabotages, and cyber-attacks - corresponding to 15 different real situations. The dataset is publicly available in the .zip file published with the article, to investigate and compare faulty operation detection and characterization methods for cyber-physical systems.
Infante Corona, J. A.; Lakhankar, T.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Pradhanang, S. M.
Stream flow estimation and flood prediction influenced by snow melting processes have been studied for the past couple of decades because of their destruction potential, money losses and demises. It has been observed that snow, that was very stationary during its seasons, now is variable in shorter time-scales (daily and hourly) and rapid snowmelt can contribute or been the cause of floods. Therefore, good estimates of snowpack properties on ground are necessary in order to have an accurate prediction of these destructive events. The snow thermal model (SNTHERM) is a 1-dimensional model that analyzes the snowpack properties given the climatological conditions of a particular area. Gridded data from both, in-situ meteorological observations and remote sensing data will be produced using interpolation methods; thus, snow water equivalent (SWE) and snowmelt estimations can be obtained. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a hydrological model capable of predicting runoff quantity and quality of a watershed given its main physical and hydrological properties. The results from SNTHERM will be used as an input for SWAT in order to have simulated runoff under snowmelt conditions. This project attempts to improve the river discharge estimation considering both, excess rainfall runoff and the snow melting process. Obtaining a better estimation of the snowpack properties and evolution is expected. A coupled use of SNTHERM and SWAT based on meteorological in situ and remote sensed data will improve the temporal and spatial resolution of the snowpack characterization and river discharge estimations, and thus flood prediction.
Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús
This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.
Guyenne, T.D.; Hunt, J.J.
Remote sensing applications to agriculture; image processing methodology; active microwave sensing of the ocean; passive microwave sensing of vegetation and soils; radar forestry; hydrology; imaging radar missions; SAR observation of ocean waves; land analysis with optical sensors; and SAR system considerations were discussed.
Badescu, E.; Caprini, M.
The ATLAS data acquisition and Event Filter prototype '-1' project was intended to produce a prototype system for evaluating candidate technologies and architectures for the final ATLAS DAQ system on the LHC accelerator at CERN. Within the prototype project, the back-end sub-system encompasses the software for configuring, controlling and monitoring the data acquisition (DAQ). The back-end sub-system includes core components and detector integration components. One of the detector integration components is the Integrated Graphical User Interface (IGUI), which is intended to give a view of the status of the DAQ system and its sub-systems (Dataflow, Event Filter and Back-end) and to allow the user (general users, such as a shift operator at a test beam or experts, in order to control and debug the DAQ system) to control its operation. The IGUI is intended to be a Status Display and a Control Interface too, so there are three groups of functional requirements: display requirements (the information to be displayed); control requirements (the actions the IGUI shall perform on the DAQ components); general requirements, applying to the general functionality of the IGUI. The constraint requirements include requirements related to the access control (shift operator or expert user). The quality requirements are related to the portability on different platforms. The IGUI has to interact with many components in a distributed environment. The following design guidelines have been considered in order to fulfil the requirements: use a modular design with easy possibility to integrate different sub-systems; use Java language for portability and powerful graphical features; use CORBA interfaces for communication with other components. The actual implementation of Back-end software components use Inter-Language Unification (ILU) for inter-process communication. Different methods of access of Java applications to ILU C++ servers have been evaluated (native methods, ILU Java support
39 4.3 Digital Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.4 Group Testing ...deterministic de - sign matrices. All bounds ignore the O() constants. . . . . . . . . . . 131 xvi List of Algorithms 1 Iterative Hard Thresholding Algorithm...sensing is information theoretically possible using any (2k, )-RIP sensing matrix . The following celebrated results of Candès, Romberg and Tao [54
In his July 1989 space policy speech, President Bush proposed a long range continuing commitment to space exploration and development. Included in his goals were the establishment of permanent lunar and Mars habitats and the development of extended duration space transportation. In both cases, a major issue is the availability of qualified sensor technologies for use in real-time monitoring and control of integrated physical/chemical/biological (p/c/b) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). The purpose of this study is to determine the most promising instrumentation technologies for future ECLSS applications. The study approach is as follows: 1. Precursor ECLSS Subsystem Technology Trade Study - A database of existing and advanced Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) ECLSS subsystem technologies was created. A trade study was performed to recommend AR and WRM subsystem technologies for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. The purpose of this trade study was to begin defining future ECLSS instrumentation requirements as a precursor to determining the instrumentation technologies that will be applicable to future ECLS systems. 2. Instrumentation Survey - An instrumentation database of Chemical, Microbial, Conductivity, Humidity, Flowrate, Pressure, and Temperature sensors was created. Each page of the sensor database report contains information for one type of sensor, including a description of the operating principles, specifications, and the reference(s) from which the information was obtained. This section includes a cursory look at the history of instrumentation on U.S. spacecraft. 3. Results and Recommendations - Instrumentation technologies were recommended for further research and optimization based on a consideration of both of the above sections. A sensor or monitor technology was recommended based on its applicability to future ECLS systems, as defined by the ECLSS Trade Study (1), and on whether its
Glackin, David L.; Dodd, Joseph K.
Present large space-based remote sensing systems, and those planned for the next two decades, remain dichotomous and custom-built. An integrated architecture might reduce total cost without limiting system performance. An example of such an architecture, developed at The Aerospace Corporation, explores the feasibility of reducing overall space systems costs by forming a 'super-system' which will provide environmental, earth resources and theater surveillance information to a variety of users. The concept involves integration of programs, sharing of common spacecraft bus designs and launch vehicles, use of modular components and subsystems, integration of command and control and data capture functions, and establishment of an integrated program office. Smart functional modules that are easily tested and replaced are used wherever possible in the space segment. Data is disseminated to systems such as NASA's EOSDIS, and data processing is performed at established centers of expertise. This concept is advanced for potential application as a follow-on to currently budgeted and planned space-based remote sensing systems. We hope that this work will serve to engender discussion that may be of assistance in leading to multinational remote sensing systems with greater cost effectiveness at no loss of utility to the end user.
This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for NIF Beam Transport Optomechanical Subsystems. optomechanical Subsystems includes the mounts for the beam transport mirrors, LMl - LM8, the polarizer mount, and the spatial filter lens mounts
Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna
'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).
Bianchetti, Raechel Anne
Remotely sensed images have become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives. From novice users, aiding in search and rescue missions using tools such as TomNod, to trained analysts, synthesizing disparate data to address complex problems like climate change, imagery has become central to geospatial problem solving. Expert image analysts are continually faced with rapidly developing sensor technologies and software systems. In response to these cognitively demanding environments, expert analysts develop specialized knowledge and analytic skills to address increasingly complex problems. This study identifies the knowledge, skills, and analytic goals of expert image analysts tasked with identification of land cover and land use change. Analysts participating in this research are currently working as part of a national level analysis of land use change, and are well versed with the use of TimeSync, forest science, and image analysis. The results of this study benefit current analysts as it improves their awareness of their mental processes used during the image interpretation process. The study also can be generalized to understand the types of knowledge and visual cues that analysts use when reasoning with imagery for purposes beyond land use change studies. Here a Cognitive Task Analysis framework is used to organize evidence from qualitative knowledge elicitation methods for characterizing the cognitive aspects of the TimeSync image analysis process. Using a combination of content analysis, diagramming, semi-structured interviews, and observation, the study highlights the perceptual and cognitive elements of expert remote sensing interpretation. Results show that image analysts perform several standard cognitive processes, but flexibly employ these processes in response to various contextual cues. Expert image analysts' ability to think flexibly during their analysis process was directly related to their amount of image analysis experience. Additionally, results show
This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and/or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program
Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.
Washington Franca Rocha
Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.
Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong; Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter
Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr 6+ and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria
Bjørling, Matias; Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe
resource utilization. We propose that SSD management trade-offs should be handled through Open-Channel SSDs, a new class of SSDs, that give hosts control over their internals. We present our experience building LightNVM, the Linux Open-Channel SSD subsystem. We introduce a new Physical Page Ad- dress I...... to limit read latency variability and that it can be customized to achieve predictable I/O latencies....
The ngdp framework advanced topics are described. Namely, we consider work with CAMAC hardware, 'selfflow' nodes for the data acquisition systems with the As-Soon-As-Possible policy, ng m m(4) as an alternative to ng s ocket(4), the control subsystem, user context utilities, events representation for the ROOT package, test and debug nodes, possible advancements for netgraph(4), etc. It is shown that the ngdp is suitable for building lightweight DAQ systems to handle CAMAC
Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L
In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.
Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.
This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan
Fabiano, Eduardo; Laricchia, Savio; Della Sala, Fabio
We extend the frozen density embedding theory to non-integer subsystems' particles numbers. Different features of this formulation are discussed, with special concern for approximate embedding calculations. In particular, we highlight the relation between the non-integer particle-number partition scheme and the resulting embedding errors. Finally, we provide a discussion of the implications of the present theory for the derivative discontinuity issue and the calculation of chemical reactivity descriptors.
The fact that relatively simple entities, such as particles or neurons, or even ants or bees or humans, give rise to fascinatingly complex behaviour when interacting in large numbers is the hallmark of complex systems science. Agent-based models are frequently employed for modelling and obtaining a predictive understanding of complex systems. Since the sheer number of equations that describe the behaviour of an entire agent-based model often makes it impossible to solve such models exactly, Monte Carlo simulation methods must be used for the analysis. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among agents that describe systems in biology, sociology or the humanities often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. This begets the question: when can we be certain that an observed simulation outcome of an agent-based model is actually stable and valid in the large system-size limit? The latter is key for the correct determination of phase transitions between different stable solutions, and for the understanding of the underlying microscopic processes that led to these phase transitions. We show that a satisfactory answer can only be obtained by means of a complete stability analysis of subsystem solutions. A subsystem solution can be formed by any subset of all possible agent states. The winner between two subsystem solutions can be determined by the average moving direction of the invasion front that separates them, yet it is crucial that the competing subsystem solutions are characterised by a proper composition and spatiotemporal structure before the competition starts. We use the spatial public goods game with diverse tolerance as an example, but the approach has relevance for a wide variety of agent-based models.
Karasyov, S.P.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Uvarov, V.L.
In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels
This functional analysis identifies the hierarchy and describes the subsystem functions that support the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System described in HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System. Because of the uncertainty associated with the need for upgrades of the existing catch tanks supporting the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission, catch tank functions are not addressed in this document. The functions identified herein are applicable to the Phase 1 WFD mission only
Kerckhoff, J; Pavlichin, D S; Chalabi, H; Mabuchi, H, E-mail: email@example.com [Edward L Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
We reapply our approach to designing nanophotonic quantum memories in order to formulate an optical network that autonomously protects a single logical qubit against arbitrary single-qubit errors. Emulating the nine-qubit Bacon-Shor subsystem code, the network replaces the traditionally discrete syndrome measurement and correction steps by continuous, time-independent optical interactions and coherent feedback of unitarily processed optical fields.
Dow, Mirah J.; Boettcher, Carrie A.; Diego, Juana F.; Karch, Marziah E.; Todd-Diaz, Ashley; Woods, Kristine M.
The purpose of this mixed methods study is to determine the effectiveness of case-based pedagogy in teaching basic principles of information ethics and ethical decision making. Study reports results of pre- and post-assessment completed by 49 library and information science (LIS) graduate students at a Midwestern university. Using Creswell's…
Stingl, Verena; Maytorena-Sanchez, Eunice
This paper explores the cognitive strategies that construction practitioners rely on when searching to identify risks in a simulated project. By using the active information search methodology in interviews with 45 industry practitioners, we were able to distinguish three stereotypical information...
Karlov, A.A.; Kirilov, A.S.
General principles of organization and main features of dialogue subsystem for graphical representation of one-dimensional array contents are considered. The subsystem is developed for remote display station of the JINR BESM-6 computer. Some examples of using the subsystem for drawing curves and histograms are given. The subsystem is developed according to modern dialogue systems requirements. It is ''open'' for extension and could be installed into other computers [ru
Koszenski, E. P.; Schubert, F. H.; Burke, K. A.
A program was carried out to develop and test advanced electrochemical cells/modules and critical electromechanical components for a static feed (alkaline electrolyte) water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem. The accomplishments were refurbishment of a previously developed subsystem and successful demonstration for a total of 2980 hours of normal operation; achievement of sustained one-person level oxygen generation performance with state-of-the-art cell voltages averaging 1.61 V at 191 ASF for an operating temperature of 128F (equivalent to 1.51V when normalized to 180F); endurance testing and demonstration of reliable performance of the three-fluid pressure controller for 8650 hours; design and development of a fluid control assembly for this subsystem and demonstration of its performance; development and demonstration at the single cell and module levels of a unitized core composite cell that provides expanded differential pressure tolerance capability; fabrication and evaluation of a feed water electrolyte elimination five-cell module; and successful demonstration of an electrolysis module pressurization technique that can be used in place of nitrogen gas during the standby mode of operation to maintain system pressure and differential pressures.
This paper reports that in an attempt to investigate methods for risk management other than qualitative analysis techniques, NASA has funded pilot study quantitative risk analyses for space shuttle subsystems. The authors performed one such study of two shuttle subsystems with McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company. The subsystems were the auxiliary power units (APU) on the orbiter, and the hydraulic power units on the solid rocket booster. The technology and results of the APU study are presented in this paper. Drawing from a rich in-flight database as well as from a wealth of tests and analyses, the study quantitatively assessed the risk of APU-initiated scenarios on the shuttle during all phases of a flight mission. Damage states of interest were loss of crew/vehicle, aborted mission, and launch scrub. A quantitative risk analysis approach to deciding on important items for risk management was contrasted with the current NASA failure mode and effects analysis/critical item list approach
This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the DST Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program
Hojjat Ollah Safari
Full Text Available Introduction The Sar Cheshmeh copper deposit and indications of other deposits are located in the Dehaj-Sarduieh belt in the Kerman region (Khadem and Nedimovic, 1973. This belt is one of the most important provinces of Cu mineralization in Iran, with approximately 300 Cu deposits and prospects, includingtwenty of the porphyry copper type (Ghorbani, 2013. This belt, 300 km in length and 30–45 km width, is situated in the southern part of the Uramia-Dokhtar volcanic belt in central Iran (Shafiei, 2010. Zarasvandi (2004 has proposed that faulting has played a role in the location of copper deposition in this area. Methods of Investigation In order to check Zarasvandi’s hypothesis, the spatial relationship between faults and Cu deposits was investigated using remote sensing and GIS techniques together with field investigations in the Sar Cheshmeh area. The the following steps were used in this research: 1. Review of available data 2. Surface geology field studies 3. Preparation of digital overlay of Copper occurrences 4. Analysis of the relationshipof faulting to Copper occurrences Using remote sensing techniques, a geometrically corrected satellite image was filtered with high pass and Sharpen Edge filters to detect possible lineaments (Lillesand and Keifer, 2008; Sabins, 1996. Directional filters (45º, 90º, 135º and 180º were then applied to the processed image to enhance the linear structures. Subsequently,the major lineaments were documented in the field as major and minor faults (Safari et al., 2011. Four main faults, designated as the Rafsanjan, Mani, Gaud-e-Ahmar and Sar Cheshmeh faultswere determined to be major. These faults were digitized and overlaid on other data layers in GIS environment. The strikes, dips, striae and directions of movementof the faultswere measured at 20 locations in the field. Structural analyses were done with Rose diagrams, calculation of P-axes and preparation of a structural map. Copper occurrences on the
Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary
Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…
Based on the contract research 'General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies' with Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, each of 7 organizations including Denki Kagaku Kyokai (Electrochemical Association) promoted the research on hydrogen energy subsystem, combustion, fuel cell, car engine, aircraft engine, gas turbine and chemical energy, respectively. This report summarizes the research result on the former of 2 committees on hydrogen energy and peripheral technologies promoted by Denki Kagaku Kyokai. The first part describes the merit, demerit, domestic and overseas R and D states, technical problems, and future research issue for every use form of hydrogen. This part also outlines the short-, medium- and long-term prospects for use of hydrogen and oxygen energy, and describes the whole future research issue. The second part summarizes the content of each committee report. Although on details the original reports of each committee should be lead, this report is useful for obtaining the outline of utilization of hydrogen energy. (NEDO)
McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Ly, V.
NASA's Indigenous Capacity Building Initiative is aimed to provide remote sensing training, mentoring, and research opportunities to the indigenous community. A key programmatic goal is the co-production of place-based trainings where participants have the opportunity to address specific natural resource research and management issues facing their tribal lands. Three primary strategies have been adopted to engage with our tribal partners, these include: (1) the use of existing tribal networks and conferences such as the National Tribal GIS Conference, (2) coordination with other federal agencies such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and tribal liaisons at regional Climate Science Centers, and (3) connecting with tribes directly. Regional partner visits with tribes, such as meetings with the Samish Indian Nation, are integral to cultivate trusting, collaborative, and sustained partnerships and an understanding of how Earth Observations can be applied to the unique set of challenges and goals each tribe faces. As the program continues to grow, we aim to increase our incorporation of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) into technical methods and to develop trainings tailored to thematic areas of interest to specific tribes. Engagement and feedback are encouraged to refine our approaches to increase capacity within the indigenous community to utilize NASA Earth Observations.
Kempel, P.; Hands, J.
This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements 'for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document
Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.
One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity
Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald
Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)
Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin
The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product
This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Alignment subsystem (WBS 1.7.1), Beam Diagnostics (WBS 1.7.2), and the Wavefront Control subsystem (WBS 1.7. 3) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3). These three subsystems are collectively referred to as the Beam Control ampersand Laser Diagnostics Subsystem. The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 3 figs., 3 tabs
Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.
A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.
Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY
Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.
Hoff, Raymond; Zhang, Hai; Jordan, Nikisa; Prados, Ana; Engel-Cox, Jill; Huff, Amy; Weber, Stephanie; Zell, Erica; Kondragunta, Shobha; Szykman, James; Johns, Brad; Dimmick, Fred; Wimmers, Anthony; Al-Saadi, Jay; Kittaka, Chieko
A system has been developed to combine remote sensing and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentration and aerosol light scattering parameters into a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere over the United States. Utilizing passive and active remote sensors from space and the ground, the system provides tools to visualize particulate air pollution in near real time and archive the results for retrospective analyses. The main components of the system (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications [IDEA], the U.S. Air Quality Weblog [Smog Blog], Smog Stories, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AIRQuest decision support system, and the Remote Sensing Information Gateway [RSIG]) are described, and the relationship of how data move from one system to another is outlined. To provide examples of how the results can be used to analyze specific pollution episodes, three events (two fires and one wintertime low planetary boundary layer haze) are discussed. Not all tools are useful at all times, and the limitations, including the sparsity of some data, the interference caused by overlying clouds, etc., are shown. Nevertheless, multiple sources of data help a state, local, or regional air quality analyst construct a more thorough picture of a daily air pollution situation than what one would obtain with only surface-based sensors.
Full Text Available For civil protection reasons there is a strong need to improve the inventory of areas that are more vulnerable to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake-related secondary effects, such as landslides, liquefaction or soil amplifications. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS methods along with the related geo-databases can assist local and national authorities to be better prepared and organized. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are investigated in north-eastern Greece in order to contribute to the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions, to earthquake-related secondary effects and to tsunami-waves. Knowing areas with aggregated occurrence of causal (“negative” factors influencing earthquake shock and, thus, the damage intensity, this knowledge can be integrated into disaster preparedness and mitigation measurements. The evaluation of satellite imageries, digital topographic data and open source geodata contributes to the acquisition of the specific tectonic, geologic and geomorphologic settings influencing local site conditions in an area and, thus, estimate possible damage to be suffered.
M. A. Wulder; J. C. White; B. J. Bentz
Estimates of the location and extent of the red attack stage of mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infestations are critical for forest management. The degree of spatial and temporal precision required for these estimates varies according to the management objectives and the nature of the infestation. This paper outlines a hierarchy of information...
Palla, Chiara; Peroni, Moreno; Kingston, Jennifer
Space missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are severely affected by the build-up of orbital debris. A key practice, to be compliant with IADC (Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee) mitigation guidelines, is the removal of space systems that interfere with the LEO region not later than 25 years after the End of Mission. It is important to note that the current guidelines are not generally legally binding, even if different Space Agencies are now looking at the compliance for their missions. If the guidelines will change in law, it will be mandatory to have a postmission disposal strategy for all satellites, including micro and smaller classes. A potential increased number of these satellites is confirmed by different projections, in particular in the commercial sector. Micro and smaller spacecraft are, in general, not provided with propulsion capabilities to achieve a controlled re-entry, so they need different de-orbit disposal methods. When considering the utility of different debris mitigation methods, it is useful to understand which spacecraft subsystems are most likely to fail and how this may affect the operation of a de-orbit system. This also helps the consideration of which components are the most relevant or should be redundant depending on the satellite mass class. This work is based on a sample of LEO and MEO satellites launched between January 2000 and December 2014 with mass lower than 1000 kg. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems is performed by means of the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; the parametric fits are conducted with Weibull distributions. The study is carried out by using the satellite database SpaceTrak™ which provides anomalies, failures, and trends information for spacecraft subsystems and launch vehicles. The database identifies five states for each satellite subsystem: three degraded states, one fully operational state, and one failed state (complete failure). The results obtained can guide the identification of the
Grove, J. Eric; Woolf, Richard; Johnson, W. Neil; Phlips, Bernard
We report on the development of the thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) calorimeter subsystem for the All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO). The CsI calorimeter is one of the three main subsystems that comprise the AMEGO instrument suite; the others include the double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) tracker/converter and a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) calorimeter. Similar to the LAT instrument on Fermi, the hodoscopic calorimeter consists of orthogonally layered CsI bars. Unlike the LAT, which uses PIN photodiodes, the scintillation light readout from each end of the CsI bar is done with recently developed large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. We currently have an APRA program to develop the calorimeter technology for a larger, future space-based gamma-ray observatory. Under this program, we are building and testing a prototype calorimeter consisting of 24 CsI bars (16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 100 mm) arranged in 4 layers with 6 bars per layer. The ends of each bar are read out with a 2 x 2 array of 6 mm x 6 mm SensL J series SiPMs. Signal readout and processing is done with the IDEAS SIPHRA (IDE3380) ASIC. Performance testing of this prototype will be done with laboratory sources, a beam test, and a balloon flight in conjunction with the other subsystems led by NASA GSFC. Additionally, we will test 16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 450 mm CsI bars with SiPM readout to understand the performance of longer bars in advance of the developing the full instrument.Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research (CNR) and NASA-APRA (NNH15ZDA001N-APRA).
Srinivasan, Dipak K.; Artis, David; Baker, Ben; Stilwell, Robert; Wallis, Robert
The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, currently in Phase B, is a two-spacecraft, Earth-orbiting mission, which will launch in 2012. The spacecraft's S-band radio frequency (RF) telecommunications subsystem has three primary functions: provide spacecraft command capability, provide spacecraft telemetry and science data return, and provide accurate Doppler data for navigation. The primary communications link to the ground is via the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory's (JHU/APL) 18 m dish, with secondary links to the NASA 13 m Ground Network and the Tracking and Data Relay Spacecraft System (TDRSS) in single-access mode. The on-board RF subsystem features the APL-built coherent transceiver and in-house builds of a solid-state power amplifier and conical bifilar helix broad-beam antennas. The coherent transceiver provides coherency digitally, and controls the downlink data rate and encoding within its field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The transceiver also provides a critical command decoder (CCD) function, which is used to protect against box-level upsets in the C&DH subsystem. Because RBSP is a spin-stabilized mission, the antennas must be symmetric about the spin axis. Two broad-beam antennas point along both ends of the spin axis, providing communication coverage from boresight to 70°. An RF splitter excites both antennas; therefore, the mission is designed such that no communications are required close to 90° from the spin axis due to the interferometer effect from the two antennas. To maximize the total downlink volume from the spacecraft, the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) has been baselined for the RBSP mission. During real-time ground contacts with the APL ground station, downlinked files are checked for errors. Handshaking between flight and ground CFDP software results in requests to retransmit only the file fragments lost due to dropouts. This allows minimization of RF link margins, thereby maximizing data rate and
Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika
Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.
Full Text Available To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS, Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI, canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China.
Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng
To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs) in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS), Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI), canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. PMID:25157827
Heitner, K. L.
An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.
An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.
S. Michael Malinconico
Full Text Available A comprehensive automated bibliographic control system has been developed by the New York Public Library. This system is unique in its use of an automated authority system and highly sophisticated machine filing algorithms. The primary aim was the rigorous control of established forms and their cross-reference structure. The original impetus for creation of the system, and its most highly visible product, is a photocomposed book catalog. The book catalog subsystem supplies automatic punctuation of condensed entries and contains the ability to pmduce cumulation/ supplement book catalogs in installments without loss of control of the crossreferencing structure.
Peng, Xiaobo; Xing, Xiaozheng; Hu, Hongzhuan; Zhai, Chao; Li, Weimin
The architecture of the software which controls the LAMOST fiber positioning sub-system is described. The software is composed of two parts as follows: a main control program in a computer and a unit controller program in a MCS51 single chip microcomputer ROM. And the function of the software includes: Client/Server model establishment, observation planning, collision handling, data transmission, pulse generation, CCD control, image capture and processing, and data analysis etc. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which different parts of the software can communicate. Also software techniques for multi threads, SOCKET programming, Microsoft Windows message response, and serial communications are discussed.
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology together with optical amplification has created a new era for optical communication. Transmission capacity is greatly increased by adding more and more wavelength channels into a single fiber, as well as by increasing the line rate of each channel...... in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), and dispersion managed fiber sections. New subsystems are also proposed in the thesis: a modular 2×2 multiwavelength cross-connect using wavelength switching blocks, a wavelength converter based on cross phase modulation in a semiconductor modulator, a wavelength...
Shannon Bragg-Sitton; J. Michael Doster; Alan Rominger
Preliminary system models have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory researchers and are currently being enhanced to assess integrated system performance given multiple sources (e.g., nuclear + wind) and multiple applications (i.e., electricity + process heat). Initial efforts to integrate a Fortran-based simulation of a small modular reactor (SMR) with the balance of plant model have been completed in FY12. This initial effort takes advantage of an existing SMR model developed at North Carolina State University to provide initial integrated system simulation for a relatively low cost. The SMR subsystem simulation details are discussed in this report.
These software applications provide intuitive User Interfaces (UIs) with a consistent look and feel for interaction with, and control of, the Service Preparation Subsystem (SPS). The elements of the UIs described here are the File Manager, Mission Manager, and Log Monitor applications. All UIs provide access to add/delete/update data entities in a complex database schema without requiring technical expertise on the part of the end users. These applications allow for safe, validated, catalogued input of data. Also, the software has been designed in multiple, coherent layers to promote ease of code maintenance and reuse in addition to reducing testing and accelerating maturity.
Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.
Polites, M. E.; Bartlow, B. E.
Should the Russian Space Agency (RSA) not participate in the International Space Station (ISS) program, then the United States (U.S.) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) may choose to execute the ISS mission. However, in order to do this, NASA must build two new space vehicles, which must perform the functions that the Russian vehicles and hardware were to perform. These functions include periodic ISS orbit reboost, initial ISS attitude control, and U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) control Moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum desaturation. The two new NASA vehicles that must perform these functions are called the U.S. control module (USCM) and the U.S. resupply module. This paper presents a design concept for the USCM GN&C subsystem, which must play a major role in ISS orbit reboost and initial attitude control, plus USOS CMG momentum desaturation. The proposed concept is structured similar to the USOS GN&C subsystem, by design. It is very robust, in that it allows the USCM to assume a variety of vehicle attitudes and stay power-positive. It has a storage/safe mode that places the USCM in a gravity-gradient orientation and keeps it there for extended periods of time without consuming a great deal of propellant. Simulation results are presented and discussed that show the soundness of the design approach. An equipment list is included that gives detailed information on the baselined GN&C components.
Yajaira Esperanza Araujo Araujo
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the leadership of the management staff in the subsystem of primary education Educational Unit "Dr. Amílcar Fonseca "County Candelaria Trujillo state. The study was descriptive type that helped deepen understanding, knowledge and variable information posed: leadership, using a field design because the information was obtained on the same site the facts; ie, where the school was delimited research. In relation to the sample population worked with 43 teachers working in the institution to which they applied an instrument type questionnaire composed of multiple alternative 36 items and its validation was granted three (03 experts who verified the compliance methodological criteria required for that purpose. While reliability was 0.98 using Cronbach alpha coefficient. The results showed that on campus management does not use different types of leadership; It was concluded that the relevant time current educational managers must combine different paradigms in his leadership.
This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...
Nikolaev, V.; Titov, V.; Syryamkin, V.
Analyzed the scope and the types of robotic systems consisting of subsystems of the form "a heterogeneous sensors data processing subsystem". On the basis of the Queuing theory model is developed taking into account the unevenness of the intensity of information flow from the sensors to the subsystem of information processing. Analytical solution to assess the relationship of subsystem performance and uneven flows. The research of the obtained solution in the range of parameter values of practical interest.
MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue
Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.
W. Z. Hou
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the information content for the retrieval of key aerosol microphysical and surface properties for multispectral single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements cantered at 410, 443, 555, 670, 865, 1610 and 2250 nm over bright land. To conduct the information content analysis, the synthetic data are simulated by the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNLVTM with the intensity and polarization together over bare soil surface for various scenarios. Following the optimal estimation theory, a principal component analysis method is employed to reconstruct the multispectral surface reflectance from 410 nm to 2250 nm, and then integrated with a linear one-parametric BPDF model to represent the contribution of polarized surface reflectance, thus further to decouple the surface-atmosphere contribution from the TOA measurements. Focusing on two different aerosol models with the aerosol optical depth equal to 0.8 at 550 nm, the total DFS and DFS component of each retrieval aerosol and surface parameter are analysed. The DFS results show that the key aerosol microphysical properties, such as the fine- and coarse-mode columnar volume concentration, the effective radius and the real part of complex refractive index at 550 nm, could be well retrieved with the surface parameters simultaneously over bare soil surface type. The findings of this study can provide the guidance to the inversion algorithm development over bright surface land by taking full use of the single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements.
Hou, W. Z.; Li, Z. Q.; Zheng, F. X.; Qie, L. L.
This paper evaluates the information content for the retrieval of key aerosol microphysical and surface properties for multispectral single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements cantered at 410, 443, 555, 670, 865, 1610 and 2250 nm over bright land. To conduct the information content analysis, the synthetic data are simulated by the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNLVTM) with the intensity and polarization together over bare soil surface for various scenarios. Following the optimal estimation theory, a principal component analysis method is employed to reconstruct the multispectral surface reflectance from 410 nm to 2250 nm, and then integrated with a linear one-parametric BPDF model to represent the contribution of polarized surface reflectance, thus further to decouple the surface-atmosphere contribution from the TOA measurements. Focusing on two different aerosol models with the aerosol optical depth equal to 0.8 at 550 nm, the total DFS and DFS component of each retrieval aerosol and surface parameter are analysed. The DFS results show that the key aerosol microphysical properties, such as the fine- and coarse-mode columnar volume concentration, the effective radius and the real part of complex refractive index at 550 nm, could be well retrieved with the surface parameters simultaneously over bare soil surface type. The findings of this study can provide the guidance to the inversion algorithm development over bright surface land by taking full use of the single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements.
Baird, Dan; Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild
Flow networks of nine sub-systems consisting of 59 components each of the Sylt-Rømø Bight, German Wadden Sea, were constructed depicting the standing stocks and flows of material and energy within and between the sub-systems. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were used as currencies for each sub-system, thus resulting in 27 network models, which were analyzed by ecological network analytical protocols. Results show substantial variability in the dynamics of these elements within and between the nine sub-systems, which differ in habitat structure, species diversity and in the standing stocks of their constituent living and non-living components. The relationship between the biodiversity and selected information indices and ratios, derived from ecological network analysis, of individual sub-systems is variable and differ substantially between them. Ecosystem properties such as the structure and magnitude of the recycling of these elements, number of cycles, and total sub-system activity were calculated and discussed, highlighting the differences between and complexity of the flow of C, N and P in a coastal marine ecosystem. The average number of cycles increase from 179 for C, to 16,923 and 20,580 for N and P respectively, while the average amount of recycled material, as measured by the Finn Cycling Index (FCI), increase from 17% for C, to 52% for P and to 61% for N. The number of cycles and the FCI vary considerably between the sub-systems for the different elements. The largest number of cycles of all three elements was observed in the muddy sand flat sub-system, but the highest FCIs were computed for both C (32%) and N (85%) in the Arenicola Flats, and in sparse Zostera noltii sea grass beds for P (67%). Indices reflecting on the growth, organization and resilience of the sub-systems also showed considerable variability between and within the inter-tidal ecosystems in the Bight. Indices such as, for example, the relative ascendency ratios increase on average
Krishtal, Alisa; Pavanello, Michele
Open quantum systems (OQSs) are perhaps the most realistic systems one can approach through simulations. In recent years, describing OQSs with Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been a prominent avenue of research with most approaches based on a density matrix partitioning in conjunction with an ad-hoc description of system-bath interactions. We propose a different theoretical approach to OQSs based on partitioning of the electron density. Employing the machinery of subsystem DFT (and its time-dependent extension), we provide a novel way of isolating and analyzing the various terms contributing to the coupling between the system and the surrounding bath. To illustrate the theory, we provide numerical simulations on a toy system (a molecular dimer) and on a condensed phase system (solvated excimer). The simulations show that non-Markovian dynamics in the electronic system-bath interactions are important in chemical applications. For instance, we show that the superexchange mechanism of transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is a non-Markovian interaction between the donor-acceptor (OQS) with the bridge (bath) which is fully characterized by real-time subsystem time-dependent DFT.
Kang, Edward Shinuk
In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key factor in paving the way for the future of human space exploration. The ability to harvest resources on foreign astronomical objects to produce consumables and propellant offers potential reduction in mission cost and risk. Through previous missions, the existence of water ice at the poles of the moon has been identified, however the feasibility of water extraction for resources remains unanswered. The Resource Prospector (RP) mission is currently in development to provide ground truth, and will enable us to characterize the distribution of water at one of the lunar poles. Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) is the primary payload on RP that will be used in conjunction with a rover. RESOLVE contains multiple instruments for systematically identifying the presence of water. The main process involves the use of two systems within RESOLVE: the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) and Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA). Within the LAVA subsystem, there are multiple calculations that depend on accurate pressure readings. One of the most important instances where pressure transducers (PT) are used is for calculating the number of moles in a gas transfer from the OVEN subsystem. As a critical component of the main process, a mixture of custom and commercial off the shelf (COTS) PTs are currently being tested in the expected operating environment to eventually down select an option for integrated testing in the LAVA engineering test unit (ETU).
Krishtal, Alisa; Pavanello, Michele
Open quantum systems (OQSs) are perhaps the most realistic systems one can approach through simulations. In recent years, describing OQSs with Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been a prominent avenue of research with most approaches based on a density matrix partitioning in conjunction with an ad-hoc description of system-bath interactions. We propose a different theoretical approach to OQSs based on partitioning of the electron density. Employing the machinery of subsystem DFT (and its time-dependent extension), we provide a novel way of isolating and analyzing the various terms contributing to the coupling between the system and the surrounding bath. To illustrate the theory, we provide numerical simulations on a toy system (a molecular dimer) and on a condensed phase system (solvated excimer). The simulations show that non-Markovian dynamics in the electronic system-bath interactions are important in chemical applications. For instance, we show that the superexchange mechanism of transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is a non-Markovian interaction between the donor-acceptor (OQS) with the bridge (bath) which is fully characterized by real-time subsystem time-dependent DFT.
Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jia; Du, Xiangyang; Kang, Hou; Qiao, Minjuan
Due to the rapid development of human economy and society, the resulting ecological problems are becoming more and more prominent, and the dynamic monitoring of the various elements in the ecosystem has become the focus of the current research. For the complex structure and function of the ecological environment monitoring, advanced technical means should be adopted. With the development of spatial information technology, the ecological monitoring technology based on GIS and RS is becoming more and more perfect, and spatial analysis will play an important role in the field of environmental protection. Based on the GIS and RS technology, this paper analyzes the general centralized ecological monitoring model, and makes an objective analysis of the current ecological monitoring trend of China. These are important for the protection and management of ecological environment in China.
Hernandez, B. C. B.
Degrading groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion is one of the key challenges affecting many island aquifers. These islands hold limited capacity for groundwater storage and highly dependent on recharge due to precipitation. But its ease of use, natural storage and accessibility make it more vulnerable to exploitation and more susceptible to encroachment from its surrounding oceanic waters. Estimating the extent of saltwater intrusion and the state of groundwater resources are important in predicting and managing water supply options for the community. In Guimaras island, central Philippines, increasing settlements, agriculture and tourism are causing stresses on its groundwater resource. Indications of saltwater intrusion have already been found at various coastal areas in the island. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based approach using the GALDIT index was carried out. This includes six parameters assessing the seawater intrusion vulnerability of each hydrogeologic setting: Groundwater occurrence, Aquifer hydraulic conductivity, Groundwater Level above sea, Distance to shore, Impact of existing intrusion and Thickness of Aquifer. To further determine the extent of intrusion, Landsat images of various thematic layers were stacked and processed for unsupervised classification and electrical resistivity tomography using a 28-electrode system with array lengths of 150 and 300 meters was conducted. The GIS index showed where the vulnerable areas are located, while the geophysical measurements and images revealed extent of seawater encroachment along the monitoring wells. These results are further confirmed by the measurements collected from the monitoring wells. This study presents baseline information on the state of groundwater resources and increase understanding of saltwater intrusion dynamics in island ecosystems by providing a guideline for better water resource management in the Philippines.
Full Text Available The restoration of fire-affected forest areas needs to be combined with their future protection from renewed catastrophic fires, such as those that occurred in Greece during the 2007 summer season. The present work demonstrates that the use of various sources of satellite data in conjunction with weather forecast information is capable of providing valuable information for the characterization of fire danger with the purpose of protecting the Greek national forest areas. This study shows that favourable meteorological conditions have contributed to the fire outbreak during the days of the unusually damaging fires in Peloponnese as well as Euboia (modern Greek: Evia at the end of August 2007. During those days, Greece was located between an extended high pressure system in Central Europe and a low pressure system in the Middle East. Their combination resulted in strong north-northeasterly winds in the Aegean Sea. As a consequence, strong winds were also observed in the regions of Evia and Peloponnese, especially in mountainous areas. The analysis of satellite images showing smoke emitted from the fires corroborates the results from the weather forecasts. A further analysis using the Fraction of Absorbed Photosyntetically Active Radiation (FAPAR as an indicator of active vegetation shows the extent of the destruction caused by the fire. The position of the burned areas coincides with that of the active fires detected in the earlier satellite image. Using the annual maximum FAPAR as an indicator of regional vegetation density, it was found that only regions with relatively high FAPAR were burned.
Xiao, Yaqiong; Zhai, Hongchang; Friederici, Angela D; Jia, Fucang
In recent years, research on human functional brain imaging using resting-state fMRI techniques has been increasingly prevalent. The term "default mode" was proposed to describe a baseline or default state of the brain during rest. Recent studies suggested that the default mode network (DMN) is comprised of two functionally distinct subsystems: a dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) subsystem involved in self-oriented cognition (i.e., theory of mind) and a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem engaged in memory and scene construction; both subsystems interact with the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) as the core regions of DMN. The present study explored the development of DMN core regions and these two subsystems in both hemispheres from 3- to 5-year-old children. The analysis of the intrinsic activity showed strong developmental changes in both subsystems, and significant changes were specifically found in MTL subsystem, but not in DMPFC subsystem, implying distinct developmental trajectories for DMN subsystems. We found stronger interactions between the DMPFC and MTL subsystems in 5-year-olds, particularly in the left subsystems that support the development of environmental adaptation and relatively complex mental activities. These results also indicate that there is stronger right hemispheric lateralization at age 3, which then changes as bilateral development gradually increases through to age 5, suggesting in turn the hemispheric dominance in DMN subsystems changing with age. The present results provide primary evidence for the development of DMN subsystems in early life, which might be closely related to the development of social cognition in childhood.
P. L. N. Raju
Full Text Available One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE using NASA’s Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6 with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS and Geographical Information System (GIS, mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and
Geddes, Chris D
Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...
Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna
Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...
Full Text Available The study was carried out to attract attention to the importance of holistic approach in ecological research studies and provide information about ecosystem qualification mapping, the fundamental layer for ecosystem-based management plans, by means of a case study example. In the study, species richness, potential energy footprint, resilience, rarity and dissimilarity were accepted as qualification components and the statistical analysis was performed by using 107 sample plot data taken from Yazılı Canyon Nature Park, located in the transition zone of the Mediterranean region, Turkey. All components were calculated for each sample plot. Then, Principle Component Analysis (PCA was applied to the components. As a result of the PCA applied, it was found that all components, except for dissimilarity, correspond with each other. Therefore, the formula for qualification index was created by taking species richness, potential energy footprint, resilience and rarity components into consideration. At the second phase of the study, qualification index and the dissimilarity component were modeled according to environmental factors taken as explanatory variables by using regression tree technique. With the regression tree models obtained, distribution maps of qualification index and the dissimilarity component were formed and group distinctions of the maps were drawn. Finally, by combining the groups of qualification index and the dissimilarity components, numerical values were assigned to the newly combined groups by using if-then rules. Thus, ecosystem based qualification value map of Yazılı Canyon Nature Park was formed.
Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz
The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.
Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N.; Farr, T. G.; Ines, A. V. M.; Jayasinghe, S.; Jones, C. E.; Melton, F. S.; Ndungu, L. W.; Lai-Norling, J.; Painter, T. H.
Across the globe, planners and decision makers are often hampered by organizational and data silos and/or a lack of historic data or scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. The end result is a complex interaction of responsibilities, legal frameworks, and stakeholder needs guided by uncertain information that is essentially bounded by how climate extremes are defined and characterized. Because of the importance of water, considerable resources in the developing and developed world are invested in data and tools for managing water. However, the existing paradigm of water management around the world faces significant challenges including inadequate funding to install, maintain or upgrade monitoring networks, lack of resources to integrate new science and data sources into existing tools, and demands for improved spatial coverage of observations. Add to this, a changing hydrology that is so complex it requires measurements and analyses that have never been done before. Interest in applying remote sensing science and observations into the decision making process is growing the world over, but in order to succeed, it is essential to form partnerships with stakeholder organizations and decision makers at the outset. In this talk, we describe examples of succesful decision-maker and science partnering based on projects that apply remote sensing science and observations in East Africa and the Lower Mekong Basin supported by the SERVIR Initiative, a joint United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program, and projects in the western United States supported by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Western Water Applications Office (WWAO). All of these examples have benefitted from strong, committed partnerships with end user agencies. Best practices and lessons learned in connecting science to decision making amongst these examples are explored.
Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.
William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, firstname.lastname@example.org, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities
Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.
Full Text Available The detection of peaks (summits as the upper parts of mountains and the delineation of their shape is commonly confirmed by inspections carried out by mountaineers. In this study the complex task of peak detection and shape delineation is solved by autometric methodological procedures, more precisely, by developing relatively simple but innovative image-processing and spatial-analysis techniques (e.g., developing inventive variables using an annular moving window in remote sensing and GIS domains. The techniques have been integrated into automated morphometric methodological procedures. The concepts of peaks and their shapes (sharp, blunt, oblong, circular and conical were parameterized based on topographic and morphologic criteria. A geomorphologically high quality DEM was used as a fundamental dataset. The results, detected peaks with delineated shapes, have been integratively enriched with numerous independent datasets (e.g., with triangulated spot heights and information (e.g., etymological information, and mountaineering criteria have been implemented to improve the judgments. This holistic approach has proved the applicability of both highly standardized and universal parameters for the geomorphologically diverse Kamnik Alps case study area. Possible applications of this research are numerous, e.g., a comprehensive quality control of DEM or significantly improved models for the spatial planning proposes.
Moore, D.M.; Dalesio, L.R.
The acquisition and integration of commercial automation and control subsystems in physics research is becoming more common. It is presumed these systems present lower risk and less cost. This paper studies four subsystems used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) resonance-control cooling subsystem (RCCS), the high-power RF subsystem and the RFQ vacuum subsystem were outsourced; the low-level RF (LLRF) subsystem was developed in-house. Based on the authors experience a careful evaluation of the costs and risks in acquisition, implementation, integration, and maintenance associated with these approaches is given
McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.
Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS.
McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.
Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS
Saiidi, M. J.
The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the atmospheric Revitalization Pressure Control Subsystem (ARPCS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL proposed Post 51-L updates based upon the CCB/PRCB presentations and an informal criticality summary listing. A discussion of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. These discrepancies were flagged as issues, and recommendations were made based on the FMEA data available at the time. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ARPCS hardware.
Cameron, R.; Aldcroft, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Freeman, M. D.
The aspect determination system of the Chandra X-ray Observatory plays a key role in realizing the full potential of Chandra's X-ray optics and detectors. We review the performance of the spacecraft hardware components and sub-systems, which provide information for both real time control of the attitude and attitude stability of the Chandra Observatory and also for more accurate post-facto attitude reconstruction. These flight components are comprised of the aspect camera (star tracker) and inertial reference units (gyros), plus the fiducial lights and fiducial transfer optics which provide an alignment null reference system for the science instruments and X-ray optics, together with associated thermal and structural components. Key performance measures will be presented for aspect camera focal plane data, gyro performance both during stable pointing and during maneuvers, alignment stability and mechanism repeatability.
Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee
Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.
Stepp, J.D.; Vong, F.C.; Bridges, J.F.
Various components are being designed to control the RF system of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS). The associated control electronics (phase shifters, amplitude modulators, phase detectors, automatic tuning control, and local feedback control) are designed as modular cards with multiple channels for ease of replacement as well as for compact design. Various specifications of the VXIbus are listed and the method used to simplify the design of the control subsystem is shown. A commercial VXI interface board was used to speed the design cycle. Required manpower and actual task times are included. A discussion of the computer architecture and software development of the device drivers which allowed computer control from a VME processor located in a remote crate operating under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls Software (EPICS) program is also presented
Chhikara, R. S.; Hsu, E. M.; Liszcz, C. J.
An experiment was designed to test the ability of the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem rework operations to improve wheat proportion estimates for segments that had been processed previously. Sites selected for the experiment included three in Kansas and three in Texas, with the remaining five distributed in Montana and North and South Dakota. The acquisition dates were selected to be representative of imagery available in actual operations. No more than one acquisition per biophase were used, and biophases were determined by actual crop calendars. All sites were worked by each of four Analyst-Interpreter/Data Processing Analyst Teams who reviewed the initial processing of each segment and accepted or reworked it for an estimate of the proportion of small grains in the segment. Classification results, acquisitions and classification errors and performance results between CAMS regular and ITS rework are tabulated.
Sevaston, G.; Redding, D.; Lau, K.; Breckenridge, W.; Levine, B.; Nerheim, N.; Sirlin, S.; Kadogawa, H.
A system concept for a space based segmented reflector telescope figure control subsystem is described. The concept employs a two phase architecture in which figure initialization and figure maintenance are independent functions. Figure initialization is accomplished by image sharpening using natural reference targets. Figure maintenance is performed by monitoring the relative positions and alignments of the telescope components using an optical truss. Actuation is achieved using precision positioners. Computer simulation results of figure initialization by pairwise segment coalignment/cophasing and simulated annealing are presented along with figure maintenance results using a wavefront error regulation algorithm. Both functions are shown to perform at acceptable levels for the class of submillimeter telescopes that are serving as the focus of this technology development effort. Component breadboard work as well as plans for a system testbed are discussed.
Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.
Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.
Duarte, A.S.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Janky, Filip; Cahyna, Pavel; Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin
Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 496-499 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control , Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Subsystems * CODAC * FireSignal * Java * Remote operation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-4YYGPR8-4&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=899631b6e2f4d05b21b04bde3cfb8e65&searchtype=a
Moore, B.; Zan, J.; Hannah, B.; Chui, T.; Penanen, K.; Weilert, M.
The Cryocooler for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides cooling at 6.2K on the instrument interface. The cooler system design has been incrementally documented in previous publications . It has components that traverse three primary thermal regions on JWST: Region 1, approximated by 40K; Region 2, approximated by 100K; and Region 3, which is at the allowable flight temperatures for the spacecraft bus. However, there are several sub-regions that exist in the transition between primary regions and at the heat reject interfaces of the Cooler Compressor Assembly (CCA) and Cooler Control Electronics Assembly (CCEA). The design and performance of the test facility to provide a flight representative thermal environment for acceptance testing and characterization of the complete MIRI cooler subsystem are presented.
Pickrell, R. L.; Merrill, W. C.; Osullivan, G.
Conversion of solar array dc power to ac power stimulated the specification, design, and simulation testing of an inverter/controller subsystem tailored to the photovoltaic power source characteristics. This paper discusses the optimization of the inverter/controller design as part of an overall Photovoltaic Power System (PPS) designed for maximum energy extraction from the solar array. The special design requirements for the inverter/controller include: (1) a power system controller (PSC) to control continuously the solar array operating point at the maximum power level based on variable solar insolation and cell temperatures; and (2) an inverter designed for high efficiency at rated load and low losses at light loadings to conserve energy. It must be capable of operating connected to the utility line at a level set by an external controller (PSC).
This report covers the work completed in FY90 by ANL staff and those of Westinghouse STC and BICRON Corporation under subcontract to ANL towards the design of a compensating calorimeter based on the use of scintillator plate as the sensitive medium. It is presented as five task sections dealing with respectively mechanical design; simulation studies; optical system design; electronics development; development of rad hard plastic scintillator and wavelength shifter and a summary. The work carried out by the University of Tennessee under a subcontract from ANL is reported separately. Finally, as principal institution with responsibility for the overall management of this subsystem effort, the summary here reports the conclusions resulting from the work of the collaboration and their impact on our proposed direction of effort in FY91. This proposal, for obvious reasons is given separately
Anna Urievna Budkina
Full Text Available The TCP/IP stack in a microkernel operating system executed in a user space, which requires the development of a distributed network infrastructure within a single software environment. Its functions are the organization of interaction between the components of the stack with different processes, as well as the organization of filtering mechanisms and routing of internal network traffic. Use of architectural approaches applicable in monolithic-modular systems is impossible, because the network stack is not a shareable component of the system. As a consequence, the microkernel environment requires development of special network subsystem. In this work we provide overview of major conceptions of network architectures in microkernel environments. Also, we provide own architecture which supports filtering of internal network traffic. We evaluate the architecture by development of high-performance "key-value" store.
Drndarevic, V.; Obradovic, M.; Samardic, B.; Djuric, B.; Bojovic, B.; Trajic, M.I.; Golubicic, Z.; Smiljakovic, V.
Concept and design of power amplifiers, control subsystem and safety subsystems for the RF system of the VINCY cyclotron are described. The power amplifiers subsystem consists of two amplifiers of 30 kW nominal power that operate in class B or class C. High stability of voltage amplitude of 5x10 -4 and phase stability between two resonators better than ± 0.5 0 in the range from 16.5 to 31 MHz is being providing by RF control subsystem. Autonomous safety system serves to protect staff from high voltage and to protect equipment from damage. (author)
The initial portion of the task described deals with a definition of the state-of-the-art of seismic qualification methods for subsystems. Too facilitate treatment of this broad class of subsystems, three classifications have been identified: multiply supported subsystems (e.g., piping systems); mechanical components (e.g., valves, pumps, control rod drives, hydraulic systems, etc.); and electrical components (e.g., electrical control panels). Descriptions of the available analysis and/or testing techniques for the above classifications are sought. The results of this assessment will be applied to the development of structural subsystem transfer functions
Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.
A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC
Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattlefarming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri werepurposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted usingquota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling.Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystemagribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were givenfor up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution,respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952;RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were:up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness;down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness andSupporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion ofresearch indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index andgive positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.
Gilmore, A. S.; Philbrick, R. H.; Funderburg, J.
Remote sensing of pollutants are enabled from a satellite in a geostationary orbit containing an imaging spectrometer encompassing the wavelength ranges of 290 - 490 nm and 540 - 740 nm. As the first of NASA's Earth Venture Instrument Program, the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) program will utilize this instrument to measure hourly air quality over a large portion of North America. The focal plane subsystem (FPS) contains two custom designed and critically aligned full frame transfer charge coupled devices (active area: 1028 x 2048, 18 μm) within a focal plane array package designed for radiation tolerance and space charging rejection. In addition, the FPS contains custom distributed focal plane electronics that provide all necessary clocks and biases to the sensors, receives all analog data from the sensors and performs 14 bit analog to digital conversion for upstream processing. Finally, the FPS encompasses custom low noise cables connecting the focal plane array and associated electronics. This paper discusses the design and performance of this novel focal plane subsystem with particular emphasis on the optical performance achieved including alignment, quantum efficiency, and modulation transfer function.
Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji
A preliminary survey of area under Zone-III of MCH was undertaken to assess the ground water quality, demonstrate its spatial distribution and correlate with the land use patterns using advance techniques of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS). Twenty-seven ground water samples were collected and their chemical analysis was done to form the attribute database. Water quality index was calculated from the measured parameters, based on which the study area was classified into five groups with respect to suitability of water for drinking purpose. Thematic maps viz., base map, road network, drainage and land use/land cover were prepared from IRS ID PAN + LISS III merged satellite imagery forming the spatial database. Attribute database was integrated with spatial sampling locations map in Arc/Info and maps showing spatial distribution of water quality parameters were prepared in Arc View. Results indicated that high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrates, fluorides and total hardness were observed in few industrial and densely populated areas indicating deteriorated water quality while the other areas exhibited moderate to good water quality.
Muscat Governorate is the main governorate in the Sultanate of Oman and at the same time, it is the capital of the country. The urban of Muscat expanded on the area rapidly. So, the process of the growth, the controlling factors and the side problems which become apparent need to be highlighted. In order to determine the urban growth between 1960 and 2003, multi data sources and techniques have been used under a GIS environment. This research aims to measure and to model the urban expansion of Muscat Governorate using the combined technologies of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). Based on the detailed datasets and knowledge of historical land use maps attempts were made to simulate future growth patterns of the city. The outcome of this exercise was the design of six urban growth maps covering the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2003. The results show that the total urban expansion reached more than 650% between 1960 and 2003, with an annual growth rate of approximately 20%. A combination of human and physical factors controlled this rapid growth. The paper discusses also the current urban problems resulting from this rapid growth as well as its future spatial trends
Friedlander, L. R.; Garb, Y.
Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams. Made up of discarded electronics, e-waste disposal is complex. However, e-waste also provides economic opportunity through the processing and extraction of precious metals. Sometimes referred to as "urban mining," this recycling operates informally or illegally and is characterized by dangerous practices such as, open-pit burning, acid leaching, and burning of low value wastes. Poorly controlled e-waste recycling releases dangerous contaminants, especially heavy metals, directly to the surface environment where they can infiltrate water resources and spread through precipitation events. Despite growing recognition of the prevalence of unregulated e-waste processing, systematic data on the extent and persistence of the released contamination is still limited. In general, contamination is established through techniques that provide only a snapshot in time and in a limited geographic area. Here we present preliminary results from attempts to combine field, laboratory, and remote sensing studies toward a systematic remote sensing methodology for e-waste contamination detection and monitoring. The ongoing work utilizes a tragic "natural experiment," in which over 500 e-waste burn sites were active over more than a decade in a variety of agricultural, residential, and natural contexts. We have collected over 100 soil samples for which we have both XRF and ICP-AES measurements showing soil Pb concentrations as high as 14000 ppm. We have also collected 480 in-situ reflectance spectra with corresponding soil samples over 4 field transects of areas with long-term burn activity. The most heavily contaminated samples come from within the burn sites and are made up of ash. Field spectra of these samples reflect their dark color with low overall reflectance and shallow spectral features. These spectra are challenging to use for image classification due to their similarity with other low-reflectance parts
Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.
Mediterranean ecosystems are typically heterogeneous, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT, woody vegetation and grass) that compete for water use. Due to the complexity of these ecosystems there is still uncertainty on the estimate of the evapotranspiration (ET). Micrometerological measurements (e.g. eddy covariance method based, EC ) are widely used for ET estimate, but in heterogeneous systems one of the main assumption (surface homogeneity) is not preserved and the method may become less robust. In this sense, the coupled use of sap flow sensors for tree transpiration estimate, surface temperature sensors, remote sensing information for land surface characterization allow to estimate the ET components and the energy balances of the three main land surface components (woody vegetation, grass and bare soil), overtaking the EC method uncertainties. The experimental site of Orroli, in Sardinia (Italy), is a typical Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem, monitored from the University of Cagliari since 2003. With the intent to perform an intensive field campaign for the ET estimation, we verified the potentiality of coupling eddy covariance (EC) method, infrared sensors and thermal dissipation methods (i.e. sap flow technique) for tree transpiration estimate. As a first step 3 commercial sap flux sensors were installed in a wild olive clump where the skin temperature of one tree in the clump was monitored with an infrared transducer. Then, other 54 handmade sensors were installed in 14 clumps in the EC footprint. Measurements of diameter were recorded in all the clumps and the sapwood depth was derived from measurements in several trees. The field ET estimation from the 4 commercial sensors was obtained assuming 4 different relationship between the monitored sap flux and the diameter of the species in the footprint. Instead for the 54 handmade sensors a scaling procedure was applied based on the allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and
The study aims to evaluate various remote sensing drought indices to assess those most fitting for monitoring agricultural drought. The objectives are (1) to assess and study the impact of drought effect on (corn and soybean) crop production by crop mapping information and GIS technology; (2) to use Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) as a technical approach to evaluate the spatial relationships between precipitation vs. irrigated and non-irrigated corn and soybean yield, using a Nebraska county-level case study; (3) to assess agricultural drought indices derived from remote sensing (NDVI, NMDI, NDWI, and NDII6); (4) to develop an optimal approach for agricultural drought detection based on remote sensing measurements to determine the relationship between US county-level yields versus relatively common variables collected. Extreme drought creates low corn and soybean production where irrigation systems are not implemented. This results in a lack of moisture in soil leading to dry land and stale crop yields. When precipitation and moisture is found across all states, corn and soybean production flourishes. For Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, irrigation management methods assist in strong crop yields throughout SPI monthly averages. The data gathered on irrigation consisted of using drought indices gathered by the national agricultural statistics service website. For the SPI levels ranging between one-month and nine-months, Kansas and Nebraska performed the best out of all 12-states contained in the Midwestern primary Corn and Soybean Belt. The reasoning behind Kansas and Nebraska's results was due to a more efficient and sustainable irrigation system, where upon South Dakota lacked. South Dakota was leveled by strong correlations throughout all SPI periods for corn only. Kansas showed its strongest correlations for the two-month and three-month averages, for both corn and soybean. Precipitation regression with irrigated and non-irrigated maize (corn) and
Larraza-Mendiluze, Edurne; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor
This paper surveys how the computer input/output (I/O) subsystem is taught in introductory undergraduate courses. It is important to study the educational process of the computer I/O subsystem because, in the curricula recommendations, it is considered a core topic in the area of knowledge of computer architecture and organization (CAO). It is…
The data automation subsystem designed and built as part of the Mariner Mars 1971 program, sequences and controls the science instruments and formats all science data. A description of the subsystem with emphasis on major changes relative to Mariner Mars 1969 is presented. In addition, the complete test phase is described.
Full Text Available This study was aimed : (i to know the subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning in beef cattle fattening; (ii to count the profit of beef cattle farming; (iii to analyze the effect of agribusiness subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning to beef cattle fattening profit. This study was carried out using survey method and the elementary units were feedlot farmers. The sample was determined by Purposive Quota Sampling Method on 112 respondents spread across five regencies, namely Blora, Rembang, Grobogan, Wonogiri, and Boyolali. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The data analysis used quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics method, which include scoring, financial, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that : (i the implementation of agribusiness subsystem (including preproduction subsystem, marketing, and agribusiness support services and agribusiness planning were not so good category, while the cattle farming subsystem was moderate category; (ii the average of farming scale in each feedlot farmer was 2.95 head of cattle with the profit rate was IDR 1,044,719 per fattening period during 6.68 months (equivalent to IDR 156,395 per month; (iii agribusiness subsystem and agribusiness planning had significant impact on feedlot farmer profit simultaneously, but preproduction subsystem and the agribusiness support services subsystem partially had a significant impact on feedlot farmer profit.
Full Text Available This study was aimed : (i to know the subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning inbeef cattle fattening; (ii to count the profit of beef cattle farming; (iii to analyze the effect ofagribusiness subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning to beef cattle fattening profit. Thisstudy was carried out using survey method and the elementary units were feedlot farmers. The samplewas determined by Purposive Quota Sampling Method on 112 respondents spread across five regencies,namely Blora, Rembang, Grobogan, Wonogiri, and Boyolali. Data were collected from primary andsecondary sources. The data analysis used quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics method,which include scoring, financial, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that : (i theimplementation of agribusiness subsystem (including preproduction subsystem, marketing, andagribusiness support services and agribusiness planning were not so good category, while the cattlefarming subsystem was moderate category; (ii the average of farming scale in each feedlot farmer was2.95 head of cattle with the profit rate was IDR 1,044,719 per fattening period during 6.68 months(equivalent to IDR 156,395 per month; (iii agribusiness subsystem and agribusiness planning hadsignificant impact on feedlot farmer profit simultaneously, but preproduction subsystem and theagribusiness support services subsystem partially had a significant impact on feedlot farmer profit.
Patricia L. Andrews
Describes BURN Subsystem, Part 1, the operational fire behavior prediction subsystem of the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system. The manual covers operation of the computer program, assumptions of the mathematical models used in the calculations, and application of the predictions.
Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Air Force Research Laboratory Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics 7 March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing And Imaging Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Imaging of Space Objects •Information without Imaging •Predicting the Location of Space Objects • Remote Sensing in Extreme Conditions •Propagation
Peng, F.; Huang, S.; Xiong, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Cheng, Y.
Geothermal energy is a renewable and low-carbon energy source independent of climate change. It is most abundant in Cenozoic volcanic areas where high temperature can be obtained within a relatively shallow depth. Like other geological resources, geothermal resource prospecting and exploration require a good understanding of the host media. Remote sensing (RS) has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and broad spatial coverage over the conventional geological and geophysical prospecting, while geographical information system (GIS) has intuitive, flexible, and convenient characteristics. In this study, we apply RS and GIS technics in prospecting the geothermal energy potential in Xilingol, a Cenozoic volcanic field in the eastern Inner Mongolia, NE China. Landsat TM/ETM+ multi-temporal images taken under clear-sky conditions, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and other auxiliary data including geological maps of 1:2,500,000 and 1:200,000 scales are used in this study. The land surface temperature (LST) of the study area is retrieved from the Landsat images with the single-channel algorithm on the platform of ENVI developed by ITT Visual Information Solutions. Information of linear and circular geological structure is then extracted from the LST maps and compared to the existing geological data. Several useful technologies such as principal component analysis (PCA), vegetation suppression technique, multi-temporal comparative analysis, and 3D Surface View based on DEM data are used to further enable a better visual geologic interpretation with the Landsat imagery of Xilingol. The Preliminary results show that major faults in the study area are mainly NE and NNE oriented. Several major volcanism controlling faults and Cenozoic volcanic eruption centers have been recognized from the linear and circular structures in the remote images. Seven areas have been identified as potential targets for further prospecting geothermal energy based on the visual
Yavich, Natalia; Báscolo, Ernesto Pablo; Haggerty, Jeannie
To analyze the relationship between health system financing and services organization models with costs and health services performance in each of Rosario's health sub-systems. The financing and organization models were characterized using secondary data. Costs were calculated using the WHO/SHA methodology. Healthcare quality was measured by a household survey (n=822). Public subsystem:Vertically integrated funding and primary healthcare as a leading strategy to provide services produced low costs and individual-oriented healthcare but with weak accessibility conditions and comprehensiveness. Private subsystem: Contractual integration and weak regulatory and coordination mechanisms produced effects opposed to those of the public sub-system. Social security: Contractual integration and strong regulatory and coordination mechanisms contributed to intermediate costs and overall high performance. Each subsystem financing and services organization model had a strong and heterogeneous influence on costs and health services performance.
Guido Tapia Carpio, Lucio; Olimpio Pereira, Amaro
This article describes the competitive strategies of the subsystems in the Brazilian electricity sector. The objective is to present a model in which the operation of each subsystem is managed independently. As the subsystems correspond to the country's geographic regions, the adoption of this model creates conditions for each region to develop according to its own peculiarities. The decision-making process is described based Game Theory. As such, the players or operators of each subsystem carry out their strategies based on the quantities produced, which results in Nash-Cournot equilibrium. In this model, the importance of the proper transmission line dimensioning is highlighted. It determines the competition level among subsystems and allows for optimization of the whole system without requiring arrangements for managing the congestion of the energy transportation grid. The model was programmed in FORTRAN, using IBM's optimization subroutine library (OSL) package
Mccray, Scott B.; Newbold, David D.; Ray, Rod; Ogle, Kathryn
Controlled ecological life supprot systems will require subsystems for maintaining the consentrations of atmospheric gases within acceptable ranges in human habitat chambers and plant growth chambers. The goal of this work was to develop a membrane-based atmosphere comntrol (MBAC) subsystem that allows the controlled exchange of atmospheric componets (e.g., oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor) between these chambers. The MBAC subsystem promises to offer a simple, nonenergy intensive method to separate, store and exchange atmospheric components, producing optimal concentrations of components in each chamber. In this paper, the results of a preliminary analysis of the MBAC subsystem for control of oxygen and nitrogen are presented. Additionally, the MBAC subsystem and its operation are described.
Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Scott M; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Lafleche, Ginette; Verfaellie, Mieke
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD. Sixty-nine returning war Veterans with PTSD and 44 trauma-exposed Veterans without PTSD underwent resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). To examine functional connectivity, seeds were placed in the core hubs of the default mode network, namely the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior medial PFC (aMPFC), and in each subsystem. Compared to controls, individuals with PTSD had reduced functional connectivity between the PCC and the hippocampus, a region of the MTL subsystem. Groups did not differ in connectivity between the PCC and dMPFC subsystem or between the aMPFC and any region within either subsystem. In the PTSD group, connectivity between the PCC and hippocampus was negatively associated with avoidance/numbing symptoms. Examination of the MTL and dMPFC subsystems revealed reduced anticorrelation between the ventromedial PFC (vMPFC) seed of the MTL subsystem and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the PTSD group. Our results suggest that selective alterations in functional connectivity in the MTL subsystem of the default mode network in PTSD may be an important factor in PTSD pathology and symptomatology.
Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack
This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.
Reyes-Moreno, J.; Geimer, C.; Balestra, A.; Haddad, N.
An overview of FIERA is presented with emphasis on its recent upgrade to PCI. The PCI board hosts two DSPs, one for real time control of the camera and another for on-the-fly processing of the incoming video data. In addition, the board is able to make DMA transfers, to synchronize to other boards alike, to be synchronized by a TIM bus and to control PULPO via RS232. The design is based on the IOP480 chip from PLX, for which we have developed a device driver for both Solaris and Linux. One computer is able to host more than one board and therefore can control an array of FIERA detector electronics. PULPO is a multifunctional subsystem widely used at ESO for the housekeeping of CCD cryostat heads and for shutter control. The upgrade of PULPO is based on an embedded PC running Linux. The upgraded PULPO is able to handle 29 temperature sensors, control 8 heaters and one shutter, read out one vacuum sensor and log any combination of parameters.
Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude
Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.
Full Text Available The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system which is designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe. The German Aerospace Center (DLR in Berlin, Germany conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS on behalf of Airbus Defense and Space GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany. The FPS consists, inter alia, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs, one for the UV-VIS spectral range (305 nm … 500 nm, the second for NIR (750 nm … 775 nm. In this publication, we will present in detail the opto-mechanical laboratory set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM which will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM verification. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests performed with an integrating sphere as homogenous light source. The FPAs have mainly to be operated at 215 K ± 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC for the test accomplishment. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Furthermore selected test analyses and results will be presented, showing that the Sentinel-4 FPS meets specifications.
Arthur William Barrios
Full Text Available The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labelling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg’s ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg’s ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs are also labelled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line.
Wyatt, Robert E; Na, Kyungsun
The dynamics of a swarm of quantum trajectories is investigated for systems involving the interaction of an active mode (the subsystem) with an M-mode harmonic reservoir (the bath). Equations of motion for the position, velocity, and action function for elements of the probability fluid are integrated in the Lagrangian (moving with the fluid) picture of quantum hydrodynamics. These fluid elements are coupled through the Bohm quantum potential and as a result evolve as a correlated ensemble. Wave function synthesis along the trajectories permits an exact description of the quantum dynamics for the evolving probability fluid. The approach is fully quantum mechanical and does not involve classical or semiclassical approximations. Computational results are presented for three systems involving the interaction on an active mode with M=1, 10, and 15 bath modes. These results include configuration space trajectory evolution, flux analysis of the evolving ensemble, wave function synthesis along trajectories, and energy partitioning along specific trajectories. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a small number of quantum trajectories to obtain accurate quantum results on some types of open quantum systems that are not amenable to standard quantum approaches involving basis set expansions or Eulerian space-fixed grids.
Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo
Quantum error correction provides a fertile context for exploring the interplay of feedback control, microscopic physics and non-commutative probability. In this paper we deepen our understanding of this nexus through high-level analysis of a class of quantum memory models that we have previously proposed, which implement continuous-time versions of well-known stabilizer codes in autonomous nanophotonic circuits that require no external clocking or control. We demonstrate that the presence of the gauge subsystem in the nine-qubit Bacon–Shor code allows for a loss-tolerant layout of the corresponding nanophotonic circuit that substantially ameliorates the effects of optical propagation losses, argue that code separability allows for simplified restoration feedback protocols, and propose a modified fidelity metric for quantifying the performance of realistic quantum memories. Our treatment of these topics exploits the homogeneous modeling framework of autonomous nanophotonic circuits, but the key ideas translate to the traditional setting of discrete time, measurement-based quantum error correction. (paper)
Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor
The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.
Williges, Christian; Uhlig, Mathias; Hilbert, Stefan; Rossmann, Hannes; Buchwinkler, Kevin; Babben, Steffen; Sebastian, Ilse; Hohn, Rüdiger; Reulke, Ralf
The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system, designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe from a geostationary orbit. The German Aerospace Center, DLR Berlin, conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS) during the second half of 2016. The FPS consists, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs), two Front End Electronics (FEEs), one Front End Support Electronic (FSE) and one Instrument Control Unit (ICU). The FPAs are designed for two spectral ranges: UV-VIS (305 nm - 500 nm) and NIR (750 nm - 775 nm). In this publication, we will present in detail the set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM). This set up will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM) verification, planned for early 2018. The FPAs have to be operated at 215 K +/- 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC) for the test accomplishment. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Selected test analyses and results will be presented.
Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Jialong; Zheng, Xinyan; Yuan, Rujin
The project of The First National Geographic Conditions Census developed by Chinese government has designed the data acquisition content and indexes, and has built corresponding classification system mainly based on the natural property of material. However, the unified standard for land cover classification system has not been formed; the production always needs converting to meet the actual needs. Therefore, it proposed a refined classification method based on multi source of remote sensing information fusion. It takes the third-level classes of forest land and grassland for example, and has collected the thematic data of Vegetation Map of China (1:1,000,000), attempts to develop refined classification utilizing raster spatial analysis model. Study area is selected, and refined classification is achieved by using the proposed method. The results show that land cover within study area is divided principally among 20 classes, from subtropical broad-leaved forest (31131) to grass-forb community type of low coverage grassland (41192); what's more, after 30 years in the study area, climatic factors, developmental rhythm characteristics and vegetation ecological geographical characteristics have not changed fundamentally, only part of the original vegetation types have changed in spatial distribution range or land cover types. Research shows that refined classification for the third-level classes of forest land and grassland could make the results take on both the natural attributes of the original and plant community ecology characteristics, which could meet the needs of some industry application, and has certain practical significance for promoting the product of The First National Geographic Conditions Census.
Belinda Arunarwati Margono
Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...
Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1988. High-tech assembling sub-system; 1998 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Haiteku assemble sub system
The Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association was commissioned from the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on research of a production system by apparel types and systematization of an experiment plant. As the research on systematizing the experiment plant, the association is tackling with the researches on a high-speed laser cutting sub-system, a flexible sewing sub-system, a hi-tech assembling sub-system, and a three-dimensional flexible pressing sub-system. This paper reports the achievement of the research and development on the hi-tech assembling sub-system. This system was studied by grouping the system into a seam sewing technology and a three-dimensional sewing technology. The former technology deals with the processes of seam sewing of the side of the left body part in a model wear, sew-up margin division, straightening, and back center seam sewing. The latter technology deals with the sleeve fitting process. Although these processes are the subject of automated system, it is difficult to automate the back collar sewing, shoulder sewing and front collar sewing after the back center seam sewing process to just before the sleeve fitting process. Therefore, these processes are processed by retrofitting and three-dimensional sewing devices, and a control computer to transmit, receive and control the information required for the devices. The utilizing conditions of the sub-system constituting devices and the component technologies are tabulated in a table. (NEDO)
Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly
The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.
Martinis, Sandro; Clandillon, Stephen; Twele, André; Huber, Claire; Plank, Simon; Maxant, Jérôme; Cao, Wenxi; Caspard, Mathilde; May, Stéphane
Optical and radar satellite remote sensing have proven to provide essential crisis information in case of natural disasters, humanitarian relief activities and civil security issues in a growing number of cases through mechanisms such as the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) of the European Commission or the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters'. The aforementioned programs and initiatives make use of satellite-based rapid mapping services aimed at delivering reliable and accurate crisis information after natural hazards. Although these services are increasingly operational, they need to be continuously updated and improved through research and development (R&D) activities. The principal objective of ASAPTERRA (Advancing SAR and Optical Methods for Rapid Mapping), the ESA-funded R&D project being described here, is to improve, automate and, hence, speed-up geo-information extraction procedures in the context of natural hazards response. This is performed through the development, implementation, testing and validation of novel image processing methods using optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The methods are mainly developed based on data of the German radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, the French satellite missions Pléiades-1A/1B as well as the ESA missions Sentinel-1/2 with the aim to better characterize the potential and limitations of these sensors and their synergy. The resulting algorithms and techniques are evaluated in real case applications during rapid mapping activities. The project is focussed on three types of natural hazards: floods, landslides and fires. Within this presentation an overview of the main methodological developments in each topic is given and demonstrated in selected test areas. The following developments are presented in the context of flood mapping: a fully automated Sentinel-1 based processing chain for detecting open flood surfaces, a method for the improved detection of flooded vegetation
Full Text Available A simple formula is proposed to estimate the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA coupling loss factors (CLFs for two flexible subsystems connected via discrete interfaces. First, the dynamic interactions between two discretely connected subsystems are described as a set of intermodal coupling stiffness terms. It is then found that if both subsystems are of high modal density and meanwhile the interface points all act independently, the intermodal dynamic couplings become dominated by only those between different subsystem mode sets. If ensemble- and frequency-averaged, the intermodal coupling stiffness terms can simply reduce to a function of the characteristic dynamic properties of each subsystem and the subsystem mass, as well as the number of interface points. The results can thus be accommodated within the theoretical frame of conventional SEA theory to yield a simple CLF formula. Meanwhile, the approach allows the weak coupling region between the two SEA subsystems to be distinguished simply and explicitly. The consistency and difference of the present technique with and from the traditional wave-based SEA solutions are discussed. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the good performance of the present technique.
Malone, Kevin J.; Schrein, Ronald J.; Bradley, M. Scott; Irwin, Ronda; Berdanier, Barry; Donley, Eric
The Landsat 9 mission will continue the legacy of Earth remote sensing that started in 1972. The Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI 2) is one of two instruments on the Landsat 9 satellite. The OLI 2 instrument is essentially a copy of the OLI instrument flying on Landsat 8. A key element of the OLI 2 instrument is the focal plane subsystem, or FPS, which consists of the focal plane array (FPA), the focal plane electronics (FPE) box, and low-thermal conductivity cables. This paper presents design details of the OLI 2 FPS. The FPA contains 14 critically-aligned focal plane modules (FPM). Each module contains 6 visible/near-IR (VNIR) detector arrays and three short-wave infrared (SWIR) arrays. A complex multi-spectral optical filter is contained in each module. Redundant pixels for each array provide exceptional operability. Spare detector modules from OLI were recharacterized after six years of storage. Radiometric test results are presented and compared with data recorded in 2010. Thermal, optical, mechanical and structural features of the FPA will be described. Special attention is paid to the thermal design of the FPA since thermal stability is crucial to ensuring low-noise and low-drift operation of the detectors which operate at -63°C. The OLI 2 FPE provides power, timing, and control to the focal plane modules. It also digitizes the video data and formats it for the solid-state recorder. Design improvements to the FPA-FPE cables will be discussed and characterization data will be presented. The paper will conclude with the status of the flight hardware assembly and testing.
Miller, W.O.; Thompson, T.C.; Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.
The Alamos National Laboratory Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division has been investigating silicon-based elementary particle tracking device technology as part of the Superconducting Super Collider-sponsored silicon subsystem collaboration. Structural, materials, and thermal issues have been addressed. This paper explores detector structural integrity and stability, including detailed finite element models of the silicon wafer support and predictive methods used in designing with advanced composite materials. The current design comprises a magnesium metal matrix composite (MMC) truss space frame to provide a sparse support structure for the complex array of silicon detectors. This design satisfies the 25-μm structural stability requirement in a 10-Mrad radiation environment. This stability is achieved without exceeding the stringent particle interaction constraints set at 2.5% of a radiation length. Materials studies have considered thermal expansion, elastic modulus, resistance to radiation and chemicals, and manufacturability of numerous candidate materials. Based on optimization of these parameters, the MMC space frame will possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) near zero to avoid thermally induced distortions, whereas the cooling rings, which support the silicon detectors and heat pipe network, will probably be constructed of a graphite/epoxy composite whose CTE is engineered to match that of silicon. Results from radiation, chemical, and static loading tests are compared with analytical predictions and discussed. Electronic thermal loading and its efficient dissipation using heat pipe cooling technology are discussed. Calculations and preliminary designs for a sprayed-on graphite wick structure are presented. A hydrocarbon such as butane appears to be a superior choice of heat pipe working fluid based on cooling, handling, and safety criteria
Stamminger, A.; Ettl, J.; Grosse, J.; Horschgen-Eggers, M.; Jung, W.; Kallenbach, A.; Raith, G.; Saedtler, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Turner, J.; Wittkamp, M.
In November 2015, the DLR Mobile Rocket Base will launch the MAIUS-1 rocket vehicle at Esrange, Northern Sweden. The MAIUS-A experiment is a pathfinder atom optics experiment. The scientific objective of the mission is the first creation of a BoseEinstein Condensate in space and performing atom interferometry on a sounding rocket . MAIUS-1 comprises a two-stage unguided solid propellant VSB-30 rocket motor system. The vehicle consists of a Brazilian 53 1 motor as 1 st stage, a 530 motor as 2nd stage, a conical motor adapter, a despin module, a payload adapter, the MAIUS-A experiment consisting of five experiment modules, an attitude control system module, a newly developed conical service system, and a two-staged recovery system including a nosecone. In contrast to usual payloads on VSB-30 rockets, the payload has a diameter of 500 mm due to constraints of the scientific experiment. Because of this change in design, a blunted nosecone is necessary to guarantee the required static stability during the ascent phase of the flight. This paper will give an overview on the subsystems which have been built at DLR MORABA, especially the newly developed service system. Further, it will contain a description of the MAIUS-1 vehicle, the mission and the unique requirements on operations and attitude control, which is additionally required to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector. Additionally to a usual microgravity environment, the MAIUS-l payload requires attitude control to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector.