WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensing applications act

  1. Surface holograms for sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, M.; Naydenova, I.

    2018-01-01

    Surface gratings with periodicity of 2 μm and amplitude in the range of 175 and 240 nm were fabricated in a plasticized polyvinylchloride doped with a metalloporphyrin (ZnTPP), via a single laser pulse holographic ablation process. The effect of the laser pulse energy on the profiles of the fabricated surface structure was investigated. The sensing capabilities of the fabricated diffractive structures towards amines (triethylamine, diethylamine) and pyridine vapours were then explored; the holographic structures were exposed to the analyte vapours and changes in the intensity of the diffracted light were monitored in real time at 473 nm. It was demonstrated that surface structures, fabricated in a polymer doped with a metalloporphyrin which acts as analyte receptor, have a potential in sensing application.

  2. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Sendai (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications.

  3. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications

  4. Sense, Reference, Speech Acts, Norms and Other Issues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 546-576 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : meaning * sense * normativity * speech acts * conventions * communicative intentions * rigid designation * explicite performatives Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.klemens.sav.sk/fiusav/doc/organon/2015/4/546-576.pdf

  5. Retrieval operators of remote sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Shah, A.

    2014-01-01

    A set of operators of remote sensing applications have been proposed to fulfill most of the Functional Requirements (FR). These operators capture the functions of the applications, which can be considered as the services provided by the applications. In general, a good application meets maximum FR from user. In this paper, we have defined a remote sensing application by a set, having all images created at dissimilar time instances, and each image is categorized into set of different layers. (author)

  6. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  7. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  8. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  9. Remote Sensing: Physics And Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Raey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Basic principles of remote sensing of environment are outlined emphasizing inherent physical and target properties leading to proper identification and classification. Basic processing techniques are discussed. Applications of remote sensing techniques in various aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment is surveyed with emphasis on aspects of main concern to developing communities such as planning, sea level impacts, mine detection and earthquake prediction are all outlined and discussed

  10. Energy and remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  11. Remote sensing applications in environmental research

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Prashant K; Gupta, Manika; Islam, Tanvir

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research is the basis for advanced Earth Observation (EO) datasets used in environmental monitoring and research. Now that there are a number of satellites in orbit, EO has become imperative in today's sciences, weather and natural disaster prediction. This highly interdisciplinary reference work brings together diverse studies on remote sensing and GIS, from a theoretical background to its applications, represented through various case studies and the findings of new models. The book offers a comprehensive range of contributions by well-known scientists from around the world and opens a new window for students in presenting interdisciplinary and methodological resources on the latest research. It explores various key aspects and offers state-of-the-art research in a simplified form, describing remote sensing and GIS studies for those who are new to the field, as well as for established researchers.

  12. Remote sensing applications for monitoring rangeland vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing techniques hold considerable promise for the inventory and monitoring of natural resources on rangelands. A significant lack of information concerning basic spectral characteristics of range vegetation and soils has resulted in a lack of rangeland applications. The parameters of interest for range condition ...

  13. Exploring microdischarges for portable sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianchandani, Y B; Wright, S A; Eun, C K; Wilson, C G; Mitra, B

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the use of microdischarges as transducing elements in sensors and detectors. Chemical and physical sensing of gases, chemical sensing of liquids, and radiation detection are described. These applications are explored from the perspective of their use in portable microsystems, with emphasis on compactness, power consumption, the ability to operate at or near atmospheric pressure (to reduce pumping challenges), and the ability to operate in an air ambient (to reduce the need for reservoirs of carrier gases). Manufacturing methods and performance results are described for selected examples.

  14. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  15. Sense, decide, act, communicate (SDAC): next generation of smart sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina; Davis, Jesse; Ko, Teresa H.; Kyker, Ron; Pate, Ron; Stark, Doug; Stinnett, Regan; Baker, James; Cushner, Adam; Van Dyke, Colin; Kyckelhahn, Brian

    2004-09-01

    The recent war on terrorism and increased urban warfare has been a major catalysis for increased interest in the development of disposable unattended wireless ground sensors. While the application of these sensors to hostile domains has been generally governed by specific tasks, this research explores a unique paradigm capitalizing on the fundamental functionality related to sensor systems. This functionality includes a sensors ability to Sense - multi-modal sensing of environmental events, Decide - smart analysis of sensor data, Act - response to environmental events, and Communication - internal to system and external to humans (SDAC). The main concept behind SDAC sensor systems is to integrate the hardware, software, and networking to generate 'knowledge and not just data'. This research explores the usage of wireless SDAC units to collectively make up a sensor system capable of persistent, adaptive, and autonomous behavior. These systems are base on the evaluation of scenarios and existing systems covering various domains. This paper presents a promising view of sensor network characteristics, which will eventually yield smart (intelligent collectives) network arrays of SDAC sensing units generally applicable to multiple related domains. This paper will also discuss and evaluate the demonstration system developed to test the concepts related to SDAC systems.

  16. A framework for developing remote sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Hayat, M.F.; Afzal, M.; Asif, H.M.S.; Asif, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Application (RSA) is important as one of the critical enabler of e-systems such as e- governments, e-commerce, and e-sciences. In this study, we argued that owning to the specialized needs of RSA such as volatility and interactive nature, a customized Software Engineering (SE) approach should be adapted for their development. Based on this argument we have also identified the shortcomings of the conventional SE approaches and the classical waterfall software development life cycle model. In this study, we have proposed a modification to the classical waterfall software development life cycle model for proposing a customized software development Framework for RSAs. We have identified four (4) different types of changes that can occur to an already developed RS application. The proposed framework was capable to incorporate all four types of changes. Remote Sensing, software engineering, functional requirements, types of changes. (author)

  17. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc V; Nguyen, Thuong; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J M

    2017-11-29

    Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring.

  18. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc V. Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring.

  19. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring. PMID:29186037

  20. Developing status of satellite remote sensing and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Liu Dechang

    2005-01-01

    This paper has discussed the latest development of satellite remote sensing in sensor resolutions, satellite motion models, load forms, data processing and its application. The authors consider that sensor resolutions of satellite remote sensing have increased largely. Valid integration of multisensors is a new idea and technology of satellite remote sensing in the 21st century, and post-remote sensing application technology is the important part of deeply applying remote sensing information and has great practical significance. (authors)

  1. Remote sensing applications for the dam industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryse-Phillips, A.; Woolgar, R. [Hatch Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Puestow, T.; Warren, S. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). C-Core; Rogers, K. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Khan, A. [Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. Johns, NL (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    There has been an increase in the earth observation missions providing satellite imagery for operational monitoring applications. This technique has been found to be especially useful for the surveillance of large, remote areas, which is challenging to achieve in a cost-effective manner by conventional field-based or aerial means. This paper discussed the utility of satellite-based monitoring for different applications relevant to hydrology and water resources management. Emphasis was placed on the monitoring of river ice covers in near, real-time and water resources management. The paper first outlined river ice monitoring using remote sensing on the Lower Churchill River. The benefits of remote sensing over traditional survey methods for the dam industry was then outlined. Satellite image acquisition and interpretation for the Churchill River was then presented. Several images were offered. Watershed physiographic characterization using remote sensing was also described. It was concluded that satellite imagery proved to be a useful tool to develop physiographic characteristics when conducting rainfall-runoff modelling. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  2. THz wave sensing for petroleum industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.; Chen, Yunqing; Zhang, X.-C.

    2006-04-01

    We present the results of terahertz (THz) sensing of gasoline products. The frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and complex dielectric constants of gasoline and xylene isomers were extracted in the spectral range from 0.5 3.0 THz. The THz spectra of gasoline (#87, #89, #93) and related BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds were studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the 1.5 20 THz (50 660 cm-1). The xylene isomers, which are used as antiknock agent in gasoline were determined quantitatively in gasoline in the THz range. Our investigations show the potential of THz technology for the petroleum industrial applications.

  3. Photonic Crystal Fibers for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. R. Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystal fibers are a kind of fiber optics that present a diversity of new and improved features beyond what conventional optical fibers can offer. Due to their unique geometric structure, photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications. A review of photonic crystal fiber sensors is presented. Two different groups of sensors are detailed separately: physical and biochemical sensors, based on the sensor measured parameter. Several sensors have been reported until the date, and more are expected to be developed due to the remarkable characteristics such fibers can offer.

  4. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  5. Remote Sensing Image in the Application of Agricultural Tourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Fan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the processing technology of high resolution remote sensing image, the specific making process of tourism map and different remote sensing data in the key application of tourism planning and so on. Remote sensing extracts agricultural tourism planning information, improving the scientificalness and operability of agricultural tourism planning. Therefore remote sensing image in the application of agricultural tourism planning will be the inevitable trend of tourism development.

  6. Structured materials for catalytic and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokenek, Selma

    The optical and chemical properties of the materials used in catalytic and sensing applications directly determine the characteristics of the resultant catalyst or sensor. It is well known that a catalyst needs to have high activity, selectivity, and stability to be viable in an industrial setting. The hydrogenation activity of palladium catalysts is known to be excellent, but the industrial applications are limited by the cost of obtaining catalyst in amounts large enough to make their use economical. As a result, alloying palladium with a cheaper, more widely available metal while maintaining the high catalytic activity seen in monometallic catalysts is, therefore, an attractive option. Similarly, the optical properties of nanoscale materials used for sensing must be attuned to their application. By adjusting the shape and composition of nanoparticles used in such applications, very fine changes can be made to the frequency of light that they absorb most efficiently. The design, synthesis, and characterization of (i) size controlled monometallic palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications, (ii) nickel-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles and (iii) silver-palladium nanoparticles with applications in drug detection and biosensing through surface plasmon resonance, respectively, will be discussed. The composition, size, and shape of the nanoparticles formed were controlled through the use of wet chemistry techniques. After synthesis, the nanoparticles were analyzed using physical and chemical characterization techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy- Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (STEM-EDX). The Pd and Ni-Pd nanoparticles were then supported on silica for catalytic testing using mass spectrometry. The optical properties of the Ag-Pd nanoparticles in suspension were further investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). Monometallic palladium particles have

  7. Magnetic polymer nanocomposites for sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites for a wide range of sensing applications. The composites are made of magnetic nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or UV sensitive SU-S. The developed composites utilize the permanent magnetic behavior of the NWs, allowing remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, which simplifies miniaturization and integration in microsystems. In addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the easy patterning of the polymer leading to a corrosion resistant, highly elastic, and permanent magnetic material that can be used to develop highly sensitive systems. Nanocomposite pillars are realized and integrated on magnetic sensor elements to achieve highly sensitive and power efficient flow and tactile sensors. The developed flow sensor can detect air and water flow at a power consumption as little as SO nW and a resolution up to 15 μm/s with easily modifiable performance. A tactile sensor element prototype is realized using the same concept, where a pressure range of 0-169 kPa is detected with a resolution of up to 1.3 kPa. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  9. Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Samuel N. Goward

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing, geographic information systems, and modeling have combined to produce a virtual explosion of growth in ecological investigations and applications that are explicitly spatial and temporal. Of all remotely sensed data, those acquired by landsat sensors have played the most pivotal role in spatial and temporal scaling. Modern terrestrial ecology relies on...

  10. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  11. Quantitative remote sensing in thermal infrared theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive technical overview of the core theory of thermal remote sensing and its applications in hydrology, agriculture, and forestry includes a host of illuminating examples and covers everything from the basics to likely future trends in the field.

  12. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    at reasonable logistical or financial costs . Remote sensing provides an attractive alternative. We discuss the range of different sensors that are...DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications Final Report Award Number: N000141010932 Andrew T. Jessup Chris Chickadel...20. Radermacher, M., M. Wengrove, J. V. de Vries, and R. Holman (2014), Applicability of video-derived bathymetry estimates to nearshore current

  13. Applications of quantitative remote sensing to hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Troch, P.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to quantify the rates of the exchanges of energy and matter among hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere, quantitative description of land surface processes by means of measurements at different scales are essential. Quantitative remote sensing plays an important role in this respect. The

  14. JEarth | Analytical Remote Sensing Imagery Application for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, L.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Dickenshied, S.; Engle, E.; Noss, D.

    2009-12-01

    The ASU 100 Cities Project and the ASU Mars Space Flight Facility (MSFF) present JEarth, a set of analytical Geographic Information System (GIS) tools for viewing and processing Earth-based remote sensing imagery and vectors, including high-resolution and hyperspectral imagery such as TIMS and MASTER. JEarth is useful for a wide range of researchers and practitioners who need to access, view, and analyze remote sensing imagery. JEarth stems from existing MSFF applications: the Java application JMars (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) for viewing and analyzing remote sensing imagery and THMPROC, a web-based, interactive tool for processing imagery to create band combinations, stretches, and other imagery products. JEarth users can run the application on their desktops by installing Java-based open source software on Windows, Mac, or Linux operating systems.

  15. Application of remote sensing to environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, J F

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of remote sensing to environmental management procedures at the sub-regional scale is examined in relation to the County Structure environmental management plan for Merseyside County, England. The various seasons, scales and emulsions used for aerial photography in the county are indicated, and results of aerial surveys of the distribution of derelict and despoiled land and of natural environments are presented and compared with ground surveys. The use of color infrared and panchromatic aerial photographs indicating areas of environmental stress and land use in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of environmental management activities is then discussed.

  16. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  17. DFB laser diodes for sensing applications using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeth, J; Fischer, M; Legge, M; Seufert, J; Roessner, K; Groninga, H

    2010-01-01

    We present typical device characteristics of novel DFB laser diodes which are employed in various sensing applications including high resolution photoacoustic spectroscopy. The laser diodes discussed are based on a genuine fabrication technology which allows for the production of ultra stable devices within a broad spectral range from 760 nm up to 3000 nm wavelength. The devices exhibit narrow linewidths down to <1 MHz which makes them ideally suited for all photoacoustic sensing applications where a high spectral purity is required. As an example we will focus on a typical medical application where these diodes are used for breath analysis using photoacoustic spectroscopy.

  18. MOSDEN: A Scalable Mobile Collaborative Platform for Opportunistic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash Jayaraman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile smartphones along with embedded sensors have become an efficient enabler for various mobile applications including opportunistic sensing. The hi-tech advances in smartphones are opening up a world of possibilities. This paper proposes a mobile collaborative platform called MOSDEN that enables and supports opportunistic sensing at run time. MOSDEN captures and shares sensor data acrossmultiple apps, smartphones and users. MOSDEN supports the emerging trend of separating sensors from application-specific processing, storing and sharing. MOSDEN promotes reuse and re-purposing of sensor data hence reducing the efforts in developing novel opportunistic sensing applications. MOSDEN has been implemented on Android-based smartphones and tablets. Experimental evaluations validate the scalability and energy efficiency of MOSDEN and its suitability towards real world applications. The results of evaluation and lessons learned are presented and discussed in this paper.

  19. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  20. Microfiber-Based Bragg Gratings for Sensing Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Long Kou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfiber-based Bragg gratings (MFBGs are an emerging concept in ultra-small optical fiber sensors. They have attracted great attention among researchers in the fiber sensing area because of their large evanescent field and compactness. In this review, the basic techniques for the fabrication of MFBGs are introduced first. Then, the sensing properties and applications of MFBGs are discussed, including measurement of refractive index (RI, temperature, and strain/force. Finally a summary of selected MFBG sensing elements from previous literature are tabulated.

  1. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  2. A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe Zin Oo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design and fabrication of three-dimensionally structured, gold membranes containing hexagonally close-packed microcavities with nanopores in the base, are described. Our aim is to create a nanoporous structure with localized enhancement of the fluorescence or Raman scattering at, and in the nanopore when excited with light of approximately 600 nm, with a view to provide sensitive detection of biomolecules. A range of geometries of the nanopore integrated into hexagonally close-packed assemblies of gold micro-cavities was first evaluated theoretically. The optimal size and shape of the nanopore in a single microcavity were then considered to provide the highest localized plasmon enhancement (of fluorescence or Raman scattering at the very center of the nanopore for a bioanalyte traversing through. The optimized design was established to be a 1200 nm diameter cavity of 600 nm depth with a 50 nm square nanopore with rounded corners in the base. A gold 3D-structured membrane containing these sized microcavities with the integrated nanopore was successfully fabricated and ‘proof of concept’ Raman scattering experiments are described. Keywords: Nanopore, Polymer sphere, Gold membrane, Plasmons, Sensing, SERS

  3. Application of remote sensing in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Foad

    I utilized state the art remote sensing and GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques to study large scale biological, physical and ecological processes of coastal, nearshore, and offshore waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. These processes ranged from chlorophyll alpha and primary production time series analysies in Lake Michigan to coastal stamp sand threats on Buffalo Reef in Lake Superior. I used SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) satellite imagery to trace various biological, chemical and optical water properties of Lake Michigan during the past decade and to investigate the collapse of early spring primary production. Using spatial analysis techniques, I was able to connect these changes to some important biological processes of the lake (quagga mussels filtration). In a separate study on Lake Superior, using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, we examined natural coastal erosion in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and discussed a variety of geological features that influence general sediment accumulation patterns and interactions with migrating tailings from legacy mining. These sediments are moving southwesterly towards Buffalo Reef, creating a threat to the lake trout and lake whitefish breeding ground.

  4. 76 FR 60933 - Antarctic Conservation Act Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Antarctic Conservation Act Permit Applications AGENCY: National... Conservation Act of 1978. DATES: Interested parties are invited to submit written data, comments, or views with... Regulation for conduct of a flight from South America, over the South Pole, landing at Teniente Marsh Base...

  5. An Enhanced Sensing Application Based on a Flexible Projected Capacitive-Sensing Mattress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for mattresses that can classify the sleeping posture of an individual and prevent pressure ulcers. This system applies projected capacitive sensing to the field of health care. The charge time (CT method was used to sensitively and accurately measure the capacitance of the projected electrodes. The required characteristics of the projected capacitor were identified to develop large-area applications for sensory mattresses. The area of the electrodes, the use of shielding, and the increased length of the transmission line were calibrated to more accurately measure the capacitance of the electrodes in large-size applications. To offer the users comfort in the prone position, a flexible substrate was selected and covered with 16 × 20 electrodes. Compared with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, our proposed system-flexible projected capacitive-sensing mattress (FPCSM comes with more electrodes to increase the resolution of posture identification. As for the body pressure system (BPS, the FPCSM has advantages such as lower cost, higher aging-resistance capability, and the ability to sense the capacitance of the covered regions without physical contact. The proposed guard ring design effectively absorbs the noise and interrupts leakage paths. The projected capacitive electrode is suitable for proximity-sensing applications and succeeds at quickly recognizing the sleeping pattern of the user.

  6. Advanced gloss sensing for robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinhammer, Christian; Brandner, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Specular gloss is an important measurand used in quality control of manufacturing processes of highly reflective parts. In this work we present an in-process quality control system to evaluate the gloss of free-form surfaces to be used in an automated polishing process. Due to the geometry of our test objects the presented sensor is mounted on a robot arm and, therefore, needs to be robust against sensor misalignment. This robustness is achieved using a 2D CCD-camera as detector which allows us to properly handle sensor orientation deviations of up to 10. The required dynamic range of the sensor is obtained based on the acquisition of high dynamic range images. We present first results of a sensor prototype and show its applicability to the target application.

  7. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jingquan; Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J.; Yang, Wenrong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis

  8. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingquan, E-mail: jliu@qdu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Yang, Wenrong, E-mail: wenrong.yang@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis.

  9. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  10. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and potential system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Balombin, Joseph R.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) system is given with special emphasis on the communication characteristics. Potential satellite communications scenarios, including future operational ACTS-like satellite systems, are discussed. The description of the ACTS system updates previously published ACTS system references. Detailed information on items such as experimental ground stations is presented. The potential services can be generically described as voice, video, and data services. The implementation of these services on future operational ACTS-like systems can lead to unique quality, flexibility, and capacity characteristics at lower service costs. The specific service applications that could be supported range from low to high data rates and include both domestic and international applications.

  11. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    OpenAIRE

    Devikala, S.; Kamaraj, P.

    2011-01-01

    Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In t...

  12. A phase mask fiber grating and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha P. Yupapin

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of a fabricated fiber grating device characteristics and its applications, using a phase mask writing technique. The use of a most common UV phase laser (KrF eximer laser, with high intensity light source was focussed to the phase mask for writing on a fiber optic sample. The device (i.e. grating characteristic especially, in sensing application, was investigated. The possibility of using such device for temperature and strain sensors is discussed.

  13. Plasmonic Manipulation of Light for Sensing and Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani Khakestar, Heidar

    Plasmonics is a successful new field of science and technology that exploits the exclusive optical properties of metallic nanostructures to manipulate and concentrate light at nano-meter length scales. When light hits the surface of gold or silver nanoparticles it can excite collective oscillations of the conduction electrons called surface plasmons. This surface plasmon undergoes two damping processes; it can decay into photon and reemit the plasmon energy as scattered energy or decay into electron-hole pair with the excitation energy equal to the energy of the plasmon resonance, known as absorption. This high energy electron subsequently undergoes into the carrier multiplication and eventually scatters into the electrons with lower energy. We used Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Finite-Element Method (Comsol) to design nanoscale structures to act as nanoantenna for light harvesting and consequently manipulating radiative and absorption properties of them for Sensing and Photovoltaic applications. To manipulate near and far field we designed our structures in a way that the bright and dark plasmon modes overlap and couple to each other. This process is called Fano resonance and introduces a transparency window in the far-field spectra. At the same time it increases the near-field enhancement. We applied the changes in near-field and far-field to SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) and LSPR (Localized Surface plasmon Resonance) shift for sensing purposes. We modeled Fano resonances with classical harmonic oscillator and reproduced the same feature with a simple equation of motion. We used this model to replicate scattering spectra from different geometries and explain the cathodoluminescence results obtained from nanoscale gold clusters structure. All of these nanoantenna optical properties and applications are due to the reemission ability of the plasmon energy to the vacuum and confining optical field, but the plasmon energy can decay into a high

  14. Earth Remote Sensing for Weather Forecasting and Disaster Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Bell, Jordan; Case, Jonathan; Cole, Tony; Elmer, Nicholas; McGrath, Kevin; Schultz, Lori; Zavodsky, Brad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's constellation of current missions provide several opportunities to apply satellite remote sensing observations to weather forecasting and disaster response applications. Examples include: Using NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, and the NASA/NOAA Suomi-NPP VIIRS missions to prepare weather forecasters for capabilities of GOES-R; Incorporating other NASA remote sensing assets for improving aspects of numerical weather prediction; Using NASA, NOAA, and international partner resources (e.g. ESA/Sentinel Series); and commercial platforms (high-res, or UAV) to support disaster mapping.

  15. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  16. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  17. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  18. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  19. New advance in the research of post-remote sensing application technology. Series of 'proposition and consideration of post-remote sensing application technology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang

    2005-01-01

    Based on deep consideration in post-remote sensing application technology, this article pays more attention to its technological meaning. The application idea of post-remote sensing application technology to uranium exploration is also discussed. The proposition and research on new concept of post-remote sensing application technology is an important search and of important theoretical and practical significance to uranium exploration. (authors)

  20. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  1. Digital holography and wavefront sensing principles, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnars, Ulf; Watson, John; Jüptner, Werner

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a self-contained treatment of the principles and major applications of digital hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This second edition has been significantly revised and enlarged. The authors have extended the chapter on Digital Holographic Microscopy to incorporate new sections on particle sizing, particle image velocimetry and underwater holography. A new chapter now deals comprehensively and extensively with computational wave field sensing. These techniques represent a fascinating alternative to standard interferometry and Digital Holography. They enable wave field sensing without the requirement of a particular reference wave, thus allowing the use of low brilliance light sources and even liquid-crystal displays (LCD) for interferometric applications.              

  2. Remote sensing applications for transportation and traffic engineering studies: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current references were surveyed for the application of remote sensing to traffic and transportation studies. The major problems are presented that concern traffic engineers and transportation managers, and the literature references that discuss remote sensing applications are summarized.

  3. Thin film shape memory alloys for optical sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y Q; Luo, J K; Huang, W M; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2007-01-01

    Based on shape memory effect of the sputtered thin film shape memory alloys, different types of micromirror structures were designed and fabricated for optical sensing application. Using surface micromachining, TiNi membrane mirror structure has been fabricated, which can be actuated based on intrinsic two-way shape memory effect of the free-standing TiNi film. Using bulk micromachining, TiNi/Si and TiNi/Si 3 N 4 microcantilever mirror structures were fabricated

  4. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , Pauline; Lorrain , Nathalie; Poffo , Luiz; Guendouz , Mohammed; Lemaitre , Jonathan; Carré , Christiane; Gadonna , Michel; Bosc , Dominique; Vignaud , Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as cor...

  5. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  6. Approximate equiangular tight frames for compressed sensing and CDMA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Evaggelia; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2017-12-01

    Performance guarantees for recovery algorithms employed in sparse representations, and compressed sensing highlights the importance of incoherence. Optimal bounds of incoherence are attained by equiangular unit norm tight frames (ETFs). Although ETFs are important in many applications, they do not exist for all dimensions, while their construction has been proven extremely difficult. In this paper, we construct frames that are close to ETFs. According to results from frame and graph theory, the existence of an ETF depends on the existence of its signature matrix, that is, a symmetric matrix with certain structure and spectrum consisting of two distinct eigenvalues. We view the construction of a signature matrix as an inverse eigenvalue problem and propose a method that produces frames of any dimensions that are close to ETFs. Due to the achieved equiangularity property, the so obtained frames can be employed as spreading sequences in synchronous code-division multiple access (s-CDMA) systems, besides compressed sensing.

  7. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 μW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  8. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangming Deng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs.

  9. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-05-16

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs.

  10. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devikala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In the present work, a new composite has been prepared by using PMMA and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP. The PMMA/Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (PMADP composites PMADP 1 and PMADP 2 were characterized by using Powder XRD. The thick films of the composite on glass plates were prepared by using a spin coating unit at 9000 rpm. The application of the thick film as gas sensor has been studied between 0 and 2000 seconds. The results reveal that the thick film of PMADP composite can function as a very good gas sensor.

  11. Miniature and micro mass spectrometry for nanoscale sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S; France, N

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the use of miniature and/or microscale versions of the more popular mass spectrometers have been realised. This has led to the development of portable analytical devices for a range of 'in the field' sensing applications in aerospace, environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis and process control. In this paper the principles underpinning the development of miniature quadrupole mass spectrometers are reviewed. Two different microfabrication methods are compared with a conventional QMS used for residual gas analysis in the range 1-100 Da.

  12. Active sensing and its application to sensor node reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyong

    2014-10-08

    This paper presents a perturbation/correlation-based active sensing method and its application to sensor node configuration for environment monitoring. Sensor networks are widely used as data measurement tools, especially in dangerous environments. For large scale environment monitoring, a large number of nodes is required. For optimal measurements, the placement of nodes is very important. Nonlinear spring force-based configuration is introduced. Perturbation/correlation-based estimation of the gradient is developed and it is much more robust because it does not require any differentiation. An algorithm for tuning the stiffness using the estimated gradient for node reconfiguration is presented. The performance of the proposed algorithm is discussed with simulation results.

  13. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics.

  14. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  15. Coherent Raman scattering: Applications in imaging and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng

    In this thesis, I discuss the theory, implementation and applications of coherent Raman scattering to imaging and sensing. A time domain interferometric method has been developed to collect high resolution shot-noise-limited Raman spectra over the Raman fingerprint regime and completely remove the electronic background signal in coherent Raman scattering. Compared with other existing coherent Raman microscopy methods, this time domain approach is proved to be simpler and more robust in rejecting background signal. We apply this method to image polymers and biological samples and demonstrate that the same setup can be used to collect two photon fluorescence and self phase modulation signals. A signal to noise ratio analysis is performed to show that this time domain method has a comparable signal to noise ratio to spectral domain methods, which we confirm experimentally. The coherent Raman method is also compared with spontaneous Raman scattering. The conditions under which coherent methods provide signal enhancement are discussed and experiments are performed to compare coherent Raman scattering with spontaneous Raman scattering under typical biological imaging conditions. A critical power, above which coherent Raman scattering is more sensitive than spontaneous Raman scattering, is experimentally determined to be ˜1mW in samples of high molecule concentration with a 75MHz laser system. This finding is contrary to claims that coherent methods provide many orders of magnitude enhancement under comparable conditions. In addition to the far field applications, I also discuss the combination of our time domain coherent Raman method with near field enhancement to explore the possibility of sensing and near field imaging. We report the first direct time-resolved coherent Raman measurement performed on a nanostructured substrate for molecule sensing. The preliminary results demonstrate that sub 20 fs pulses can be used to obtain coherent Raman spectra from a small number

  16. Graphene field-effect transistor application for flow sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuszczek Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflow sensors offer great potential for applications in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems. However, thermal-based sensors, which are commonly used in modern flow sensing technology, are mainly made of materials with positive temperature coefficients (PTC and suffer from a self-heating effect and slow response time. Therefore, the design of novel devices and careful selection of materials are required to improve the overall flow sensor performance. In this work we propose graphene field-effect transistor (GFET to be used as microflow sensor. Temperature distribution in graphene channel was simulated and the analysis of heat convection was performed to establish the relation between the fluidic flow velocity and the temperature gradient. It was shown that the negative temperature coefficient (NTC of graphene could enable the self-protection of the device and should minimize sensing error from currentinduced heating. It was also argued that the planar design of the GFET sensor makes it suitable for the real application due to supposed mechanical stability of such a construction.

  17. Optic Fiber Sensing IOT Technology and Application Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet of Things (IOT industry has become a new mark of the communication domain. As the development of the technology of the IOT and the fiber-optical sensor, the combination of the both is a big question to be discussed, and the fiber-optical IOT also has a good development prospect. This article first introduces IOT’s current status, the key technology, the theoretical frame and the applications. Then, it discusses the classification of the optical fiber sensor as well as the development and its application’s situation. Lastly, it puts the optical fiber sensing technology into the IOT, and introduces a specific application which is used in the mine safety based on the fiber-optical IOT.

  18. Mobile Computing: The Emerging Technology, Sensing, Challenges and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, T.

    2010-12-01

    The mobile computing is a computing system in which a computer and all necessary accessories like files and software are taken out to the field. It is a system of computing through which it is being able to use a computing device even when someone being mobile and therefore changing location. The portability is one of the important aspects of mobile computing. The mobile phones are being used to gather scientific data from remote and isolated places that could not be possible to retrieve by other means. The scientists are initiating to use mobile devices and web-based applications to systematically explore interesting scientific aspects of their surroundings, ranging from climate change, environmental pollution to earthquake monitoring. This mobile revolution enables new ideas and innovations to spread out more quickly and efficiently. Here we will discuss in brief about the mobile computing technology, its sensing, challenges and the applications. (author)

  19. Fabrication of Titania Nanotubes for Gas Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzilal, A. A.; Muti, M. N.; John, O. D.

    2010-03-01

    Detection of hydrogen is needed for industrial process control and medical applications where presence of hydrogen indicates different type of health problems. Titanium dioxide nanotube structure is chosen as an active component in the gas sensor because of its highly sensitive electrical resistance to hydrogen over a wide range of concentrations. The objective of the work is to fabricate good quality titania nanotubes suitable for hydrogen sensing applications. The fabrication method used is anodizing method. The anodizing parameters namely the voltage, time duration, concentration of hydrofluoric acid in water, separation between the electrodes and the ambient temperature are varied accordingly to find the optimum anodizing conditions for production of good quality titania nanotubes. The highly ordered porous titania nanotubes produced by this method are in tabular shape and have good uniformity and alignment over large areas. From the investigation done, certain set of anodizing parameters have been found to produce good quality titania nanotubes with diameter ranges from 47 nm to 94 nm.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains a site and facility description of WIPP; procedures for waste analysis and characterization, testing, monitoring, inspection, and training; hazard prevention, safety and security plans; plans for closure; and a discussion of other applicable laws. Also included are maps, photographs, and diagrams of the facilities and surrounding areas. 180 refs., 75 figs., 24 tabs

  1. CVD transfer-free graphene for sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Schiattarella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sp2 carbon-based allotropes have been extensively exploited for the realization of gas sensors in the recent years because of their high conductivity and large specific surface area. A study on graphene that was synthetized by means of a novel transfer-free fabrication approach and is employed as sensing material is herein presented. Multilayer graphene was deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD mediated by CMOS-compatible Mo. The utilized technique takes advantage of the absence of damage or contamination of the synthesized graphene, because there is no need for the transfer onto a substrate. Moreover, a proper pre-patterning of the Mo catalyst allows one to obtain graphene films with different shapes and dimensions. The sensing properties of the material have been investigated by exposing the devices to NO2, NH3 and CO, which have been selected because they are well-known hazardous substances. The concentration ranges have been chosen according to the conventional monitoring of these gases. The measurements have been carried out in humid N2 environment, setting the flow rate at 500 sccm, the temperature at 25 °C and the relative humidity (RH at 50%. An increase of the conductance response has been recorded upon exposure towards NO2, whereas a decrease of the signal has been detected towards NH3. The material appears totally insensitive towards CO. Finally, the sensing selectivity has been proven by evaluating and comparing the degree of adsorption and the interaction energies for NO2 and NH3 on graphene. The direct-growth approach for the synthesis of graphene opens a promising path towards diverse applicative scenarios, including the straightforward integration in electronic devices.

  2. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CVD transfer-free graphene for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattarella, Chiara; Vollebregt, Sten; Polichetti, Tiziana; Alfano, Brigida; Massera, Ettore; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Di Francia, Girolamo; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2017-01-01

    The sp 2 carbon-based allotropes have been extensively exploited for the realization of gas sensors in the recent years because of their high conductivity and large specific surface area. A study on graphene that was synthetized by means of a novel transfer-free fabrication approach and is employed as sensing material is herein presented. Multilayer graphene was deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) mediated by CMOS-compatible Mo. The utilized technique takes advantage of the absence of damage or contamination of the synthesized graphene, because there is no need for the transfer onto a substrate. Moreover, a proper pre-patterning of the Mo catalyst allows one to obtain graphene films with different shapes and dimensions. The sensing properties of the material have been investigated by exposing the devices to NO 2 , NH 3 and CO, which have been selected because they are well-known hazardous substances. The concentration ranges have been chosen according to the conventional monitoring of these gases. The measurements have been carried out in humid N 2 environment, setting the flow rate at 500 sccm, the temperature at 25 °C and the relative humidity (RH) at 50%. An increase of the conductance response has been recorded upon exposure towards NO 2 , whereas a decrease of the signal has been detected towards NH 3 . The material appears totally insensitive towards CO. Finally, the sensing selectivity has been proven by evaluating and comparing the degree of adsorption and the interaction energies for NO 2 and NH 3 on graphene. The direct-growth approach for the synthesis of graphene opens a promising path towards diverse applicative scenarios, including the straightforward integration in electronic devices.

  4. Designing Zoning of Remote Sensing Drones for Urban Applications: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Alias, A.; Akma, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt a privacy and property rights approach that create a drone zoning and clear drone legislatures. In providing a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to drones zoning and regulations, but also, discuss on trend remote sensing drones specification in designing a drone zones. Remote sensing drone will specific according to their features and performances; size and endurance, maximum airspeed and altitude level and particular references are made to the drones range. The implementation of laws zoning could lie with the urban planners whereby, a zoning for drone could become a new tactic used to specify areas, where drones could be used, will provide remedies for the harm that arise from drones, and act as a different against irresponsible behaviour. Finally, underlines the need for next regulations on guidelines and standards which can be used as a guidance for urban decision makers to control the drones' operating, thus ensuring a quality and sustainability of resilience cities simultaneously encouraging the revolution of technology.

  5. Applicability of the Clean Water Act to Indian tribes - may tribes stop or constrain a cleanup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emge, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Indian tribes retain their sovereign rights of self-government and self-determination unless it is specifically waived by the tribe or abrogated by the US Congress, through treaty or statute. The Clean Water Act does not specifically abrogate tribal sovereignty. This raises the issue of what would occur if an on-scene coordinator decides that cleanup of tribal lands is necessary to protect the public health and welfare, but the tribe does not want the cleanup activities to proceed? May a tribe impede cleanup efforts? During the cleanup of the barge Nestucca oil spill, this occurred when the Quinault Tribe did not allow the OSC to clean lands that the tribe holds sacred. This issue with the Clean Water Act has not been decided by Congress, nor by the courts. Recently, courts have applied at least three different approaches to determine if a statute of general application, such as the Clean Water Act, applies to Indian tribes. The different tests do not always yield the same result. An on-scene coordinator, when confronted with this scenario, might handle the situation in several different ways, or perhaps move to prevent such an occurrence. The different approaches used by the courts can be taken together to gain a sense of whether the Clean Water Act may preempt tribal sovereignty

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Applications of WO3 Nanobricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Song, Mingyan

    2015-08-01

    WO3 nanobricks are fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the WO3 nanobricks are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared WO3 sensor are systematically investigated by a static gas sensing system. The results show that the WO3 nanobricks with defect corners demonstrate good crystallinity, and the mean edge length and wall thickness are 1-1.5 and 400 nm, respectively. The WO3 sensor achieves its maximum sensitivity to 100 ppm ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 300 °C. Ultra-fast response time (2-3 s) and fast recovery time (4-11 s) of the WO3 sensor toward 100 ppm ethanol are also observed at this optimal operating temperature. Moreover, the WO3 sensor exhibits high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, hexane, and dichloromethane, indicating its excellent potential application as a gas sensor for ethanol detection.

  7. Compressed-sensing application - Pre-stack kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Least-squares migration is a linearized form of waveform inversion that aims to enhance the spatial resolution of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and reduce the migration artifacts due to limited recording aperture, coarse sampling of sources and receivers, and low subsurface illumination. Least-squares migration, however, due to the nature of its minimization process, tends to produce smoothed and dispersed versions of the reflectivity of the subsurface. Assuming that the subsurface reflectivity distribution is sparse, we propose the addition of a non-quadratic L1-norm penalty term on the model space in the objective function. This aims to preserve the sparse nature of the subsurface reflectivity series and enhance resolution. We further use a compressed-sensing algorithm to solve the linear system, which utilizes the sparsity assumption to produce highly resolved migrated images. Thus, the Kirchhoff migration implementation is formulated as a Basis Pursuit denoise (BPDN) problem to obtain the sparse reflectivity model. Applications on synthetic data show that reflectivity models obtained using this compressed-sensing algorithm are highly accurate with optimal resolution.

  8. Gold/diamond nanohybrids for quantum sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Pei-Chang; Chen, Oliver Y.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Ming-Shien [Academia Sinica, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (China); Guo, Jiun You; Wu, Chih-Che [National Chi Nan University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Puli, Nantou (China); Chang, Huan-Cheng [Academia Sinica, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    Recent advances in quantum technology have demonstrated the potential use of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) centers in diamond for temperature and magnetic sensing at sub-cellular levels. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) containing high-density ensembles of NV{sup -} centers are appealing for such applications because they are inherently biocompatible and non-toxic. Here, we show that FNDs conjugated with gold nanorods (GNRs) are useful as a combined nanoheater and nanothermometer for highly localized hyperthermia treatment using near-infrared (NIR) lasers as the heating source. A temperature rise of ∝10 K can be readily achieved at a NIR laser power of 0.4 mW in cells. The technique is compatible with the presence of static magnetic fields and allows for simultaneous temperature and magnetic sensing with nanometric spatial resolution. To elucidate the nanoscale heating process, numerical simulations are conducted with finite element analysis, providing an important guideline for the use of this new tool for active and high-precision control of temperature under diverse environmental conditions. (orig.)

  9. Gold/diamond nanohybrids for quantum sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Pei-Chang; Chen, Oliver Y.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Ming-Shien; Guo, Jiun You; Wu, Chih-Che; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have demonstrated the potential use of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV - ) centers in diamond for temperature and magnetic sensing at sub-cellular levels. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) containing high-density ensembles of NV - centers are appealing for such applications because they are inherently biocompatible and non-toxic. Here, we show that FNDs conjugated with gold nanorods (GNRs) are useful as a combined nanoheater and nanothermometer for highly localized hyperthermia treatment using near-infrared (NIR) lasers as the heating source. A temperature rise of ∝10 K can be readily achieved at a NIR laser power of 0.4 mW in cells. The technique is compatible with the presence of static magnetic fields and allows for simultaneous temperature and magnetic sensing with nanometric spatial resolution. To elucidate the nanoscale heating process, numerical simulations are conducted with finite element analysis, providing an important guideline for the use of this new tool for active and high-precision control of temperature under diverse environmental conditions. (orig.)

  10. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Carré, Christiane; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique; Vignaud, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core layer and PMATRIFE polymer as lower cladding layer. The refractive index of the polymers and of the waveguide structure as a function of the wavelength is presented. Using these results, a theoretical study of the coupling between ring and straight waveguides has been undertaken in order to define the MR design. Sub-micronic gaps of 0.5 μm to 1 μm between the ring and the straight waveguides have been successfully achieved with UV (i-lines) photolithography. Different superstrates such as air, water, and aqueous solutions with glucose at different concentrations have been studied. First results show a good normalized transmission contrast of 0.98, a resonator quality factor around 1.5 × 104 corresponding to a coupling ratio of 14.7%, and ring propagation losses around 5 dB/cm. Preliminary sensing experiments have been performed for different concentrations of glucose; a sensitivity of 115 ± 8 nm/RIU at 1550 nm has been obtained with this couple of polymers.

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 3, is Appendix C2 continued. This appendix contains information on shipping; inventories of chemicals present in waste; chemical compatibility of wastes; the methodology to determine compatibility; analytical data regarding volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and solvents; and a description of sampling programs of waste drum gases

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 2, contains Appendices B1, C1, and C2. These appendices describe the surface hydrology of the area, provide a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of wastes to be placed in WIPP, and outline a waste analysis plan which gives an overview of the total waste inventory planned for WIPP. 34 refs., 107 figs., 27 tabs

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 4, contains Appendices C3, C4, and D1--D10. These appendices cover information on environmental impacts, site characterization, geology and hydrology of the area, monitoring of the environment, compatibility of waste forms and containers, and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC)

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 5, contains Appendices E1, H1, I1--3, K1, K2, and L1. These appendices cover a RCRA ground water monitoring waiver, a list of job titles, the operational closure plan, the waste retrieval plan for wastes placed during the test phase, and listings of agreements between WIPP, DOE, and various state and federal agencies. 91 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  16. Application of Nanomaterials in Production of Self-Sensing Concretes: Contemporary Developments and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Horszczaruk E.; Sikora P.; Łukowski P.

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years structural health monitoring (SHM) has gathered spectacular attention in civil engineering applications. Application of such composites enable to improve the safety and performance of structures. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to development of new family of sensors - self-sensing materials. These materials enable to create the so-called “smart concrete” exhibiting self-sensing ability. Application of self-sensing materials in cement-based materials enables to ...

  17. Technology development and application research of remote sensing in uranium geological prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Dong Xiuzhen; Wang Zitao

    2012-01-01

    From the application, the concept, the theory study and application effect, this article discusses technology development and application research of remote sensing in uranium geological prospecting. The prospecting way from 'information prospecting' to 'theoretical prospecting' to 'simulated prospecting' to 'technology prospecting' with remote sensing is provided and achieved significant prospecting effect. (authors)

  18. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  19. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Programmable genetic algorithm IP core for sensing and surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkoori, Srinivas; Fernando, Pradeep; Sankaran, Hariharan; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Real-time evolvable systems are possible with a hardware implementation of Genetic Algorithms (GA). We report the design of an IP core that implements a general purpose GA engine which has been successfully synthesized and verified on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA Device (XC2VP30). The placed and routed IP core has an area utilization of only 13% and clock speed of 50MHz. The GA core can be customized in terms of the population size, number of generations, cross-over and mutation rates, and the random number generator seed. The GA engine can be tailored to a given application by interfacing with the application specific fitness evaluation module as well as the required storage memory (to store the current and new populations). The core is soft in nature i.e., a gate-level netlist is provided which can be readily integrated with the user's system. The GA IP core can be readily used in FPGA based platforms for space and military applications (for e.g., surveillance, target tracking). The main advantages of the IP core are its programmability, small footprint, and low power consumption. Examples of concept systems in sensing and surveillance domains will be presented.

  1. Chemical Sensing Applications of ZnO Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Umar, Ahmad; Bhasin, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Recent advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed numerous triumphs of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials due to their various exotic and multifunctional properties and wide applications. As a remarkable and functional material, ZnO has attracted extensive scientific and technological attention, as it combines different properties such as high specific surface area, biocompatibility, electrochemical activities, chemical and photochemical stability, high-electron communicating features, non-toxicity, ease of syntheses, and so on. Because of its various interesting properties, ZnO nanomaterials have been used for various applications ranging from electronics to optoelectronics, sensing to biomedical and environmental applications. Further, due to the high electrochemical activities and electron communication features, ZnO nanomaterials are considered as excellent candidates for electrochemical sensors. The present review meticulously introduces the current advancements of ZnO nanomaterial-based chemical sensors. Various operational factors such as the effect of size, morphologies, compositions and their respective working mechanisms along with the selectivity, sensitivity, detection limit, stability, etc., are discussed in this article. PMID:29439528

  2. 29 CFR 1620.1 - Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. 1620.1 Section 1620.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.1 Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. (a) Since the Equal Pay Act, 29 U.S.C...

  3. Towards operational environmental applications using terrestrial remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp JG; Velde RJ van de; LBG

    1996-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van het Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing (BCRS) project 'Verankering van toepassingen van terrestrische remote sensing bij RIVM'. Het had ten eerste tot doel te voldoen aan de voorwaarden, zoals gesteld in de inventarisatie van remote sensing als

  4. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  5. Disputable issues in the application of the Administrative Procedure Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform of administrative procedure and the applicable General Administrative Procedure Act (GAPA calls for determining the 'open' and 'disputable' issues in the application of this Act. The process of reforming the administrative legislation does not only imply taking into account the EU standards but also considering the complex, abundant and diverse national administrative practice and case law. The Serbian administrative practice points to some 'open' questions in the application of the current GAPA which should be the cornerstones in the reform of administrative legislation. In that course, it is crucial to start from the current administrative legislation and administrative practice. It is worth noting that the GAPA is already subject to permanent reform through the process of amending the subject-specific substantive provisions governing special administrative proceedings. Such practice should be upheld because the area of special administrative procedure is a dynamic environment where the APA is actually being modeled by amending the special administrative proceedings but in full compliance with the fundamental GAPA principles. Thus, the GAPA should be subject to minimal reform, primarily in the regulation of those procedural matters which have already passed the application test in both national and comparative practice; these 'safe points of reference' significantly improve the process in line with the basic administrative principles and largely contribute to its efficiency, as opposed to other alternative proposals on procedural solutions. The basic presumption for a successful APA reform is the functional analysis of the Draft GAPA. Some of the disputable issues include the subject matter of the GAPA, the enactment of administrative acts and concluding administrative agreements. In case of expanding the scope of the GAPA subject matter, the legislator is obliged to expressly regulate the administrative proceeding for concluding

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility

  7. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  9. Recent developments in remote sensing for coastal and marine applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available at the coast is that it is in a permanent state of change. Remote sensing, whether from orbiting (space-borne) or air-borne platforms, can greatly assist in the task of monitoring coastal environments. In particular, remote sensing enables simultaneous or near...

  10. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or

  11. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The EFP would allow for an exemption from the Reserve. Regulations under the Atlantic Coastal Act require publication of this...

  12. 29 CFR 785.4 - Application to Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application to Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. 785.4... Considerations § 785.4 Application to Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. The principles set forth in this part... employees performing work subject to the provisions of the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. [35 FR 15289...

  13. An Update of NASA Public Health Applications Projects using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth s environment from space which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The session will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications. This session will an overview of many of the NASA public health applications using Remote Sensing Data and will also discuss opportunities to become a research collaborator with NASA.

  14. Application of remote sensing technique in biomass change detection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... technology provides an efficient avenue of assessment of biomass content of any area. ... use data, can be integrated into GIS together with results from remote sensing analysis ...

  15. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  16. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  17. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita; Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is an emerging technology for data compression and simultaneous data acquisition. This is an enabling technique for significant reduction in data bandwidth, and transmission power and hence, can greatly benefit spaceflight instruments. We apply this process to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. We experiment with various impact parameters that describe microlensing curves to determine the effectiveness and uncertainty caused by Compressive Sensing. Finally, we describe implications for spaceflight missions.

  18. Towards Application of Speech Act Theory to Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Magdalena Pluwak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the Application of Speech Act Theory to Opinion Mining The paper refers to the pragmatics’ perspective on opinion mining in Polish and English, inspired by the discrepancy between the coverage of sentiment analysis and the market demand. An analysis of speech acts expressed in opinion texts reveals that almost half of all opinions include ways of indirect evaluation that might not get extracted while applying traditional methods of sentiment analysis based on direct evaluative vocabulary and polarity lexicons. Coding of sentiment with respect to speech acts could vastly broaden data mining results within an NLP-system.   O zastosowaniu teorii aktów mowy w ekstrakcji danych z tekstów opinii internetowych Jedno z aktualnych zagadnień językoznawstwa komputerowego, jakim jest automatyczne badanie wydźwięku wypowiedzi, nie uwzględniło dotychczas w wystarczającym stopniu pragmatyki językoznawczej, np. aktów mowy Austina (1961 i Searla (1969, a zatem również implicytnych sposobów wyrażania ewaluacji. Tymczasem podejście od pragmatyki ku konstrukcjom przełożonym na reguły programistyczne umożliwiłoby nie tylko szersze spojrzenie na analizę sentymentu, ale też zbliżyłoby automat do sposobu, w jaki odbiera go człowiek. W szczególności chodzi tu sposoby wyrażania (niezadowolenia wykraczające poza poziom leksykalny (bez nacechowanej negatywnie leksyki, typu Nigdy więcej tam nie pójdę. Artykuł prezentuje: 1. aktualne podejścia do analizy wydźwięku w lingwistyce komputerowej, 2. propozycję zastosowania podejścia pragmatycznego, 3. wyniki badania próbki tekstów opinii internetowych pod kątem występowania w nich aktów mowy, 4. propozycję utworzenia reguł ekstrakcji danych na ich podstawie. Zaprezentowane podejście zakłada hipotezę wtórnej oralności, czyli tego, że język opinii jest zapisanym językiem mówionym.

  19. Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.

  20. Analysis on the status of the application of satellite remote sensing technology to nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhangsheng; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the application status of satellite remote sensing technology to nuclear safeguards, advantage of satellite remote sensing technology is analyzed, main types of satellite image used in nuclear safeguards are elaborated and the main application of satellite images is regarded to detect, verify and monitor nuclear activities; verify additional protocol declaration and design information, support performing complementary access inspections; investigate alleged undeclared activities based on open source or the third party information. Application examples of satellite image in nuclear safeguards to analyze nuclear facilities by other countries, the ability of remote sensing technology in nuclear safeguards is discussed. (authors)

  1. Advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yingjun; Zhang Jielin; Fang Maolong

    2012-01-01

    Some advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China since 21st century are presented in this paper. They included: (1) application of ETM multi-spectral remote sensing technology to identify the sandstone-type uranium ore-controlling structure in north of Ordos Basin and investigate the uranium metallogenetic geological conditions in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, (2) application of ASTER multi-spectral and QuickBird high spatial resolution remote sensing technology to extract and analyze the oil-gas reduced alteration in Bashibulake uranium ore district, Xinjiang, (3) discovery of Salamubulake uranium metallogenetic belt in Keping, Xinjiang, using ASTER multi-spectral, QuickBird high spatial resolution, and CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing comprehensively, and (4) application of CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing technology to extract volcanicrock type uranium mineralization alteration in Baiyanghe area, Xinjiang. These application advances show the good application effects of remote sensing technology to uranium exploration in northwest of China, which provides important references for making further uranium prospecting using remote sensing technology. (authors)

  2. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, A.; Holman, R. A.; Chickadel, C.; Elgar, S.; Farquharson, G.; Haller, M. C.; Kurapov, A. L.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.; Raubenheimer, B.; Thomson, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    DARLA is 5-year collaborative project that couples state-of-the-art remote sensing and in situ measurements with advanced data assimilation (DA) modeling to (a) evaluate and improve remote sensing retrieval algorithms for environmental parameters, (b) determine the extent to which remote sensing data can be used in place of in situ data in models, and (c) infer bathymetry for littoral environments by combining remotely-sensed parameters and data assimilation models. The project uses microwave, electro-optical, and infrared techniques to characterize the littoral ocean with a focus on wave and current parameters required for DA modeling. In conjunction with the RIVET (River and Inlets) Project, extensive in situ measurements provide ground truth for both the remote sensing retrieval algorithms and the DA modeling. Our goal is to use remote sensing to constrain data assimilation models of wave and circulation dynamics in a tidal inlet and surrounding beaches. We seek to improve environmental parameter estimation via remote sensing fusion, determine the success of using remote sensing data to drive DA models, and produce a dynamically consistent representation of the wave, circulation, and bathymetry fields in complex environments. The objectives are to test the following three hypotheses: 1. Environmental parameter estimation using remote sensing techniques can be significantly improved by fusion of multiple sensor products. 2. Data assimilation models can be adequately constrained (i.e., forced or guided) with environmental parameters derived from remote sensing measurements. 3. Bathymetry on open beaches, river mouths, and at tidal inlets can be inferred from a combination of remotely-sensed parameters and data assimilation models. Our approach is to conduct a series of field experiments combining remote sensing and in situ measurements to investigate signature physics and to gather data for developing and testing DA models. A preliminary experiment conducted at

  3. Advancement in Sensing Technology New Developments and Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Fuchs, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The book presents the recent advancements in the area of sensors and sensing technology, specifically in environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, dielectric, magnetic, electrochemical, ultrasonic, microfluidic, flow, surface acoustic wave, gas, cloud computing and bio-medical.   This book will be useful to a variety of readers, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, working on sensors and sensing technology. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.

  4. Application of coupled nanoscale resonators for spectral sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to perform tunable spectral sensing using globally inhibitory coupled oscillators. The suggested system may operate in the analog radio frequency (RF) domain without high speed ADC and heavy digital signal processing. Oscillator arrays may be made of imprecise elements such as nanoresonators. Provided there is a proper coupling, the system dynamics can be made stable despite the imprecision of the components. Global coupling could be implemented using a common load and controlled by digital means to tune the bandwidth. This method may be used for spectral sensing in cognitive radio terminals.

  5. Application of coupled nanoscale resonators for spectral sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, N [Nokia Research Center, Hardturmstrasse 253, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), ISI Laboratory, Sternwartstrasse 7, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: nikolai.nefedov@nokia.com

    2009-04-08

    In this paper we propose a method to perform tunable spectral sensing using globally inhibitory coupled oscillators. The suggested system may operate in the analog radio frequency (RF) domain without high speed ADC and heavy digital signal processing. Oscillator arrays may be made of imprecise elements such as nanoresonators. Provided there is a proper coupling, the system dynamics can be made stable despite the imprecision of the components. Global coupling could be implemented using a common load and controlled by digital means to tune the bandwidth. This method may be used for spectral sensing in cognitive radio terminals.

  6. Discussion on the application potential of thermal infrared remote sensing technology in uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhu; Zhang Jielin; Liu Dechang

    2011-01-01

    With the continual development of new thermal infrared sensors and thermal radiation theory, the technology of thermal infrared remote sensing has shown great potential for applications in resources exploration, especially in the field of uranium exploration. The paper makes a systemic summary of the theoretical basis and research status of the thermal infrared remote sensing applications in resources exploration from the surface temperature, thermal inertia and thermal infrared spectrum. What's more, the research objective and the research content of thermal infrared remote sensing in the uranium deposits exploration applications are discussed in detail. Besides, based on the thermal infrared ASTER data, the paper applies this technology to the granite-type uranium deposits in South China and achieves good result. Above all, the practice proves that the thermal infrared remote sensing technology has a good application prospects and particular value in the field of uranium prospecting and will play an important role in the prospecting target of the uranium deposits. (authors)

  7. Leveraging of remote sensing and GIS on mapping in urban and regional planning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, Norzailawati Mohd; Abdullah, Alias; Rosni, Nur Aulia

    2014-01-01

    While remote sensing applications represent a major though still underused source of urban data, the proposed combination between remote sensing and Geo-information System (GIS) in urban and regional planning is not fully explored. In order to measure changes in land use, the need of platform in monitoring, recording, and predicting the changes is necessary for planners and developers. In advance technology of mapping process, remote sensing and GIS as tools for urban planning are already recognised. But, due to lack of implementation and awareness about the benefits of these tools, these terms look unusual. Therefore, this paper reviews the history of remote sensing and GIS in urban applications, technical skills and the challenges, and future development of remote sensing and GIS especially for urban development particularly in developing countries

  8. Site specific N application and remote sensing of cotton crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A spatial variable nitrogen (N) rate trial and remote sensing of cotton crop was conducted during 2003 at Paul Good Farms, Mississippi, USA. The N rate trial consisted of three, 8-row transects at the east and west side of the field that were selected to represent variable soil and elevation feature...

  9. A review of hyperspectral remote sensing and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multispectral imagery has been used as the data source for water and land observational remote sensing from airborne and satellite systems since the early 1960s. Over the past two decades, advances in sensor technology have made it possible for the collection of several hundred spectral bands. This is commonly ...

  10. A phased array bread board for future remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R. W.; Schmidt, E.

    The next generation of SAR antennas will be of the active phased-array type. The ongoing development of a phased-array breadboard for remote sensing is described. Starting from a detailed system design, a functional representative breadboard was developed. The design and the performance of the breadboard are discussed.

  11. 20 CFR 655.460 - Non-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Justice Act. 655.460 Section 655.460 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Attestations § 655.460 Non-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act. A proceeding under subpart D or E of this part is not subject to the Equal Access to Justice Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 504. In such a...

  12. 20 CFR 655.675 - Non-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Justice Act. 655.675 Section 655.675 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act. A proceeding under subpart G of this part is not subject to the Equal Access to Justice Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 504. In such a proceeding, the administrative...

  13. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum...

  14. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. (a) Parts 626..., part C of the Job Training Partnership Act) establish the Federal programmatic and administrative...

  15. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  16. Mechanics of localized slippage in tactile sensing and application to soft sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Anh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Localized slippage occurs during any relative sliding of soft contacts, ranging from human fingertips to robotic fingertips. Although this phenomenon is dominant for a very short time prior to gross slippage, localized slippage is a crucial factor for any to-be-developed soft sensing system to respond to slippage before it occurs. The content of this book addresses all aspects of localized slippage, including modeling and simulating it, as well as applying it to the construction of novel sensors with slip tactile perception.

  17. 2nd International MATHEON Conference on Compressed Sensing and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caire, Giuseppe; Calderbank, Robert; März, Maximilian; Kutyniok, Gitta; Mathar, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume contains articles written by the plenary and invited speakers from the second international MATHEON Workshop 2015 that focus on applications of compressed sensing. Article authors address their techniques for solving the problems of compressed sensing, as well as connections to related areas like detecting community-like structures in graphs, curbatures on Grassmanians, and randomized tensor train singular value decompositions. Some of the novel applications covered include dimensionality reduction, information theory, random matrices, sparse approximation, and sparse recovery.  This book is aimed at both graduate students and researchers in the areas of applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering, as well as other applied scientists exploring the potential applications for the novel methodology of compressed sensing. An introduction to the subject of compressed sensing is also provided for researchers interested in the field who are not as familiar with it. .

  18. 78 FR 56744 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of Permit Applications Received...

  19. 77 FR 38834 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit applications received...

  20. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  1. Biomimetic echolocation with application to radar and sonar sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, C. J.; Smith, G. E.; Balleri, Alessio; Holderied, M.; Griffiths, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    Nature provides a number of examples where acoustic echolocation is the primary sensing modality, the most well-known of these being the bat, whale and dolphin. All demonstrate a remarkable ability to "see with sound". Using echolocation they navigate, locate and capture prey. As species, they have not only survived but have thrived in all their individual environments, often solely reliant on echolocation. All of these creatures are inherently cognitive. They all maintain a perception of the...

  2. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng; Kaur, Gurpreet; Eriksson, Jens; Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Avasthi, D.K.; Gupta, Vinay; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yazdi, G. Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO_2 and NH_3 gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and spintronic

  3. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni, E-mail: kaushik.priyadarshni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Kaur, Gurpreet [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Eriksson, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Syväjärvi, Mikael [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Yazdi, G. Reza, E-mail: yazdi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and

  4. 32 CFR 536.77 - Applicable law for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contributory negligence be interpreted and applied according to the law of the place of the occurrence... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable law for claims under the Military... Act § 536.77 Applicable law for claims under the Military Claims Act. (a) General principles—(1) Tort...

  5. Xenia: A Metaphor for Sense-Making and Acting in Information Systems Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Allen; Vidolov, Simeon; Frößler, Frank; Mullaney, Doreen

    This paper draws on Ciborra's insightful concept of xenia (i.e., hospitality) to analyze how successful infrastructural service innovation was managed at the local operations of an international financial services firm. The xenia concept problematizes the information system development (ISD) orthodoxy and points to issues and aspects that are often overlooked or considered irrelevant in structured methodologies. In interpreting the findings of the empirical study—in which a highly successful (but radical) big bang transition from one technology platform to another takes place over a single weekend—we suggest that IS implementation and development is an emergent process in which technology and users are continually redefined. This process resembles an emotional "meeting" between host and guest who, over time, develop mutual familiarity and acceptance. Further, we argue that the metaphor of xenia opens space for reconsidering conventional but socially sterile approaches to IS innovation; xenia offers a radically different way for understanding and acting upon ISD. Our analysis highlights the intrinsic socio-technical interplay underlying IS development and implementation, and raises questions about the importance of local cultures of "hospitality" and ways they may be cultivated and nurtured in order to alleviate the meeting between technology and organizations.

  6. Application of nano-structured conducting polymers to humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pilyeon

    Nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanocolumns, and nanotubes, have attracted a lot of attention because of their huge potential impact on a variety of applications. For sensor applications, nanostructures provide high surface area to volume ratios. The high surface area to volume ratio allows more reaction areas between target species and detection materials and also improves the detection sensitivity and response time. The main goal of this research was to exploit the advantages and develop innovative methods to accomplish the synthesis of nanowires and nano-coulmn conducting polymers used in humidity detection. To accomplish this, two fabrication methods are used. The first one utilizes the geometric confinement effect of a temporary nanochannel template to orient, precisely position, and assemble Polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as they are synthesized. The other approach is to simply spin-coat a polymer onto a substrate, and then oxygen plasma etch to generate a nano-columned Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin film. 200 nm silicon oxide coated wafers with embedded platinum electrodes are used as a substrate for both fabrication methods. The biggest advantage of this first method is that it is simple, requires a single-step, i.e., synthesizing and positioning procedures are carried out simultaneously. The second method is potentially manufacturable and economic yet environmentally safe. These two methods do not produce extra nano-building materials to discard or create a health hazard. Both PANI nanowires and nano-columned PEDOT films have been tested for humidity detection using a system designed and built for this research to monitor response (current changes) to moisture, To explain the surface to volume ratio effect, 200 nm PANI nanowires and 10 microm PANI wires were directly compared for detecting moisture, and it was shown that the PANI nanowire had a better sensitivity. It was found difficult to monitor the behaviors of the PEDOT reaction to varying

  7. Remote sensing in the marine environment. A description of facilities, applications, needs and opportunities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shannon, LV

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Against a background of the techniques and instrumentation available for remote sensing in the marine environment, this report considers the rationale for their use by the South African marine community. Local applications of remote sensing...

  8. Construction and Application of Enhanced Remote Sensing Ecological Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, C.; Fu, Q.; Yin, B.

    2018-04-01

    In order to monitor the change of regional ecological environment quality, this paper use MODIS and DMSP / OLS remote sensing data, from the production capacity, external disturbance changes and human socio-economic development of the three main factors affecting the quality of ecosystems, select the net primary productivity, vegetation index and light index, using the principal component analysis method to automatically determine the weight coefficient, construction of the formation of enhanced remote sensing ecological index, and the ecological environment quality of Hainan Island from 2001 to 2013 was monitored and analyzed. The enhanced remote sensing ecological index combines the effects of the natural environment and human activities on ecosystems, and according to the contribution of each principal component automatically determine the weight coefficient, avoid the design of the weight of the parameters caused by the calculation of the human error, which provides a new method for the operational operation of regional macro ecological environment quality monitoring. During the period from 2001 to 2013, the ecological environment quality of Hainan Island showed the characteristics of decend first and then rise, the ecological environment in 2005 was affected by severe natural disasters, and the quality of ecological environment dropped sharply. Compared with 2001, in 2013 about 20000 square kilometers regional ecological environmental quality has improved, about 8760 square kilometers regional ecological environment quality is relatively stable, about 5272 square kilometers regional ecological environment quality has decreased. On the whole, the quality of ecological environment in the study area is good, the frequent occurrence of natural disasters, on the quality of the ecological environment to a certain extent.

  9. Slovenian experience in applicability of remote sensing data in hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, A; Vidmar, A; Petan, S; Brilly, M [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Hajdrihova 28, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: mbrillygg@uni-lj.si

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing data are great value for many ways of use as for snow hydrology. Snow cover mapping on basis of satellite images is widely spread because it is easier than in-situ measuring and interpolating. To verify the use of satellite imagery (MODIS product) we used all available data of snow cover and satellite images and compared detected snow cover on images and in-situ measured snow cover. The information about clouds and snow cover measured on the Ljubljana climatological station were acquired and analysed. The use of satellite images showed out to be useless because of climate characteristics of Slovenia and low elevation of much area.

  10. Slovenian experience in applicability of remote sensing data in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, A; Vidmar, A; Petan, S; Brilly, M

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays remote sensing data are great value for many ways of use as for snow hydrology. Snow cover mapping on basis of satellite images is widely spread because it is easier than in-situ measuring and interpolating. To verify the use of satellite imagery (MODIS product) we used all available data of snow cover and satellite images and compared detected snow cover on images and in-situ measured snow cover. The information about clouds and snow cover measured on the Ljubljana climatological station were acquired and analysed. The use of satellite images showed out to be useless because of climate characteristics of Slovenia and low elevation of much area.

  11. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Miragliotta, Joseph; Osiander, Robert; Burnett, Jennifer; Dikmelik, Yamac; McEnnis, Caroline; Spicer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications. PMID:22399883

  12. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications.

  13. A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Joshua P.; Williamson, Neil R.; Spring, David R.; Salmond, George P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow intracellular proteinaceous organelles produced by aquatic Eubacteria and Archaea, including cyanobacteria and halobacteria. Gas vesicles increase buoyancy and allow taxis toward air–liquid interfaces, enabling subsequent niche colonization. Here we report a unique example of gas vesicle-mediated flotation in an enterobacterium; Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006. This strain is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae previously studied for its production of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotics. Genes required for gas vesicle synthesis mapped to a 16.6-kb gene cluster encoding three distinct homologs of the main structural protein, GvpA. Heterologous expression of this locus in Escherichia coli induced copious vesicle production and efficient cell buoyancy. Gas vesicle morphogenesis in Serratia enabled formation of a pellicle-like layer of highly vacuolated cells, which was dependent on oxygen limitation and the expression of ntrB/C and cheY-like regulatory genes within the gas-vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicle biogenesis was strictly controlled by intercellular chemical signaling, through an N-acyl homoserine lactone, indicating that in this system the quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen initiating organelle development. Flagella-based motility and gas vesicle morphogenesis were also oppositely regulated by the small RNA-binding protein, RsmA, suggesting environmental adaptation through physiological control of the choice between motility and flotation as alternative taxis modes. We propose that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen. PMID:21873216

  14. A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Williamson, Neil R; Spring, David R; Salmond, George P C

    2011-09-06

    Gas vesicles are hollow intracellular proteinaceous organelles produced by aquatic Eubacteria and Archaea, including cyanobacteria and halobacteria. Gas vesicles increase buoyancy and allow taxis toward air-liquid interfaces, enabling subsequent niche colonization. Here we report a unique example of gas vesicle-mediated flotation in an enterobacterium; Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006. This strain is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae previously studied for its production of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotics. Genes required for gas vesicle synthesis mapped to a 16.6-kb gene cluster encoding three distinct homologs of the main structural protein, GvpA. Heterologous expression of this locus in Escherichia coli induced copious vesicle production and efficient cell buoyancy. Gas vesicle morphogenesis in Serratia enabled formation of a pellicle-like layer of highly vacuolated cells, which was dependent on oxygen limitation and the expression of ntrB/C and cheY-like regulatory genes within the gas-vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicle biogenesis was strictly controlled by intercellular chemical signaling, through an N-acyl homoserine lactone, indicating that in this system the quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen initiating organelle development. Flagella-based motility and gas vesicle morphogenesis were also oppositely regulated by the small RNA-binding protein, RsmA, suggesting environmental adaptation through physiological control of the choice between motility and flotation as alternative taxis modes. We propose that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen.

  15. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  16. Providing Data Quality Information for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, F.; Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.; Szabó, G.; Barsi, Á.; Batini, C.; Bartsch, A.; Kugler, Zs.; Tiede, D.; Huang, G.

    2018-04-01

    The availability and accessibility of remote sensing (RS) data, cloud processing platforms and provided information products and services has increased the size and diversity of the RS user community. This development also generates a need for validation approaches to assess data quality. Validation approaches employ quality criteria in their assessment. Data Quality (DQ) dimensions as the basis for quality criteria have been deeply investigated in the database area and in the remote sensing domain. Several standards exist within the RS domain but a general classification - established for databases - has been adapted only recently. For an easier identification of research opportunities, a better understanding is required how quality criteria are employed in the RS lifecycle. Therefore, this research investigates how quality criteria support decisions that guide the RS lifecycle and how they relate to the measured DQ dimensions. Subsequently follows an overview of the relevant standards in the RS domain that is matched to the RS lifecycle. Conclusively, the required research needs are identified that would enable a complete understanding of the interrelationships between the RS lifecycle, the data sources and the DQ dimensions, an understanding that would be very valuable for designing validation approaches in RS.

  17. Application of Nd/sup 3+/-doped silica fibers to radiation sensing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, K.; Suzuki, T.; Gozen, T.; Tanaka, H.; Okamoto, S.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of rare-earth-ion-doped optical fibers to radiation sensing devices have been studied. It was revealed that rare-earth-ion-doped optical fibers are highly sensitive to radioactive rays such as gamma ray and thermal neutron flux and that they have little dependence on ambient temperature and optical power. An experimental distributed radiation sensing system incorporating Nd/sup 3+/-doped optical fibers, radiation resistant optical fibers and an OTDR was made and tested. The results proved that the distributed sensing system is practically adaptable to the measurement of the radioactive rays

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements

  19. Applications in bridge structure health monitoring using distributed fiber sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yafei; Zheng, Huan; Ge, Huiliang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) is proposed to solve the problem that the traditional point sensor is difficult to realize the comprehensive safety monitoring of bridges and so on. This technology not only breaks through the bottleneck of traditional monitoring point sensor, realize the distributed measurement of temperature and strain on a transmission path; can also be used for bridge and other structures of the damage identification, fracture positioning, settlement monitoring. The effectiveness and frontier of the technology are proved by comparing the test of the indoor model beam and the external field bridge, and the significance of the distributed optical fiber sensing technology to the monitoring of the important structure of the bridge is fully explained.

  20. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  1. Composite materials application on FORMOSAT-5 remote sensing instrument structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chueh Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite material has been widely applied in space vehicle structures due to its light weight and designed stiffness modulus. Some special mechanical properties that cannot be changed in general metal materials, such as low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion and directional material stiffness can be artificially adjusted in composite materials to meet the user’s requirements. Space-qualified Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP composite materials are applied In the FORMOSAT-5 Remote Sensing (RSI structure because of its light weight and low CTE characteristics. The RSI structural elements include the primary mirror supporting plate, secondary mirror supporting ring, and supporting frame. These elements are designed, manufactured, and verified using composite materials to meet specifications. The structure manufacturing process, detailed material properties, and CFRP structural element validation methods are introduced in this paper.

  2. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  3. Space-Time Data fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, H.; Cressie, N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been collecting massive amounts of remote sensing data about Earth's systems for more than a decade. Missions are selected to be complementary in quantities measured, retrieval techniques, and sampling characteristics, so these datasets are highly synergistic. To fully exploit this, a rigorous methodology for combining data with heterogeneous sampling characteristics is required. For scientific purposes, the methodology must also provide quantitative measures of uncertainty that propagate input-data uncertainty appropriately. We view this as a statistical inference problem. The true but notdirectly- observed quantities form a vector-valued field continuous in space and time. Our goal is to infer those true values or some function of them, and provide to uncertainty quantification for those inferences. We use a spatiotemporal statistical model that relates the unobserved quantities of interest at point-level to the spatially aggregated, observed data. We describe and illustrate our method using CO2 data from two NASA data sets.

  4. Engineering biomimetic hair bundle sensors for underwater sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Asadnia, Mohsen; Karavitaki, K. Domenica; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Miao, Jianmin; Corey, David P.; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present the fabrication of an artificial MEMS hair bundle sensor designed to approximate the structural and functional principles of the flow-sensing bundles found in fish neuromast hair cells. The sensor consists of micro-pillars of graded height connected with piezoelectric nanofiber "tip-links" and encapsulated by a hydrogel cupula-like structure. Fluid drag force actuates the hydrogel cupula and deflects the micro-pillar bundle, stretching the nanofibers and generating electric charges. These biomimetic sensors achieve an ultrahigh sensitivity of 0.286 mV/(mm/s) and an extremely low threshold detection limit of 8.24 µm/s. A complete version of this paper has been published [1].

  5. Application of Remote Sensing for Mapping Soil Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangun Muljo Sukojo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Information organic content is important in monitoring and managing the environment as well as doing agricultural production activities. This research tried to map soil organic content in Malang using remote sensing technology. The research uses 6 bands of data captured by Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper satellite (band 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. The research focuses on pixels having Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI more than 0.3. Ground-truth data were collected by analysing organic content of soil samples using Black-Walkey method. The result of analysis shows that digital number of original satellite image can be used to predict soil organic matter content. The implementation of regression equation in predicting soil organic content shows that 63.18% of research area contains of organic in a moderate category.

  6. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in Multipurpose Reservoirs: Case Study Applications in Indonesia, Mexico, and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Rodriguez, D.

    2017-12-01

    This research is focused on development of remote sensing methods to assess surface water pollution issues, particularly in multipurpose reservoirs. Three case study applications are presented to comparatively analyze remote sensing techniquesforo detection of nutrient related pollution, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Chlorophyll, as this is a major water quality issue that has been identified in terms of pollution of major water sources around the country. This assessment will contribute to a better understanding of options for nutrient remote sensing capabilities and needs and assist water agencies in identifying the appropriate remote sensing tools and devise an application strategy to provide information needed to support decision-making regarding the targeting and monitoring of nutrient pollution prevention and mitigation measures. A detailed review of the water quality data available from ground based measurements was conducted in order to determine their suitability for a case study application of remote sensing. In the first case study, the Valle de Bravo reservoir in Mexico City reservoir offers a larger database of water quality which may be used to better calibrate and validate the algorithms required to obtain water quality data from remote sensing raw data. In the second case study application, the relatively data scarce Lake Toba in Indonesia can be useful to illustrate the value added of remote sensing data in locations where water quality data is deficient or inexistent. The third case study in the Paso Severino reservoir in Uruguay offers a combination of data scarcity and persistent development of harmful algae blooms. Landsat-TM data was obteined for the 3 study sites and algorithms for three key water quality parameters that are related to nutrient pollution: Chlorophyll-a, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus were calibrated and validated at the study sites. The three case study applications were developed into capacity building/training workshops

  7. Development of Natural Anthocyanin Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles for pH and Borate-Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chu T.; Lien, Nghiem T. Ha; Anh, Nguyen D.; Lam, Nguyen L.

    2017-12-01

    Anthocyanin belongs to a large group of phenolic compounds called flavonoids. It is found primarily in fruits, flowers, roots and other parts of higher plants. Within the black carrot, it has been found that the cyanidin component 1,2 diol was the major anthocyanine. Since the terminal thiols potentially display chemical interactions with borate additives, anthocyanin from the black carrot can act as a sensing material for detecting borate in the environment. As a natural dye, anthocyanin responds to pH change of the medium. Here, we present an application of black carrot dyes for pH sensing and for the detection of borate additives within meats. The dyes were encapsulated within a mesoporous silica (SiO2) matrix in order to prevent the sensing materials from dissolution into the aqueous medium. The encapsulation was done in situ during preparation of silica nanoparticles (size from 100 nm to 500 nm) following an advanced Stöber method. These anthocyanin-encapsulated silica nanoparticles show a clear color change from green in an aqueous solution free of borate to GRAY-red in the presence of borate additive and red (pH 2) to green (pH 10).

  8. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  9. Validation plays the role of a "bridge" in connecting remote sensing research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Deng, Ying; Fan, Yida

    2018-07-01

    Remote sensing products contribute to improving earth observations over space and time. Uncertainties exist in products of different levels; thus, validation of these products before and during their applications is critical. This study discusses the meaning of validation in depth and proposes a new definition of reliability for use with such products. In this context, validation should include three aspects: a description of the relevant uncertainties, quantitative measurement results and a qualitative judgment that considers the needs of users. A literature overview is then presented evidencing improvements in the concepts associated with validation. It shows that the root mean squared error (RMSE) is widely used to express accuracy; increasing numbers of remote sensing products have been validated; research institutes contribute most validation efforts; and sufficient validation studies encourage the application of remote sensing products. Validation plays a connecting role in the distribution and application of remote sensing products. Validation connects simple remote sensing subjects with other disciplines, and it connects primary research with practical applications. Based on the above findings, it is suggested that validation efforts that include wider cooperation among research institutes and full consideration of the needs of users should be promoted.

  10. 75 FR 53723 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and...-depth sensing equipment is available, however positioning such devices near seabird and pinniped...

  11. The separation-combination method of linear structures in remote sensing image interpretation and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linqin

    1991-01-01

    The separation-combination method a new kind of analysis method of linear structures in remote sensing image interpretation is introduced taking northwestern Fujian as the example, its practical application is examined. The practice shows that application results not only reflect intensities of linear structures in overall directions at different locations, but also contribute to the zonation of linear structures and display their space distribution laws. Based on analyses of linear structures, it can provide more information concerning remote sensing on studies of regional mineralization laws and the guide to ore-finding combining with mineralization

  12. Femtosecond laser-ablated Fresnel zone plate fiber probe and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoling; Geng, Youfu; Chen, Yan; Li, Shiguo; Wang, Xinzhong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) inscribed on multimode fiber endface using femtosecond laser ablation and its application in sensing. The mode transmission through fiber tips with FZP is investigated both by the beam propagation method theoretically and by measuring the beam images with a charge-coupled device camera experimentally, which show a good agreement. Such devices are tested for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using the aqueous solution of rhodamine 6G under a Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that the SERS signal is enhanced benefiting from focal ability of FZP, which is a promising method for the particular biochemical spectra sensing applications.

  13. Zinc oxide nanostructured layers for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cretí, A.; Luches, A.; Lomascolo, M.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Valerini, D.

    2011-03-01

    Various kinds of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as columns, pencils, hexagonal pyramids, hexagonal hierarchical structures, as well as smooth and rough films, were grown by pulsed laser deposition using KrF and ArF excimer lasers, without use of any catalyst. ZnO films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700°C and oxygen background pressures of 1, 5, 50, and 100 Pa. Quite different morphologies of the deposited films were observed using scanning electron microscopy when different laser wavelengths (248 or 193 nm) were used to ablate the bulk ZnO target. Photoluminescence studies were performed at different temperatures (down to 7 K). The gas sensing properties of the different nanostructures were tested against low concentrations of NO2. The variation in the photoluminescence emission of the films when exposed to NO2 was used as transduction mechanism to reveal the presence of the gas. The nanostructured films with higher surface-to-volume ratio and higher total surface available for gas adsorption presented higher responses, detecting NO2 concentrations down to 3 ppm at room temperature.

  14. Application of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Torriero, Angel A J

    2011-01-15

    Since 1992, when the room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation were reported to provide an attractive combination of an electrochemical solvent and electrolyte, ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, and lithium batteries. However, it has only been in the last few years that electrochemical biosensors based on carbon ionic liquid electrodes (CILEs) and IL-modified macrodisk electrodes have been reported. However, there are still a lot of challenges in achieving IL-based sensitive, selective, and reproducible biosensors for high speed analysis of biological and environmental compounds of interest. This review discusses the principles of operation of electrochemical biosensors based on CILEs and IL/composite-modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed. Key challenges and opportunities of IL-based biosensors to further development and use are considered. Emphasis is given to direct electron-transfer reaction and electrocatalysis of hemeproteins and enzyme-modified composite electrodes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Peeling Decoding of LDPC Codes with Applications in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for the analysis of iterative peeling decoding recovery algorithms in the context of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes and compressed sensing. The iterative recovery algorithm is particularly interesting for its low measurement cost and low computational complexity. The asymptotic analysis can track the evolution of the fraction of unrecovered signal elements in each iteration, which is similar to the well-known density evolution analysis in the context of LDPC decoding algorithm. Our analysis shows that there exists a threshold on the density factor; if under this threshold, the recovery algorithm is successful; otherwise it will fail. Simulation results are also provided for verifying the agreement between the proposed asymptotic analysis and recovery algorithm. Compared with existing works of peeling decoding algorithm, focusing on the failure probability of the recovery algorithm, our proposed approach gives accurate evolution of performance with different parameters of measurement matrices and is easy to implement. We also show that the peeling decoding algorithm performs better than other schemes based on LDPC codes.

  16. Optimization of a radiative membrane for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Anthony; Boutami, Salim; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Benisty, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To engineer a cheap, portable and low-power optical gas sensor, incandescent sources are more suitable than expensive quantum cascade lasers and low-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Such sources of radiation have already been realized, using standard MEMS technology, consisting in free standing circular micro-hotplates. This paper deals with the design of such membranes in order to maximize their wall-plug efficiency. Specification constraints are taken into account, including available energy per measurement and maximum power delivered by the electrical supply source. The main drawback of these membranes is known to be the power lost through conduction to the substrate, thus not converted in (useful) radiated power. If the membrane temperature is capped by technological requirements, radiative flux can be favored by increasing the membrane radius. However, given a finite amount of energy, the larger the membrane and its heat capacity, the shorter the time it can be turned on. This clearly suggests that an efficiency optimum has to be found. Using simulations based on a spatio-temporal radial profile, we demonstrate how to optimally design such membrane systems, and provide an insight into the thermo-optical mechanisms governing this kind of devices, resulting in a nontrivial design with a substantial benefit over existing systems. To further improve the source, we also consider tailoring the membrane stack spectral emissivity to promote the infrared signal to be sensed as well as to maximize energy efficiency.

  17. 77 FR 5213 - Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA): Applicability to Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... [CMS-1350-NC] RIN 0938-AQ51 Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA... the applicability of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) to hospital inpatients... available to persons without Federal government identification, commenters are encouraged to leave their...

  18. 76 FR 17434 - Receipt of Application for an Endangered Species Act Incidental Take Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA020 Receipt of Application for an Endangered Species Act Incidental Take..., the Services) for incidental take permits (ITPs) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...) and implementing regulations prohibit the taking of animal species listed as endangered or threatened...

  19. 18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effects of those hazards on the facility, and methods proposed to reduce the effects or risks. Resource... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental reports... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.12 Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications...

  20. 77 FR 14688 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Extension of...

  1. 77 FR 11021 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... proposing to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Notice and...

  2. Application of remote sensing to state and regional programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Carter, B. D.; Pettry, D. E.; Higgs, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    The problem includes data acquisition and transformation to products acceptable to the users. Optimized institutionalization of data management, product transfer, and education of the user community are also of major concern. With respect to the lattice, various structures were suggested and the fields of application are presented.

  3. A review of hyperspectral remote sensing and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Over the past two decades, advances in sensor technology have made it possible for ... Multi- spectral systems commonly collect data in three to six spectral bands in a ... synoptic view space provides and the economies of scale, since ...... STUMPF RP (2001) Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for.

  4. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO is a material with a variety of potential applications such as electronics,7 photonics,8 acoustics,9 TCO layer in ..... change, as a response to surface chemical reactions with environmental gases. ..... Wang D, Chu X and Gong M 2007 Nanotechnology 18 185601. 79. Kim K M, Hyun-Mook Jeong, Hae-Ryong Kim, Kwon-Il ...

  5. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  6. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine). Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Management Decision Support in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Republic of Benin). Monitoring of deforestation invasion in natural reserves of northern Madagascar based on space imagery. Cartography of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Cartography and Land Use Change of World Heritage Areas and the Benefits of Remote Sensing and GIS for Conservation. Assessing and Monitoring Vegetation in Nabq Protected Area, South Sinai, Egypt, using combine approach of Satellite Imagery and Land Surveys. Evaluation of forage resources in semi-arid savannah environments with satellite imagery: contribution to the management of a protected area (Nakuru National Park) in Kenya. SOGHA, the Surveillance of Gorilla Habitat in World Heritage sites using Space Technologies. Application of Remote Sensing to monitor the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (France). Application of Remote Sensing & GIS for the Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Social and Environmental monitoring of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: Case Study over the Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald Parks using Corona and Spot Imagery. Satellite Remote Sensing as tool to Monitor Indian Reservation in the Brazilian Amazonia. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Monitoring UNESCO World Heritage Sites - A Pilot Project. Urban Green Spaces: Modern Heritage. Monitoring of the technical condition of the St. Sophia Cathedral and related monastic buildings in Kiev with Space Applications, geo-positioning systems and GIS tools. The Murghab delta palaeochannel Reconstruction on the Basis of Remote Sensing from Space. Acquisition, Registration and Application of IKONOS Space Imagery for the cultural World Heritage site at Mew, Turkmenistan. Remote Sensing and VR applications for the reconstruction of archaeological landscapes

  7. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koelpin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology.

  8. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and ADA National Network Collaborative Research Projects AGENCY: Office... Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--ADA...

  9. 76 FR 38129 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge Translation Center (ADA KT Center) AGENCY: Office of Special Education and... Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--The ADA National Network Knowledge...

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations

  12. Optimization of design parameters for bulk micromachined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.

  13. Applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlby, J.R.; Grass, J.D.; Singhroy, V.H.

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing detection and data collection techniques, combined with data from image analyses, have become effective tools that can be used for rapid identification, interpretation and evaluation of the geological and environmental information required in some areas of performance analysis of hydraulic dams. Potential geological hazards to dams such as faults, landslides and liquefaction, regional crustal warping or tilting, stability of foundation materials, flooding and volcanic hazards are applications in which remote sensing may aid analysis. Details are presented of remote sensing techiques, optimal time of data acquisition, interpreting techniques, and application. Techniques include LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM), SPOT images, thermal infrared scanning, colour infrared photography, normal colour photography, panchromatic black and white, normal colour video, infrared video, airborne multi-spectral electronic imagery, airborne synthetic aperture radar, side scan sonar, and LIDAR (optical radar). 3 tabs

  14. Advances in the development of remote sensing technology for agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, J. E.; Erb, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of remote sensing technology to crop forecasting is discussed. The importance of crop forecasts to the world economy and agricultural management is explained, and the development of aerial and spaceborne remote sensing for global crop forecasting by the United States is outlined. The structure, goals and technical aspects of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) are presented, and main findings on the accuracy, efficiency, applicability and areas for further study of the LACIE procedure are reviewed. The current status of NASA crop forecasting activities in the United States and worldwide is discussed, and the objectives and organization of the newly created Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS) program are presented.

  15. A mobile-agent-based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Figueiredo, Eloi; Moro, Erik A; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Flynn, Eric B; Mascarenas, David L; Todd, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to perform intended interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of the traditional sensing networks. Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which are used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. Our wireless sensor node is specifically designed to accept various energy sources, including wireless energy transmission, and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis by the mobile agent or other sensor nodes. The capabilities of this proposed sensing network paradigm are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field

  16. Optimization of design parameters for bulk micromachined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.

  17. The theory of scintillation with applications in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Rino, Charles

    2011-01-01

    "In order to truly understand data signals transmitted by satellite, one must understand scintillation theory in addition to well established theories of EM wave propagation and scattering. Scintillation is a nuisance in satellite EM communications, but it has stimulated numerous theoretical developments with science applications. This book not only presents a thorough theoretical explanation of scintillation, but it also offers a complete library of MATLAB codes that will reproduce the book examples. The library includes GPS coordinate manipulations, satellite orbit prediction, and earth mean magnetic field computations. The subect matter is for EM researchers; however, also theory is relevant to geophysics, acoustics, optics and astoronomy"--Provided by publisher.

  18. Compressive sensing of full wave field data for structural health monitoring applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; De Marchi, Luca; Perelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    ; however, the acquisition process is generally time-consuming, posing a limit in the applicability of such approaches. To reduce the acquisition time, we use a random sampling scheme based on compressive sensing (CS) to minimize the number of points at which the field is measured. The CS reconstruction...

  19. Application of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems to ecosystem-based urban natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...

  20. Application of Nanomaterials in Production of Self-Sensing Concretes: Contemporary Developments and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horszczaruk E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years structural health monitoring (SHM has gathered spectacular attention in civil engineering applications. Application of such composites enable to improve the safety and performance of structures. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to development of new family of sensors - self-sensing materials. These materials enable to create the so-called “smart concrete” exhibiting self-sensing ability. Application of self-sensing materials in cement-based materials enables to detect their own state of strain or stress reflected as a change in their electrical properties. The variation of strain or stress is associated with the variation in material’s electrical characteristics, such as resistance or impedance. Therefore, it is possible to efficiently detect and localize crack formation and propagation in selected concrete element. This review is devoted to present contemporary developments in application of nanomaterials in self-sensing cement-based composites and future directions in the field of smart structures.

  1. The Development of Wireless Body Area Network for Motion Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitaningayu, P.; Widodo, A.; Yundra, E.; Ramadhany, F.; Arianto, L.; Habibie, D.

    2018-04-01

    The information era has driven the society into the digitally-controlled lifestyle. Wireless body area networks (WBAN) as the specific scope of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is consistently growing into bigger applications. Currently, people are able to monitor their medical parameters by simply using small electronics devices attached to their body and connected to the authorities. On top of that, this time, smart phones are typically equipped with sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, barometric pressure, heart rate monitor, etc. It means that the sensing yet the signal processing can be performed by a single device. Moreover, Android opens lot wider opportunities for new applications as the most popular open-sourced smart phone platform. This paper is intended to show the development of motion sensing application which focused on analysing data from accelerometer and gyroscope. Beside reads the sensors, this application also has the ability to convert the sensors’ numerical value into graphs.

  2. Microwave propagation and remote sensing atmospheric influences with models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Pranab Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing. Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including: Free sp...

  3. Remote Sensing Applications for Antrim Shale Fracture Characterization, Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuskraa, Vello

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research International (ARI) sent seven staff members to the 1997 International Coalbed Methane Symposium, held in Tuscaloosa, Alabama from May 12-17. ARI gave a short course on risk reduction strategies, including remote fracture detection, for coalbed methane exploration and development that was attended by about 25 coalbed methane industry professionals; and presented a paper entitled 'Optimizing coalbed methane cavity completion operations with the application of a new discrete element model.' We met with many potential clients and discussed our fracture detection services. China has vast coalbed methane resources, but is still highly dependent on coal-and wood-burning. This workshop, sponsored by the United Nations, was intended to help China develop its less-polluting energy reserves. ARI is successfully finding new applications for its fracture detection services. Coalbed methane exploration became an important market in this quarter, with the inception of a joint industry/government collaboration between ARI, Texaco and DOE to use remote fracture detection to identify areas with good potential for coalbed methane production in the Ferron Coal Trend of central Utah. Geothermal energy exploration is another emerging market for ARI, where fracture detection is applied to identify pathways for groundwater recharge, movement, and the locations of potential geothermal reservoirs. Ari continued work on two industry/government collaborations to demonstrate fracture detection to potential clients. Also completed the technical content layout for multimedia CD-ROM that describes our remote fracture detection services.

  4. Autonomous control systems: applications to remote sensing and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2001-11-01

    One of the main challenges of any control (or image processing) paradigm is being able to handle complex systems under unforeseen uncertainties. A system may be called complex here if its dimension (order) is too high and its model (if available) is nonlinear, interconnected, and information on the system is uncertain such that classical techniques cannot easily handle the problem. Examples of complex systems are power networks, space robotic colonies, national air traffic control system, and integrated manufacturing plant, the Hubble Telescope, the International Space Station, etc. Soft computing, a consortia of methodologies such as fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms and genetic programming, has proven to be powerful tools for adding autonomy and semi-autonomy to many complex systems. For such systems the size of soft computing control architecture will be nearly infinite. In this paper new paradigms using soft computing approaches are utilized to design autonomous controllers and image enhancers for a number of application areas. These applications are satellite array formations for synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and enhancement of analog and digital images.

  5. Applicability study of optical fiber distribution sensing to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Eiji; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1999-01-01

    Optical fibers have advantages like flexible configuration, intrinsic immunity for electromagnetic fields etc., and they have been used for signal transmission and as optical fiber sensors (OFSs). By some of these sensor techniques, continuous or discrete distribution of physical parameters can be measured. Here, in order to discuss the applicability of these OFSs to nuclear facilities, irradiation experiments to optical fibers were carried out using the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' and a 60 Co γ source. It has been shown that, under irradiation with fast neutrons, the radiation induced loss increase almost linearly with the neutron fluence. On the other hand, when irradiated with 60 Co γ rays, the loss shows a saturation tendency. As an example of the OFSs, applicability of the Raman distributed temperature sensor (RDTS) to the monitoring of nuclear facilities has been examined. Two correction techniques for radiation induced errors have been developed and for the demonstration of their feasibility, measurements were carried out along the primary piping system of the experimental fast reactor: JOYO. During the continuous measurements with the total dose of more than 10 7 [R], the radiation induced errors showed a saturating tendency and the feasibility of the loss correction technique was demonstrated. Although the time response of the system should be improved, the RDTS can be expected as a noble temperature monitor in nuclear facilities. (author)

  6. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Filipa; Duarte, Daniel; Bilro, Lúcia; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi; Cennamo, Nunzio

    2016-12-13

    We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for refractive index (RI) sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR). POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471) through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI) range (1.33-1.39), the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10 -3 refractive index units, RIU) was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41-1.47), the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost.

  7. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Sequeira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF sensor for refractive index (RI sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR. POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471 through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI range (1.33–1.39, the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10−3 refractive index units, RIU was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41–1.47, the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost.

  8. Paper as a platform for sensing applications and other devices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-04-29

    Paper is a ubiquitous material that has various applications in day to day life. A sheet of paper is produced by pressing moist wood cellulose fibers together. Paper offers unique properties: paper allows passive liquid transport, it is compatible with many chemical and biochemical moieties, it exhibits piezoelectricity, and it is biodegradable. Hence, paper is an attractive low-cost functional material for sensing devices. In recent years, researchers in the field of science and engineering have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of research contributions that focus on the development of cost-effective and scalable fabrication methods and new applications of paper-based devices. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in the development of paper-based sensing devices in the areas of electronics, energy storage, strain sensing, microfluidic devices, and biosensing, including piezoelectric paper. Additionally, this review includes current limitations of paper-based sensing devices and points out issues that have limited the commercialization of some of the paper-based sensing devices.

  9. Privacy Protection in Participatory Sensing Applications Requiring Fine-Grained Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Kai; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    The emerging participatory sensing applications have brought a privacy risk where users expose their location information. Most of the existing solutions preserve location privacy by generalizing a precise user location to a coarse-grained location, and hence they cannot be applied in those appli...... provider is an trustworthy entity, making our solution more feasible to practical applications. We present and analyze our security model, and evaluate the performance and scalability of our system....

  10. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  11. Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing.

  12. Conductive Cotton Fabrics for Motion Sensing and Heating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conductive cotton fabric was prepared by coating single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs on a knitted cotton fabric surface through a “dip-and-dry” method. The combination of CNTs and cotton fabric was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The CNTs coating improved the mechanical properties of the fabric and imparted conductivity to the fabric. The electromechanical performance of the CNT-cotton fabric (CCF was evaluated. Strain sensors made from the CCF exhibited a large workable strain range (0~100%, fast response and great stability. Furthermore, CCF-based strain sensors was used to monitor the real-time human motions, such as standing, walking, running, squatting and bending of finger and elbow. The CCF also exhibited strong electric heating effect. The flexible strain sensors and electric heaters made from CCF have potential applications in wearable electronic devices and cold weather conditions.

  13. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  14. VHF NEMS-CMOS piezoresistive resonators for advanced sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcamone, Julien; Dupré, Cécilia; Arndt, Grégory; Colinet, Eric; Hentz, Sébastien; Ollier, Eric; Duraffourg, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    This work reports on top-down nanoelectromechanical resonators, which are among the smallest resonators listed in the literature. To overcome the fact that their electromechanical transduction is intrinsically very challenging due to their very high frequency (100 MHz) and ultimate size (each resonator is a 1.2 μm long, 100 nm wide, 20 nm thick silicon beam with 100 nm long and 30 nm wide piezoresistive lateral nanowire gauges), they have been monolithically integrated with an advanced fully depleted SOI CMOS technology. By advantageously combining the unique benefits of nanomechanics and nanoelectronics, this hybrid NEMS-CMOS device paves the way for novel breakthrough applications, such as NEMS-based mass spectrometry or hybrid NEMS/CMOS logic, which cannot be fully implemented without this association.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B, Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report is part of the permit application for the WIPP facility. Appendices are presented on the following: the design validation final report; sampling of volatile organic compounds which may be emitted from waste binss, site supplementary roof support system, and studies on wind and tornado probabilities

  17. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS and IOS models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on interaction potentials between molecular absorber and

  18. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venarusso, Luna B.; Tammeveski, Kaido; Maia, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN) 6 3- redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN) 6 3- , pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD + , and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD + and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  19. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venarusso, Luna B. [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil); Tammeveski, Kaido [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Maia, Gilberto, E-mail: gilberto.maia@ufms.br [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of {beta}-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}, pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD{sup +}, and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD{sup +} and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  20. Stainless steel component with compressed fiber Bragg grating for high temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    A smart metal component having the potential for high temperature strain sensing capability is reported. The stainless steel (SS316) structure is made by selective laser melting (SLM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is embedded in to a 3D printed U-groove by high temperature brazing using a silver based alloy, achieving an axial FBG compression of 13 millistrain at room temperature. Initial results shows that the test component can be used for up to 700°C for sensing applications.

  1. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  2. Apodization Optimization of FBG Strain Sensor for Quasi-Distributed Sensing Measurement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Chaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimized apodization of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor (FBGS for quasi-distributed strain sensing applications is developed and introduced in this paper. The main objective of the proposed optimization is to obtain a reflectivity level higher than 90% and a side lobe level around −40 dB, which is suitable for use in quasi-distributed strain sensing application. For this purpose, different design parameters as apodization profile, grating length, and refractive index have been investigated to enhance and optimize the FBGS design. The performance of the proposed apodization has then been compared in terms of reflectivity, side lobe level (SLL, and full width at half maximum (FWHM with apodization profiles proposed by other authors. The optimized sensor is integrated on quasi-distributed sensing system of 8 sensors demonstrating high reliability. Wide strain sensitivity range for each channel has also been achieved in the quasi-distributed system. Results prove the efficiency of the proposed optimization which can be further implemented for any quasi-distributed sensing application.

  3. Application of SMAP Data for Ocean Surface Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Tang, W.; Stiles, B. W.; Hayashi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched January 31st, 2015. It is designed to measure the soil moisture over land using a combined active / passive L-band system. Due to the Aquarius mission, L-band model functions for ocean winds and salinity are mature and are directly applicable to the SMAP mission. In contrast to Aquarius, the higher resolution and scanning geometry of SMAP allow for wide-swath ocean winds and salinities to be retrieved. In this talk we present the SMAP Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and extreme winds dataset and its performance. First we discuss the heritage of SMAP SSS algorithms, showing that SMAP and Aquarius show excellent agreement in the ocean surface roughness correction. Then, we give an overview of some newly developed algorithms that are only relevant to the SMAP system; a new galaxy correction and land correction enabling SSS retrievals up to 40 km from coast. We discuss recent improvements to the SMAP data processing for version 4.0. Next we compare the performance of the SMAP SSS to in-situ salinity measurements obtained from ARGO floats, tropical moored buoys, and ship-based data. SMAP SSS has accuracy of 0.2 PSU on a monthly basis compared to ARGO gridded data in tropics and mid-latitudes. In tropical oceans, time series comparison of salinity measured at 1 m depth by moored buoys indicates SMAP can track large salinity changes within a month. Synergetic analysis of SMAP, SMOS, and Argo data allows us to identify and exclude erroneous buoy data from assessment of SMAP SSS. The resulting SMAP-buoy matchup analysis gives a mean standard deviation (STD) of 0.22 PSU and correlation of 0.73 on weekly scale; at monthly scale the mean STD decreased to 0.17 PSU and the correlation increased to 0.8. In addition to SSS, SMAP provides a view into tropical cyclones having much higher sensitivity than traditional scatterometers. We validate the high-winds using collocations with SFMR during tropical cyclones as well as

  4. APPLICATION OF CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION AGRICULTURAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN. For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  5. Single Mode SU8 Polymer Based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Bio-Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiragi, Indrajit; Kundu, Sushanta; Makkar, Roshan; Chalapathi, Krishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    This paper explains the influence of different parameters to the sensitivity of an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for real time detection of biomolecules. The sensing principle is based on the interaction of evanescence field with the biomolecules that get immobilized on sensing arm. The sensitivity has been calculated by varying the sensing window length, wavelength and concentration of bio-analyte. The maximum attainable sensitivity for the preferred design is the order of 10-8 RIU at 840 nm wavelength with a sensing window length of 1cm. All the simulation work has been carried out with Opti-BPMCAD for the optimization of MZI device parameters. The SU8 polymers are used as a core and clad material to fabricate the waveguide. The refractive index of cladding layer is optimized by varying the curing temperature for a fixed time period and the achieved index difference between core and clad is Δn = 0.0151. The fabricated MZI device has been characterized with LASER beam profiler at 840 nm wavelength. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the different parameter to the sensitivity of a single mode optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for bio-sensing application.

  6. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Data and Implications for Miniaturized Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-51 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment....222-51 Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance... clause: Exemption From Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-48 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment....222-48 Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance... following provision: Exemption From Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance...

  9. 12 CFR 225.115 - Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act... Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations. (a) Questions have... Service Corporation Act (Pub. L. 87-856, approved October 23, 1962) in cases involving service...

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J; Colna, Kaitlyn E; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J.; Colna, Kaitlyn E.; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M.; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E.; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B.; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  12. Application of Multi-Source Remote Sensing Image in Yunnan Province Grassland Resources Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wen, G.; Li, D.

    2018-04-01

    Trough mastering background information of Yunnan province grassland resources utilization and ecological conditions to improves grassland elaborating management capacity, it carried out grassland resource investigation work by Yunnan province agriculture department in 2017. The traditional grassland resource investigation method is ground based investigation, which is time-consuming and inefficient, especially not suitable for large scale and hard-to-reach areas. While remote sensing is low cost, wide range and efficient, which can reflect grassland resources present situation objectively. It has become indispensable grassland monitoring technology and data sources and it has got more and more recognition and application in grassland resources monitoring research. This paper researches application of multi-source remote sensing image in Yunnan province grassland resources investigation. First of all, it extracts grassland resources thematic information and conducts field investigation through BJ-2 high space resolution image segmentation. Secondly, it classifies grassland types and evaluates grassland degradation degree through high resolution characteristics of Landsat 8 image. Thirdly, it obtained grass yield model and quality classification through high resolution and wide scanning width characteristics of MODIS images and sample investigate data. Finally, it performs grassland field qualitative analysis through UAV remote sensing image. According to project area implementation, it proves that multi-source remote sensing data can be applied to the grassland resources investigation in Yunnan province and it is indispensable method.

  13. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B. [Shiraz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neri, G., E-mail: gneri@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core–shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core–shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  14. A liquid crystal polymer membrane MEMS sensor for flow rate and flow direction sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottapalli, A G P; Tan, C W; Olfatnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the design, fabrication and experimental results of a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) membrane-based pressure sensor for flow rate and flow direction sensing applications. Elaborate experimental testing results demonstrating the sensors' performance as an airflow sensor have been illustrated and validated with theory. MEMS sensors using LCP as a membrane structural material show higher sensitivity and reliability over silicon counterparts. The developed device is highly robust for harsh environment applications such as atmospheric wind flow monitoring and underwater flow sensing. A simple, low-cost and repeatable fabrication scheme has been developed employing low temperatures. The main features of the sensor developed in this work are a LCP membrane with integrated thin film gold piezoresistors deposited on it. The sensor developed demonstrates a good sensitivity of 3.695 mV (ms −1 ) −1 , large operating range (0.1 to >10 ms −1 ) and good accuracy in measuring airflow with an average error of only 3.6% full-scale in comparison with theory. Various feasible applications of the developed sensor have been demonstrated with experimental results. The sensor was tested for two other applications—in clinical diagnosis for breath rate, breath velocity monitoring, and in underwater applications for object detection by sensing near-field spatial flow pressure

  15. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  16. Hierarchical oxide-based composite nanostructures for energy, environmental, and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Cai, Wenjie; Gao, Haiyong; Jian, Dunliang; Wrobel, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    Self-assembled composite nanostructures integrate various basic nano-elements such as nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanowires toward realizing multifunctional characteristics, which promises an important route with potentially high reward for the fast evolving nanoscience and nanotechnology. A broad array of hierarchical metal oxide based nanostructures have been designed and fabricated in our research group, involving semiconductor metal oxides, ternary functional oxides such as perovskites and spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides with diverse applications in efficient energy harvesting/saving/utilization, environmental protection/control, chemical sensing and thus impacting major grand challenges in the area of materials and nanotechnology. Two of our latest research activities have been highlighted specifically in semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires and metal oxide/perovskite composite nanowires, which could impact the application sectors in ultraviolet/blue lighting, visible solar absorption, vehicle and industry emission control, chemical sensing and control for vehicle combustors and power plants.

  17. Public health applications of remote sensing of the environment, an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The available techniques were examined in the field of remote sensing (including aerial photography, infrared detection, radar, etc.) and applications to a number of problems in the wide field of public health determined. The specific areas of public health examined included: air pollution, water pollution, communicable disease, and the combined problems of urban growth and the effect of disasters on human communities. The assessment of the possible applications of remote sensing to these problems was made primarily by examination of the available literature in each field, and by interviews with health authorities, physicists, biologists, and other interested workers. Three types of programs employing remote sensors were outlined in the air pollution field: (1) proving ability of sensors to monitor pollutants at three levels of interest - point source, ambient levels in cities, and global patterns; (2) detection of effects of pollutants on the environment at local and global levels; and (3) routine monitoring.

  18. The Application of KINECT Motion Sensing Technology in Game-Oriented Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The learning environment based on the KINECT Motion Sensing technology is able to fully mobilize the learners' multi-sensory organs, closely combine study with sports and enhance human-computer interactions, which can be conducive to the learners' health, greatly increase the relishes of learning and promote effective learning in the game, and finally compensate for the shortage of human-computer interactions in the traditional mouse and keyboard mode. The article elaborates on the KINECT Motion Sensing Technology and its educational applications status by analyzing its effective supports for game-oriented studying environment, based on which the article establishes a game-oriented learning environment. Eventually the article reveals an applicable case of game-oriented teaching and learning as a reference for related researches.

  19. Accurate and emergent applications for high precision light small aerial remote sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Liu; Yingcheng, Li; Yanli, Xue; Xiaofeng, Sun; Qingwu, Hu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the successful applications of accurate and emergent surveying and mapping for high precision light small aerial remote sensing system. First, the remote sensing system structure and three integrated operation modes will be introduced. It can be combined to three operation modes depending on the application requirements. Second, we describe the preliminary results of a precision validation method for POS direct orientation in 1:500 mapping. Third, it presents two fast response mapping products- regional continuous three-dimensional model and digital surface model, taking the efficiency and accuracy evaluation of the two products as an important point. The precision of both products meets the 1:2 000 topographic map accuracy specifications in Pingdingshan area. In the end, conclusions and future work are summarized

  20. Accurate and emergent applications for high precision light small aerial remote sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Liu; Yingcheng, Li; Yanli, Xue; Qingwu, Hu; Xiaofeng, Sun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we focus on the successful applications of accurate and emergent surveying and mapping for high precision light small aerial remote sensing system. First, the remote sensing system structure and three integrated operation modes will be introduced. It can be combined to three operation modes depending on the application requirements. Second, we describe the preliminary results of a precision validation method for POS direct orientation in 1:500 mapping. Third, it presents two fast response mapping products- regional continuous three-dimensional model and digital surface model, taking the efficiency and accuracy evaluation of the two products as an important point. The precision of both products meets the 1:2 000 topographic map accuracy specifications in Pingdingshan area. In the end, conclusions and future work are summarized.

  1. Application of the remote-sensing communication model to a time-sensitive wildfire remote-sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Lippitt; Douglas A. Stow; Philip J. Riggan

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing for hazard response requires a priori identification of sensor, transmission, processing, and distribution methods to permit the extraction of relevant information in timescales sufficient to allow managers to make a given time-sensitive decision. This study applies and demonstrates the utility of the Remote Sensing Communication...

  2. Development of a quartz digital accelerometer for environmental sensing and navigation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kass, W.J.; Vianco, P.T.

    1993-03-01

    A quartz digital accelerometer has been developed which uses double ended tuning forks as the active sensing elements. The authors have demonstrated the ability of this accelerometer to be capable of acceleration measurements between ±150G with ±0.5G accuracy. They have further refined the original design and assembly processes to produce accelerometers with < 1mG stability in inertial measurement applications. This report covers the development, design, processing, assembly, and testing of these devices

  3. Analytic sensing for multi-layer spherical models with application to EEG source imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Djano; Blu, Thierry; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    Source imaging maps back boundary measurements to underlying generators within the domain; e. g., retrieving the parameters of the generating dipoles from electrical potential measurements on the scalp such as in electroencephalography (EEG). Fitting such a parametric source model is non-linear in the positions of the sources and renewed interest in mathematical imaging has led to several promising approaches. One important step in these methods is the application of a sensing principle that ...

  4. DESIGNING ZONING OF REMOTE SENSING DRONES FOR URBAN APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. Norzailawati; A. Alias; R. S. Akma

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt ...

  5. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  6. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  7. Fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of ratiometric electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Yu, Jianbo; Lv, Wei; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-05-15

    Previously developed electrochemical biosensors with single-electric signal output are probably affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In contrast, the ratiometric electrochemical biosensors (RECBSs) with dual-electric signal outputs have an intrinsic built-in correction to the effects from system or background electric signals, and therefore exhibit a significant potential to improve the accuracy and sensitivity in electrochemical sensing applications. In this review, we systematically summarize the fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of RECBSs. First, the different fabrication strategies of RECBSs were introduced, referring to the analytes-induced single- and dual-dependent electrochemical signal strategies for RECBSs. Second, the different sensing modes of RECBSs were illustrated, such as differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, alternating current voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, and so forth. Third, the analytical applications of RECBSs were discussed based on the types of target analytes. Finally, the forthcoming development and future prospects in the research field of RECBSs were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW for Chemical Sensing Applications of Recognition Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators represent some of the most prominent acoustic devices for chemical sensing applications. As their frequency ranges from several hundred MHz to GHz, therefore they can record remarkably diminutive frequency shifts resulting from exceptionally small mass loadings. Their miniaturized design, high thermal stability and possibility of wireless integration make these devices highly competitive. Owing to these special characteristics, they are widely accepted as smart transducers that can be combined with a variety of recognition layers based on host-guest interactions, metal oxide coatings, carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, functional polymers and biological receptors. As a result of this, there is a broad spectrum of SAW sensors, i.e., having sensing applications ranging from small gas molecules to large bio-analytes or even whole cell structures. This review shall cover from the fundamentals to modern design developments in SAW devices with respect to interfacial receptor coatings for exemplary sensor applications. The related problems and their possible solutions shall also be covered, with a focus on emerging trends and future opportunities for making SAW as established sensing technology.

  9. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) for Chemical Sensing Applications of Recognition Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2017-11-24

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators represent some of the most prominent acoustic devices for chemical sensing applications. As their frequency ranges from several hundred MHz to GHz, therefore they can record remarkably diminutive frequency shifts resulting from exceptionally small mass loadings. Their miniaturized design, high thermal stability and possibility of wireless integration make these devices highly competitive. Owing to these special characteristics, they are widely accepted as smart transducers that can be combined with a variety of recognition layers based on host-guest interactions, metal oxide coatings, carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, functional polymers and biological receptors. As a result of this, there is a broad spectrum of SAW sensors, i.e., having sensing applications ranging from small gas molecules to large bio-analytes or even whole cell structures. This review shall cover from the fundamentals to modern design developments in SAW devices with respect to interfacial receptor coatings for exemplary sensor applications. The related problems and their possible solutions shall also be covered, with a focus on emerging trends and future opportunities for making SAW as established sensing technology.

  10. Remote sensing and implications for variable-rate application using agricultural aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Steven J.; Smith, Lowrey A.; Ray, Jeffrey D.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft routinely used for agricultural spray application are finding utility for remote sensing. Data obtained from remote sensing can be used for prescription application of pesticides, fertilizers, cotton growth regulators, and water (the latter with the assistance of hyperspectral indices and thermal imaging). Digital video was used to detect weeds in early cotton, and preliminary data were obtained to see if nitrogen status could be detected in early soybeans. Weeds were differentiable from early cotton at very low altitudes (65-m), with the aid of supervised classification algorithms in the ENVI image analysis software. The camera was flown at very low altitude for acceptable pixel resolution. Nitrogen status was not detectable by statistical analysis of digital numbers (DNs) obtained from images, but soybean cultivar differences were statistically discernable (F=26, p=0.01). Spectroradiometer data are being analyzed to identify narrow spectral bands that might aid in selecting camera filters for determination of plant nitrogen status. Multiple camera configurations are proposed to allow vegetative indices to be developed more readily. Both remotely sensed field images and ground data are to be used for decision-making in a proposed variable-rate application system for agricultural aircraft. For this system, prescriptions generated from digital imagery and data will be coupled with GPS-based swath guidance and programmable flow control.

  11. Touch Locating and Stretch Sensing Studies of Conductive Hydrogels with Applications to Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanmin; He, Bin; Yan, Zhe; Shang, Yinghui; Wang, Qigang; Wang, Zhipeng

    2018-02-13

    Soft robots possess great potential in environmental adaptations, while their environmental sensing abilities are critical. Conductive hydrogels have been suggested to possess sensing abilities. However, their application in soft robots is lacking. In this work, we fabricated a soft and stretchable gel material, introduced its sensing mechanisms, and developed a measurement setup. Both experimental and simulation studies indicate strong nonlinearity of touch locating on a square touch panel with Cartesian coordinates. To simplify the touch locating, we proposed a touch locating system based on round touch panels with polar coordinates. Mathematical calculations and finite element method (FEM) simulations showed that in this system the locating of a touch point was only determined by its polar radius. This was verified by experimental studies. As a resistor, a gel strip's resistance increases with stretching. To demonstrate their applications on soft robots, a 3D printed three-fingered soft gripper was employed with gel strips attached. During finger bending for rod grasping, the resistances of the gel strips increased, indicating stretching of the soft material. Furthermore, the strain and stress of a gel strip increased with a decrease of the rod diameter. These studies advance the application of conductive hydrogels on soft robots.

  12. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions—From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Weng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA using few-mode fibers (FMF and the multicore fiber (MCF based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF and photonic crystal fibers (PCF have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of

  13. Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

    Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our

  14. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions—From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  15. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  16. Recent developments in seismic seabed oil reservoir monitoring applications using fibre-optic sensing networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Freitas, J M

    2011-01-01

    This review looks at recent developments in seismic seabed oil reservoir monitoring techniques using fibre-optic sensing networks. After a brief introduction covering the background and scope of the review, the following section focuses on state-of-the-art fibre-optic hydrophones and accelerometers used for seismic applications. Related metrology aspects of the sensor such as measurement of sensitivity, noise and cross-axis performance are addressed. The third section focuses on interrogation systems. Two main phase-based competing systems have emerged over the past two decades for seismic applications, with a third technique showing much promise; these have been compared in terms of general performance. (topical review)

  17. Applications of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for water resources and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the application of microwave remote sensing for measuring soil moisture. Both passive and active systems have demonstrated the capability to measure soil moisture, and there have been a number of studies using aircraft and spaceborne data that have demonstrated its usefulness for agricultural and hydrologic applications. However, there are still several unresolved questions regarding the optimal instrument configuration and other target characteristics such as roughness and vegetation. In addition, the most likely disciplines for using these data, agriculture and hydrology, do not currently possess adequate models or procedures to use this new technology

  18. Application of artificial tactile sensing approach in kidney-stone-removal laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Elnaz; Najarian, Siamak; Simforoosh, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    Artificial tactile sensing is a novel method for obtaining different characteristics of a hard object embedded in a soft tissue. In this regard, artificial palpation is one of the most valuable achievements of artificial tactile sensing that can be used in various fields of medicine and more specifically in surgery. In this study, considering the present problems and limitations in kidney-stone-removal laparoscopy, a new application will be presented for artificial tactile sensing approach. Having imitated surgeon's palpation during open surgery and modeled it conceptually, indications of stone existence that appear on the surface of kidney (due to exerting mechanical load) were determined. A number of different cases were created and solved by the software. Using stress distribution contours and stress graphs, it is illustrated that the created stress patterns on the surface of kidney not only show the existence of stone inside, but also its exact location. In fact, the reliability and accuracy of artificial tactile sensing method in detection of kidney stone during laparoscopy is demonstrated by means of finite element analysis. Also, in this paper, the functional principles of tactile system capable of determining the exact location of stone during laparoscopy will be presented.

  19. Application of the Coasting Trade Act to offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    The main features of the 1992 Coasting Trade Act are summarized. The main purpose of the Act is to protect Canadian ship owners and to ensure they have an opportunity to recover their investments in having Canadian built and crewed vessels. The Coasting Trade Act replaces provisions of the Canada Shipping Act which prohibited non-British ships from entering into Canadian domestic trade. The intention for the Coasting Trade Act is to reserve the coasting trade of Canada to Canadian-registered ships. However, when a Canadian ship is not available, a suitable foreign ship may be temporarily permitted to engage in the Canadian coasting trade as long as Canadian safety standards are met and duties are paid. The Canada Customs and Revenue Agency deals with licence applications while the Canadian Transportation Agency deals with unfair practices and enforcement. The provisions relating to the Coasting Trade License applications are examined along with how they are administered with particular reference to offshore oil and gas operations. The paper also presents recent decisions regarding application licences for Tycom (US) Inc., the Norwegian Polar Ship Management, and the Cyprus-registered seismic vessel, the Northern Access. It is noted that in evaluating the suitability and availability of a Canadian vessel for an activity proposed to be performed by a foreign vessel, the Canadian Transportation Agency examines the technical, financial and commercial elements brought by the parties

  20. Changes in speckle patterns induced by load application onto an optical fiber and its possible application for sensing purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Okumura, Jyun-ya; Hyuga, Akio

    2015-08-01

    Speckle patterns to be observed in an output light spot from an optical fiber are known to be changed due to external disturbances applied onto the optical fiber. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing such changes in speckle patterns for sensing application, a certain load was applied onto a jacket-covered communication-grade multi-mode glass optical fiber through which laser beams emitted from a laser diode were propagating, and observed changes in speckle patterns in the output light spot from the optical fiber were investigated both as image data via a CCD camera and as an output voltage from a photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot. The load was applied via a load application mechanism in which several ridges were provided onto opposite flat plates and a certain number of weights were placed there so that corrugated bending of the optical fiber was intentionally induced via load application due to the ridges. The obtained results showed that the number of speckles in the observed pattern in the output light spot as well as the output voltage from the photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot showed decreases upon load application with relatively satisfactory repeatability. When the load was reduced, i.e., the weights were removed, the number of speckles then showed recovery. These results indicate there is a certain possibility of utilizing changes in speckle patterns for sensing of load application onto the optical fiber.

  1. 75 FR 7227 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 600 and 697 RIN 0648-XT83 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. Perturbation Theory for Scattering from Multilayers with Randomly Rough Fractal Interfaces: Remote Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Imperatore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A general, approximate perturbation method, able to provide closed-form expressions of scattering from a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces, has been recently developed. Such a method provides a unique tool for the characterization of radar response patterns of natural rough multilayers. In order to show that, here, for the first time in a journal paper, we describe the application of the developed perturbation theory to fractal interfaces; we then employ the perturbative method solution to analyze the scattering from real-world layered structures of practical interest in remote sensing applications. We focus on the dependence of normalized radar cross section on geometrical and physical properties of the considered scenarios, and we choose two classes of natural stratifications: wet paleosoil covered by a low-loss dry sand layer and a sea-ice layer above water with dry snow cover. Results are in accordance with the experimental evidence available in the literature for the low-loss dry sand layer, and they may provide useful indications about the actual ability of remote sensing instruments to perform sub-surface sensing for different sensor and scene parameters.

  3. Perturbation Theory for Scattering from Multilayers with Randomly Rough Fractal Interfaces: Remote Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Pasquale; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele

    2017-12-27

    A general, approximate perturbation method, able to provide closed-form expressions of scattering from a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces, has been recently developed. Such a method provides a unique tool for the characterization of radar response patterns of natural rough multilayers. In order to show that, here, for the first time in a journal paper, we describe the application of the developed perturbation theory to fractal interfaces; we then employ the perturbative method solution to analyze the scattering from real-world layered structures of practical interest in remote sensing applications. We focus on the dependence of normalized radar cross section on geometrical and physical properties of the considered scenarios, and we choose two classes of natural stratifications: wet paleosoil covered by a low-loss dry sand layer and a sea-ice layer above water with dry snow cover. Results are in accordance with the experimental evidence available in the literature for the low-loss dry sand layer, and they may provide useful indications about the actual ability of remote sensing instruments to perform sub-surface sensing for different sensor and scene parameters.

  4. Development of an optical fiber SERS microprobe for minimally invasive sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Juodkazis, Saulius; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous potential biomedical sensing applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been reported, but its practical use has been limited by the lack of a robust sensing platform. Optical fiber SERS probes show great promise, but are limited by the prominent silica Raman background, which requires the use of bulky optics for filtering the signal collection and excitation delivery paths. In the present study, a SERS microprobe has been designed and developed to eliminate the bottlenecks outlined above. For efficient excitation and delivery of the SERS signal, both hollow core photonic crystal fiber and double clad fiber have been investigated. While the hollow core fiber was still found to have excessive silica background, the double clad fiber allows efficient signal collection via the multi-mode inner cladding. A micro filtering mechanism has been designed, which can be integrated into the tip of the optical fiber SERS probe, providing filtering to suppress silica Raman background and thus avoiding the need for bulky optics. The design also assists in the efficient collection of SERS signal from the sample by rejecting Rayleigh scattered light from the sample. Optical fiber cleaving using ultra-short laser pulses was tested for improved control of the fiber tip geometry. With this miniaturized and integrated filtering mechanism, it is expected that the developed probe will promote the use of SERS for minimally invasive biomedical monitoring and sensing applications in future. The probe could potentially be placed inside a small gauge hypodermic needle and would be compatible with handheld portable spectrometers.

  5. Development of micronic GMR-magnetoresistive sensors for non-destructive sensing applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrès, Henri; LeMaitre, Yves; Collin, Sophie; Nguyen Vandau, Frédéric; Sergeeva-Chollet, Natalia; Decitre, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    We will present our last development of GMR-based magnetic sensors devoted to sensing application for non-destructive control application. In these first realizations, we have chosen a so-called shape anisotropy - exchange biased strategy to fulfill the field-sensing criteria in the μT range in devices made of micronic single elements. Our devices realized by optical lithography, and whose typical sizes range from 150 μm x 150 μm to 500 μm x 500 μm elements, are made of trilayers GMR-based technology and consist of several circuitries of GMR elements of different lengths, widths and gaps. To obtain a full sensing linearity and reversibility requiring a perpendicular magnetic arrangement between both sensitive and hard layer, the magnetization of the latter have been hardened by pinning it with an antiferromagnetic material. The specific geometry of the design have been engineered in order to optimize the magnetic response of the soft layer via the different magnetic torques exerted on it essentially played by the dipolar fields or shape anisotropy, and the external magnetic field to detect. The smaller dimensions in width and in gap are then respectively of 2 μm and 3 μm to benefit of the full shape anisotropy formatting the magnetic response.

  6. Evaluation and application of passive and active optical remote sensing methods for the measurement of atmospheric aerosol properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, T.

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the atmosphere's radiation balance by scattering and absorbing sunlight. Moreover, the particles act as condensation nuclei for clouds and affect their reflectivity. In addition, aerosols have negative health effects and they reduce visibility. Aerosols are emitted into the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Different types of aerosols have different effects on the radiation balance, thus global monitoring and typing of aerosols is of vital importance. In this thesis, several remote sensing methods used in the measurement of atmospheric aerosols are evaluated. Remote sensing of aerosols can be done with active and passive instruments. Passive instruments measure radiation emitted by the sun and the Earth while active instruments have their own radiation source, for example a black body radiator or laser. The instruments utilized in these studies were sun photometers (PFR, Cimel), lidars (POLLYXT, CALIOP), transmissiometer (OLAF) and a spectroradiometer (MODIS). Retrieval results from spaceborne instruments (MODIS, CALIOP) were evaluated with ground based measurements (PFR, Cimel). In addition, effects of indicative aerosol model assumptions on the calculated radiative transfer were studied. Finally, aerosol particle mass at the ground level was approximated from satellite measurements and vertical profiles of aerosols measured with a lidar were analyzed. For the evaluation part, these studies show that the calculation of aerosol induced attenuation of radiation based on aerosol size distribution measurements is not a trivial task. In addition to dry aerosol size distribution, the effect of ambient relative humidity on the size distribution and the optical properties of the aerosols need to be known in order to achieve correct results from the calculations. Furthermore, the results suggest that aerosol size parameters retrieved from passive spaceborne measurements depend heavily on surgace reflectance

  7. A Critical Analysis of Preservice Teachers' Efforts to Make Sense of Young Children's Sexual Acts towards Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Turkish early childhood education teacher candidates' efforts to make sense of sexual behaviors of both young girls and boys towards them or their colleagues during their field experience or in their daily experiences with young children. Semi-structured interviews with 13 female teacher candidates revealed that their…

  8. Application of Microwave Remote Sensing to Dynamic Testing of Stay-Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Gentile

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in radar techniques and systems have favoured the development of microwave interferometers, suitable for the non-contact vibration monitoring of large structures. The paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to the measurement of the vibration response in the stay-cables of cable-stayed bridges. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed technique were investigated by comparing the natural frequencies (and the cable tensions predicted from natural frequencies identified from radar data and the corresponding quantities obtained using more conventional techniques. The investigation, carried out on the cables of two different cable-stayed bridges, clearly highlights: (a the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing; (b the simplicity of use of the radar technique (especially when compared with conventional approaches and its effectiveness to simultaneously measuring the dynamic response of all the stay-cables of an array.

  9. Remote Sensing Applications with High Reliability in Changjiang Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Gao, S.; Yang, A.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing technology has been widely used in many fields. But most of the applications cannot get the information with high reliability and high accuracy in large scale, especially for the applications using automatic interpretation methods. We have designed an application-oriented technology system (PIR) composed of a series of accurate interpretation techniques,which can get over 85 % correctness in Water Resource Management from the view of photogrammetry and expert knowledge. The techniques compose of the spatial positioning techniques from the view of photogrammetry, the feature interpretation techniques from the view of expert knowledge, and the rationality analysis techniques from the view of data mining. Each interpreted polygon is accurate enough to be applied to the accuracy sensitive projects, such as the Three Gorge Project and the South - to - North Water Diversion Project. In this paper, we present several remote sensing applications with high reliability in Changjiang Water Resource Management,including water pollution investigation, illegal construction inspection, and water conservation monitoring, etc.

  10. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS WITH HIGH RELIABILITY IN CHANGJIANG WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technology has been widely used in many fields. But most of the applications cannot get the information with high reliability and high accuracy in large scale, especially for the applications using automatic interpretation methods. We have designed an application-oriented technology system (PIR composed of a series of accurate interpretation techniques,which can get over 85 % correctness in Water Resource Management from the view of photogrammetry and expert knowledge. The techniques compose of the spatial positioning techniques from the view of photogrammetry, the feature interpretation techniques from the view of expert knowledge, and the rationality analysis techniques from the view of data mining. Each interpreted polygon is accurate enough to be applied to the accuracy sensitive projects, such as the Three Gorge Project and the South - to - North Water Diversion Project. In this paper, we present several remote sensing applications with high reliability in Changjiang Water Resource Management,including water pollution investigation, illegal construction inspection, and water conservation monitoring, etc.

  11. Hyperspectral remote sensing application for monitoring and preservation of plant ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas; Petrov, Nikolay; Stoev, Antoniy

    Remote sensing technologies have advanced significantly at last decade and have improved the capability to gather information about Earth’s resources and environment. They have many applications in Earth observation, such as mapping and updating land-use and cover, weather forecasting, biodiversity determination, etc. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers unique opportunities in the environmental monitoring and sustainable use of natural resources. Remote sensing sensors on space-based platforms, aircrafts, or on ground, are capable of providing detailed spectral, spatial and temporal information on terrestrial ecosystems. Ground-based sensors are used to record detailed information about the land surface and to create a data base for better characterizing the objects which are being imaged by the other sensors. In this paper some applications of two hyperspectral remote sensing techniques, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, for monitoring and assessment of the effects of adverse environmental conditions on plant ecosystems are presented. The effect of stress factors such as enhanced UV-radiation, acid rain, salinity, viral infections applied to some young plants (potato, pea, tobacco) and trees (plums, apples, paulownia) as well as of some growth regulators were investigated. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm and 600-900 nm), respectively. The differences between the reflectance data of healthy (control) and injured (stressed) plants were assessed by means of statistical (Student’s t-criterion), first derivative, and cluster analysis and calculation of some vegetation indices in four most informative for the investigated species regions: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm). Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the

  12. Handbook on advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems paradigms and applications in forest landscape modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita N

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in remote-sensing and geographic information systems and applications. It is divided into four parts, focusing on Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Optical Measurements of Forests; Individual Tree Modelling; Landscape Scene Modelling; and Forest Eco-system Modelling. Given the scope of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in remote sensing and geographic information systems and applications.

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-52 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services-Certification. 52.222-52 Section 52.222... from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Certification. As... Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Certification (NOV 2007) (a) The offeror shall check the...

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-53 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services-Requirements. 52.222-53 Section 52.222... from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Requirements. As... Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Requirements (FEB 2009) (a) The services under this contract are...

  15. Climate Literacy: STEM and Climate Change Education and Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) is a competitive project to promote climate and Earth system science literacy and seeks to increase the access of underrepresented minority groups to science careers and educational opportunities. A three year funding was received from NASA to partnership with JSU and MSU under cooperative agreement "Strengthening Global Climate Change education through Remote Sensing Application in Coastal Environment using NASA Satellite Data and Models". The goal is to increase the number of highschool and undergraduate students at Jackson State University, a Historically Black University, who are prepared to pursue higher academic degrees and careers in STEM fields. A five Saturday course/workshop was held during March/April 2015 at JSU, focusing on historical and technical concepts of math, enginneering, technology and atmosphere and climate change and remote sensing technology and applications to weather and climate. Nine students from meteorology, biology, industrial technology and computer science/engineering of JSU and 19 high scool students from Jackson Public Schools participated in the course/workshop. The lecture topics include: introduction to remote sensing and GIS, introduction to atmospheric science, math and engineering, climate, introduction to NASA innovations in climate education, introduction to remote sensing technology for bio-geosphere, introduction to earth system science, principles of paleoclimatology and global change, daily weather briefing, satellite image interpretation and so on. In addition to lectures, lab sessions were held for hand-on experiences for remote sensing applications to atmosphere, biosphere, earth system science and climate change using ERDAS/ENVI GIS software and satellite tools. Field trip to Barnett reservoir and National weather Service (NWS) was part of the workshop. Basics of Earth System Science is a non-mathematical introductory course designed for high school seniors, high school

  16. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Càndid Reig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR, from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications.

  17. Adsorption of ethanol on V2O5 (010) surface for gas-sensing applications: Ab initio investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Cui, Mengyang; Ye, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol adsorbed on V 2 O 5 (010) surface was investigated by ab initio calculations. • Ethanol prefers to adsorb on “Hill”-like surface, rather than“Valley”-like region. • Surface O 1(H) site plays a key role to dominate the ethanol adsorption process. • Sensing mechanism is related with electronic structure and electron redistribution. • Gas sensitivity is reflected by quantitative electron population analysis. - Abstract: The adsorption of ethanol on V 2 O 5 (010) surface was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) with a combined generalized gradient approximation (GGA) plus Hubbard U approach to exploit the potential sensing applications. The adsorption configurations were first constructed by considering different orientations of ethanol molecule to V and O sites on the “Hill”- and “Valley”-like regions of corrugated (010) surface. It is found that ethanol molecule can adsorb on whole surface in multiple stable configurations. Nevertheless the molecular adsorption on the “Hill”-like surface is calculated to occur preferentially, and the single coordinated oxygen on “Hill”-like surface (O 1(H) ) acting as the most energetically favorable adsorption site shows the strongest adsorption ability to ethanol molecule. Surface adsorption of ethanol tunes the electronic structure of V 2 O 5 and cause an n-doping effect. As a consequence, the Fermi levels shift toward the conductive bond increasing the charge carrier concentration of electrons in adsorbed V 2 O 5 . The sensitive electronic structure and the multiple stable configurations to ethanol adsorption highlight the high adsorption activity and then the potential of V 2 O 5 (010) surface applied to high sensitive sensor for ethanol vapor detection. Further Mulliken population and Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations quantify the electron transfer from the adsorbed ethanol to the surface, and correlates the adsorption ability of surface sites

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    This summer school was a sequel to the summer school on Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology which was held in Dundee in 1980 and the proceedings of which were published by Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England. At the present summer scnool we concentrated on only part of the subject area that was covered in 1980. Although there was some repetit­ ion of material that was presented in 1980, because by and large we had a new set of participants, most subjects were treated in considerably greater detail than had been possible previously. The major topics covered in the present summer school were (i) the general principles of remote sensing with particular reference to marine applications, (ii) applications to physical oceanography, (iii) marine resources applications and (iv) coastal monitoring and protection. The material contained in this volume represents the written texts of most of the lectures presented at the summer school. One important set of lecture notes was not available; this...

  19. A droplet-based passive force sensor for remote tactile sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baoqing; Yao, Ting; Zhang, Yiqiu; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xinjian

    2018-01-01

    A droplet-based flexible wireless force sensor has been developed for remote tactile-sensing applications. By integration of a droplet-based capacitive sensing unit and two circular planar coils, this inductor-capacitor (LC) passive sensor offers a platform for the mechanical force detection in a wireless transmitting mode. Under external loads, the membrane surface of the sensor deforms the underlying elastic droplet uniformly, introducing a capacitance response in tens of picofarads. The LC circuit transduces the applied force into corresponding variations of its resonance frequency, which is detected by an external electromagnetic coupling coil. Specifically, the liquid droplet features a mechanosensitive plasticity, which results in an increased device sensitivity as high as 2.72 MHz N-1. The high dielectric property of the droplet endows our sensor with high tolerance for noise and large capacitance values (20-40 pF), the highest value in the literature for the LC passive devices in comparable dimensions. It achieves excellent reproducibility under periodical loads ranging from 0 to 1.56 N and temperature fluctuations ranging from 10 °C to 55 °C. As an interesting conceptual demonstration, the flexible device has been configured into a fingertip-amounted setting in a highly compact package (of 11 mm × 11 mm × 0.25 mm) for remote contact force sensing in the table tennis game.

  20. Application of a distributed optical fiber sensing technique in monitoring the stress of precast piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Shi, B; Wei, G Q; Zhang, D; Chen, S E

    2012-01-01

    Due to its ability in providing long distance, distributed sensing, the optical fiber sensing technique based on a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) has a unique advantage in monitoring the stability and safety of linear structures. This paper describes the application of a BOTDR-based technique to measure the stress within precast piles. The principle behind the BOTDR and the embedding technique for the sensing optical fiber in precast piles is first introduced, and then the analysis method and deformation and stress calculation based on distributed strain data are given. Finally, a methodology for using a BOTDR-based monitoring workflow for in situ monitoring of precast piles, combined with a practical example, is introduced. The methodology requires implantation of optical fibers prior to pile placement. Field experimental results show that the optical fiber implantation method with slotting, embedding, pasting and jointing is feasible, and have accurately measured the axial force, side friction, end-bearing resistance and bearing feature of the precast pile according to the strain measuring data. (paper)

  1. Infrared Range Sensor Array for 3D Sensing in Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtae Do

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of multiple infrared range detectors arranged in a two-dimensional (2D array. The proposed system can collect the sparse three-dimensional (3D data of objects and surroundings for robotics applications. Three kinds of tasks are considered using the system: detecting obstacles that lie ahead of a mobile robot, sensing the ground profile for the safe navigation of a mobile robot, and sensing the shape and position of an object on a conveyor belt for pickup by a robot manipulator. The developed system is potentially a simple alternative to high-resolution (and expensive 3D sensing systems, such as stereo cameras or laser scanners. In addition, the system can provide shape information about target objects and surroundings that cannot be obtained using simple ultrasonic sensors. Laboratory prototypes of the system were built with nine infrared range sensors arranged in a 3×3 array and test results confirmed the validity of system.

  2. A wavelet-based regularized reconstruction algorithm for SENSE parallel MRI with applications to neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaari, L.; Pesquet, J.Ch.; Chaari, L.; Ciuciu, Ph.; Benazza-Benyahia, A.

    2011-01-01

    To reduce scanning time and/or improve spatial/temporal resolution in some Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications, parallel MRI acquisition techniques with multiple coils acquisition have emerged since the early 1990's as powerful imaging methods that allow a faster acquisition process. In these techniques, the full FOV image has to be reconstructed from the resulting acquired under sampled k-space data. To this end, several reconstruction techniques have been proposed such as the widely-used Sensitivity Encoding (SENSE) method. However, the reconstructed image generally presents artifacts when perturbations occur in both the measured data and the estimated coil sensitivity profiles. In this paper, we aim at achieving accurate image reconstruction under degraded experimental conditions (low magnetic field and high reduction factor), in which neither the SENSE method nor the Tikhonov regularization in the image domain give convincing results. To this end, we present a novel method for SENSE-based reconstruction which proceeds with regularization in the complex wavelet domain by promoting sparsity. The proposed approach relies on a fast algorithm that enables the minimization of regularized non-differentiable criteria including more general penalties than a classical l 1 term. To further enhance the reconstructed image quality, local convex constraints are added to the regularization process. In vivo human brain experiments carried out on Gradient-Echo (GRE) anatomical and Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) functional MRI data at 1.5 T indicate that our algorithm provides reconstructed images with reduced artifacts for high reduction factors. (authors)

  3. Sensitivity enhancement using annealed polymer optical fibre based sensors for pressure sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pospori, A.; Marques, C. A. F.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    for that investigation was an unexpected behaviour observed in an array of sensors which were used for liquid level monitoring. One sensor exhibited much lower pressure sensitivity and that was the only one that was not annealed. To further investigate the phenomenon, additional sensors were photo...... sensitivity of the devices. This can provide better performing sensors for use in stress, force and pressure sensing applications.......Thermal annealing can be used to induce a permanent negative Bragg wavelength shift for polymer fibre grating sensors and it was originally used for multiplexing purposes. Recently, researchers showed that annealing can also provide additional benefits, such as strain and humidity sensitivity...

  4. Remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions: Mechanism, applications and a case study from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Organ, Bruce; Zhou, John L.; Surawski, Nic C.; Hong, Guang; Chan, Edward F. C.; Yam, Yat Shing

    2018-06-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major contributor to air pollution in cities and have serious health impacts to their inhabitants. On-road remote sensing is an effective and economic tool to monitor and control vehicle emissions. In this review, the mechanism, accuracy, advantages and limitations of remote sensing were introduced. Then the applications and major findings of remote sensing were critically reviewed. It was revealed that the emission distribution of on-road vehicles was highly skewed so that the dirtiest 10% vehicles accounted for over half of the total fleet emissions. Such findings highlighted the importance and effectiveness of using remote sensing for in situ identification of high-emitting vehicles for further inspection and maintenance programs. However, the accuracy and number of vehicles affected by screening programs were greatly dependent on the screening criteria. Remote sensing studies showed that the emissions of gasoline and diesel vehicles were significantly reduced in recent years, with the exception of NOx emissions of diesel vehicles in spite of greatly tightened automotive emission regulations. Thirdly, the experience and issues of using remote sensing for identifying high-emitting vehicles in Hong Kong (where remote sensing is a legislative instrument for enforcement purposes) were reported. That was followed by the first time ever identification and discussion of the issue of frequent false detection of diesel high-emitters using remote sensing. Finally, the challenges and future research directions of on-road remote sensing were elaborated.

  5. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead.

  6. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S; Kim, S C; Schieber, C; Kannam, S; Gunn, N; Moore, S; Scott, D; Bathgate, R; Skafidas, S; Wagner, J M

    2015-05-08

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead.

  7. Grid workflow validation using ontology-based tacit knowledge: A case study for quantitative remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Longli; Xue, Yong; Dong, Jing; Hu, Yingcui; Hill, Richard; Guang, Jie; Li, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval is the ;bridge; between Grid services and Grid-enabled application of remote sensing quantitative retrieval. Workflow averts low-level implementation details of the Grid and hence enables users to focus on higher levels of application. The workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval plays an important role in remote sensing Grid and Cloud computing services, which can support the modelling, construction and implementation of large-scale complicated applications of remote sensing science. The validation of workflow is important in order to support the large-scale sophisticated scientific computation processes with enhanced performance and to minimize potential waste of time and resources. To research the semantic correctness of user-defined workflows, in this paper, we propose a workflow validation method based on tacit knowledge research in the remote sensing domain. We first discuss the remote sensing model and metadata. Through detailed analysis, we then discuss the method of extracting the domain tacit knowledge and expressing the knowledge with ontology. Additionally, we construct the domain ontology with Protégé. Through our experimental study, we verify the validity of this method in two ways, namely data source consistency error validation and parameters matching error validation.

  8. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  9. Sensed fittingness between act and consequence: The last acts of Esther in the book of Esther and Grace in the film Dogville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrie Snyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The book of Esther employs a wisdom theme to develop the plot and its denouement. The particular illustration of wisdom is that of role reversal. Haman, the second in command, gets kicked out and the leaders of those he sought to lock out filled his position. However, the role reversal becomes more than a mere change in status. As Grace needed to step into her gangster father’s shoes in the film Dogville in order to achieve justice, so Esther had to step into Persian shoes to achieve justice. The execution of justice is an untidy and messy affair. The question this article puts on the table is whether Esther acts with justice in her quest for retribution. In answering this question, the article firstly inquires into the narrative rationality of the story and the denouement of the plot. Related to the book of Esther’s narrative rationality, the article examines the question of wisdom from a narrator’s and character’s perspective. Lastly, it will then put the issue of justice on the table with the help of the film Dogville in order to see whether there is a link between wisdom and justice.

  10. In-database processing of a large collection of remote sensing data: applications and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikhtenko, Vladimir; Mamash, Elena; Chubarov, Dmitri; Voronina, Polina

    2016-04-01

    Large archives of remote sensing data are now available to scientists, yet the need to work with individual satellite scenes or product files constrains studies that span a wide temporal range or spatial extent. The resources (storage capacity, computing power and network bandwidth) required for such studies are often beyond the capabilities of individual geoscientists. This problem has been tackled before in remote sensing research and inspired several information systems. Some of them such as NASA Giovanni [1] and Google Earth Engine have already proved their utility for science. Analysis tasks involving large volumes of numerical data are not unique to Earth Sciences. Recent advances in data science are enabled by the development of in-database processing engines that bring processing closer to storage, use declarative query languages to facilitate parallel scalability and provide high-level abstraction of the whole dataset. We build on the idea of bridging the gap between file archives containing remote sensing data and databases by integrating files into relational database as foreign data sources and performing analytical processing inside the database engine. Thereby higher level query language can efficiently address problems of arbitrary size: from accessing the data associated with a specific pixel or a grid cell to complex aggregation over spatial or temporal extents over a large number of individual data files. This approach was implemented using PostgreSQL for a Siberian regional archive of satellite data products holding hundreds of terabytes of measurements from multiple sensors and missions taken over a decade-long span. While preserving the original storage layout and therefore compatibility with existing applications the in-database processing engine provides a toolkit for provisioning remote sensing data in scientific workflows and applications. The use of SQL - a widely used higher level declarative query language - simplifies interoperability

  11. Synthesis and integration of one-dimensional nanostructures for chemical gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthangal, Prahalad Madhavan

    The need for improved measurement technology for the detection and monitoring of gases has increased tremendously for maintenance of domestic and industrial health and safety, environmental surveys, national security, food-processing, medical diagnostics and various other industrial applications. Among the several varieties of gas sensors available in the market, solid-state sensors are the most popular owing to their excellent sensitivity, ruggedness, versatility and low cost. Semiconducting metal oxides such as tin oxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), and tungsten oxide (WO3) are routinely employed as active materials in these sensors. Since their performance is directly linked to the exposed surface area of the sensing material, one-dimensional nanostructures possessing very high surface to volume ratios are attractive candidates for designing the next generation of sensors. Such nano-sensors also enable miniaturization thereby reducing power consumption. The key to achieve success in one-dimensional nanotechnologies lies in assembly. While synthesis techniques and capabilities continue to expand rapidly, progress in controlled assembly has been sluggish due to numerous technical challenges. In this doctoral thesis work, synthesis and characterization of various one-dimensional nanostructures including nanotubes of SnO2, and nanowires of WO3 and ZnO, as well as their direct integration into miniature sensor platforms called microhotplates have been demonstrated. The key highlights of this research include devising elegant strategies for growing metal oxide nanotubes using carbon nanotubes as templates, substantially reducing process temperatures to enable growth of WO3 nanowires on microhotplates, and successfully fabricating a ZnO nanowire array based sensor using a hybrid nanowire-nanoparticle assembly approach. In every process, the gas-sensing properties of one-dimensional nanostructures were observed to be far superior in comparison with thin films of the same

  12. The research of a gyro-stabilized platform and POS application technology in airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Du, Qi

    2009-07-01

    The distortion of the collected images usually takes place since the attitude changes along with the flying aerocraft on airborne remote sensing. In order to get original images without distortion, it is necessary to use professional gyro-stabilized platform. In addition to this, another solution of correcting the original image distortion is to utilize later geometric rectification using position & orientation system ( POS ) data. The third way is to utilize medium-accuracy stabilized platform to control the distortion at a tolerant range, and then make use of the data obtained by high-solution posture measure system to correct the low-quality remote sensing images. The third way which takes advantage of both techniques is better than using only one of the two other ways. This paper introduces several kinds of structural forms of gyro-stabilized platforms, and POS acquiring instruments respectively. Then, the essay will make some analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, key technologies and the application experiment of the third method. After the analysis, the thesis discusses the design of the gyro-stabilized platform. The thesis provides crucial information not only for the application technology of gyro-stabilized platform and POS but also for future development.

  13. Gamma rays shielding and sensing application of some rare earth doped lead-alumino-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    Seven rare earth (Sm3+, Eu3+ and Nd3+) doped lead alumino phosphate glasses were prepared. The protective and sensing measures from gamma rays were analysed in terms of parameters viz. density (ρ), refractive index, energy band gap (Eg), mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number (Zeff) and buildup factors (energy absorption EABF as well as exposure buildup factor EBF). The energy dependent parameters (mfp, Zeff, EABF and EBF) were investigated in the energy region from 15 keV to 15 MeV. EABF and EBF values were observed to be maximum in the intermediate energy region. Besides, the EABF and EBF values for the prepared samples are shown to have strong dependence on chemical composition of the glass at lower energy, whereas, it is almost independent of chemical composition in higher energy region. The prepared glass samples are found to have potential applications in radiation shielding as well as radiation sensing, which further find numerous applications in the field of medicine and industry.

  14. An overview of remote sensing and geodesy for epidemiology and public health application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, S I

    2000-01-01

    The techniques of remote sensing (RS) and geodesy have the potential to revolutionize the discipline of epidemiology and its application in human health. As a new departure from conventional epidemiological methods, these techniques require some detailed explanation. This review provides the theoretical background to RS including (i) its physical basis, (ii) an explanation of the orbital characteristics and specifications of common satellite sensor systems, (iii) details of image acquisition and procedures adopted to overcome inherent sources of data degradation, and (iv) a background to geophysical data preparation. This information allows RS applications in epidemiology to be readily interpreted. Some of the techniques used in geodesy, to locate features precisely on Earth so that they can be registered to satellite sensor-derived images, are also included. While the basic principles relevant to public health are presented here, inevitably many of the details must be left to specialist texts.

  15. Characterization of piezoelectric materials for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing for ultra-low frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad Nouroz; Seethaler, Rudolf; Alam, M Shahria

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used extensively in a number of sensing applications ranging from aerospace industries to medical diagnostics. Piezoelectric materials generate charge when they are subjected to strain. However, since measuring charge is difficult at low frequencies, traditional piezoelectric sensors are limited to dynamic applications. In this research an alternative technique is proposed to determine static strain that relies upon the measurement of piezoelectric capacitance and resistance using piezoelectric sensors. To demonstrate the validity of this approach, the capacitance and resistance of a piezoelectric patch sensor was characterized for a wide range of strain and temperature. The study shows that the piezoelectric capacitance is sensitive to both strain and temperature while the resistance is mostly dependent on the temperature variation. The findings can be implemented to obtain thermally compensated static strain from piezoelectric sensors, which does not require an additional temperature sensor. (paper)

  16. Fe2O3-Au hybrid nanoparticles for sensing applications via sers analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi; Searles, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles with large amounts of surface area and unique characteristics that are distinct from their bulk material provide an interesting application in the enhancement of inelastic scattering signal. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) strives to increase the Raman scattering effect when chemical species of interest are in the close proximity of metallic nnaostructures. Gold nanoparticles of various shapes have been used for sensing applications via SERS as they demonstrate the greatest effect of plasmonic behavior in the visible-near IR region of the spectrum. When coupled with other nanoparticles, namely iron oxide nanoparticles, hybrid structures with increased functionality were produced. Multifunctional iron oxide-gold hybrid nanostructures have been created via solution chemistries and investigated for analyte detection of a model analyte. By exploiting their magnetic properties, nanogaps or “hot spots” were rationally created and evaluated for SERS enhancement studies.

  17. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS. In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  18. EgoSENSE: A Framework for Context-Aware Mobile Applications Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Milic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a context-aware mobile framework (or middleware, intended to support the implementation of context-aware mobile services. The overview of basic concepts, architecture and components of context-aware mobile framework is given. The mobile framework provide acquisition and management of context, where raw data sensed from physical (hardware sensors and virtual (software sensors are combined, processed and analyzed to provide high-level context and situation of the user to the mobile context-aware applications in near real-time. Using demo mobile health application, its most important components and functions, such as these supposed to detect urgent or alarming health conditions of a mobile user and to initiate appropriate actions demonstrated.

  19. High-efficiency VCSEL arrays for illumination and sensing in consumer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seurin, Jean-Francois; Zhou, Delai; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Li, Daizong; Chen, Tong; Guo, Baiming; Ghosh, Chuni

    2016-03-01

    There has been increased interest in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for illumination and sensing in the consumer market, especially for 3D sensing ("gesture recognition") and 3D image capture. For these applications, the typical wavelength range of interest is 830~950nm and power levels vary from a few milli-Watts to several Watts. The devices are operated in short pulse mode (a few nano-seconds) with fast rise and fall times for time-of-flight applications (ToF), or in CW/quasi-CW for structured light applications. In VCSELs, the narrow spectrum and its low temperature dependence allows the use of narrower filters and therefore better signal-to-noise performance, especially for outdoor applications. In portable devices (mobile devices, wearable devices, laptops etc.) the size of the illumination module (VCSEL and optics) is a primary consideration. VCSELs offer a unique benefit compared to other laser sources in that they are "surface-mountable" and can be easily integrated along with other electronics components on a printed circuit board (PCB). A critical concern is the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of the illumination source operating at high temperatures (>50 deg C). We report on various VCSEL based devices and diffuser-integrated modules with high efficiency at high temperatures. Over 40% PCE was achieved in broad temperature range of 0-70 °C for either low power single devices or high power VCSEL arrays, with sub- nano-second rise and fall time. These high power VCSEL arrays show excellent reliability, with extracted mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) of over 500 years at 60 °C ambient temperature and 8W peak output.

  20. Applications of satellite 'hyper-sensing' in Chinese agriculture: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Blackburn, George Alan; Huang, Jingfeng; Kindred, Daniel; Huang, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    Ensuring adequate food supplies to a large and increasing population continues to be the key challenge for China. Given the increasing integration of China within global markets for agricultural products, this issue is of considerable significance for global food security. Over the last 50 years, China has increased the production of its staple crops mainly by increasing yield per unit land area. However, this has largely been achieved through inappropriate agricultural practices, which have caused environmental degradation, with deleterious consequences for future agricultural productivity. Hence, there is now a pressing need to intensify agriculture in China using practices that are environmentally and economically sustainable. Given the dynamic nature of crops over space and time, the use of remote sensing technology has proven to be a valuable asset providing end-users in many countries with information to guide sustainable agricultural practices. Recently, the field has experienced considerable technological advancements reflected in the availability of 'hyper-sensing' (high spectral, spatial and temporal) satellite imagery useful for monitoring, modelling and mapping of agricultural crops. However, there still remains a significant challenge in fully exploiting such technologies for addressing agricultural problems in China. This review paper evaluates the potential contributions of satellite 'hyper-sensing' to agriculture in China and identifies the opportunities and challenges for future work. We perform a critical evaluation of current capabilities in satellite 'hyper-sensing' in agriculture with an emphasis on Chinese sensors. Our analysis draws on a series of in-depth examples based on recent and on-going projects in China that are developing 'hyper-sensing' approaches for (i) measuring crop phenology parameters and predicting yields; (ii) specifying crop fertiliser requirements; (iii) optimising management responses to abiotic and biotic stress in crops

  1. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-01-01

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10 –5 RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism

  2. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A., E-mail: ananthk@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NEMS and Nano Photonics (CNNP), Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India); Experimental Optics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2015-12-21

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10{sup –5} RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  3. Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping

    1994-01-01

    and value of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient. The simulation was tested for a wide range of water types, including waters from Monterey Bay, the West Florida Shelf, and the Mississippi River plume. Using the simulation, the R(sub rs)-derived in-water absorption coefficients were consistent with the values from in-water measurements (r(exp 2) greater than 0.94, slope approximately 1.0). In the remote-sensing applications, a new approach is suggested for the estimation of primary production based on remote sensing. Using this approach, the calculated primary production (PP) values based upon remotely sensed data were very close to the measured values for the euphotic zone (r(exp 2) = 0.95, slope 1.26, and 32% average difference), while traditional, pigment-based PP model provided values only one-third the size of the measured data. This indicates a potential to significantly improve the accuracy of the estimation of primary production based upon remote sensing.

  4. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-12-01

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10-5 RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  5. Defining the Application Readiness of Products when Developing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in Earth Science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of Earth Science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. These applications help hazard mitigation and decision-making in government, private, and civic institutions working to reduce its impact on human wellbeing. Policy guidance and knowledge of product maturity can influence mission design as well as development of product applications in user organizations. Ensuring that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive is a critical outcome from engagement of user communities. Tracking the applications and product maturity help improve the use of data. NASA's Applications Readiness Levels reduce cost and increase the confidence in applications. ARLs help identify areas where NASA products are most useful while allowing the user to leverage products in early development as well as those ready for operational uses. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can use ARLs to ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies and the development of products are integrated into user organizations organically. ARLs and user integration provide a perspective on the maturity and readiness of a products ability to influence policy and decision-making. This paper describes the mission application development process at NASA and within the Earth Science Directorate. We present the successes and challenges faced by NASA data users and explain how ARLs helps link NASA science to the appropriate policies and decision frameworks. The methods presented here can be adapted to other programs and institutions seeking to rapidly move

  6. Dark Fiber and Distributed Acoustic Sensing: Applications to Monitoring Seismicity and Near-Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Dou, S.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Tracy, C.; Monga, I.

    2017-12-01

    "Dark Fiber" refers to the large number of fiber-optic lines installed for telecommunication purposes but not currently utilized. With the advent of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS), these unused fibers have the potential to become a seismic sensing network with unparalleled spatial extent and density with applications to monitoring both natural seismicity as well as near-surface soil properties. While the utility of DAS for seismic monitoring has now been conclusively shown on built-for-purpose networks, dark fiber deployments have been challenged by the heterogeneity of fiber installation procedures in telecommunication as well as access limitations. However, the potential of telecom networks to augment existing broadband monitoring stations provides a strong incentive to explore their utilization. We present preliminary results demonstrating the application of DAS to seismic monitoring on a 20 km run of "dark" telecommunications fiber between West Sacramento, CA and Woodland CA, part of the Dark Fiber Testbed maintained by the DOE's ESnet user facility. We show a small catalog of local and regional earthquakes detected by the array and evaluate fiber coupling by using variations in recorded frequency content. Considering the low density of broadband stations across much of the Sacramento Basin, such DAS recordings could provide a crucial data source to constrain small-magnitude local events. We also demonstrate the application of ambient noise interferometry using DAS-recorded waveforms to estimate soil properties under selected sections of the dark fiber transect; the success of this test suggests that the network could be utilized for environmental monitoring at the basin scale. The combination of these two examples demonstrates the exciting potential for combining DAS with ubiquitous dark fiber to greatly extend the reach of existing seismic monitoring networks.

  7. Porous shaped photonic crystal fiber with strong confinement field in sensing applications: Design and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawrab Chowdhury

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, porous core porous cladding photonic crystal fiber (P-PCF has been proposed for aqueous analytes sensing applications. Guiding properties of the proposed P-PCF has been numerically investigated by utilizing the full vectorial finite element method (FEM. The relative sensitivity and confinement loss are obtained by varying distinct geometrical parameters like the diameter of air holes, a pitch of the core and cladding region over a wider range of wavelength. The proposed P-PCF is organized with five rings air hole in the cladding and two rings air hole in a core territory which maximizes the relative sensitivity expressively and minimizes confinement loss depressively compare with the prior-PCF structures. After completing all investigations, it is also visualized that the relative sensitivity is increasing with the increment of the wavelength of communication band (O + E + S + C + L + U. Higher sensitivity is gained by using higher band for all applied liquids. Finally the investigating effects of different structural parameters of the proposed P-PCF are optimized which shows the sensitivity of 60.57%, 61.45% and 61.82%; the confinement loss of 8.71 × 10−08 dB/m, 1.41 × 10−10 dB/m and 6.51 × 10−10 dB/m for Water (n = 1.33, Ethanol (n = 1.354 and Benzene (n = 1.366 respectively at 1.33 μm wavelength. The optimized P-PCF with higher sensitivity and lower confinement loss has high impact in the area of the chemical as well as gas sensing purposes. Keywords: Porous shaped PCF, Sensitivity, Optical sensing, Liquid sensor, Confinement loss

  8. Implementation of Simple and Functional Web Applications at the Alaska Volcano Observatory Remote Sensing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Web pages are ubiquitous and accessible, but when compared to stand-alone applications they are limited in capability. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) Remote Sensing Group has implemented web pages and supporting server software that provide relatively advanced features to any user able to meet basic requirements. Anyone in the world with access to a modern web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox 1.5 or Internet Explorer 6) and reasonable internet connection can fully use the tools, with no software installation or configuration. This allows faculty, staff and students at AVO to perform many aspects of volcano monitoring from home or the road as easily as from the office. Additionally, AVO collaborators such as the National Weather Service and the Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center are able to use these web tools to quickly assess volcanic events. Capabilities of this web software include (1) ability to obtain accurate measured remote sensing data values on an semi- quantitative compressed image of a large area, (2) to view any data from a wide time range of data swaths, (3) to view many different satellite remote sensing spectral bands and combinations, to adjust color range thresholds, (4) and to export to KML files which are viewable virtual globes such as Google Earth. The technologies behind this implementation are primarily Javascript, PHP, and MySQL which are free to use and well documented, in addition to Terascan, a commercial software package used to extract data from level-0 data files. These technologies will be presented in conjunction with the techniques used to combine them into the final product used by AVO and its collaborators for operational volcanic monitoring.

  9. Application of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Quantitative Evaluation of Crop Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.; Luvall, J.; Rickman, D.; Mask, P.; Wersinger, J.; Sullivan, D.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that thermal infrared emittance (TIR) at the field-scale is largely a function of the integrated crop/soil moisture continuum. Because soil moisture dynamics largely determine crop yields in non-irrigated farming (85 % of Alabama farms are non-irrigated), TIR may be an effective method of mapping within field crop yield variability, and possibly, absolute yields. The ability to map yield variability at juvenile growth stages can lead to improved soil fertility and pest management, as well as facilitating the development of economic forecasting. Researchers at GHCC/MSFC/NASA and Auburn University are currently investigating the role of TIR in site-specific agriculture. Site-specific agriculture (SSA), or precision farming, is a method of crop production in which zones and soils within a field are delineated and managed according to their unique properties. The goal of SSA is to improve farm profits and reduce environmental impacts through targeted agrochemical applications. The foundation of SSA depends upon the spatial and temporal characterization of soil and crop properties through the creation of management zones. Management zones can be delineated using: 1) remote sensing (RS) data, 2) conventional soil testing and soil mapping, and 3) yield mapping. Portions of this research have concentrated on using remote sensing data to map yield variability in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) crops. Remote sensing data have been collected for several fields in the Tennessee Valley region at various crop growth stages during the last four growing seasons. Preliminary results of this study will be presented.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  11. Mechanical characterization of bucky gel morphing nanocomposite for actuating/sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Ali Kadkhoda; Woldesenbet, Eyassu; Jin, Yoonyoung

    2012-01-01

    Since the demonstration of the bucky gel actuator (BGA) in 2005, a great deal of effort has been exerted to develop novel applications for this electro-active morphing nanocomposite. This three-layered bimorph nanocomposite can be easily fabricated, operated in air and driven with a few volts. The BGA with improved mechanical strength is an excellent candidate for application in macro- to micro-scale smart structures with actuating and sensing capabilities. However, developing new applications requires identifying and understanding the effective design parameters and mechanical properties, respectively. There has been limited published studies on the mechanical properties of BGA. In this study, the effect of three parameters—layer thickness, carbon nanotube type and weight fraction of components—on the mechanical properties was investigated. Samples were characterized via nano-indentation and DMA. The BGA composed of 22 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes and 45 wt% ionic liquid exhibited the highest hardness, adhesion, viscosity, and elastic and storage moduli. This study revealed the important role of the carbon nanotube type on BGA adhesion. Samples made with multi-walled carbon nanotubes had the lowest adhesion, which is a required factor in applications such as microfluidics. (paper)

  12. Stratospheric platforms: a novel technological support for Earth observation and remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Fabio; Lo Presti, Letizia; Magli, Enrico; Mulassano, Paolo; Olmo, Gabriella

    2001-12-01

    The international community agrees that the new technology based on the use of Unmanned Air Vehicles High Altitude Very long Endurance (UAV-HAVE) could play an important role for the development of remote sensing and telecommunication applications. A UAV-HAVE vehicle can be described as a low- cost flying infrastructure (compared with satellites) optimized for long endurance operations at an altitude of about 20 km. Due to such features, its role is similar to satellites, with the major advantages of being less expensive, more flexible, movable on demand, and suitable for a larger class of applications. According to this background, Politecnico di Torino is involved as coordinator in an important project named HeliNet, that represent one of the main activities in Europe in the field of stratospheric platforms, and is concerned with the development of a network of UAV-HAVE aircraft. A key point of this project is the feasibility study for the provision of several services, namely traffic monitoring, environmental surveillance, broadband communications and navigation. This paper reports preliminary results on the HeliNet imaging system and its remote sensing applications. In fact, many environmental surveillance services (e.g. regional public services for agriculture, hydrology, fire protection, and more) require very high-resolution imaging, and can be offered at a lower cost if operated by a shared platform. The philosophy behind the HeliNet project seems to be particularly suitable to manage such missions. In particular, we present a system- level study of possible imaging payloads to be mounted on- board of a stratospheric platform to collect Earth observation data. Firstly, we address optical payloads such as multispectral and/or hyperspectral ones, which are a very short-term objective of the project. Secondly, as an example of mid-term on-board payload, we examine the possibility to carry on the platform a light-SAR system. For both types of payload, we show

  13. Recent advances in intracellular and in vivo ROS sensing: focus on nanoparticle and nanotube applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Larissa M; Hempel, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly being implicated in the regulation of cellular signaling cascades. Intracellular ROS fluxes are associated with cellular function ranging from proliferation to cell death. Moreover, the importance of subtle, spatio-temporal shifts in ROS during localized cellular signaling events is being realized. Understanding the biochemical nature of the ROS involved will enhance our knowledge of redox-signaling. An ideal intracellular sensor should therefore resolve real-time, localized ROS changes, be highly sensitive to physiologically relevant shifts in ROS and provide specificity towards a particular molecule. For in vivo applications issues such as bioavailability of the probe, tissue penetrance of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio also need to be considered. In the past researchers have heavily relied on the use of ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes and, more recently, genetically engineered ROS sensors. However, there is a great need to improve on current methods to address the above issues. Recently, the field of molecular sensing and imaging has begun to take advantage of the unique physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles and nanotubes. Here we discuss the recent advances in the use of these nanostructures as alternative platforms for ROS sensing, with particular emphasis on intracellular and in vivo ROS detection and quantification.

  14. High Performance Infrared Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers and Their Applications to Thin-film Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2016-04-07

    Plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (PMAs) have attracted considerable attention for developing various sensing devices. In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize PMAs of different geometrical shapes operating in mid-infrared frequencies, and explore the applications of the PMAs as sensor for thin films. The PMAs, consisting of metal-insulator-metal stacks with patterned gold nanostructured surfaces (resonators), demonstrated high absorption efficiency (87 to 98 %) of electromagnetic waves in the infrared regime. The position and efficiency of resonance absorption are dependent on the shape of the resonators. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength of PMAs was sensitive to the thin film coated on the surface of the PMAs, which was tested using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as the film. With increase of the Al2O3 thickness, the position of resonance absorption shifted to longer wavelengths. The dependence of the resonant wavelength on thin film thickness makes PMAs a suitable candidate as a sensor for thin films. Using this sensing strategy, PMAs have potential as a new method for thin film detection and in situ monitoring of surface reactions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  15. A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2012-09-30

    A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.

  16. Light Manipulation in Inhomogeneous Liquid Flow and Its Application in Biochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Zuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Light manipulation has always been the fundamental subject in the field of optics since centuries ago. Traditional optical devices are usually designed using glasses and other materials, such as semiconductors and metals. Optofluidics is the combination of microfluidics and optics, which brings a host of new advantages to conventional solid systems. The capabilities of light manipulation and biochemical sensing are inherent alongside the emergence of optofluidics. This new research area promotes advancements in optics, biology, and chemistry. The development of fast, accurate, low-cost, and small-sized biochemical micro-sensors is an urgent demand for real-time monitoring. However, the fluid flow in the on-chip sensor is usually non-uniformed, which is a new and emerging challenge for the accuracy of optical detection. It is significant to reveal the principle of light propagation in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and the interaction between biochemical samples and light in flowing liquids. In this review, we summarize the current state of optofluidic lab-on-a-chip techniques from the perspective of light modulation by the unique dynamic properties of fluid in heterogeneous media, such as diffusion, heat transfer, and centrifugation etc. Furthermore, this review introduces several novel photonic phenomena in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and demonstrates their application in biochemical sensing.

  17. A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Mobeen, M. Kashan; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.

  18. Microwave-heating synthesis and sensing applications of bright gold nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ding-Fei; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Xu [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: yxf@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish a microwave-heating method to synthesize protein-stabilized Au nanoclusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained Au nanoclusters show bright red fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Au nanoclusters can be used as efficient fluorescence probe for Cu{sup 2+} ion sensing. -- Abstract: A rapid microwave-heating method has been developed for the synthesis of bright Au nanoclusters by using bull serum albumin as the template in an aqueous environment. The reaction time needed is only 7.0 min, and the weight of the products at one batch can reach 15 g. The Au nanoclusters exhibit bright fluorescence at {approx}613 nm with quantum yield of {approx}6.0%. By adjusting the pH value, the products can be controlled to precipitate or re-disperse in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the Au nanoclusters have exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity in the determination of Cu{sup 2+} ions in water. These results suggest an efficient method for obtaining metal nanoclusters for the detection and sensing applications.

  19. New faces of porous Prussian blue: interfacial assembly of integrated hetero-structures for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Biao; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-11-21

    Prussian blue (PB), the oldest synthetic coordination compound, is a classic and fascinating transition metal coordination material. Prussian blue is based on a three-dimensional (3-D) cubic polymeric porous network consisting of alternating ferric and ferrous ions, which provides facile assembly as well as precise interaction with active sites at functional interfaces. A fundamental understanding of the assembly mechanism of PB hetero-interfaces is essential to enable the full potential applications of PB crystals, including chemical sensing, catalysis, gas storage, drug delivery and electronic displays. Developing controlled assembly methods towards functionally integrated hetero-interfaces with adjustable sizes and morphology of PB crystals is necessary. A key point in the functional interface and device integration of PB nanocrystals is the fabrication of hetero-interfaces in a well-defined and oriented fashion on given substrates. This review will bring together these key aspects of the hetero-interfaces of PB nanocrystals, ranging from structure and properties, interfacial assembly strategies, to integrated hetero-structures for diverse sensing.

  20. The application of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology in the FAST project construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing application in Five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) project is to dynamically record the construction process with high resolution image, monitor the environmental impact, and provide services for local environmental protection and the reserve immigrants. This paper introduces the use of UAV remote sensing system and the course design and implementation for the FAST site. Through the analysis of the time series data, we found that: (1) since the year 2012, the project has been widely carried out; (2) till 2013, the internal project begun to take shape;(3) engineering excavation scope was kept stable in 2014, and the initial scale of the FAST engineering construction has emerged as in the meantime, the vegetation recovery went well on the bare soil area; (4) in 2015, none environmental problems caused by engineering construction and other engineering geological disaster were found in the work area through the image interpretation of UAV images. This paper also suggested that the UAV technology need some improvements to fulfill the requirements of surveying and mapping specification., including a new data acquisition and processing measures assigned with the background of highly diverse elevation, usage of telephoto camera, hierarchical photography with different flying height, and adjustment with terrain using the joint empty three settlement method.

  1. High Performance Infrared Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers and Their Applications to Thin-film Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yang; Han, Jiaguang; Li, Jingqi; Guo, Zaibing; Tan, Hua; Zhang, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (PMAs) have attracted considerable attention for developing various sensing devices. In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize PMAs of different geometrical shapes operating in mid-infrared frequencies, and explore the applications of the PMAs as sensor for thin films. The PMAs, consisting of metal-insulator-metal stacks with patterned gold nanostructured surfaces (resonators), demonstrated high absorption efficiency (87 to 98 %) of electromagnetic waves in the infrared regime. The position and efficiency of resonance absorption are dependent on the shape of the resonators. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength of PMAs was sensitive to the thin film coated on the surface of the PMAs, which was tested using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as the film. With increase of the Al2O3 thickness, the position of resonance absorption shifted to longer wavelengths. The dependence of the resonant wavelength on thin film thickness makes PMAs a suitable candidate as a sensor for thin films. Using this sensing strategy, PMAs have potential as a new method for thin film detection and in situ monitoring of surface reactions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  2. One pot synthesis of dandelion-like polyaniline coated gold nanoparticles composites for electrochemical sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Dai, Wanlin; Liu, Baichen; Mo, Guangquan; Zhang, Junjun; Ye, Jiaping; Ye, Jianshan

    2018-04-18

    In this work, we report a facile and green strategy for one pot and in-situ synthesis of a dandelion-like conductive polyaniline coated gold nanoparticle nanocomposites (Au@PANI). The Au@PANI was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA, FTIR, UV-vis and conductivity measurement, respectively. Newly-designed Au@PANI materials possessed a significantly high conductivity and strong adsorption capability. Thus, the Au@PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was utilized for construct a novel electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous assay of Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Under the optimized conditions, an excellent electrochemical response in the simultaneous of Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ with detection limit of 0.003 and 0.008 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. Moreover, the prepared sensors realized an excellent reproducibility, repeatability and long term stability, as well as reliable practical assays in real water samples. Besides, the possible formation mechanism and sensing mechanism of Au@PANI nanocomposites have been discussed in detail. We believe this study provides a novel method of fabrication of noble metal nanoparticles decorated conducting polymer materials for the electrochemical sensing applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Damping of surface waves due to oil emulsions in application to ocean remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, I.; Ermakov, S.; Lazareva, T.; Lavrova, O.

    2017-10-01

    Applications of different radar and optical methods for detection of oil pollutions based on the effect of damping of short wind waves by surface films have been extensively studied last decades. The main problem here is poor knowledge of physical characteristics of oil films, in particular, emulsified oil layers (EOL). The latter are ranged up to 70% of all pollutants. Physical characteristics of EOL which are responsible for wave damping and respectively for possibilities of their remote sensing depend on conditions of emulsification processes, e.g., mixing due to wave breaking, on percentage of water in the oil, etc. and are not well studied by now. In this paper results of laboratory studies of damping of gravity-capillary waves due to EOL on water are presented and compared to oil layers (OL). A laboratory method used previously for monomolecular films and OL, and based on measuring the damping coefficient and wavelength of parametrically generated standing waves has been applied for determination of EOL characteristics. Investigations of characteristics of crude oil, oil emulsions and crude OL and EOL have been carried out in a wide range of surface wave frequencies (from 10 to 25 Hz) and OL and EOL film thickness (from hundredths of millimeter to a few millimeters. The selected frequency range corresponds to Bragg waves for microwave, X- to Ka-band radars typically used for ocean remote sensing. An effect of enhanced wave damping due to EOL compared to non emulsified crude OL is revealed.

  4. Microwave Metamaterial Absorber for Non-Destructive Sensing Applications of Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies with significant sensitivity and non-destructive sensing capability for grain samples. This absorber is composed of cross-resonators periodically arranged on an ultrathin substrate, a sensing layer filled with grain samples, and a metal ground. The cross-resonator array is fabricated using the printed circuit board process on an FR-4 board. The performance of the proposed metamaterial is demonstrated with both full-wave simulation and measurement results, and the working mechanism is revealed through multi-reflection interference theory. It can serve as a non-contact sensor for food quality control such as adulteration, variety, etc. by detecting shifts in the resonant frequencies. As a direct application, it is shown that the resonant frequency displays a significant blue shift from 7.11 GHz to 7.52 GHz when the mass fraction of stale rice in the mixture of fresh and stale rice is changed from 0% to 100%. In addition, the absorber shows a distinct difference in the resonant absorption frequency for different varieties of grain, which also makes it a candidate for a grain classification sensor. The presented scheme could open up opportunities for microwave metamaterial absorbers to be applied as efficient sensors in the non-destructive evaluation of agricultural and food product quality.

  5. Individual hollow and mesoporous aero-graphitic microtube based devices for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Oleg; Postica, Vasile; Marx, Janik; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    In this work, individual hollow and mesoporous graphitic microtubes were integrated into electronic devices using a FIB/SEM system and were investigated as gas and vapor sensors by applying different bias voltages (in the range of 10 mV-1 V). By increasing the bias voltage, a slight current enhancement is observed, which is mainly attributed to the self-heating effect. A different behavior of ammonia NH3 vapor sensing by increasing the applied bias voltage for hollow and mesoporous microtubes with diameters down to 300 nm is reported. In the case of the hollow microtube, an increase in the response was observed, while a reverse effect has been noticed for the mesoporous microtube. It might be explained on the basis of the higher specific surface area (SSA) of the mesoporous microtube compared to the hollow one. Thus, at room temperature when the surface chemical reaction rate (k) prevails on the gas diffusion rate (DK) the structures with a larger SSA possess a higher response. By increasing the bias voltage, i.e., the overall temperature of the structure, DK becomes a limiting step in the gas response. Therefore, at higher bias voltages the larger pores will facilitate an enhanced gas diffusion, i.e., a higher gas response. The present study demonstrates the importance of the material porosity towards gas sensing applications.

  6. RABA Members Act in Distinct Steps of Subcellular Trafficking of the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 Receptor[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-won; Tamaki, Takayuki; Ebine, Kazuo; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface proteins play critical roles in the perception of environmental stimuli at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuing signal transduction. Intracellular localization of such proteins must be strictly regulated, which requires elaborate integration of exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways. Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), a receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, also depends on membrane trafficking. However, our understanding about the mechanisms involved is still limited. In this study, we visualized ligand-induced endocytosis of FLS2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FLS2 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Upon treatment with the flg22 peptide, internalized FLS2-GFP from the PM was transported to a compartment with properties intermediate between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the multivesicular endosome. This compartment gradually discarded the TGN characteristics as it continued along the trafficking pathway. We further found that FLS2 endocytosis involves distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroups at different steps. Moreover, we demonstrated that transport of de novo–synthesized FLS2 to the PM also involves a distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroup. Our results demonstrate the complex regulatory system for properly localizing FLS2 and functional differentiation in RABA members in endo- and exocytosis. PMID:23532067

  7. Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Daniela Rodica [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation is represented by the versatility of mesoporous silica nanomaterials in various applications such as catalysis and bio-applications, with main focus on biological applications of Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (MSN). The metamorphosis that we impose to these materials from catalysis to sensing and to drug and gene delivery is detailed in this dissertation. First, we developed a synthetic method that can fine tune the amount of chemically accessible organic functional groups on the pores surface of MSN by exploiting electrostatic and size matching between the cationic alkylammonium head group of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant and various anionic organoalkoxysilane precursors at the micelle-water interface in a base-catalyzed condensation reaction of silicate. Aiming nature imitation, we demonstrated the catalytic abilities of the MSNs, We utilized an ethylenediamine functional group for chelating Cu2+ as a catalytic functional group anchored inside the mesopores. Thus, a polyalkynylene-based conducting polymer (molecular wire) was synthesized within the Cu-functionalized MSNs silica catalyst. For sensing applications, we have synthesized a poly(lactic acid) coated mesoporous silica nanosphere (PLA-MSN) material that serves as a fluorescence sensor system for detection of amino-containing neurotransmitters in neutral aqueous buffer. We exploited the mesoporosity of MSNs for encapsulating pharmaceutical drugs. We examined bio-friendly capping molecules such as polyamidoamine dendrimers of generations G2 to G4, to prevent the drug leaching. Next, the drug delivery system employed MSNs loaded with Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug. The results demonstrated that these nano-Trojan horses have ability to deliver Doxorubicin to cancer cells and induce their death. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of MSN as an universal cellular transmembrane nanovehicle, we anchored positively charged dendrimers on

  8. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  9. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  10. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  11. Multiple Sensing Application on Wireless Sensor Network Simulation using NS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, I. F.; Bisma, R.

    2018-01-01

    Hardware enhancement provides opportunity to install various sensor device on single monitoring node which then enables users to acquire multiple data simultaneously. Constructing multiple sensing application in NS3 is a challenging task since numbers of aspects such as wireless communication, packet transmission pattern, and energy model must be taken into account. Despite of numerous types of monitoring data available, this study only considers two types such as periodic, and event-based data. Periodical data will generate monitoring data follows configured interval, while event-based transmit data when certain determined condition is met. Therefore, this study attempts to cover mentioned aspects in NS3. Several simulations are performed with different number of nodes on arbitrary communication scheme.

  12. The vectorial photoelectric effect under solar irradiance and its application to sun sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Ziegler, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Sun sensors are an integral part of the attitude and orbit control system onboard almost any spacecraft. While the majority of standard analogue sun sensors is based on photo-detectors which produce photo-currents proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle (cosine detectors), we propose an alternative scheme where the vectorial photoelectric effect is exploited to achieve a higher sensitivity of the sensed photo-current to the incidence angle. The vectorial photo-effect is investigated in detail for metal cathode detectors in a space environment. Besides long operational lifetimes without significant degradation, metal cathode detectors are insensitive to earth albedo, which may significantly reduce the errors affecting attitude measurements in low earth orbits. Sensitivity curves are calculated and trade-offs performed with the aim of optimizing the sensitivity whilst also providing currents sufficient for detection. Simple applications and detector configurations are also discussed and compared to the existing designs. (paper)

  13. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  14. Characterization of silver-gallium nanowires for force and mass sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, Laura B; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Tung, Ryan C; Raman, Arvind; Yazdanpanah, Mehdi M; Cohn, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the mechanical properties of cantilevered silver-gallium (Ag 2 Ga) nanowires using laser Doppler vibrometry. From measurements of the resonant frequencies and associated operating deflection shapes, we demonstrate that these Ag 2 Ga nanowires behave as ideal Euler-Bernoulli beams. Furthermore, radial asymmetries in these nanowires are detected through high resolution measurements of the vibration spectra. These crystalline nanowires possess many ideal characteristics for nanoscale force and mass sensing, including small spring constants (as low as 10 -4 N m -1 ), high frequency bandwidth with resonance frequencies in the 0.02-10 MHz range, small suspended mass (picograms), and relatively high Q-factors (∼2-50) under ambient conditions. We evaluate the utility of Ag 2 Ga nanowires for nanocantilever applications, including ultrasmall mass and high frequency bandwidth piconewton force detection.

  15. Application of remote sensing methods and GIS in erosive process investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geomorphologic investigations of condition and change of the intensity of erosive process should be based on application of remote sensing methods which are based on processing of aerial and satellite photographs. Using of these methods is very important because it enables good possibilities for realizing regional relations of the investigated phenomenon, as well as the estimate of spatial and temporal variability of all physical-geographical and anthropogenic factors influencing given process. Realizing process of land erosion, on the whole, is only possible by creating universal data base, as well as by using of appropriate software, more exactly by establishing uniform information system. Geographical information system, as the most effective one, the most complex and the most integral system of information about the space enables unification as well as analytical and synthetically processing of all data.

  16. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R; Whitley, Jessica L; Sapsford, Kim E; Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E

    2008-01-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications

  17. Superior selectivity and sensitivity of blue phosphorus nanotubes in gas sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2017-05-23

    On the basis of first principles calculations, we study the adsorption of CO, CO2, NH3, NO, and NO2 molecules on armchair and zigzag blue phosphorus nanotubes. The nanotubes are found to surpass the gas sensing performance of other one-dimensional materials, in particular Si nanowires and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene, phosphorene, and MoS2. Investigation of the energetics of the gas adsorption and induced charge transfers indicates that blue phosphorus nanotubes are highly sensitive to N-based molecules, in particular NO2, due to covalent bonding. The current–voltage characteristics of nanotubes connected to Au electrodes are derived by the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism and used to quantitatively evaluate the change in resistivity upon gas adsorption. The observed selectivity and sensitivity properties make blue phosphorus nanotubes superior gas sensors for a wide range of applications.

  18. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content

  19. Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins influence a broad spectrum of biological processes including cell-cell interaction, host-pathogen interaction, or protection of proteins against proteolytic degradation. The analysis of their glyco-structures and concentration levels are increasingly important in diagnosis and proteomics. Boronic acids can covalently react with cis-diols in the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins to form five- or six-membered cyclic esters. Based on this interaction, boronic acid-based ligands and materials have attracted much attention in both chemistry and biology as the recognition motif for enrichment and chemo/biosensing of glycoproteins in recent years. In this work, we reviewed the progress in the separation, immobilization and detection of glycoproteins with boronic acid-functionalized materials and addressed its application in sensing.

  20. Nanoparticles for Protein Sensing in Primary Containers: Interaction Analysis and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Medina Martínez, Víctor; Espinosa-de la Garza, Carlos E; Méndez-Silva, Diego A; Bolívar-Vichido, Mariana; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Pérez, Néstor O

    2018-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to interact with proteins, leading to modifications of the plasmonic absorption that can be used to monitor this interaction, entailing a promising application for sensing adsorption of therapeutic proteins in primary containers. First, transmission electron microscopy in combination with plasmonic absorption and light scattering responses were used to characterize AgNPs and protein-AgNP complexes, including its concentration dependence, using two therapeutic molecules as models: a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a synthetic copolymer (SC). Upon interaction, a protein corona was formed around AgNPs with the consequent shifting and broadening of their characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band (400 nm) to 410 nm and longer wavelenghts. Additional studies revealed secondary and three-dimensional structure modifications of model proteins upon interaction with AgNPs by circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques, respectively. Based on the modification of the SPR condition of AgNPs upon interaction with proteins, we developed a novel protein-sensing application of AgNPs in primary containers. This strategy was used to conduct a compatibility assessment of model proteins towards five commercially available prefillable glass syringe (PFS) models. mAb- and SC-exposed PFSs showed that 74 and 94% of cases were positive for protein adsorption, respectively. Interestingly, protein adsorption on 15% of total tested PFSs was negligible (below the nanogram level). Our results highlight the need of a case-by-case compatibility assessment of therapeutic proteins and their primary containers. This strategy has the potential to be easily applied on other containers and implemented during early-stage product development by pharmaceutical companies and for routine use during batch release by packaging manufacturers.

  1. Best Practices for the Application of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Operator State Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Hylton, Alan G.; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuronal measurement technique with many advantages for application in operational and training contexts. Instrumentation and protocol improvements, however, are required to obtain useful signals and produce expeditiously self-applicable, comfortable and unobtrusive headgear. Approaches for improving the validity and reliability of fNIRS data for the purpose of sensing the mental state of commercial aircraft operators are identified, and an exemplary system design for attentional state monitoring is outlined. Intelligent flight decks of the future can be responsive to state changes to optimally support human performance. Thus, the identification of cognitive performance decrement, such as lapses in operator attention, may be used to predict and avoid error-prone states. We propose that attentional performance may be monitored with fNIRS through the quantification of hemodynamic activations in cortical regions which are part of functionally-connected attention and resting state networks. Activations in these regions have been shown to correlate with behavioral performance and task engagement. These regions lie beneath superficial tissue in head regions beyond the forehead. Headgear development is key to reliably and robustly accessing locations beyond the hair line to measure functionally-connected networks across the whole head. Human subject trials using both fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) will be used to test this system. Data processing employs Support Vector Machines for state classification based on the fNIRS signals. If accurate state classification is achieved based on sensed activation patterns, fNIRS will be shown to be useful for monitoring attentional performance.

  2. Slow-light enhanced absorption for bio-chemical sensing applications: potential of low-contrast lossy materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    Slow-light enhanced absorption in liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals has recently been proposed as a route to compensate for the reduced optical path in typical lab-on-a-chip systems for bio-chemical sensing applications. A simple perturbative expression has been applied to ideal structures...... composed of lossless dielectrics. In this work we study the enhancement in structures composed of lossy dielectrics such as a polymer. For this particular sensing application we find that the material loss has an unexpected limited drawback and surprisingly, it may even add to increase the bandwidth...

  3. Organic fluorescent dye-based nanomaterials: Advances in the rational design for imaging and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechkarev, Denis; Mohs, Aaron M

    2018-02-25

    Self-assembled fluorescent nanomaterials based on small-molecule organic dyes are gaining increasing popularity in imaging and sensing applications over the past decade. This is primarily due to their ability to combine spectral property tunability and biocompatibility of small molecule organic fluorophores with brightness, chemical, and colloidal stability of inorganic materials. Such a unique combination of features comes with rich versatility of dye-based nanomaterials: from aggregates of small molecules to sophisticated core-shell nanoarchitectures involving hyperbranched polymers. Along with the ongoing discovery of new materials and better ways of their synthesis, it is very important to continue systematic studies of fundamental factors that regulate the key properties of fluorescent nanomaterials: their size, polydispersity, colloidal stability, chemical stability, absorption and emission maxima, biocompatibility, and interactions with biological interfaces. In this review, we focus on the systematic description of various types of organic fluorescent nanomaterials, approaches to their synthesis, and ways to optimize and control their characteristics. The discussion is built on examples from reports on recent advances in design and applications of such materials. Conclusions made from this analysis allow a perspective on future development of fluorescent nanomaterials design for biomedical and related applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. 76 FR 28426 - Applications for New Awards; Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as Amended (AT Act)-National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... resources; and (11) The level of customer satisfaction with the services provided; and (d) Help measure the... and referrals provided under section 4(e)(2)(D) of the AT Act, and an analysis of individuals with disabilities who have benefited from the demonstrations and referrals; (6)(i) The number and general...

  5. Self-assembled micro-/nanostructured WO3 thin films by aqueous chemical growth and their applications in H2 and CO2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, B. T.; Nkosi, S. S.; Nkosi, M. M.; Coetsee-Hugo, E.; Swart, H. C.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    Application of thin film technology is increasing in many areas such as energy production, energy saving, telecommunications, protective and smart coatings, etc. This increased application creates a need for simple, cost-effective methods for the synthesis of highly multifunctional metal oxide thin films. The technique of Aqueous Chemical Growth is presented in this paper as a simple inexpensive means of producing WO3 thin films that find applications in gas sensing, electrochromism and photocatalysis. We demonstrate, through this technique, that heterogeneous nucleation and growth of WO3 thin films on plain glass substrates takes place at low pHs and low temperatures (75-95 °C) without the use of surfactants and template directing methods. The substrates used needed no surface-modification. On the plain glass substrates (soda lime silicates) a variety of micro-nanostructures could be observed most important of which were nanoplatelets that acted as a basic building block for the self-assembly of more hierarchical 3-d microspheres and thin films. The dominant crystallographic structure observed through X-ray diffraction analysis was found to be hexagonal-WO3 and monoclinic WO3. The thin films produced showed a fair degree of porosity. Some of the thin films on glass showed ability to sense, unaided, H2 at 250 °C. Sensor responses were observed to be 1 - 2 orders of magnitude. The films also demonstrated potential to sense CO2 even though this could only be achieved using high concentrations of CO2 gas at temperatures of 300 °C and above. The sensor responses at 300 °C were estimated to be less than 1 order of magnitude.

  6. Applications of a Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Laser in Gas Sensing Research

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-05-01

    Laser absorption based sensors are extensively used in a variety of gas sensing areas such as combustion, atmospheric research, human breath analysis, and high resolution infrared spectroscopy. Quantum cascade lasers have recently emerged as high resolution, high power laser sources operating in mid infrared region and can have wide tunability range. These devices provide an opportunity to access stronger fundamental and combination vibrational bands located in mid infrared region than previously accessible weaker overtone vibrational bands located in near infrared region. Spectroscopic region near 8 µm contains strong vibrational bands of methane, acetylene, hydrogen peroxide, water vapor and nitrous oxide. These molecules have important applications in a wide range of applications. This thesis presents studies pertaining to spectroscopy and combustion applications. Advancements in combustion research are imperative to achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency in practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and engines. Accurate chemical kinetic models are critical to achieve predictive models which contain several thousand reactions and hundreds of species. These models need highly reliable experimental data for validation and improvements. Shock tubes are ideal devices to obtain such information. A shock tube is a homogenous, nearly constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic and 0-D reactor. In combination with laser absorption sensors, shock tubes can be used to measure reaction rates and species time histories of several intermediates and products formed during pyrolysis and oxidation of fuels. This work describes measurement of the decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide which is an important intermediate species controlling reactivity of combustion system in the intermediate temperature range. Spectroscopic parameters (linestrengths, broadening coefficients and temperature dependent coefficients) are determined for various transitions of

  7. 78 FR 57180 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the... up to 20 Emperor penguin carcasses on Snow Hill Island. The applicant is working in collaboration...

  8. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic Distributed Simultaneous Vibration and Temperature Sensing Technology and Its Geophysical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Potter, David K

    2017-11-01

    Distributed sensing systems can transform an optical fiber cable into an array of sensors, allowing users to detect and monitor multiple physical parameters such as temperature, vibration and strain with fine spatial and temporal resolution over a long distance. Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems have been developed for various applications with varied spatial resolution, and spectral and sensing range. Rayleigh scattering-based phase optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for vibration and Raman/Brillouin scattering-based OTDR for temperature and strain measurements have been developed over the past two decades. The key challenge has been to find a methodology that would enable the physical parameters to be determined at any point along the sensing fiber with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, yet within acceptable frequency range for dynamic vibration, and temperature detection. There are many applications, especially in geophysical and mining engineering where simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature are essential. In this article, recent developments of different hybrid systems for simultaneous vibration, temperature and strain measurements are analyzed based on their operation principles and performance. Then, challenges and limitations of the systems are highlighted for geophysical applications.

  9. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic Distributed Simultaneous Vibration and Temperature Sensing Technology and Its Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Miah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed sensing systems can transform an optical fiber cable into an array of sensors, allowing users to detect and monitor multiple physical parameters such as temperature, vibration and strain with fine spatial and temporal resolution over a long distance. Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS and distributed temperature sensing (DTS systems have been developed for various applications with varied spatial resolution, and spectral and sensing range. Rayleigh scattering-based phase optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR for vibration and Raman/Brillouin scattering-based OTDR for temperature and strain measurements have been developed over the past two decades. The key challenge has been to find a methodology that would enable the physical parameters to be determined at any point along the sensing fiber with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, yet within acceptable frequency range for dynamic vibration, and temperature detection. There are many applications, especially in geophysical and mining engineering where simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature are essential. In this article, recent developments of different hybrid systems for simultaneous vibration, temperature and strain measurements are analyzed based on their operation principles and performance. Then, challenges and limitations of the systems are highlighted for geophysical applications.

  10. Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer on the end facet of multicore fiber for refractive index sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanwen; Zhang, Siyao; Feng, Shengfei; Wang, Xinke; Sun, Wenfeng; Ye, Jiasheng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    A sensitive, real-time seven core optical fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensor for liquid refractive index detection is proposed, fabricated and characterized. A trapezoid body with an inverted wedge shape groove in the center is used to design the MZI. The two ends of the trapezoid body play the roles of micro-prisms, and the middle parts of the trapezoid body and the groove play the roles of reference and sensing arms. A series of performance tests were carried out by immersing the sensor in different kinds of solutions to verify the universal applicability of the sensor. The MZI sensor is as small as only 43 μm × 8 μm, and at the same time with sensitivity of 1616 nm/RIU. Nominally, we realized a completely integrated optical sensing system. And, this system actually could be the building block of more powerful integrated chemical sensing chip for health, security and industry application.

  11. On Heterogeneity in Mobile Sensing Applications Aiming at Representative Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Franke, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Gathering representative data using mobile sensing to answer research questions is becoming increasingly popular, driven by growing ubiquity and sensing capabilities of mobile devices. However, there are pitfalls along this path, which introduce heterogeneity in the gathered data, and which...... on collective, mobile sensed data are valid. In this paper, we aim to inform researchers and developers about mobile sensing data heterogeneity and ways to combat it. We do so via distilling a vocabulary of underlying causes, and via describing their effects on mobile sensing---building on experiences from...

  12. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lori; Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason E.; Bell, Jordan; McGrath, Kevin; Cole, Tony

    2016-01-01

    NASA SPoRT (Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center) provided MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to WFOs (Weather Forecast Offices) in Alabama to support April 27th, 2011 damage assessments across the state. SPoRT was awarded a NASA Applied Science: Disasters Feasibility award to investigate the applicability of including remote sensing imagery and derived products into the NOAA/NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather System) Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). Proposal team was awarded the 3-year proposal to implement a web mapping service and associate data feeds from the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) to provide satellite imagery and derived products directly to the NWS thru the DAT. In the United States, NOAA/NWS is charged with performing damage assessments when storm or tornado damage is suspected after a severe weather event. This has led to the development of the Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), an application for smartphones, tablets and web browsers that allows for the collection, geo-location, and aggregation of various damage indicators collected during storm surveys.

  13. Giant magneto-impedance and stress-impedance effects of microwire composites for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F. X.; Peng, H. X.; Popov, V. V.; Phan, M. H.

    2011-02-01

    Composites consisting of glass-coated amorphous microwire Co 68.59Fe 4.84Si 12.41B 14.16 and 913 E-glass prepregs were designed and fabricated. The influences of tensile stress, annealing and number of composite layers on the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) and giant stress-impedance (GSI) effects in these composites were investigated systematically. It was found that the application of tensile stress along the microwire axis or an increase in the number of composite layers reduced the GMI effect and increased the circular anisotropy field, while the annealing treatment had a reverse effect. The value of matrix-wire interfacial stress calculated via the GMI profiles coincided with the value of the applied effective tensile stress to yield similar GMI profiles. Enhancement of the GSI effect was achieved in the composites relative to their single microwire inclusion. These findings are important for the development of functional microwire-based composites for magnetic- and stress-sensing applications. They also open up a new route for probing the interfacial stress in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites.

  14. Fiber optic sensing subsystem for temperature monitoring in space in-flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, S.; Araujo, F.; Pinto, F.; González Torres, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Moreno, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) technology presents long recognized advantages which enable to mitigate deficient performance of conventional technology in hazard-environments common in spacecraft monitoring applications, such as: multiplexing capability, immunity to EMI/RFI, remote monitoring, small size and weight, electrical insulation, intrinsically safe operation, high sensibility and long term reliability. A key advantage is also the potential reduction of Assembly Integration and Testing (AIT) time achieved by the multiplexing capability and associated reduced harness. In the frame of the ESA's ARTES5.2 and FLPP-Phase 3 programs, Airbus DS-Crisa and FiberSensing are developing a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) - based temperature monitoring system for application in space telecommunication platforms and launchers. The development encompasses both the interrogation unit and the FBG temperature sensors and associated fiber harness. In parallel Airbus DS - Crisa is developing a modular RTU (RTU2015) to provide maximum flexibility and mission-customization capability for RTUs maintaining the ESA's standards at I/O interface level [1]. In this context, the FBG interrogation unit is designed as a module to be compatible, in both physical dimensions and electrical interfaces aspects, with the Electrical Internal Interface Bus of the RTU2015, thus providing the capability for a hybrid electrical and optical monitoring system.

  15. Tunable emission in surface passivated Mn-ZnS nanophosphors and its application for Glucose sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the tunable emission in inorganic-organic hybrid NPs which can be useful for optoelectronic and biosensing applications. In this work, Mn- ZnS nanoparticles emitting various colors, including blue and orange, were synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method using chitosan as a capping agent. Earlier reports describe that emission color characteristics in nanoparticles are tuned by varying particle size and with doping concentration. Here in this article tunable emission has been achieved by varying excitation wavelength in a single sample. This tunable emission property with high emission intensity was further achieved by changing capping concentration keeping host Mn-ZnS concentration same. Tunable emission is explained by FRET mechanism. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE chromaticity coordinates shifts from (0.273, 0.20 and (0.344, 0.275 for same naocrystals by suitably tuning excitation energy from higher and lower ultra-violet (UV range. Synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, HRTEM, UV- Visible absorption and PL spectroscopy for structural and optical studies. Using tunable emission property, these highly emissive nanoparticles functionalized with biocompatible polymer chitosan were further used for glucose sensing applications.

  16. A compressed sensing based 3D resistivity inversion algorithm for hydrogeological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shashi; Kambhammettu, B. V. N. P.; Peddinti, Srinivasa Rao; Adinarayana, J.

    2018-04-01

    Image reconstruction from discrete electrical responses pose a number of computational and mathematical challenges. Application of smoothness constrained regularized inversion from limited measurements may fail to detect resistivity anomalies and sharp interfaces separated by hydro stratigraphic units. Under favourable conditions, compressed sensing (CS) can be thought of an alternative to reconstruct the image features by finding sparse solutions to highly underdetermined linear systems. This paper deals with the development of a CS assisted, 3-D resistivity inversion algorithm for use with hydrogeologists and groundwater scientists. CS based l1-regularized least square algorithm was applied to solve the resistivity inversion problem. Sparseness in the model update vector is introduced through block oriented discrete cosine transformation, with recovery of the signal achieved through convex optimization. The equivalent quadratic program was solved using primal-dual interior point method. Applicability of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated using synthetic and field examples drawn from hydrogeology. The proposed algorithm has outperformed the conventional (smoothness constrained) least square method in recovering the model parameters with much fewer data, yet preserving the sharp resistivity fronts separated by geologic layers. Resistivity anomalies represented by discrete homogeneous blocks embedded in contrasting geologic layers were better imaged using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to conventional algorithm, CS has resulted in an efficient (an increase in R2 from 0.62 to 0.78; a decrease in RMSE from 125.14 Ω-m to 72.46 Ω-m), reliable, and fast converging (run time decreased by about 25%) solution.

  17. Investigation on strain sensing properties of carbon-based nanocomposites for structural aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Guadagno, Liberata; Vertuccio, Luigi; Russo, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of a thermosetting epoxy resin particularly indicated for the realization of structural aeronautic components and reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, at 0.3 wt%) are investigated for specimens subjected to cycles and different levels of applied strain (i.e. ɛ) loaded both in axial tension and flexural mode. It is found that the piezoresistive behavior of the resulting nanocomposite evaluated in terms of variation of the electrical resistance is strongly affected by the applied mechanical stress mainly due to the high sensibility and consequent rearrangement of the electrical percolating network formed by MWCNTs in the composite at rest or even under a small strain. In fact, the variations in electrical resistance that occur during the mechanical stress are correlated to the deformation exhibited by the nanocomposites. In particular, the overall response of electrical resistance of the composite is characterized by a linear increase with the strain at least in the region of elastic deformation of the material in which the gauge factor (i.e. G.F.) of the sensor is usually evaluated. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the possible use of the nanotechnology for application of embedded sensor systems in composite structures thus having capability of self-sensing and of responding to the surrounding environmental changes, which are some fundamental requirements especially for structural aircraft monitoring applications.

  18. Spatiotemporal Fusion of Multisource Remote Sensing Data: Literature Survey, Taxonomy, Principles, Applications, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite time series with high spatial resolution is critical for monitoring land surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. Although remote sensing technologies have experienced rapid development in recent years, data acquired from a single satellite sensor are often unable to satisfy our demand. As a result, integrated use of data from different sensors has become increasingly popular in the past decade. Many spatiotemporal data fusion methods have been developed to produce synthesized images with both high spatial and temporal resolutions from two types of satellite images, frequent coarse-resolution images, and sparse fine-resolution images. These methods were designed based on different principles and strategies, and therefore show different strengths and limitations. This diversity brings difficulties for users to choose an appropriate method for their specific applications and data sets. To this end, this review paper investigates literature on current spatiotemporal data fusion methods, categorizes existing methods, discusses the principal laws underlying these methods, summarizes their potential applications, and proposes possible directions for future studies in this field.

  19. Probabilistic Downscaling of Remote Sensing Data with Applications for Multi-Scale Biogeochemical Flux Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul C; Quaife, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Upscaling ecological information to larger scales in space and downscaling remote sensing observations or model simulations to finer scales remain grand challenges in Earth system science. Downscaling often involves inferring subgrid information from coarse-scale data, and such ill-posed problems are classically addressed using regularization. Here, we apply two-dimensional Tikhonov Regularization (2DTR) to simulate subgrid surface patterns for ecological applications. Specifically, we test the ability of 2DTR to simulate the spatial statistics of high-resolution (4 m) remote sensing observations of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a tundra landscape. We find that the 2DTR approach as applied here can capture the major mode of spatial variability of the high-resolution information, but not multiple modes of spatial variability, and that the Lagrange multiplier (γ) used to impose the condition of smoothness across space is related to the range of the experimental semivariogram. We used observed and 2DTR-simulated maps of NDVI to estimate landscape-level leaf area index (LAI) and gross primary productivity (GPP). NDVI maps simulated using a γ value that approximates the range of observed NDVI result in a landscape-level GPP estimate that differs by ca 2% from those created using observed NDVI. Following findings that GPP per unit LAI is lower near vegetation patch edges, we simulated vegetation patch edges using multiple approaches and found that simulated GPP declined by up to 12% as a result. 2DTR can generate random landscapes rapidly and can be applied to disaggregate ecological information and compare of spatial observations against simulated landscapes.

  20. A simple large-scale synthesis of mesoporous In_2O_3 for gas sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Su; Song, Peng; Yan, Huihui; Yang, Zhongxi; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Large-scale mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures for gas-sensing applications were successfully fabricated via a facile Lewis acid catalytic the furfural alcohol resin template route. - Highlights: • Mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures with high-yield have been successfully fabricated via a facile strategy. • The microstructure and formation mechanism of mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures were discussed based on the experimental results. • The as-prepared In_2O_3 samples exhibited high response, short response-recovery times and good selectivity to ethanol gas. - Abstract: In this paper, large-scale mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures were synthesized by a facile Lewis acid catalytic the furfural alcohol resin (FAR) template route for the high-yield. Their morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis (DSC-TG) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) approach. The as-obtained mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures possess excellent mesoporous and network structure, which increases the contact area with the gases, it is conducive for adsorption-desorption of gas on the surface of In_2O_3. The In_2O_3 particles and pores were both about 15 nm and very uniform. In gas-sensing measurements with target gases, the gas sensor based on mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures showed a good response, short response-recovery time, good selectivity and stability to ethanol. These properties are due to the large specific surface area of mesoporous structure. This synthetic method could use as a new design concept for functional mesoporous nanomaterials and for mass production.

  1. Developing and Analysing sub-10 µm Fluidic Systems with Integrated Electrodes for Pumping and Sensing in Nanotechnology Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, sub-10 µm fluidic systems with integrated electrodes for pumping and sensing in nanotechnology applications were developed and analyzed. This work contributes to the development of the scanning ion pipette (SIP), a tool to investigate surface changes on the nanometer scale induced by

  2. Will algorithms modified with soil and weather information improve in-field reflectance-sensing corn nitrogen applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) needs to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of...

  3. pH sensing characteristics and biosensing application of solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Duck-Jin; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Thanh, Tien Nguyen; Quang, Trung Tran; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2013-07-15

    Solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors (R-GO FETs) were investigated for pH sensing and biochemical sensing applications. A channel of a networked R-GO film formed by self-assembly was incorporated as a sensing layer into a solution-gated FET structure for pH sensing and the detection of acetylcholine (Ach), which is a neurotransmitter in the nerve system, through enzymatic reactions. The fabricated R-GO FET was sensitive to protons (H(+)) with a pH sensitivity of 29 mV/pH in terms of the shift of the charge neutrality point (CNP), which is attributed to changes in the surface potential caused by the interaction of protons with OH surface functional groups present on the R-GO surface. The R-GO FET immobilized with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was used to detect Ach in the concentration range of 0.1-10mM by sensing protons generated during the enzymatic reactions. The results indicate that R-GO FETs provide the capability to detect protons, demonstrating their applicability as a biosensing device for enzymatic reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  5. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  6. Dielectric micro-resonator-based opto-mechanical systems for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir Roushdy

    In recent years, whispering gallery mode (WGM), or morphology dependent optical resonances (MDR) of dielectric micro-resonators have attracted interest with proposed applications in a wide range of areas due to the high optical quality factors, Q, they can exhibit (reaching ~ 10. 9 for silica spheres). Micro-resonator WGMs have been used in applications that include those in spectroscopy, micro-cavity laser technology, optical communications (switching, filtering and multiplexing), sensors technologies and even chemical and biological sensing. The WGM of these dielectric micro-resonators are highly sensitive to morphological changes (such as the size, shape, or refractive index) of the resonance cavity and hence, can be tuned by causing a minute change in the physical condition of the surrounding. In this dissertation, we have been creating opto-mechanical systems, which at their most basic, are extraordinarily sensitive sensors. One of the ultimate goals of this dissertation is to develop sensors capable of detecting the extremely small electric field changes. To improve the performance of the sensors, we couple a polymer cantilever beam to a dielectric micro-resonator. The eventual use of such ultra sensitive electric filed sensors could include neural-machine interfaces for advanced prosthetics devices. The work presented here includes a basic analysis and experimental investigations of the electric field sensitivity and range of micro-resonators of several different materials and geometries followed by the electric field sensor design, testing, and characterization. Also, the effects of angular velocity on the WGM shifts of spherical micro-resonators are also investigated. The elastic deformation that is induced on a spinning resonator due to the centrifugal force may lead to a sufficient shift in the optical resonances and therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Furthermore, this principle could be used for the development of

  7. Application of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies to the monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Deng, Chi; Li, Junyi; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Wenpeng; Luo, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To improve the level of management and monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of long distance oil pipeline, the distributed optical fiber temperature and vibration sensing system is employed to test the feasibility for the healthy monitoring of a domestic oil pipeline. The simulating leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline are performed in the experiment. It is demonstrated that the leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline can be monitored and located accurately with the distributed optical fiber sensing system, which exhibits good performance in the sensitivity, reliability, operation and maintenance etc., and shows good market application prospect.

  8. 77 FR 62537 - Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of a Waste Management... the National Science Foundation (NSF) has received a waste management permit application for Mike...

  9. 75 FR 62891 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  10. 76 FR 52354 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  11. 77 FR 56237 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  12. 78 FR 54685 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  13. 75 FR 61520 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  14. 75 FR 60830 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  15. 76 FR 58049 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  16. 75 FR 75501 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  17. 75 FR 25300 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  18. 77 FR 31044 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  19. 78 FR 52218 - Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic... applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  20. 78 FR 56247 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... certain geographic areas a requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  1. 75 FR 6222 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic Specially Protected Areas... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  2. 76 FR 58843 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... requiring special protection. The regulations establish such a permit system to designate Antarctic... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic... Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National...

  3. Field applications of stand-off sensing using visible/NIR multivariate optical computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, DeLyle; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Karunamuni, Jeevanandra; Zhang, Lixia; Li, Hongli; Myrick, Michael L.

    2001-02-01

    12 A novel multivariate visible/NIR optical computing approach applicable to standoff sensing will be demonstrated with porphyrin mixtures as examples. The ultimate goal is to develop environmental or counter-terrorism sensors for chemicals such as organophosphorus (OP) pesticides or chemical warfare simulants in the near infrared spectral region. The mathematical operation that characterizes prediction of properties via regression from optical spectra is a calculation of inner products between the spectrum and the pre-determined regression vector. The result is scaled appropriately and offset to correspond to the basis from which the regression vector is derived. The process involves collecting spectroscopic data and synthesizing a multivariate vector using a pattern recognition method. Then, an interference coating is designed that reproduces the pattern of the multivariate vector in its transmission or reflection spectrum, and appropriate interference filters are fabricated. High and low refractive index materials such as Nb2O5 and SiO2 are excellent choices for the visible and near infrared regions. The proof of concept has now been established for this system in the visible and will later be extended to chemicals such as OP compounds in the near and mid-infrared.

  4. Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Duong V.; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates superhydrophobic behavior on nanosecond laser patterned copper and brass surfaces. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such texturing, infrared nanosecond fiber lasers offer a lower cost and more robust system combined with potentially much higher processing rates. The wettability of the textured surfaces develops from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity over time when exposed to ambient conditions. The change in the wetting property is attributed to the partial deoxidation of oxides on the surface induced during laser texturing. Textures exhibiting steady state contact angles of up to ∼152° with contact angle hysteresis of around 3-4° have been achieved. Interestingly, the superhydrobobic surfaces have the self-cleaning ability and have potential for chemical sensing applications. The principle of these novel chemical sensors is based on the change in contact angle with the concentration of methanol in a solution. To demonstrate the principle of operation of such a sensor, it is found that the contact angle of methanol solution on the superhydrophobic surfaces exponentially decays with increasing concentration. A significant reduction, of 128°, in contact angle on superhydrophobic brass is observed, which is one order of magnitude greater than that for the untreated surface (12°), when percent composition of methanol reaches to 28%.

  5. The application of GIS and remote sensing technologies for site characterization and environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durfee, R.C.; McCord, R.A.; Dobson, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental cleanup and restoration of hazardous waste sites are major activities at federal facilities around the US. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies are very useful computer tools to aid in site characterization, monitoring, assessment, and remediation efforts. Results from applying three technologies are presented to demonstrate examples of site characterization and environmental assessment for a federal facility. The first technology involves the development and use of GIS within the comprehensive Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) to integrate facility data, terrain models, aerial and satellite imagery, demographics, waste area information, and geographic data bases. The second technology presents 3-D subsurface analyses and displays of groundwater and contaminant measurements within waste areas. In the third application, aerial survey information is being used to characterize land cover and vegetative patterns, detect change, and study areas of previous waste activities and possible transport pathways. These computer technologies are required to manage, analyze, and display the large amounts of environmental and geographic data that must be handled in carrying out effective environmental restoration

  6. An innovative application of time-domain spectroscopy on localized surface plasmon resonance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Chi; Chang, Ying-Feng; Wang, Huai-Yi; Lin, Yu-Xen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Su, Li-Chen

    2017-03-01

    White-light scanning interferometry (WLSI) is often used to study the surface profiles and properties of thin films because the strength of the technique lies in its ability to provide fast and high resolution measurements. An innovative attempt is made in this paper to apply WLSI as a time-domain spectroscopic system for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing. A WLSI-based spectrometer is constructed with a breadboard of WLSI in combination with a spectral centroid algorithm for noise reduction and performance improvement. Experimentally, the WLSI-based spectrometer exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10-3 refractive index units (RIU), which is better than that obtained with a conventional UV-Vis spectrometer, by resolving the LSPR peak shift. Finally, the bio-applicability of the proposed spectrometer was investigated using the rs242557 tau gene, an Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease biomarker. The LOD was calculated as 15 pM. These results demonstrate that the proposed WLSI-based spectrometer could become a sensitive time-domain spectroscopic biosensing platform.

  7. Polarization-based index of refraction and reflection angle estimation for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilak, Vimal; Voelz, David G.; Creusere, Charles D.

    2007-10-01

    A passive-polarization-based imaging system records the polarization state of light reflected by objects that are illuminated with an unpolarized and generally uncontrolled source. Such systems can be useful in many remote sensing applications including target detection, object segmentation, and material classification. We present a method to jointly estimate the complex index of refraction and the reflection angle (reflected zenith angle) of a target from multiple measurements collected by a passive polarimeter. An expression for the degree of polarization is derived from the microfacet polarimetric bidirectional reflectance model for the case of scattering in the plane of incidence. Using this expression, we develop a nonlinear least-squares estimation algorithm for extracting an apparent index of refraction and the reflection angle from a set of polarization measurements collected from multiple source positions. Computer simulation results show that the estimation accuracy generally improves with an increasing number of source position measurements. Laboratory results indicate that the proposed method is effective for recovering the reflection angle and that the estimated index of refraction provides a feature vector that is robust to the reflection angle.

  8. A 0.18 μm CMOS fluorescent detector system for bio-sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Liu; Guoping, Chen; Zhiliang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    A CMOS fluorescent detector system for biological experiment is presented. This system integrates a CMOS compatible photodiode, a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA), and a 12 bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and is implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Some special techniques, such as a 'contact imaging' detecting method, pseudo-differential architecture, dummy photodiodes, and a T-type reset switch, are adopted to achieve low-level sensing application. Experiment results show that the Nwell/Psub photodiode with CTIA pixel achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 A/W at 515 nm and a dark current of 300 fA with 300 mV reverse biased voltage. The maximum differential and integral nonlinearity of the designed ADC are 0.8 LSB and 3 LSB, respectively. With an integrating time of 50 ms, this system is sensitive to the fluorescence emitted by the fluorescein solution with concentration as low as 20 ng/mL and can generate 7 fA photocurrent. This chip occupies 3 mm2 and consumes 37 mW.

  9. A 0.18 μm CMOS fluorescent detector system for bio-sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nan; Chen Guoping; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A CMOS fluorescent detector system for biological experiment is presented. This system integrates a CMOS compatible photodiode, a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA), and a 12 bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and is implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Some special techniques, such as a 'contact imaging' detecting method, pseudo-differential architecture, dummy photodiodes, and a T-type reset switch, are adopted to achieve low-level sensing application. Experiment results show that the Nwell/Psub photodiode with CTIA pixel achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 A/W at 515 nm and a dark current of 300 fA with 300 mV reverse biased voltage. The maximum differential and integral nonlinearity of the designed ADC are 0.8 LSB and 3 LSB, respectively. With an integrating time of 50 ms, this system is sensitive to the fluorescence emitted by the fluorescein solution with concentration as low as 20 ng/mL and can generate 7 fA photocurrent. This chip occupies 3 mm 2 and consumes 37 mW.

  10. Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Krewer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD) spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment. Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. The experimentally observed nonlinear behavior of the DMFC anode can be qualitatively reproduced with a model containing a three-step methanol oxidation mechanism with Kauranen–Frumkin/Temkin kinetics. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

  11. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  12. Recent developments in sensing methods for eutrophying nutrients with a focus on automation for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, G; Regan, F

    2017-11-20

    The demand for autonomous sensors for unattended, continuous nutrient monitoring in water is rapidly growing with the increasing need for more frequent and widespread environmental pollution monitoring. Legislative bodies, local authorities and industries all require frequent water quality monitoring, however, this is time and labour intensive, and an expensive undertaking. Autonomous sensors allow for frequent, unattended data collection. While this solves the time and labour intensive aspects of water monitoring, sensors can be very expensive. Development of low-cost sensors is essential to realise the concept of Internet of Things (IoT). However there is much work yet to be done in this field. This article reviews current literature on the research and development efforts towards deployable autonomous sensors for phosphorus (in the form of phosphate) and nitrogen (in the form of nitrate), with a focus on analytical performance and cost considerations. Additionally, some recent sensing approaches that could be automated in the future are included, along with an overview of approaches to monitoring both nutrients. These approaches are compared with standard laboratory methods and also with commercially available sensors for both phosphate and nitrate. Application of nutrient sensors in agriculture is discussed as an example of how sensor networks can provide improvements in decision making.

  13. Compressed sensing with cyclic-S Hadamard matrix for terahertz imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermeydan, Esra Şengün; ćankaya, Ilyas

    2018-01-01

    Compressed Sensing (CS) with Cyclic-S Hadamard matrix is proposed for single pixel imaging applications in this study. In single pixel imaging scheme, N = r . c samples should be taken for r×c pixel image where . denotes multiplication. CS is a popular technique claiming that the sparse signals can be reconstructed with samples under Nyquist rate. Therefore to solve the slow data acquisition problem in Terahertz (THz) single pixel imaging, CS is a good candidate. However, changing mask for each measurement is a challenging problem since there is no commercial Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) for THz band yet, therefore circular masks are suggested so that for each measurement one or two column shifting will be enough to change the mask. The CS masks are designed using cyclic-S matrices based on Hadamard transform for 9 × 7 and 15 × 17 pixel images within the framework of this study. The %50 compressed images are reconstructed using total variation based TVAL3 algorithm. Matlab simulations demonstrates that cyclic-S matrices can be used for single pixel imaging based on CS. The circular masks have the advantage to reduce the mechanical SLMs to a single sliding strip, whereas the CS helps to reduce acquisition time and energy since it allows to reconstruct the image from fewer samples.

  14. Compressed sensing and the reconstruction of ultrafast 2D NMR data: Principles and biomolecular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrot, Yoav; Frydman, Lucio

    2011-04-01

    A topic of active investigation in 2D NMR relates to the minimum number of scans required for acquiring this kind of spectra, particularly when these are dictated by sampling rather than by sensitivity considerations. Reductions in this minimum number of scans have been achieved by departing from the regular sampling used to monitor the indirect domain, and relying instead on non-uniform sampling and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Alternatively, so-called "ultrafast" methods can compress the minimum number of scans involved in 2D NMR all the way to a minimum number of one, by spatially encoding the indirect domain information and subsequently recovering it via oscillating field gradients. Given ultrafast NMR's simultaneous recording of the indirect- and direct-domain data, this experiment couples the spectral constraints of these orthogonal domains - often calling for the use of strong acquisition gradients and large filter widths to fulfill the desired bandwidth and resolution demands along all spectral dimensions. This study discusses a way to alleviate these demands, and thereby enhance the method's performance and applicability, by combining spatial encoding with iterative reconstruction approaches. Examples of these new principles are given based on the compressed-sensed reconstruction of biomolecular 2D HSQC ultrafast NMR data, an approach that we show enables a decrease of the gradient strengths demanded in this type of experiments by up to 80%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Pure Marine Aerosol Model, for Use in Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Smirnov, A.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and related parameters from satellite measurements typically involve prescribed models of aerosol size and composition, and are therefore dependent on how well these models are able to represent the radiative behaviour of real aerosols, This study uses aerosol volume size distributions retrieved from Sun-photometer measurements at 11 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) island sites, spread throughout the world's oceans, as a basis to define such a model for unpolluted maritime aerosols. Size distributions are observed to be bimodal and approximately lognormal, although the coarse mode is skewed with a long tail on the low-radius end, The relationship of AOD and size distribution parameters to meteorological conditions is also examined, As wind speed increases, so do coarse-mode volume and radius, The AOD and Angstrom exponent (alpha) show linear relationships with wind speed, although there is considerable scatter in all these relationships, limiting their predictive power. Links between aerosol properties and near-surface relative humidity, columnar water vapor, and sea surface temperature are also explored. A recommended bimodal maritime model, which is able to reconstruct the AERONET AOD with accuracy of order 0.01-0.02, is presented for use in aerosol remote sensing applications. This accuracy holds at most sites and for wavelengths between 340 nm and 1020 nm. Calculated lidar ratios are also provided, and differ significantly from those currently used in Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) processing.

  16. Laser induced forward transfer of SnO2 for sensing applications using different precursors systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattle, Thomas; Hintennach, Andreas; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the transfer of SnO2 by laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) for gas sensor applications. Different donor substrates of SnO2 with and without triazene polymer (TP) as a dynamic release layer were prepared. Transferring these films under different conditions were evaluated by optical microscopy and functionality. Transfers of sputtered SnO2 films do not lead to satisfactory results and transfers of SnO2 nanoparticles are difficult. Transfers of SnO2 nanoparticles can only be achieved when applying a second laser pulse to the already transferred material, which improves the adhesion resulting in a complete pixel. A new approach of decomposing the transfer material during LIFT transfer was developed. Donor films based on UV absorbing metal complex precursors namely, SnCl2(acac)2 were prepared and transferred using the LIFT technique. Transfer conditions were optimized for the different systems, which were deposited onto sensor-like microstructures. The conductivity of the transferred material at temperatures of about 400 ∘C are in a range usable for SnO2 gas sensors. First sensing tests were carried out and the transferred material proved to change conductivity when exposed to ethanol, acetone, and methane.

  17. Design of Cyclic Peptide Based Glucose Receptors and Their Application in Glucose Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Fuyuan; He, Xingxing; Fang, Guozhen; Liu, Jifeng; Wang, Shuo

    2017-10-03

    Glucose assay is of great scientific significance in clinical diagnostics and bioprocess monitoring, and to design a new glucose receptor is necessary for the development of more sensitive, selective, and robust glucose detection techniques. Herein, a series of cyclic peptide (CP) glucose receptors were designed to mimic the binding sites of glucose binding protein (GBP), and CPs' sequence contained amino acid sites Asp, Asn, His, Asp, and Arg, which constituted the first layer interactions of GBP. The properties of these CPs used as a glucose receptor or substitute for the GBP were studied by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. It was found that CPs can form a self-assembled monolayer at the Au quartz electrode surface, and the monolayer's properties were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The CPs' binding affinity to saccharide (i.e., galactose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and maltose) was investigated, and the CPs' sensitivity and selectivity toward glucose were found to be dependent upon the configuration,i.e., the amino acids sequence of the CPs. The cyclic unit with a cyclo[-CNDNHCRDNDC-] sequence gave the highest selectivity and sensitivity for glucose sensing. This work suggests that a synthetic peptide bearing a particular functional sequence could be applied for developing a new generation of glucose receptors and would find huge application in biological, life science, and clinical diagnostics fields.

  18. An Easy to Manufacture Micro Gas Preconcentrator for Chemical Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Fung, Alexander G; LeVasseur, Michael K; Pedersen, Josephine M; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-08-25

    We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17.6 °C/s was observed. Adsorption and desorption flow parameters were optimized to be 90 SCCM and 25 SCCM, respectively, for a multicomponent gas mixture. Under testing conditions using Tenax TA sorbent, the device was capable of measuring analytes down to 22 ppb with only a 2 min sample loading time using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. Two separate devices were compared by measuring the same chemical mixture; both devices yielded similar peak areas and widths (fwhm: 0.032-0.033 min), suggesting reproducibility between devices.

  19. HIPAA Compliant Wireless Sensing Smartwatch Application for the Self-Management of Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wireless sensors to a smartwatch application (app) via a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant cryptography framework, which then sends data to a cloud for real-time analytics. The asthma risk is then sent to the smartwatch and provided to the user via simple graphics for easy interpretation by children. After testing the safety and feasibility of the system in an adult with moderate asthma prior to testing in children, it was found that the analytics model is able to determine the overall asthma risk (high, medium, or low risk) with an accuracy of 80.10 ± 14.13%. Furthermore, the features most important for assessing the risk of an asthma attack were multifaceted, highlighting the importance of continuously monitoring different wireless sensors and RESTful APIs. Future testing this asthma attack risk prediction system in pediatric asthma individuals may lead to an effective self-management asthma program.

  20. Narrow Bandwidth Top-Emitting OLEDs Designed for Rhodamine 6G Excitation in Biological Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jahnel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLED are promising candidates offering in optical sensor applications to detect different gas compositions and excitable optical marker groups in chemical and biological processes. They enable attractive solutions for monitoring the gas phase composition of e.g., dissolved molecular oxygen (O2 species in bio reactors or excitation of fluorescent markers. In this work, we investigate different OLED devices for biomedical applications to excite the fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G (R6G. The OLED devices are built in top emission geometry comprising a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR acting as optical mirror. The OLED is optimized to provide a very narrow emission characteristic to excite the R6G at 530 nm wavelength and enabling the possibility to minimize the optical crosstalk between the OLED electroluminescence and the fluorescence of R6G. The DBR includes a thin film encapsulation and enables the narrowing of the spectral emission band depending on the number of DBR pairs. The comparison between optical simulation data and experimental results exhibits good agreement and proves process stability.

  1. In situ synthesis of cylindrical spongy polypyrrole doped protonated graphitic carbon nitride for cholesterol sensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Shrestha, Sita; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-08-15

    Herein, we demonstrate the exfoliation of bulk graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C 3 N 4 ) into ultra-thin (~3.4nm) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets and their functionalization with proton (g-C 3 N 4 H + ). The layered semiconductor g-C 3 N 4 H + nanosheets were doped with cylindrical spongy shaped polypyrrole (CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + ) using chemical polymerization method. The as-prepared nanohybrid composite was utilized to fabricate cholesterol biosensors after immobilization of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) at physiological pH. Large specific surface area and positive charge nature of CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + composite has tendency to generate strong electrostatic attraction with negatively charged ChOx, and as a result they formed stable bionanohybrid composite with high enzyme loading. A detailed electrochemical characterization of as-fabricated biosensor electrode (ChOx-CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + /GCE) exhibited high-sensitivity (645.7 µAmM -1 cm -2 ) in wide-linear range of 0.02-5.0mM, low detection limit (8.0μM), fast response time (~3s), long-term stability, and good selectivity during cholesterol detection. To the best of our knowledge, this novel nanocomposite was utilized for the first time for cholesterol biosensor fabrication that resulted in high sensing performance. Hence, this approach opens a new prospective to utilize CSPPy-g-C 3 N 4 H + composite as cost-effective, biocompatible, eco-friendly, and superior electrocatalytic as well as electroconductive having great application potentials that could pave the ways to explore many other new sensors fabrication and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Daughtry, Craig S.T.; Mirsky, Steven B.; Hively, W. Dean

    2014-01-01

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare information obtained from two different pixel sizes, one about a meter (the size of a small vegetation plot) and one about a millimeter. Cereal rye (Secale cereale) was planted at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center for a winter cover crop with fall and spring fertilizer applications, which produced differences in biomass and leaf chlorophyll content. UAS imagery was simulated by placing a Fuji IS-Pro UVIR digital camera at 3-m height looking nadir. An external UV-IR cut filter was used to acquire true-color images; an external red cut filter was used to obtain color-infrared-like images with bands at near-infrared, green, and blue wavelengths. Plot-scale Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was correlated with dry aboveground biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.58$ ), whereas the Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) was not correlated with chlorophyll content. We used the SamplePoint program to select 100 pixels systematically; we visually identified the cover type and acquired the digital numbers. The number of rye pixels in each image was better correlated with biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.73$ ), and the average TGI from only leaf pixels was negatively correlated with chlorophyll content ( ${mbi {r}} = -0.72$ ). Thus, better information for crop requirements may be obtained using very small pixel sizes, but new algorithms based on computer vision are needed for analysis. It may not be necessary to geospatially register large numbers of photographs with very small pixel sizes. Instead, images could be analyzed as single plots along field transects.

  3. A research on applications of qualitative reasoning techniques in Human Acts Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP) is a ten-year research project of the Computing and Information Systems Center of JAERI. In HASP the goal is developing programs for an advanced intelligent robot to accomplish multiple instructions (for instance, related to surveillance, inspection and maintenance) in nuclear power plants. Some recent artificial intelligence techniques can contribute to this project. This report introduces some original contributions concerning application of Qualitative Reasoning (QR) techniques in HASP. The focus is on the knowledge-intensive tasks, including model-based reasoning, analytic learning, fault diagnosis and functional reasoning. The multi-level extended qualitative modeling for the Skill-Rule-Knowledge (S-R-K) based reasoning, that included the coordination and timing of events, Qualitative Sensitivity analysis (Q S A), Subjective Qualitative Fault Diagnosis (S Q F D) and Qualitative Function Formation (Q F F ) techniques are introduced. (author) 123 refs

  4. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: applications in the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens Asger; Gybkjær, Gorm

    1999-01-01

    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  5. Archimedean Witness: The Application of Remote Sensing as an Aid to Human Rights Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James Robin

    The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international human rights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, human rights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geographic thought, calling attention to the epistemological and geopolitical implications that stem from the "view from nowhere" afforded by satellite imagery. Therefore, this thesis is divided into three sections. The first looks at the geographical questions raised by the expansion of remote sensing use in the context of international activism. The second explores the complications inherent in the presentation of remote sensing data as evidence of war crimes. Building upon the first two, the third section is a case study in alternate forms of analysis, aimed at expanding the utility of remote sensing data in international criminal prosecutions.

  6. A Semantic Lexicon-Based Approach for Sense Disambiguation and Its WWW Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lecce, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Marco; Soldo, Domenico

    This work proposes a basic framework for resolving sense disambiguation through the use of Semantic Lexicon, a machine readable dictionary managing both word senses and lexico-semantic relations. More specifically, polysemous ambiguity characterizing Web documents is discussed. The adopted Semantic Lexicon is WordNet, a lexical knowledge-base of English words widely adopted in many research studies referring to knowledge discovery. The proposed approach extends recent works on knowledge discovery by focusing on the sense disambiguation aspect. By exploiting the structure of WordNet database, lexico-semantic features are used to resolve the inherent sense ambiguity of written text with particular reference to HTML resources. The obtained results may be extended to generic hypertextual repositories as well. Experiments show that polysemy reduction can be used to hint about the meaning of specific senses in given contexts.

  7. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    and a backup system. All the components of the system are connected to the IrLaW software through an IP network. The monitoring system is fully autonomous since August 2013 and provides data at 0. Hz sampling frequency. First results obtained by data post-processing is addressed. Finally, discussion on experimental feedback and main outcomes of several month of measurement in outdoor conditions will be presented. REFERENCES [1]Proto M. et al., , 2010. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project. Sensors, 10,10620-10639, doi: 10.3390/s101210620. [2]J. Dumoulin, R. Averty ".Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", in Proc of 11th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography, Naples Italy, 2012. [3]J. Dumoulin, A. Crinière, R. Averty ," Detection and thermal characterization of the inner structure of the "Musmeci" bridge deck by infrared thermography monitoring ",Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, November 2013, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/064003. [4]I. Catapano, R. Di Napoli, F. Soldovieri1, M. Bavusi, A. Loperte and J. Dumoulin, "Structural monitoring via microwave tomography-enhanced GPR: the Montagnole test site", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 9, Number 4, August 2012, pp 100-107, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/4/S100.

  8. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Hoon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwang Yang Health Collage, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam{sub t}ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule.

  9. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam; Song, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Jae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam t ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule

  10. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  11. Porous ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramics for applications as sensing elements in the air humidity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo de Matos; Nono, Maria do Carmo de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    The environmental monitoring requires versatile, reliable and lower cost instruments. The chemical superficial absorption/adsorption capability of water molecules by several ceramic oxides makes them excellent candidates for this application. In this way, many efforts have been made for the development of porous ceramics, manufactured from mechanical mixture of ZrO_2 and TiO_2 powders, for application as air humidity sensing elements. The sintered ceramics were characterized as for crystalline phases (X-ray diffraction) and pores structure (scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry). The relative humidity curves for the ceramics were obtained from measurements with RLC bridge in climatic chamber. The behavior of these curves were comparatively analyzed with the aid of pores sizes distribution curves, obtained through mercury porosimetry. The results evidenced that the air humidity ceramic sensing elements are very promising ones. (author)

  12. A Distributed Multi-dimensional SOLAP Model of Remote Sensing Data and Its Application in Drought Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jiyuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SOLAP (Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing has been applied to multi-dimensional analysis of remote sensing data recently. However, its computation performance faces a considerable challenge from the large-scale dataset. A geo-raster cube model extended by Map-Reduce is proposed, which refers to the application of Map-Reduce (a data-intensive computing paradigm in the OLAP field. In this model, the existing methods are modified to adapt to distributed environment based on the multi-level raster tiles. Then the multi-dimensional map algebra is introduced to decompose the SOLAP computation into multiple distributed parallel map algebra functions on tiles under the support of Map-Reduce. The drought monitoring by remote sensing data is employed as a case study to illustrate the model construction and application. The prototype is also implemented, and the performance testing shows the efficiency and scalability of this model.

  13. Eigendecomposition model of resistance temperature detector with applications to S-CO{sub 2} cycle sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifetz, Alexander, E-mail: aheifetz@anl.gov; Vilim, Richard

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Developed eigendecomposition model of resistance temperature detector (RTD) in a fluid. • Showed that RTD time constant primarily depends on the rate of heat transfer from the fluid to the outer wall of RTD. • Showed that RTD time constant can be calculated as the sum of reciprocal eigenvalues of the heat transfer matrix. • Calculated time constant of thermowell-mounted RTD sensor at the hot side of the precooler in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle. - Abstract: Super-critical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) is a promising thermodynamic cycle for advanced nuclear reactors and solar energy conversion applications. Dynamic control of the proposed recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle is accomplished with input from resistance temperature detector (RTD) measurements of the process fluid. One of the challenges in practical implementation of S-CO{sub 2} cycle is high corrosion rate of component and sensor materials. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model of RTD sensing using eigendecomposition model of radial heat transfer in a layered long cylinder. We show that the value of RTD time constant primarily depends on the rate of heat transfer from the fluid to the outer wall of RTD. We also show that for typical material properties, RTD time constant can be calculated as the sum of reciprocal eigenvalues of the heat transfer matrix. Using the computational model and a set of RTD and CO{sub 2} fluid thermo-physical parameter values, we calculate the value of time constant of thermowell-mounted RTD sensor at the hot side of the precooler in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle. The eigendecomposition model of RTD will be used in future studies to model sensor degradation and its impact on control of S-CO{sub 2}.

  14. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Prabhash; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Harsh; Islam, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH 3 gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO 2 substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH 3 ) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc

  15. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Prabhash [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India); Tai, Nyan-Hwa [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Harsh [Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India); Islam, S.S., E-mail: safiul5996@gmail.com [Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  16. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  17. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  18. Application of Remote Sensing Data to Improve the Water and Soil Resource Management of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Ádám; Bukombe, Benjamin; Naramabuye, Francois Xavier; Szegi, Tamás; Vekerdy, Zoltán; Michéli, Erika

    2017-04-01

    The Rwandan agriculture strongly relies in the dry seasons on the water stored in artificial reservoirs of various sizes for irrigation purposes. Furthermore, the success of irrigation depends on a wide range of soil properties which directly affect the moisture regime of the growing medium. By integrating remote sensing and auxiliary data the objectives of our study are to monitor the water level fluctuation in the reservoirs, estimate the volume of water available for irrigation and to combine this information with soil property maps to support the decision making for sustainable irrigation water management in a study area in Southern Rwanda. For water level and volume estimation a series of Sentinel-1 (product type: GRD, acquisition mode: IW, polarizations HH and VH) data were obtained covering the study area and spanning over a period of two years. To map the extent of water bodies the Radar-Based Water Body Mapping module of the Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) was used. High-resolution optical data (Sentinel-2) were used for validation in cloud-free periods. To estimate the volume changes in the reservoirs, we combined the information derived from the water body mapping procedure and digital elevation models. For sustainable irrigation water management, digital soil property maps were developed by the application of wide range of environmental covariates related to soil forming factors. To develop covariates which represent the land use a time series analysis of the 2 years of Sentinel-1 data was performed. As auxiliary soil data, the ISRIC-WISE harmonized soil profile database was used. The developed digital soil mapping approach is integrated into a new WOIS workflow.

  19. Carbon nanoparticle doped micro-patternable nano-composites for wearable sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    This talk focuses on preparation, characterization and micropatterning of electrically conducting KETJENBLACK carbon black nanoparticle (80 nm-diameter) doped Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by employing extrusion mixing. Previously, we had reported fabrication of various micropatternable nanocomposites for wearable sensing applications vis solvent assisted ultrasonic mixing technique[1-16] . Extrusion mixing has an advantage as no organic solvents are used and homogenous dispersion of carbon nanoparticles is observed, which is confirmed by SEM analysis. The developed nanocomposite can be micropatterened using standard microfabrication techniques. It is also observed that percolation threshold occurs at 0.51 wt% of carbon nanoparticles in polymer matrix. Examples of developed nano-composites for wearable sensing applications for precision medicine will also be discussed. References: 1.http://summit.sfu.ca/item/12017 A. Khosla. Micropatternable multifunctional nanocomposite polymers for flexible soft MEMS applications. Diss. Applied Science: School of Engineering Science, 2011. 2. A. Khosla ; B. L. Gray; Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxne nanocomposite polymer flexible microelectrodes for microfluidics and MEMS. Proc. SPIE 7642, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2010, 76421V (April 09, 2010); doi:10.1117/12.847292. 3. Ang Li ; Ajit Khosla ; Connie Drewbrook ; Bonnie L. Gray; Fabrication and testing of thermally responsive hydrogel-based actuators using polymer heater elements for flexible microvalves. Proc. SPIE 7929, Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems IX, 79290G (February 14, 2011); doi:10.1117/12.873197. 4. Khosla, A. and Gray, B. L. (2010), Preparation, Micro-Patterning and Electrical Characterization of Functionalized Carbon-Nanotube Polydimethylsiloxane Nanocomposite Polymer. Macromol. Symp., 297: 210-218. doi:10.1002/masy.200900165 5. A. Khosla ; D. Hilbich ; C. Drewbrook ; D. Chung ; B. L. Gray; Large

  20. Feasibility of a Secure Wireless Sensing Smartwatch Application for the Self-Management of Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2017-08-03

    To address the need for asthma self-management in pediatrics, the authors present the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) platform built on their prior work in an asthmatic adult and child. Real-time asthma attack risk was assessed through physiological and environmental sensors. Data were sent to a cloud via a smartwatch application (app) using Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant cryptography and combined with online source data. A risk level (high, medium or low) was determined using a random forest classifier and then sent to the app to be visualized as animated dragon graphics for easy interpretation by children. The feasibility of the system was first tested on an adult with moderate asthma, then usability was examined on a child with mild asthma over several weeks. It was found during feasibility testing that the system is able to assess asthma risk with 80.10 ± 14.13% accuracy. During usability testing, it was able to continuously collect sensor data, and the child was able to wear, easily understand and enjoy the use of the system. If tested in more individuals, this system may lead to an effective self-management program that can reduce hospitalization in those who suffer from asthma.

  1. Holographic sol-gel monoliths: optical properties and application for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatovskii, Daniil A.; Milichko, Valentin; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Vinogradov, Vladimir V.

    2018-05-01

    Sol-gel monoliths based on SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2 with holographic colourful diffraction on their surfaces were obtained via a sol-gel synthesis and soft lithography combined method. The production was carried out without any additional equipment at near room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The accurately replicated wavy structure with nanoscale size of material particles yields holographic effect and its visibility strongly depends on refractive index (RI) of materials. Addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in systems increases their RI and lends absorbing properties due to extremely high light absorption constant. Further prospective and intriguing applications based on the most successful samples, MWCNTs-doped titania, were investigated as reversible optical humidity sensor. Owing to such property as reversible resuspension of TiO2 nanoparticles while interacting with water, it was proved that holographic xerogels can repeatedly act as humidity sensors. Materials which can be applied as humidity sensors in dependence on holographic response were discovered for the first time.

  2. Holographic sol–gel monoliths: optical properties and application for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milichko, Valentin; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Vinogradov, Vladimir V.

    2018-01-01

    Sol–gel monoliths based on SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2 with holographic colourful diffraction on their surfaces were obtained via a sol–gel synthesis and soft lithography combined method. The production was carried out without any additional equipment at near room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The accurately replicated wavy structure with nanoscale size of material particles yields holographic effect and its visibility strongly depends on refractive index (RI) of materials. Addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in systems increases their RI and lends absorbing properties due to extremely high light absorption constant. Further prospective and intriguing applications based on the most successful samples, MWCNTs-doped titania, were investigated as reversible optical humidity sensor. Owing to such property as reversible resuspension of TiO2 nanoparticles while interacting with water, it was proved that holographic xerogels can repeatedly act as humidity sensors. Materials which can be applied as humidity sensors in dependence on holographic response were discovered for the first time.

  3. Modeling and diagnostic techniques applicable to the analysis of pressure noise in pressurized water reactors and pressure-sensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullens, J.A.; Thie, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure noise data from a PWR are interpreted by means of a computer-implemented model. The model's parameters, namely hydraulic impedances and noise sources, are either calculated or deduced from fits to data. Its accuracy is encouraging and raises the possibility of diagnostic assistance for nuclear plant monitoring. A number of specific applications of pressure noise in the primary system of a PWR and in a pressure sensing system are suggested

  4. A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique and its application to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique for the measurements of the local surface electric potential is presented. A voltage compensation circuit based on this potentiometry technique is developed and employed to maintain a desired tunneling voltage independent of the bias current flow through the film. The application of this potentiometry technique to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect is outlined and some experimental results are reported.

  5. Nanodevice for Imaging Normal Stress Distribution With Application in Sensing Texture and Feel' by Touching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saraf, Ravi F; Maheshwari, Vivek

    2004-01-01

    Touch is one of the five senses designed by nature for survival. 'Touch' may (partially) be characterized as a sensory operation for measuring texture and softness of an object by mechanical contact...

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Desert Land and Natural Resources and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring environmental impacts over large, remote desert regions for long periods of time can be very costly. Remote sensing technologies present a promising monitoring tool because they entail the collection of spatially contiguous data, automated processing, and streamlined data analysis. This report provides a summary of remote sensing products and refinement of remote sensing data interpretation methodologies that were generated as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Solar Energy Program. In March 2015, a team of researchers from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected field data of vegetation and surface types from more than 5,000 survey points within the eastern part of the Riverside East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ). Using the field data, remote sensing products that were generated in 2014 using very high spatial resolution (VHSR; 15 cm) multispectral aerial images were validated in order to evaluate potential refinements to the previous methodologies to improve the information extraction accuracy.

  7. Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in Archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.

    The advancement of remote sensing technology and the analysing capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) can very well be used in the science of Archaeology. Though these subjects look apart, they can be studied in conjunction with each...

  8. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  9. CMOS compatible fabrication process of MEMS resonator for timing reference and sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duc H.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Skafidas, Stan; Evans, Robin

    2015-12-01

    CMOS IC. This device is expected to operate in hundreds of Mhz frequency range; quality factor surpasses 10000 and series motional impedance low enough that could be matching into conventional system without enormous effort. This MEMS resonator can be used in the design of many blocks in wireless and RF (Radio Frequency) systems such as low phase noise oscillator, band pass filter, power amplifier and in many sensing application.

  10. [Application of hyperspectral remote sensing in research on ecological boundary in north farming-pasturing transition in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Xie, Ying-Zhong

    2009-06-01

    Studies of ecological boundaries are important and have become a rapidly evolving part of contemporary ecology. The ecotones are dynamic and play several functional roles in ecosystem dynamics, and the changes in their locations can be used as an indicator of environment changes, and for these reasons, ecotones have recently become a focus of investigation of landscape ecology and global climate change. As the interest in ecotone increases, there is an increased need for formal techniques to detect it. Hence, to better study and understand the functional roles and dynamics of ecotones in ecosystem, we need quantitative methods to characterize them. In the semi-arid region of northern China, there exists a farming-pasturing transition resulting from grassland reclamation and deforestation. With the fragmentation of grassland landscape, the structure and function of the grassland ecosystem are changing. Given this perspective; new-image processing approaches are needed to focus on transition themselves. Hyperspectral remote sensing data, compared with wide-band remote sensing data, has the advantage of high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to visualize transitional zones and to detect ecotone based on surface properties (e. g. vegetation, soil type, and soil moisture etc). In this paper, the methods of hyperspectral remote sensing information processing, spectral analysis and its application in detecting the vegetation classifications, vegetation growth state, estimating the canopy biochemical characteristics, soil moisture, soil organic matter etc are reviewed in detail. Finally the paper involves further application of hyperspectral remote sensing information in research on local climate in ecological boundary in north farming-pasturing transition in China.

  11. Bit of History and Some Lessons Learned in Using NASA Remote Sensing Data in Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program's public health initiative began in 2004 to illustratethe potential benefits for using remote sensing in public health applications. Objectives/Purpose: The CDC initiated a st udy with NASA through the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) to establish a pilot effort to use remote sensing data as part of its Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN). As a consequence, the NCEH and NASA developed a project called HELIX-Atlanta (Health and Environment Linkage for Information Exchange) to demonstrate a process for developing a local environmental public health tracking and surveillance network that integrates non-infectious health and environment systems for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Methods: As an ongo ing, systematic integration, analysis and interpretation of data, an EPHTN focuses on: 1 -- environmental hazards; 2 -- human exposure to environmental hazards; and 3 -- health effects potentially related to exposure to environmental hazards. To satisfy the definition of a surveillance system the data must be disseminated to plan, implement, and evaluate environmental public health action. Results: A close working r elationship developed with NCEH where information was exchanged to assist in the development of an EPHTN that incorporated NASA remote sensing data into a surveillance network for disseminating public health tracking information to users. This project?s success provided NASA with the opportunity to work with other public health entities such as the University of Mississippi Medical Center, the University of New Mexico and the University of Arizona. Conclusions: HELIX-Atlanta became a functioning part of the national EPHTN for tracking environmental hazards and exposure, particularly as related to air quality over Atlanta. Learning Objectives: 1 -- remote sensing data can be integral to an EPHTN; 2 -- public tracking objectives can be enhanced through remote sensing data; 3 -- NASA's involvement in

  12. Development of novel series and parallel sensing system based on nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Te-Wei

    With the advance of nanofabrication, the capability of nanoscale metallic structure fabrication opens a whole new study in nanoplasmonics, which is defined as the investigation of photon-electron interaction in the vicinity of nanoscale metallic structures. The strong oscillation of free electrons at the interface between metal and surrounding dielectric material caused by propagating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enables a variety of new applications in different areas, especially biological sensing techniques. One of the promising biological sensing applications by surface resonance polariton is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which significantly reinforces the feeble signal of traditional Raman scattering by at least 104 times. It enables highly sensitive and precise molecule identification with the assistance of a SERS substrate. Until now, the design of new SERS substrate fabrication process is still thriving since no dominant design has emerged yet. The ideal process should be able to achieve both a high sensitivity and low cost device in a simple and reliable way. In this thesis two promising approaches for fabricating nanostructured SERS substrate are proposed: thermal dewetting technique and nanoimprint replica technique. These two techniques are demonstrated to show the capability of fabricating high performance SERS substrate in a reliable and cost efficient fashion. In addition, these two techniques have their own unique characteristics and can be integrated with other sensing techniques to build a serial or parallel sensing system. The breakthrough of a combination system with different sensing techniques overcomes the inherent limitations of SERS detection and leverages it to a whole new level of systematic sensing. The development of a sensing platform based on thermal dewetting technique is covered as the first half of this thesis. The process optimization, selection of substrate material

  13. 77 FR 51831 - Notice of Permit Applications Received; Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... applicant plans to enter ASPA 130-Tramway Ridge, Mt. Erebus to measure soil temperatures and sample gases... in the soil. Location ASPA 130-Tramway Ridge, Mt. Erebus, Ross Island. Dates December 1, 2012 to...

  14. An inverse method for identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure flow-induced vibration application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotin, L.; Granger, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction of wear problems due to flow-induced vibration in PWR components, an inverse method for identifying a distributed random excitation acting on a dynamical system has been developed at EDF. This method, whose applications go far beyond the flow-induced vibration field, has been implemented into the MEIDEE software. This method is presented. (author)

  15. 77 FR 6826 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and... transport soil samples to isolate soil microorganisms. Location: Palmer Station vicinity, Anders Island... applicant will use Escherichia coli strain BL21DE3 for the production of \\35\\S-labeled proteins to be used...

  16. Luminescence materials for pH and oxygen sensing in microbial cells - structures, optical properties, and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xianshao; Pan, Tingting; Chen, Lei; Tian, Yanqing; Zhang, Weiwen

    2017-09-01

    Luminescence including fluorescence and phosphorescence sensors have been demonstrated to be important for studying cell metabolism, and diagnosing diseases and cancer. Various design principles have been employed for the development of sensors in different formats, such as organic molecules, polymers, polymeric hydrogels, and nanoparticles. The integration of the sensing with fluorescence imaging provides valuable tools for biomedical research and applications at not only bulk-cell level but also at single-cell level. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses on pH, oxygen, and dual pH and oxygen sensors specifically for their application in microbial cells. In addition, we focused not only on sensor materials with different chemical structures, but also on design and applications of sensors for better understanding cellular metabolism of microbial cells. Finally, we also provided an outlook for future materials design and key challenges in reaching broad applications in microbial cells.

  17. Application of remote sensing and GIS in environmental monitoring in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finu Shrestha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH region encompasses the largest mountain system in the world extending from Myanmar in the East to Afghanistan in the West and covering the whole or part of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The region plays a vital role in providing ecosystem services and is the basis of the livelihoods of over 200 million people. The water and other ecosystem services provided by the HKH forms lifeline for one third of humanity. In the past few decades, human activities and global warming have contributed to environmental degradation in significant portion of the region. Decreasing glacier area, growth in glacial lake size, unprecedented rainfall, changes in land use and land cover, forest degradation, floods and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, landslides, and shortfalls in agricultural crop production are among the many problems brought on by such change. These issues need timely monitoring and supervision if they are to lead to a better understanding of the state of the environment, and the scale of the damages that has already been done. Effective monitoring of the environment, and an improved understanding of the same requires valuable information and data that can be extracted through the application of geospatial technologies such as remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS. This paper provides an overview of such research conducted in the HKH region. It shows how change assessment has been undertaken in thematic areas such as glacier, glacial lake, land use, land cover, and disaster events like floods, landslides and droughts and how sets of data collected over specific intervals of time are being used to identify and monitor the condition of the environment from the past to the present, and in the long run. Complete database sets and analyses pertaining to these areas are made available online to facilitate access to information. Data formulation and further research are necessary

  18. VCSEL-based gigabit IR-UWB link for converged communication and sensing applications in optical metro-access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of an impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) based converged communication and sensing system. A 1550-nm VCSEL-generated IR-UWB signal is used for 2-Gbps wireless data distribution over 800-m and 50-km single mode fiber links which present short-range in-buil...... application, paving the way forward for the development and deployment of converged UWB VCSEL-based technologies in access and in-building networks of the future.......We report on experimental demonstration of an impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) based converged communication and sensing system. A 1550-nm VCSEL-generated IR-UWB signal is used for 2-Gbps wireless data distribution over 800-m and 50-km single mode fiber links which present short-range in......-building and long-reach access network applications. The IR-UWB signal is also used to simultaneously measure the rotational speed of a blade spinning between 18 and 30 Hz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first demonstration of a simultaneous gigabit UWB telecommunication and wireless UWB sensing...

  19. Hybrid van der Waals SnO/MoS2 Heterojunctions for Thermal and Optical Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2017-11-10

    Emerging van der Waals heterojunctions (vdWH) containing 2D materials have shown exciting functionalities that surpass those of traditional devices based on bulk materials. In this Communication, a report on the properties of a 2D sulfide/oxide hybrid vdWH based on n-type molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and p-type tin monoxide (SnO) is presented, with promising rectification, thermal-sensing, and photosensing performance. Specifically, the hybrid SnO/MoS2 vdWH shows static rectification ratio of 2 × 102 with ideality factor of 2.3, and can operate at 100 Hz with good stability. The vdWH shows good temperature stability with reversible and reproducible current levels up to 110 °C, indicating its potential for thermal sensing applications. The sensitivity of current variation is calculated to be 0.0144 dec °C−1. Finally, maximum responsivity of 8.17 mA W−1 and external quantum efficiency of 2.14% have been achieved in photovoltaic measurements. The results suggest that MoS2–SnO hybrid vdWH are promising for various sensing applications.

  20. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and Sensor Web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged; Resch, Bernd; Crowley, David N.; Breslin, John G.; Sohn, Gunho; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Jeziersk, Eduardo; Slayer Chuang, Kuo Yu

    2011-12-21

    The PIE Activity Awareness Environment is designed to be an adaptive data triage and decision support tool that allows role and activity based situation awareness through a dynamic, trainable filtering system. This paper discusses the process and methodology involved in the application as well as some of its capabilities. 'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, 'noise', misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial

  1. Application of a Channel Estimation Algorithm to Spectrum Sensing in a Cognitive Radio Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Savaux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with spectrum sensing in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM context, allowing an opportunistic user to detect a vacant spectrum resource in a licensed band. The proposed method is based on an iterative algorithm used for the joint estimation of noise variance and frequency selective channel. It can be seen as a second-order detector, since it is performed by means of the minimum mean square error criterion. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is its capability to perform spectrum sensing, noise variance estimation, and channel estimation in the presence of a signal. Furthermore, the sensing duration is limited to only one OFDM symbol. We theoretically show the convergence of the algorithm, and we derive its analytical detection and false alarm probabilities. Furthermore, we show that the detector is very efficient, even for low SNR values, and is robust against a channel uncertainty.

  2. Long period gratings in multimode optical fibers: application in chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Lee, S.; Dinesh Kumar, R.; Suresh Kumar, P.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2003-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new technique for evanescent wave chemical sensing by writing long period gratings in a bare multimode plastic clad silica fiber. The sensing length of the present sensor is only 10 mm, but is as sensitive as a conventional unclad evanescent wave sensor having about 100 mm sensing length. The minimum measurable concentration of the sensor reported here is 10 nmol/l and the operating range is more than 4 orders of magnitude. Moreover, the detection is carried out in two independent detection configurations viz., bright field detection scheme that detects the core-mode power and dark field detection scheme that detects the cladding mode power. The use of such a double detection scheme definitely enhances the reliability and accuracy of the results. Furthermore, the cladding of the present fiber need not be removed as done in conventional evanescent wave fiber sensors.

  3. Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) embedded polymer electret for mechanical sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S.; Praveen, E.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) particles were synthesized by precipitation assisted high temperature solid state reaction. The particles were embedded in chitosan polymer and used as an electret. This electret was characterized for the suitability as a sensing element in vibration accelerometer. It is observed that LiB3O5 embedded electret exhibiting piezoelectric property. The electret is also giving an isolation of > 999 MΩ at 100 Vdc, 250 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1kVdc confirms compatible for intrinsically safe sensing alternative in vibration accelerometer.

  4. Biomedical and sensing applications of a multi-mode biodegradable phosphate-based optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrazky, Ondřej; Peterka, Pavel; Vytykáčová, SoÅa.; Proboštová, Jana; Kuneš, Martin; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Ceci-Ginistrelli, Edoardo; Pugliese, Diego; Boetti, Nadia G.; Janner, Davide; Milanese, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    We report on the employment of a biodegradable phosphate-based optical fiber as a pH sensing probe in physiological environment. The phosphate-based optical fiber preform was fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The fiber biodegradability was first tested in-vitro and then its biodegradability and toxicity were tested in-vivo. Optical probes for pH sensing were prepared by the immobilization of a fluorescent dye on the fiber tip by a sol-gel method. The fluorescence response of the pH-sensor was measured as a ratio of the emission intensities at the excitation wavelengths of 405 and 450 nm.

  5. Enhancement of Giant Magneto-Impedance in Series Co-Rich Microwires for Low-Field Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S. D.; Eggers, T.; Thiabgoh, O.; Xing, D. W.; Fang, W. B.; Sun, J. F.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    Two soft ferromagnetic Co68.25Fe4.25Si12.25B15.25 microwires with the same diameter of 50 ± 1 μm but different fabrication processes were placed in series and in parallel circuit configurations to investigate their giant magneto-impedance (GMI) responses in a frequency range of 1-100 MHz for low-field sensing applications. We show that, while the low-field GMI response is significantly reduced in the parallel configuration, it is greatly enhanced in the series connection. These results suggest that a highly sensitive GMI sensor can be designed by arranging multi-wires in a saw-shaped fashion to optimize the sensing area, and soldered together in series connection to maintain the excellent magnetic field sensitivity.

  6. Construction of conductive multilayer films of biogenic triangular gold nanoparticles and their application in chemical vapour sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Chaudhari, Minakshi; Sastry, Murali

    2006-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles are interesting building blocks for realizing films for a number of applications that include bio- and chemical sensing. To date, spherical metal nanoparticles have been used to generate functional electrical coatings. In this paper we demonstrate the synthesis of electrically conductive coatings using biologically prepared gold nanotriangles as the building blocks. The gold nanotriangles are prepared by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions using an extract of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon flexuosus) which are thereafter assembled onto a variety of substrates by simple solution casting. The conductivity of the film shows a drastic fall upon mild heat treatment, leading to the formation of electrically conductive thin films of nanoparticles. We have also investigated the possibility of using the gold nanotriangle films in vapour sensing. A large fall in film resistance is observed upon exposure to polar molecules such as methanol, while little change occurs upon exposure to weakly polar molecules such as chloroform.

  7. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  8. Physical vapor deposited thin films of lignins extracted from sugar cane bagasse: morphology, electrical properties, and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpati, Diogo; Machado, Aislan D; Olivati, Clarissa A; Alves, Neri; Curvelo, Antonio A S; Pasquini, Daniel; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2011-09-12

    The concern related to the environmental degradation and to the exhaustion of natural resources has induced the research on biodegradable materials obtained from renewable sources, which involves fundamental properties and general application. In this context, we have fabricated thin films of lignins, which were extracted from sugar cane bagasse via modified organosolv process using ethanol as organic solvent. The films were made using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique (PVD, physical vapor deposition) grown up to 120 nm. The main objective was to explore basic properties such as electrical and surface morphology and the sensing performance of these lignins as transducers. The PVD film growth was monitored via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, revealing a linear relationship between absorbance and film thickness. The 120 nm lignin PVD film morphology presented small aggregates spread all over the film surface on the nanometer scale (atomic force microscopy, AFM) and homogeneous on the micrometer scale (optical microscopy). The PVD films were deposited onto Au interdigitated electrode (IDE) for both electrical characterization and sensing experiments. In the case of electrical characterization, current versus voltage (I vs V) dc measurements were carried out for the Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film, leading to a conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-10) S/m. Using impedance spectroscopy, also for the Au IDE coated with the 120 nm lignin PVD film, dielectric constant of 8.0, tan δ of 3.9 × 10(-3), and conductivity of 1.75 × 10(-9) S/m were calculated at 1 kHz. As a proof-of-principle, the application of these lignins as transducers in sensing devices was monitored by both impedance spectroscopy (capacitance vs frequency) and I versus time dc measurements toward aniline vapor (saturated atmosphere). The electrical responses showed that the sensing units are sensible to aniline vapor with the process being

  9. Studies and Application of Remote Sensing Retrieval Method of Soil Moisture Content in Land Parcel Units in Irrigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhao, H. L.; Jiang, Y. Z.; Zang, W. B.

    2018-05-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important hydrological elements. Obtaining soil moisture accurately and effectively is of great significance for water resource management in irrigation area. During the process of soil moisture content retrieval with multiremote sensing data, multi- remote sensing data always brings multi-spatial scale problems which results in inconformity of soil moisture content retrieved by remote sensing in different spatial scale. In addition, agricultural water use management has suitable spatial scale of soil moisture information so as to satisfy the demands of dynamic management of water use and water demand in certain unit. We have proposed to use land parcel unit as the minimum unit to do soil moisture content research in agricultural water using area, according to soil characteristics, vegetation coverage characteristics in underlying layer, and hydrological characteristic into the basis of study unit division. We have proposed division method of land parcel units. Based on multi thermal infrared and near infrared remote sensing data, we calculate the ndvi and tvdi index and make a statistical model between the tvdi index and soil moisture of ground monitoring station. Then we move forward to study soil moisture remote sensing retrieval method on land parcel unit scale. And the method has been applied in Hetao irrigation area. Results show that compared with pixel scale the soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has displayed stronger correlation with true value. Hence, remote sensing retrieval method of soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has shown good applicability in Hetao irrigation area. We converted the research unit into the scale of land parcel unit. Using the land parcel units with unified crops and soil attributes as the research units more complies with the characteristics of agricultural water areas, avoids the problems such as decomposition of mixed pixels and excessive dependence on high-resolution data

  10. Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing: recent improvements and Nagra's applications in the Mont Terri URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Tobias; Mueller, Herwig R.; Vietor, Tim; Frieg, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The application of fiber-optic sensors in large experiments in underground rock laboratories (URL) and for monitoring of pilot repositories offers several advantages in contrast to conventional sensors. By means of optical fibers distributed temperature and deformation measurements can be performed without electric or mechanical components at the measurement location reducing the risk of corrosion and sensor failure. As fiber-optic strain sensors are to some extend still in a prototype stage, we focus here on Raman spectra distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing (DTS). In DTS a fiber-optic cable, which is the temperature sensor, is connected to a light reading unit that sends laser-pulses into the fiber. The backscattered light is detected with high temporal resolution. From the two-way-light-travel-time the location of backscattering is determined. For the temperature information the amplitude ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes signals is analyzed. The Stokes and anti- Stokes signals are the result of the Raman effect. The ratio of these signals provides a quantity that depends only on the temperature of the fiber at the location of backscatter. With commercial DTS setups it is possible to measure the temperature distribution along several kilometer long cables with a temperature resolution of 0.01 C and a spatial resolution of 1 m. Recent developments in DTS focus on better temperature precision and resolution. This advancement can be achieved by experiment-specific calibration techniques and sensor-layout as well as improved instruments. To realize high spatial resolution (cm range) wrapped fiber-optic cables can be applied. Another promising approach to monitor moisture along a fiber-optic cable installed in unconsolidated material are heatable cables. We will present a selection of the most recent advancements which may improve temperature monitoring in natural and

  11. Demonstration of a high speed hybrid electrical and optical sensing system for next generation launcher applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; O'Dowd, John A.; Honniball, Arthur; Bessler, Vivian; Farnan, Martin; O'Connor, Peter; Melicher, Milos; Gleeson, Danny

    2017-09-01

    The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) has a goal of developing various launch vehicle system concepts and identifying the technologies required for the design of Europe's Next-Generation Launcher (NGL) while maintaining competitiveness on the commercial market. Avionics fiber optic sensing technology was investigated as part of the FLPP programme. Here we demonstrate and evaluate a high speed hybrid electrical/optical data acquisition system based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology capable of acquiring data from traditional electrical sensors and optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The proposed system consists of the KAM-500 data acquisition system developed by Curtis-Wright and the I4 tunable laser based fiber optic sensor interrogator developed by FAZ Technology. The key objective was to demonstrate the capability of the hybrid system to acquire data from traditional electrical sensors used in launcher applications e.g. strain, temperature and pressure in combination with optical FBG sensors, as well as data delivery to spacecraft avionics systems. The KAM-500 was configured as the main acquisition unit (MAU) and provided a 1 kHz sampling clock to the I4 interrogator that was configured as the secondary acquisition unit (SAU) to synchronize the data acquisition sample rate between both systems. The SAU acquired data from an array of optical FBG sensors, while the MAU data acquisition system acquired data from the electrical sensors. Data acquired from the optical sensors was processed by the FAZ I4 interrogation system and then encapsulated into UDP/IP packets and transferred to the KAM-500. The KAM-500 encapsulated the optical sensor data together with the data acquired from electrical sensors and transmitted the data over MIL-STD-1553 and Ethernet data interface. The temperature measurements resulted in the optical and electrical sensors performing on a par with each other, with all

  12. Building sustainable communities using sense of place indicators in three Hudson River Valley, NY, tourism destinations: An application of the limits of acceptable change process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Sullivan; Rudy M. Schuster; Diane M. Kuehn; Cheryl S. Doble; Duarte. Morais

    2010-01-01

    This study explores whether measures of residents' sense of place can act as indicators in the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) process to facilitate tourism planning and management. Data on community attributes valued by residents and the associated values and meanings were collected through focus groups with 27 residents in three Hudson River Valley, New York,...

  13. 41 CFR 102-73.100 - Is the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (CICA), applicable to lease acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (CICA), applicable to lease acquisition? 102-73.100 Section 102-73.100... Contracting Act of 1984 § 102-73.100 Is the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (CICA...

  14. Graphene nano-devices and nano-composites for structural, thermal and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Fazel

    In this dissertation we have developed graphene-based nano-devices for applications in integrated circuits and gas sensors; as well as graphene-based nano-composites for applications in structures and thermal management. First, we have studied the bandgap of graphene for semiconductor applications. Graphene as a zero-bandgap material cannot be used in the semiconductor industry unless an effective method is developed to open the bandgap in this material. We have demonstrated that a bandgap of 0.206 eV can be opened in graphene by adsorption of water vapor molecules on its surface. Water molecules break the molecular symmetries of graphene resulting in a significant bandgap opening. We also illustrate that the lack of bandgap in graphene can be used to our advantage by making sensors that are able to detect low concentrations of gas molecules mixed in air. We have shown that 1-2 layers of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition enables detection of trace amounts of NO 2 and NH3 in air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The gas species are detected by monitoring changes in electrical resistance of the graphene film due to gas adsorption. The sensor response time is inversely proportional to the gas concentration. Heating the film expels chemisorbed molecules from the graphene surface enabling reversible operation. The detection limits of ~100 parts-per-billion (ppb) for NO2 and ~500 ppb for NH3 obtained using this device are markedly superior to commercially available NO2 and NH3 detectors. This sensor is fabricated using individual graphene sheets that are exquisitely sensitive to the chemical environment. However, the fabrication and operation of devices that use individual nanostructures for sensing is complex, expensive and suffers from poor reliability due to contamination and large variability from sample-to-sample. To overcome these problems we have developed a gas sensor based on a porous 3D network of graphene sheets called graphene foam

  15. Investigation on sense of control parameters for joystick interface in remote operated container crane application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, U. N. N.; Handroos, H.

    2017-09-01

    Introduction: This paper presents the study of sense of control parameters to improve the lack of direct motion feeling through remote operated container crane station (ROCCS) joystick interface. The investigations of the parameters in this study are important to develop the engineering parameters related to the sense of control goal in the next design process. Methodology: Structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain the user experience data from thirteen remote container crane operators from two international terminals. Then, interview analysis, task analysis, activity analysis and time line analysis were conducted to compare and contrast the results from interviews and observations. Results: Four experience parameters were identified to support the sense of control goal in the later design improvement of the ROCC joystick interface. The significance of difficulties to control, unsynchronized movements, facilitate in control and decision making in unexpected situation as parameters to the sense of control goal were validated by' feedbacks from operators as well as analysis. Contribution: This study provides feedback directly from end users towards developing a sustainable control interface for ROCCS in specific and remote operated off-road vehicles in general.

  16. The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. R.; Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a remote sensing model and its efficiency in determining parameters of hydrologic models are reviewed. Procedures for extracting hydrologic data from LANDSAT imagery, and the visual analysis of composite imagery are presented. A hydrologic planning model is developed and applied to determine seasonal variations in watershed conditions. The transfer of this technology to a user community and contract arrangements are discussed.

  17. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...

  18. Potential for boom-mounted remote sensing applications in seedling quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Keefe; Jan U. H. Eitel; Daniel S. Long; Anthony S. Davis; Paul Gessler; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Remotely sensed aerial and satellite sensor imagery is widely used for classification of vegetation structure and health on industrial and public lands. More intensively than at any other time in the life of a planted tree, its health and status will be maintained and monitored while under culture in a bareroot or container nursery. As a case in point, inventories to...

  19. An exploratory study of the application of sense of community in a local festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Fengfeng Ke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and measure the empirical relationships between a festival and one of its possible social effects: residents' perceptions of a sense of community (SOC). A mixed research method was utilized to explore how a multicultural festival in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania affected residents' perceived SOC. Survey questionnaires were...

  20. Advances in the application of remote sensing and GIS for surveying mountainous land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been practised since 1972, starting with broad channels and moderate ground resolution (Landsat MSS). In the 1980s, Landsat TM and SPOT provided for improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Many satellite images were produced in these two decades, offering a synoptic

  1. Amperometric Sensor for Heparin: Sensing Mechanism and Application in Human Blood Plasma Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Olšák, J.; Samcová, E.; Samec, Zdeněk; Trojánek, Antonín

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, 13-14 (2006), s. 1329-1338 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heparin * amperometry * PVC membrane electrode * sensing mechanism * human blood plasma Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  2. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor

  3. Standard land-cover classification scheme for remote-sensing applications in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For large areas, satellite remote-sensing techniques have now become the single most effective method for land-cover and land-use data acquisition. However, the majority of land-cover (and land-use) classification schemes used have been developed...

  4. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using Convolutional Neural Networks: Application to Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, B.

    2018-04-01

    A empirical model is established to analyse the daily retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave remote sensing using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle. However, with the rapidly increasing of the acquiring technology for remotely sensed data, it's a hard task for remote sensing practitioners to find a fast and convenient model to deal with the massive data. In this paper, the AMSR-E brightness temperatures are used to train CNN for the prediction of the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF) model. Compared with the classical inversion methods, the deep learning-based method is more suitable for global soil moisture retrieval. It is very well supported by graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration, which can meet the demand of massive data inversion. Once the model trained, a global soil moisture map can be predicted in less than 10 seconds. What's more, the method of soil moisture retrieval based on deep learning can learn the complex texture features from the big remote sensing data. In this experiment, the results demonstrates that the CNN deployed to retrieve global soil moisture can achieve a better performance than the support vector regression (SVR) for soil moisture retrieval.

  5. Soil water sensing for climate change studies; Applicability of COSMOS and local sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water sensors are used to characterize water content in the near-surface, the root zone and below for agricultural and ecosystem management, but only a few are capable of sensing soil volumes larger than a few hundred liters. Scientists with the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Labor...

  6. Application of gas-coupled laser acoustic detection to gelatins and underwater sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, James N.; Kunapareddy, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Gas-coupled Laser Acoustic Detection (GCLAD) has been used as a method to sense ultrasound waves in materials without contact of the material surface. To sense the waveform, a laser beam is directed parallel to the material surface and displaced or deflected when the radiated waveform traverses the beam. We present recent tests that demonstrate the potential of using this technique for detecting ultrasound in gelatin phantoms and in water. As opposed to interferometric detection, GCLAD operates independently of the optical surface properties of the material. This allows the technique to be used in cases where the material is transparent or semi-transparent. We present results on sensing ultrasound in gelatin phantoms that are used to mimic biological materials. As with air-coupled transducers, the frequency response of GCLAD at high frequencies is limited by the high attenuation of ultrasound in air. In contrast, water has a much lower attenuation. Here we demonstrate the use of a GCLAD-like system in water, measuring the directivity response at 1 MHz and sensing waveforms with higher frequency content

  7. Self-Calibrating High Resolution Tunable Filter for Remote Gas Sensing Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact, robust, optically-based sensor for local and remote sensing of oxygen (O2) at 1.26 µm, carbon dioxide (CO2) at 1.56 µm and other...

  8. SOIL MOISTURE RETRIEVAL USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS: APPLICATION TO PASSIVE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A empirical model is established to analyse the daily retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave remote sensing using convolutional neural networks (CNN. Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle. However, with the rapidly increasing of the acquiring technology for remotely sensed data, it's a hard task for remote sensing practitioners to find a fast and convenient model to deal with the massive data. In this paper, the AMSR-E brightness temperatures are used to train CNN for the prediction of the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF model. Compared with the classical inversion methods, the deep learning-based method is more suitable for global soil moisture retrieval. It is very well supported by graphics processing unit (GPU acceleration, which can meet the demand of massive data inversion. Once the model trained, a global soil moisture map can be predicted in less than 10 seconds. What's more, the method of soil moisture retrieval based on deep learning can learn the complex texture features from the big remote sensing data. In this experiment, the results demonstrates that the CNN deployed to retrieve global soil moisture can achieve a better performance than the support vector regression (SVR for soil moisture retrieval.

  9. Multi-site testing and evaluation of remote sensing instruments for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Borbon Guillen, F.; Gomez Arranz, P.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for testing and evaluation of remote sensing instruments that makes use of two test sites in flat and complex terrain is presented. To illustrate the method, a system intercomparison experiment is presented involving one sodar and two lidars (pulsed and continuous-wave). The wind...

  10. 75 FR 80762 - Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act: Applicability to Hospital and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... [CMS-1350-ANPRM] RIN 0938-AQ51 Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act... Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). Specifically, this document serves as a request for... available to persons without Federal government identification, commenters are encouraged to leave their...

  11. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    .... SUMMARY: The Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, has made a preliminary determination that... Court House, NJ, contains all the required information and warrants further consideration. The proposed... should be sent to Emily Menashes, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS, 1315 East-West...

  12. Spectral reflectance of carbonate sediments and application to remote sensing classification of benthic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchard, Eric Michael

    Remote sensing is a valuable tool in marine research that has advanced to the point that images from shallow waters can be used to identify different seafloor types and create maps of benthic habitats. A major goal of this dissertation is to examine differences in spectral reflectance and create new methods of analyzing shallow water remote sensing data to identify different seafloor types quickly and accurately. Carbonate sediments were used as a model system as they presented a relatively uniform, smooth surface for measurement and are a major bottom type in tropical coral reef systems. Experimental results found that sediment reflectance varied in shape and magnitude depending on pigment content, but only varied in magnitude with variations in grain size and shape. Derivative analysis of the reflectance spectra identified wavelength regions that correlate to chlorophyll a and chlorophyllide a as well as accessory pigments, indicating differences in microbial community structure. Derivative peak height also correlated to pigment content in the sediments. In remote sensing data, chlorophyll a, chlorophyllide a, and some xanthophylls were identified in derivative spectra and could be quantified from second derivative peak height. Most accessory pigments were attenuated by the water column, however, and could not be used to quantify pigments in sediments from remote sensing images. Radiative transfer modeling of remote sensing reflectance showed that there was sufficient spectral variation to separate major sediment types, such as ooid shoals and sediment with microbial layers, from different densities of seagrass and pavement bottom communities. Both supervised classification with a spectral library and unsupervised classification with principal component analysis were used to create maps of seafloor type. The results of the experiments were promising; classified seafloor types correlated with ground truth observations taken from underwater video and were

  13. Application of Lidar remote sensing to the estimation of forest canopy and stand structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsky, Michael Andrew

    A new remote sensing instrument, SLICER (Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery), has been applied to the problem of remote sensing the canopy and stand structure of two groups of deciduous forests, Tulip Poplar-Oak stands in the vicinity of Annapolis, MD. and bottomland hardwood stands near Williamston, NC. The ability of the SLICER instrument to remotely sense the vertical distribution of canopy structure (Canopy Height Profile), bulk canopy transmittance, and several indices of canopy height has been successfully validated using twelve stands with coincident field and SLICER estimates of canopy structure. Principal components analysis has been applied to canopy height profiles from both field sites, and three significant factors were identified, each closely related to the amount of foliage in a recognizable layer of the forest, either understory, midstory, or overstory. The distribution of canopy structure to these layers is significantly correlated with the size and number of stems supporting them. The same layered structure was shown to apply to both field and SLICER remotely sensed canopy height profiles, and to apply to SLICER remotely sensed canopy profiles from both the bottomland hardwood stands in the coastal plain of North Carolina, and to mesic Tulip-Poplars stands in the upland coastal plain of Maryland. Linear regressions have demonstrated that canopy and stand structure are correlated to both a statistically significant and useful degree. Stand age and stem density is more highly correlated to stand height, while stand basal area and aboveground biomass are more closely related to a new measure of canopy structure, the quadratic mean canopy height. A geometric model of canopy structure has been shown to explain the differing relationships between canopy structure and stand basal area for stands of Eastern Deciduous Forest and Douglas Fir Forest.

  14. Incorporating climate science in applications of the US endangered species act for aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle M; Alexander, Michael; Borggaard, Diane; Boughton, David; Crozier, Lisa; Griffis, Roger; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Lindley, Steven T; Nye, Janet; Rowland, Melanie J; Seney, Erin E; Snover, Amy; Toole, Christopher; VAN Houtan, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic species are threatened by climate change but have received comparatively less attention than terrestrial species. We gleaned key strategies for scientists and managers seeking to address climate change in aquatic conservation planning from the literature and existing knowledge. We address 3 categories of conservation effort that rely on scientific analysis and have particular application under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA): assessment of overall risk to a species; long-term recovery planning; and evaluation of effects of specific actions or perturbations. Fewer data are available for aquatic species to support these analyses, and climate effects on aquatic systems are poorly characterized. Thus, we recommend scientists conducting analyses supporting ESA decisions develop a conceptual model that links climate, habitat, ecosystem, and species response to changing conditions and use this model to organize analyses and future research. We recommend that current climate conditions are not appropriate for projections used in ESA analyses and that long-term projections of climate-change effects provide temporal context as a species-wide assessment provides spatial context. In these projections, climate change should not be discounted solely because the magnitude of projected change at a particular time is uncertain when directionality of climate change is clear. Identifying likely future habitat at the species scale will indicate key refuges and potential range shifts. However, the risks and benefits associated with errors in modeling future habitat are not equivalent. The ESA offers mechanisms for increasing the overall resilience and resistance of species to climate changes, including establishing recovery goals requiring increased genetic and phenotypic diversity, specifying critical habitat in areas not currently occupied but likely to become important, and using adaptive management. Incorporación de las Ciencias Climáticas en las Aplicaciones del

  15. Discussion on the correlation between geophysical and remote sensing information. Primary study on information correlation of research content and concept of post-remote sensing application technology for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the research content of post-remote sensing application technology for uranium exploration, a preliminary discussion on the correlation between RS information and geophysical information from gravity, aero-magnetics, aero-radioactivity is made on five aspects: physical meaning, depth of geological rule meaning, time and phase, planar pattern and inter-reaction mechanism. It creates a good beginner for deeply studying the correlation in quality and quantity between RS information from post-remote sensing application technology and other geologic information. (authors)

  16. A Fuzzy-Based Approach for Sensing, Coding and Transmission Configuration of Visual Sensors in Smart City Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G; Collotta, Mario; Pau, Giovanni; Duran-Faundez, Cristian

    2017-01-05

    The advance of technologies in several areas has allowed the development of smart city applications, which can improve the way of life in modern cities. When employing visual sensors in that scenario, still images and video streams may be retrieved from monitored areas, potentially providing valuable data for many applications. Actually, visual sensor networks may need to be highly dynamic, reflecting the changing of parameters in smart cities. In this context, characteristics of visual sensors and conditions of the monitored environment, as well as the status of other concurrent monitoring systems, may affect how visual sensors collect, encode and transmit information. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based approach to dynamically configure the way visual sensors will operate concerning sensing, coding and transmission patterns, exploiting different types of reference parameters. This innovative approach can be considered as the basis for multi-systems smart city applications based on visual monitoring, potentially bringing significant results for this research field.

  17. Applications of hierarchically structured porous materials from energy storage and conversion, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation, and sensing to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Hui; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Yu; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Yuan, Zhong-Yong; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-06-13

    Over the last decade, significant effort has been devoted to the applications of hierarchically structured porous materials owing to their outstanding properties such as high surface area, excellent accessibility to active sites, and enhanced mass transport and diffusion. The hierarchy of porosity, structural, morphological and component levels in these materials is key for their high performance in all kinds of applications. The introduction of hierarchical porosity into materials has led to a significant improvement in the performance of materials. Herein, recent progress in the applications of hierarchically structured porous materials from energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation, and sensing to biomedicine is reviewed. Their potential future applications are also highlighted. We particularly dwell on the relationship between hierarchically porous structures and properties, with examples of each type of hierarchically structured porous material according to its chemical composition and physical characteristics. The present review aims to open up a new avenue to guide the readers to quickly obtain in-depth knowledge of applications of hierarchically porous materials and to have a good idea about selecting and designing suitable hierarchically porous materials for a specific application. In addition to focusing on the applications of hierarchically porous materials, this comprehensive review could stimulate researchers to synthesize new advanced hierarchically porous solids.

  18. Geospatial environmental data modelling applications using remote sensing, GIS and spatial statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siljander, M.

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents novel modelling applications for environmental geospatial data using remote sensing, GIS and statistical modelling techniques. The studied themes can be classified into four main themes: (i) to develop advanced geospatial databases. Paper (I) demonstrates the creation of a geospatial database for the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) in the Aaland Islands, south-western Finland; (ii) to analyse species diversity and distribution using GIS techniques. Paper (II) presents a diversity and geographical distribution analysis for Scopulini moths at a world-wide scale; (iii) to study spatiotemporal forest cover change. Paper (III) presents a study of exotic and indigenous tree cover change detection in Taita Hills Kenya using airborne imagery and GIS analysis techniques; (iv) to explore predictive modelling techniques using geospatial data. In Paper (IV) human population occurrence and abundance in the Taita Hills highlands was predicted using the generalized additive modelling (GAM) technique. Paper (V) presents techniques to enhance fire prediction and burned area estimation at a regional scale in East Caprivi Namibia. Paper (VI) compares eight state-of-the-art predictive modelling methods to improve fire prediction, burned area estimation and fire risk mapping in East Caprivi Namibia. The results in Paper (I) showed that geospatial data can be managed effectively using advanced relational database management systems. Metapopulation data for Melitaea cinxia butterfly was successfully combined with GPS-delimited habitat patch information and climatic data. Using the geospatial database, spatial analyses were successfully conducted at habitat patch level or at more coarse analysis scales. Moreover, this study showed it appears evident that at a large-scale spatially correlated weather conditions are one of the primary causes of spatially correlated changes in Melitaea cinxia population sizes. In Paper (II) spatiotemporal characteristics

  19. Green Functions For Multiple Scattering As Mathematical Tools For Dense Cloud Remote Sensing: Theory, With Passive And Active Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.B.; Marshak, A.; Cahalan, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    We survey radiative Green function theory (1) in linear transport theory where numerical procedures are required to obtain specific results and (2) in the photon diffusion limit (large optical depths) where it is analytically tractable, at least for homogeneous plane-parallel media. We then describe two recent applications of Green function theory to passive cloud remote sensing in the presence of strong three-dimensional transport effects. Finally, we describe recent instrumental breakthroughs in 'off-beam' cloud lidar which is based on direct measurements of radiative Green functions with special attention to the data collected during the Shuttle-based Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission.

  20. Application of remote sensing data for oil spill monitoring in the Guanabara bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Cristina Maria; Miranda, Fernando Pellon de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Centro de Excelencia em Geoquimica

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the application of remote sensing data for oil spill monitoring in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the emergency, Landsat-5/T M (Thematic Mapper) and Radar sat-1 data were acquired to monitor the location of the spill and its movement. Image classification procedures have been utilized to highlight oil-covered areas on the water surface. Ambiguities in the oil detection were resolved with the aid of ancillary information in a GIS (Geographic Information System) environment. The results obtained helped PETROBRAS to optimize the emergency response procedures and subsequent cleaning efforts. (author)

  1. Ring-shaped inductive sensor design and application to pressure sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Myoung Gyu; Baek, Seong Ki; Park, Young Woo [Dept. of Mechatronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Inductive sensors are versatile and economical devices that are widely used to measure a wide variety of physical variables, such as displacement, force, and pressure. In this paper, we propose a simple inductive sensor consisting of a thin partial ring and a coil set. The self-inductance of the sensor was estimated using magnetic circuit analysis and validated through finite element analysis (FEA). The natural frequency of the ring was estimated using Castigliano's theorem and the method of equivalent mass. The estimation was validated through experiments and FEA. A prototype sensor with a signal processing circuit is built and applied to noninvasively sense the pressure inside a flexible tube. The obtained sensor outputs show quadratic behavior with respect to the pressure. When fitted to a quadratic equation, the least-square measurement error was less than 2%. The results confirm the feasibility of pressure sensing using the proposed inductive sensor.

  2. Quantification of whispering gallery mode spectrum variability in application to sensing nanobiophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Anton; Skakun, Victor; Saetchnikov, Vladimir; Tcherniavskaia, Elina; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    An approach for the automated whispering gallery mode (WGM) signal decomposition and its parameter estimation is discussed. The algorithm is based on the peak picking and can be applied for the preprocessing of the raw signal acquired from the multiplied WGM-based biosensing chips. Quantitative estimations representing physically meaningful parameters of the external disturbing factors on the WGM spectral shape are the output values. Derived parameters can be directly applied to the further deep qualitative and quantitative interpretations of the sensed disturbing factors. The algorithm is tested on both simulated and experimental data taken from the bovine serum albumin biosensing task. The proposed solution is expected to be a useful contribution to the preprocessing phase of the complete data analysis engine and is expected to push the WGM technology toward the real-live sensing nanobiophotonics.

  3. Dissipative quantum error correction and application to quantum sensing with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, F; Sørensen, A S; Zoller, P; Muschik, C A

    2017-11-28

    Quantum-enhanced measurements hold the promise to improve high-precision sensing ranging from the definition of time standards to the determination of fundamental constants of nature. However, quantum sensors lose their sensitivity in the presence of noise. To protect them, the use of quantum error-correcting codes has been proposed. Trapped ions are an excellent technological platform for both quantum sensing and quantum error correction. Here we present a quantum error correction scheme that harnesses dissipation to stabilize a trapped-ion qubit. In our approach, always-on couplings to an engineered environment protect the qubit against spin-flips or phase-flips. Our dissipative error correction scheme operates in a continuous manner without the need to perform measurements or feedback operations. We show that the resulting enhanced coherence time translates into a significantly enhanced precision for quantum measurements. Our work constitutes a stepping stone towards the paradigm of self-correcting quantum information processing.

  4. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor node is connected to the internet for remote monitoring and has the capability of localization. The paper presents the design of antenna-on-package as well as details of the communication and localization system. Fabrication challenges unique to 3D printing and integration of electronics on 3D printed circuit board are also discussed. Finally, the paper presents measurement results of antenna radiation pattern, return loss, localization accuracy and accuracy of sensing parameters.

  5. Application of Notched Long-Period Fiber Grating Based Sensor for CO2 Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma etching process to fabricate notched long-period fiber gratings for CO2 gas sensing is proposed in this article. In the gas sensing test, the 15% mixed CO2 gas was used for characterization of CO2 adsorption by the amine-modified nanoporous silica foams of the notched long-period fiber grating sensor. The results shows the spectra were changed with the CO2 gas flow within 13 min. During the absorption process, the transmission of the resonant dip was decreased by 2.884 dB. Therefore, the proposed notched long-period fiber grating gas sensor shows good performance and is suitable as a gas sensor for monitoring the CO2 adsorption process.

  6. Ring-shaped inductive sensor design and application to pressure sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myoung Gyu; Baek, Seong Ki; Park, Young Woo; Kim, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    Inductive sensors are versatile and economical devices that are widely used to measure a wide variety of physical variables, such as displacement, force, and pressure. In this paper, we propose a simple inductive sensor consisting of a thin partial ring and a coil set. The self-inductance of the sensor was estimated using magnetic circuit analysis and validated through finite element analysis (FEA). The natural frequency of the ring was estimated using Castigliano's theorem and the method of equivalent mass. The estimation was validated through experiments and FEA. A prototype sensor with a signal processing circuit is built and applied to noninvasively sense the pressure inside a flexible tube. The obtained sensor outputs show quadratic behavior with respect to the pressure. When fitted to a quadratic equation, the least-square measurement error was less than 2%. The results confirm the feasibility of pressure sensing using the proposed inductive sensor

  7. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. The Application of KINECT Motion Sensing Technology in Game-Oriented Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Yu Yang; Hao Zhang; Wei Xu; Ping Jian Zhang; Liang Ming Xu

    2014-01-01

    The learning environment based on the KINECT Motion Sensing technology is able to fully mobilize the learners' multi-sensory organs, closely combine study with sports and enhance human-computer interactions, which can be conducive to the learners' health, greatly increase the relishes of learning and promote effective learning in the game, and finally compensate for the shortage of human-computer interactions in the traditional mouse and keyboard mode. The article elaborates on the KINECT Mot...

  9. Application of Remote Sensing in Building Damages Assessment after Moderate and Strong Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, J.; Dou, A.

    2003-04-01

    - Earthquake is a main natural disaster in modern society. However, we still cannot predict the time and place of its occurrence accurately. Then it is of much importance to survey the damages information when an earthquake occurs, which can help us to mitigate losses and implement fast damage evaluation. In this paper, we use remote sensing techniques for our purposes. Remotely sensed satellite images often view a large scale of land at a time. There are several kinds of satellite images, which of different spatial and spectral resolutions. Landsat-4/5 TM sensor can view ground at 30m resolution, while Landsat-7 ETM Plus has a resolution of 15m in panchromatic waveband. SPOT satellite can provide images with higher resolutions. Those images obtained pre- and post-earthquake can help us greatly in identifying damages of moderate and large-size buildings. In this paper, we bring forward a method to implement quick damages assessment by analyzing both pre- and post-earthquake satellite images. First, those images are geographically registered together with low RMS (Root Mean Square) error. Then, we clip out residential areas by overlaying images with existing vector layers through Geographic Information System (GIS) software. We present a new change detection algorithm to quantitatively identify damages degree. An empirical or semi-empirical model is then established by analyzing the real damage degree and changes of pixel values of the same ground objects. Experimental result shows that there is a good linear relationship between changes of pixel values and ground damages, which proves the potentials of remote sensing in post-quake fast damage assessment. Keywords: Damages Assessment, Earthquake Hazard, Remote Sensing

  10. 78 FR 28000 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... facilities and equipment. Location Antarctic Peninsula region, ASPA 117-Avian Island, ASPA 128 Cape...

  11. 76 FR 57765 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the establishment of a permit system... Island (ASPA 121) and Cape Crozier (ASPA 124) to collect ground control with highly precise GPS equipment...

  12. 76 FR 20721 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    .... 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed... conducted in collaboration with the University of California San Diego Keck Center for Magnetic Resonance...

  13. 78 FR 54686 - Notice of Permit Applications Received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism... of the ongoing effort to monitor the spatial scale of human impacts in Antarctica. Samples taken near...

  14. 78 FR 60321 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ..., Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the establishment of a permit system... effort to monitor the spatial scale of human impacts in Antarctica. Samples taken near Palmer Station...

  15. 77 FR 7610 - Notice of permit applications received under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has... to be used for K-12 educational outreach activities. In general, the bird parts will be an example of...

  16. 78 FR 41960 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ..., Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996, has developed regulations for the establishment of a permit system... waste (food waste, human solid waste, and packaging materials). Human waste and grey water would be...

  17. 78 FR 56743 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science... measure ablation and GPS units to monitor the motion of the glacier. The GPR system will be moved...

  18. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  19. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body

  20. A Review on Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most critical natural resources that maintain the ecosystem and support people’s daily life. Pressures on water resources and disaster management are rising primarily due to the unequal spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and pollution, and also partially due to our poor knowledge about the distribution of water resources and poor management of their usage. Remote sensing provides critical data for mapping water resources, measuring hydrological fluxes, monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while geographic information systems (GIS provide the best tools for water resources, drought and flood risk management. This special issue presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models for water resource mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping, and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D surface model analysis and visualization of glaciers, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV video image classification for turfgrass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimation, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetography analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, and satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of those technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and allow better mitigation of and adaptation to the disastrous impact of droughts and flooding.