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Sample records for sensations gastric secretion

  1. Oral sensations and secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A

    2018-04-10

    Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth). Another vital component of food flavor is texture, which contributes to palatability, especially if a food's texture violates a person's expectations. Next, chemesthesis is the sense of chemically induced irritancy and temperature, for example spiciness and stinging. All of these sensations are potentially modified by saliva, the chemical and physical media of the mouth. As a person experiences the culmination of these oral sensations, modified through an individual's own unique saliva, the flavors in turn influence both what and how a person eats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  3. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  4. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  5. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    of gastric mucosal blood flow, whereas stimulation of beta, muscarinic, and 'gastrinergic' receptors mainly occurs indirectly via changes in parietal cell function. The main effect of dopamine seems to be on gastric motility, whereas the effect on gastric acid secretion is of minor importance.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose......-dependent stimulation of gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine at 1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min). the stimulatory effect seems to be mediated by more than one receptor, whereas the inhibition...

  6. THE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe ...

  7. Adrenergic influence on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    . The inhibitory effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion showed the characteristics of competitive type and on bethanechol stimulated acid secretion of non competitive type. An increasing and dose-dependent stimulation of bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine...

  8. Effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F; Bech, K

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of a beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs with gastric fistula. Isoprenaline, a beta 1- and beta 2-agonist was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 2- and beta 1-receptors. Isoprenaline...

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  11. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  12. Evidence of nonvagal neural stimulation of canine gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansy, M F; Probst, S J; Martin, J S

    1975-06-01

    In this study, we confirmed our original findings that central vagus stimulation is significantly associated with a subsequent increase in gastric mucus secretion. Central vagus stimulation following phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride administration was associated significantly with protracted elevations in secretory volume and titratable acid. We were unable to conclude that phenoxybenzamine itself in several pharmacologic dosages was associated with an increase in titratable acid. The acid secretory responses could be abolished by transection of the splanchnic nerves. Electrical stimulation of the peripheral part of the splanchnic nerve following administration of phenoxybenzamine was also associated with significant increases in secretory volume and titrable acidity. These secretory responses were not blocked by atropine but were diminished by burimamide. It is concluded that, in the dog, a largely heretofore unsuspected second neural pathway exists which is capable of influencing gastric acid secretion.

  13. Effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on healing of chronic gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1988-01-01

    The effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on healing of chronic gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion was investigated in rats. The effect of three doses of omeprazole given orally once daily for 25 days was investigated. In controls median ulcer healing was 19.6% after 25 days. Omeprazole...... increased median ulcer healing from 36% at 145 mumole/kg/day to 80% at 580 mumole/kg/day. Basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid secretion decreased dose-dependently by nearly 90% at a dose of 580 mumole/kg/day 22-24 hr after the last dose of omeprazole. Cimetidine given twice daily, in a dose...... that initially inhibits gastric acid secretion by 95%, reduced acid secretion by only 50% 11 hr after the last dose. Median ulcer healing after treatment with cimetidine for 25 days was 41%. This study demonstrates that omeprazole has a more long-acting inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion compared...

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates glucagon secretion, enhances lipid absorption, and inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Pott, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    or placebo during the ingestion of a solid test meal. Gastric emptying was determined using a 13C-sodium-octanote breath test. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-2, free fatty acids, free glycerol, and triglycerides were determined. RESULTS: GLP-2 administration led...... (P = .07). GLP-2 administration caused an approximately 15% reduction in pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and chloride secretion (P gastric emptying was not affected (P = .99). CONCLUSIONS: GLP-2 reduces gastric acid secretion but does not seem to have an influence on gastric......BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well...

  15. Oral metiamide as an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is described for the evaluation of the effect of oral therapy on gastric acid secretion. Metiamide, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, produced a 51% inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion during the third hour after a standard 200-mg oral dose in man. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 2018 (1974).

  16. induced gastric acid secretion in the common african toad – bufo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    supported by the report of Sitmewoka (2000) which showed that absence of NO inhibits the secretion of gastric acid. However, Kato et al. (1998) observed that either exogenous or endogenous NO has inhibitory action on gastric acid secretion in mammals. This observation was supported by. Takeuchi et al. (1994) who also ...

  17. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman; Al Shahrani, Hamoud; Al Masri, Nasser; Al Faraidi, Ahmed; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Arshaduddin, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion ( P  Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels ( P  Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol. Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture.

  18. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Asmari

    Full Text Available Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion (P < 0.001 and acidity (P < 0.0001 and gastric ulcer index scores (P < 0.001. and augmented the gastric mucosal defense. Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels (P < 0.0001 induced by ethanol and also significantly attenuated ethanol induced inflammation and oxidative stress by the suppression of gastric MPO activity (P < 0.001, reducing the expression of NF-κB p65 and the increased MDA levels (P < 0.001. Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol.Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture. Keywords: Gastric ulcers, Pylorus ligation, Ethanol, Vanillin, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  19. Helicobacter pylori dupA and gastric acid secretion are negatively associated with gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, Shinobu; Ito, Masanori; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-12-01

    Few reports have described the cancer prevalence of peptic ulcer patients with long-term follow-up studies. We have conducted a long-term retrospective cohort study of Japanese peptic ulcer patients and evaluated the risk factors for the occurrence of gastric cancer (GCa). A total of 136 patients diagnosed with peptic ulcers from 1975 to 1983 were enrolled. These 136 cases [102 males and 34 females; 69 gastric ulcer (GU) and 67 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients at the time of enrollment; mean follow-up period of 14.4 years (range 1-30 years)] after being matched with a tumour registry database in Hiroshima prefecture were surveyed for GCa. We investigated Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer promoter gene A (dupA) using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens in 56 cases. Gastric acid secretion and basal acid output (BAO) in 40 cases, and maximal acid output in 68 cases, had been measured at first diagnosis of peptic ulcers. GCa was detected in 24 patients (17 with GU, 7 with DU) during the follow-up. The prevalence of GCa was significantly higher in GU patients than in DU patients (log-rank test PdupA-positive H. pylori was detected not only in DU patients (9/20) but also in GU patients (9/36). Gastric acid output was significantly larger in quantity in patients with dupA-positive H. pylori than in those with dupA-negative H. pylori (PdupA-positive H. pylori and a high BAO level (log-rank test PdupA-positive H. pylori were negatively associated with GCa.

  20. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig

  1. Effect of esophageal distention on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Gharib Nasery

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well established that the esophageal distention leads to gastric relaxation, partly by vago-vagal reflex but till now, the effect of esophageal distention on gastric acid secretion has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of esophageal distention (ED on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (200-240g were deprived of food but not water for 24 hrs before the experiments. Under urethane anesthesia (1.2 g/kg, i.p., animals underwent tracheostomy and laparotomy. A catheter was inserted in the stomach through duodenum for gastric distention and gastric washout and the esophagus was cannulated with a distensible balloon orally to distend esophagus (0.3 ml, 10 min. Gastric acid secretion was stimulated by gastric distention, carbachol (4 µg/kg, i.p. or histamine (5 mg/kg, s.c.. Effects of vagotomy, L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.v., L-arginine (500 mg/kg, i.p. and hexamethonium were also investigated. Results: Esophageal distention reduces basal and gastric distention, carbachol and histamine stimulated acid secretion (P<0.05, P<0.0001, P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively. Vagotomy reduced the inhibitory effect of the esophagus distention on gastric distention-induced acid secretion (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that vagus nerve involves in the inhibitory effect of the esophageal distention on the basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Nitric oxide (NO may also be involved.

  2. Gastric secretion, proinflammatory cytokines and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the delayed healing of lingual and gastric ulcerations by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowska, A; Brzozowski, T; Sliwowski, Z; Pawlik, M; Konturek, P C; Pajdo, R; Szlachcic, A; Drozdowicz, D; Schwarz, M; Stachura, J; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W

    2008-02-01

    Hormonal fluctuations are known to predispose ulceration of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but to date no comparative study of their effects on the healing of pre-existing ulcers in the oral cavity and stomach has been made. We studied the effects of depletion of testosterone and of EGF on the healing of acetic acid-induced ulcers using rats having undergone bilateral orchidectomy and/or salivectomy respectively. We measured alterations in gastric acid secretion and blood flow at ulcer margins, as well as plasma levels of testosterone, gastrin and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. Testosterone (0.01-10 mg/kg/day i. m.) dose-dependently delayed oral and gastric ulcer healing. When applied in an optimal dose of 1 mg/kg/day, this hormone significantly raised gastric acid secretion and plasma IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels. Attenuation of plasma testosterone levels via bilateral orchidectomy inhibited gastric acid secretion and accelerated the healing of oral and gastric ulcers, while increasing plasma gastrin levels and these effects were reversed by testosterone. Salivectomy raised plasma testosterone levels, and delayed oral and gastric ulcer healing. Treatment of salivectomised animals with testosterone further inhibited ulcer healing, and this effect was counteracted by EGF. We propose that testosterone delays ulcer healing via a fall in blood flow at the ulcer margin, a rise in plasma levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha and, in the case of gastric ulcers, an increase in gastric acid secretion. EGF released from the salivary glands plays an important role in limitation of the deleterious effects of testosterone on ulcer healing.

  3. Reliable gastric tonometry after coronary artery surgery : need for acid secretion suppression despite transient failure of acid secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, JL; Kolkman, JJ; Roukens, MP; Douma, DPN; Loef, BG; Meuwissen, SGM; Groeneveld, ABJ

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To study the need for suppression of gastric acid secretion for reliable intragastric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) tonometry by evaluating the effect of an oral dose of: sodium bicarbonate before and after administration of the H-2-blocker ranitidine to mimic CO2 generation

  4. Reliable gastric tonometry after coronary artery surgery : need for acid secretion suppression despite transient failure of acid secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, JL; Kolkman, JJ; Roukens, MP; Douma, DPN; Loef, BG; Meuwissen, SGM; Groeneveld, ABJ

    Objective:To study the need for suppression of gastric acid secretion for reliable intragastric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) tonometry by evaluating the effect of an oral dose of: sodium bicarbonate before and after administration of the H-2-blocker ranitidine to mimic CO2 generation

  5. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1982-01-01

    with selective blockade of alpha-, beta-, and dopaminergic receptors. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine used (40 micrograms/kg/min). The kinetic study showed characteristics of a non-competitive type. The anti-secretory effect dopamine...

  6. Influence of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Kask, Bartholomaeus

    2006-01-01

    the experimental periods with placebo or any dose of GIP. The temporal patterns of gastric acid and chloride secretion were similar in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls (P=0.86 and P=0.61, respectively). CONCLUSION: Pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion is similar in patients with type 2...

  7. Variations in gastric acid secretion during periods of fasting between two species of shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Lowe, Christopher G

    2005-06-01

    Vertebrates differ in their regulation of gastric acid secretion during periods of fasting, yet it is unknown why these differences occur. Elasmobranch fishes are the earliest known vertebrates to develop an acid secreting stomach and as such may make a good comparative model for determining the causative factors behind these differences. We measured gastric pH and temperature continuously during periods of fasting in captive free-swimming nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum) using autonomous pH/temperature data-loggers. All nurse sharks secreted strong gastric acids (minimum pH 0.4) after feeding; however, for most of the sharks, pH increased to 8.2-8.7, 2-3 days after feeding. Half of the sharks also exhibited periodic oscillations in pH when the stomach was empty that ranged from 1.1 to 8.7 (acid secretion ceased for 11.3 +/- 4.3 h day(-1)). This is in contrast to the gastric pH changes observed from leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) in a previous study, where the stomach remains acidic during fasting. The leopard shark is a relatively active, more frequently feeding predator, and continuous acid secretion may increase digestive efficiency. In contrast, the nurse shark is less active and is thought to feed less frequently. Periodic cessation of acid secretion may be an energy conserving mechanism used by animals that feed infrequently and experience extended periods of fasting.

  8. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Linn, G W; Davis, G R; Buddrus, D J; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C; Fordtran, J S

    1984-01-01

    Since calcium solubility is a prerequisite to calcium absorption, and since solubility of calcium is highly pH-dependent, it has been generally assumed that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity play an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium from ingested food or calcium salts such as CaCO3. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a method wherein net gastrointestinal absorption of calcium can be measured after ingestion of a single meal. A large dose of cimetidine, whi...

  9. Low cost of gastric acid secretion during digestion in ball pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Simon; Andreassen, Kim; Malte, Christian Lind; Enok, Sanne; Wang, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Due to their large metabolic responses to digestion (specific dynamic action, SDA), snakes represent an interesting animal group to identify the underlying mechanisms for the postprandial rise in metabolism. The SDA response results from the energetic costs of many different processes ranging over prey handling, secretions by the digestive system, synthesis of enzymes, plasticity of most visceral organs, as well as protein synthesis and nitrogen excretion. The contribution of the individual mechanisms, however, remains elusive. Gastric acid secretion has been proposed to account for more than half of the SDA response, while other studies report much lower contributions of the gastric processes. To investigate the energetic cost of gastric acid secretion, ball pythons (Python regius) were fed meals with added amounts of bone meal (up to 25 g bone meal kg(-1) snake) to achieve a five-fold rise in the buffer capacity of the meals. Direct measurements within the stomach lumen showed similar reduction in gastric pH when buffer capacity was increased, but we found no effects on the rise in oxygen consumption over the first three days of digestion. There was, however, a slower return of oxygen consumption to resting baseline. We conclude that gastric acid secretion only contributes modestly to the SDA response and propose that post-absorptive processes, such as increased protein synthesis, are likely to underlie the SDA response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists on gastric pepsin and acid secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi-Saad, K.; Chariot, J.; Del Tacca, M.; Rozé, C.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine, guanabenz, detomidine and medetomidine on pepsin secretion in conscious rats provided with gastric chronic fistula and to compare this with acid secretion. 2. Basal interdigestive gastric secretion, which is mainly neurally driven in the rat, and the secretion directly stimulated by the two main stimulants of chief cells, cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) and methacholine, were studied. 3. Basal secretion of pepsin and acid was inhibited by all four drugs with comparable EC50S. 4. CCK-stimulated pepsin and acid secretion was less sensitive than basal pepsin and acid secretion to alpha 2-adrenoceptor inhibition. 5. Methacholine-stimulated pepsin and acid secretion was not changed by clonidine and guanabenz; methacholine-stimulated acid was even marginally increased by clonidine. 6. These results do not favour the presence of alpha 2-receptors on chief cells in the rat stomach. They rather suggest that pepsin inhibition by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists is indirect and due to central or peripheral inhibition of the discharge of nerve fibres activating pepsin secretion. PMID:1356566

  11. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Siepmann, N

    2003-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In the isolated perfused pancreas, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been shown to enhance glucagon secretion at basal glucose concentrations, but in healthy humans no glucagonotropic effect of GIP has yet been reported. Therefore, we studied the effect of GIP on glucagon ...

  12. Monitoring of gastric secretion and early diagnostics of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding recurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belikov A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop a universal method of monitoring of intragastric medium dynamics. It allows diagnosing of bleeding recurrences and monitoring the effectiveness of gastric secretion suppression. In Saratov clinic of General Surgery use of probe-detector, dynamic endoscopy, laser Doppler flowmetry and methods of endoscopic hemostasis has reduced mortality: postoperative mortality has been decreased from 7,4 to 1,6%, while the general mortality — from 3,5 to 1,5%. The proposed devices can be used separately, and do not allow parallel assessment of pH of gastric juice, the microcirculation in the stomach wall and bleeding recurrences. 47 patients have been under the study. The changes in electroconductivity of intragastric medium have been proved in the suppression of intragastric secretion and the appearance of blood in gastric lumen. The received data have considered impedancemetry as the method of monitoring of intragastric medium in gastroduodenal bleedings

  13. The Acid-Secreting Parietal Cell as an Endocrine Source of Sonic Hedgehog During Gastric Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engevik, Amy C.; Feng, Rui; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to regulate wound healing in various tissues. Despite its known function in tissue regeneration, the role of Shh secreted from the gastric epithelium during tissue repair in the stomach remains unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that Shh secreted from the acid-secreting parietal cell is a fundamental circulating factor that drives gastric repair. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-ShhKO) was generated using animals bearing loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the Shh gene (Shhflx/flx) and mice expressing a Cre transgene under the control of the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter. Shhflx/flx, the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter, and C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Ulcers were induced via acetic acid injury. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after the ulcer induction, gastric tissue and blood samples were collected. Parabiosis experiments were used to establish the effect of circulating Shh on ulcer repair. Control mice exhibited an increased expression of Shh in the gastric tissue and plasma that correlated with the repair of injury within 7 days after surgery. PC-ShhKO mice showed a loss of ulcer repair and reduced Shh tissue and plasma concentrations. In a parabiosis experiment whereby a control mouse was paired with a PC-ShhKO littermate and both animals subjected to gastric injury, a significant increase in the circulating Shh was measured in both parabionts. Elevated circulating Shh concentrations correlated with the repair of gastric ulcers in the PC-ShhKO parabionts. Therefore, the acid-secreting parietal cell within the stomach acts as an endocrine source of Shh during repair. PMID:24092639

  14. Regulation of basal gastric acid secretion by the glycogen synthase kinase GSK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotte, Anand; Pasham, Venkanna; Eichenmüller, Melanie; Yang, Wenting; Qadri, Syed M; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Lang, Florian

    2010-10-01

    According to previous observations, basal gastric acid secretion is downregulated by phosphoinositol-3-(PI3)-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), and protein kinase B (PKBβ/Akt2) signaling. PKB/Akt phosphorylates glycogen synthase kinase GSK3. The present study explored whether PKB/Akt-dependent GSK3-phosphorylation modifies gastric acid secretion. Utilizing 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6')-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-fluorescence, basal gastric acid secretion was determined from Na(+)-independent pH recovery (∆pH/min) following an ammonium pulse, which reflects H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Experiments were performed in gastric glands from gene-targeted mice (gsk3 ( KI )) with PKB/serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK)-insensitive GSKα,β, in which the serines within the PKB/SGK phosphorylation site were replaced by alanine (GSK3α(21A/21A), GSK3β(9A/9A)). The cytosolic pH in isolated gastric glands was similar in gsk3 ( KI ) and their wild-type littermates (gsk3 ( WT )). However, ∆pH/min was significantly larger in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice and ∆pH/min was virtually abolished by the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor omeprazole (100 μM) in gastric glands from both gsk3 ( KI ) and gsk3 ( WT ). Plasma gastrin levels were lower in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ). Both, an increase of extracellular K(+) concentration to 35 mM [replacing Na(+)/N-methyl-D: -glucamine (NMDG)] and treatment with forskolin (5 μM), significantly increased ∆pH/min to virtually the same value in both genotypes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 (150 nM) and the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 μM) decreased ∆pH/min in gsk3 ( KI ) but not gsk3 ( WT ) and again abrogated the differences between the genotypes. The protein abundance of phosphorylated but not of total PKA was significantly larger in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ). Basal gastric acid secretion is enhanced by the disruption of PKB/SGK-dependent phosphorylation and the

  15. Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mueen Ullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30 or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30. General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092 respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5. This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol.

  16. MST4 kinase phosphorylates ACAP4 protein to orchestrate apical membrane remodeling during gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao; Yao, Phil Y; Jiang, Jiying; Zhang, Yin; Su, Zeqi; Yao, Wendy; Wang, Xueying; Gui, Ping; Mullen, McKay; Henry, Calmour; Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Wenwen; Brako, Larry; Tian, Ruijun; Zhao, Xuannv; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Xinwang; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Xing; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2017-09-29

    Digestion in the stomach depends on acidification of the lumen. Histamine-elicited acid secretion is triggered by activation of the PKA cascade, which ultimately results in the insertion of gastric H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of parietal cells. Our recent study revealed the functional role of PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis in histamine-elicited acid secretion. However, it remains uncharacterized how the PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis operates the insertion of H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of gastric parietal cells. Here we show that MST4 phosphorylates ACAP4, an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein, at Thr 545 Histamine stimulation activates MST4 and promotes MST4 interaction with ACAP4. ACAP4 physically interacts with MST4 and is a cognate substrate of MST4 during parietal cell activation. The phosphorylation site of ACAP4 by MST4 was mapped to Thr 545 by mass spectrometric analyses. Importantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 is essential for acid secretion in parietal cells because either suppression of ACAP4 or overexpression of non-phosphorylatable ACAP4 prevents the apical membrane reorganization and proton pump translocation elicited by histamine stimulation. In addition, persistent overexpression of MST4 phosphorylation-deficient ACAP4 results in inhibition of gastric acid secretion and blockage of tubulovesicle fusion to the apical membranes. Significantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 enables ACAP4 to interact with ezrin. Given the location of Thr 545 between the GTPase-activating protein domain and the first ankyrin repeat, we reason that MST4 phosphorylation elicits a conformational change that enables ezrin-ACAP4 interaction. Taken together, these results define a novel molecular mechanism linking the PKA-MST4-ACAP4 signaling cascade to polarized acid secretion in gastric parietal cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Study of gastrointestinal polypeptides controlling gastric acid secretion in patients with primary antibody deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Falcón, F; Codoceo Alquinta, R; Polanco Allué, I; Aguado Gil, A; Fontán Casariego, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric abnormalities are a common feature in patients with primary antibody deficiency. The most important problem is the high incidence of stomach cancer found in these patients. Chronic atrophic gastritis with pernicious anemia is also a common finding that predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma. The aim of the present study was to identify factors predictive of high risk for developing gastric cancer in patients with primary antibody deficiency. We studied gastric hormones (gastrin, somatostatin and gastrin-releasing peptide, GRP) in 47 patients (23 children and 24 adults) with primary antibody deficiency. In accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, patients were diagnosed as having X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton disease) in 13 cases, common variable immunodeficiency in 28, and hypogammaglobulinemia with hyperIgM in 6. Gastric biopsy was performed in 22 patients (16 children and 6 adults). Hormone determinations were carried out by radioimmunoassay. Baseline serum gastrin levels were normal or increased compared with controls, but the response to stimulation with a hyperproteic diet was delayed in 18 patients and lower than in controls in 7. In 4 adult patients, all with pernicious anemia, gastric biopsy revealed chronic atrophic gastritis involving the stomach corpus and antrum (type B gastritis). The absence of a normal response of gastrin secretion to stimulation with a hyperproteic diet may be explained by this finding. Serum somatostatin and GRP levels were higher than in controls. No correlations were found between these findings and patient age, type of immunodeficiency or duration of clinical manifestations.

  18. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p ...The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p basal and vagally...

  19. Effects of lethal over-exposure on gastric secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, J.; Daburon, F.; Villiers, P.A.; Dubedat, P.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics of gastric secretion following acute γ exposure (1,500 rd) were studied in pigs with a small Pavlov stomach. Spontaneous secretion was practically inhibited when the animals were taken out of the irradiation cell. It slowly recovered in the following hours and its pH, first neutral, turned acid again. However, till the third day, it did not recover normal characteristics. The excretion of sodium ions was much increased. Under histaminic stimulation, the responses of irradiated pigs and controls were much similar. The secretory capacities of the gastric mucosa were retained but without spontaneous manifestations. As a conclusion, the early troubles following overexposure must be the consequences of regulation disorders rather than of the direct action of radiation on the stomach. (orig.) [de

  20. Involvement of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in regulation of gastric motility and pancreatic endocrine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; Grybäck, Per; Jacobsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on gastric emptying rates of a solid meal as well as postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal. Material and methods. In nine healthy subjects, gastric emptying of a 310-kcal radio-labelled solid meal and plasma ...

  1. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  2. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  3. In vivo inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesía-Vela, Sonia; Bielavsky, Monica; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Freire, Sonia Maria; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, Antonio José

    2007-05-04

    The freeze-dried aqueous extract (AE) from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis was tested for its effects on experimental gastric hypersecretion and ulcer in rodents. Administration of AE to animals with 4h pylorus ligature potently reduced the gastric secretion with ED(50)s of 195 mg/kg (rats) and 306 mg/kg (mice). The AE also inhibited the histamine- or bethanechol-stimulated gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated mice with similar potency suggesting inhibition of the proton pump. Bio-guided purification of the AE yielded a flavonoid-rich fraction (BuF), with a specific activity 4-8 times higher than the AE in the pylorus ligature model. BuF also inhibited the hydrolysis of ATP by H(+),K(+)-ATPase with an IC(50) of 500 microg/ml, indicating that the inhibition of gastric acid secretion of Scoparia dulcis is related to the inhibition of the proton pump. Furthermore, the AE inhibited the establishment of acute gastric lesions induced in rats by indomethacin (ED(50)=313 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethanol (ED(50)=490 mg/kg, p.o.). No influence of the AE on gastrointestinal transit allowed discarding a possible CNS or a cholinergic interaction in the inhibition of gastric secretion by the AE. Collectively, the present data pharmacologically validates the popular use of Scoparia dulcis in gastric disturbances.

  4. Influence of beta blockade on gastric acid secretion and changes in gastric mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy in dogs and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Bekker, C

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present study was, in paired experiments in dogs, to examine the effect of beta-receptor blockade on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV). The secretory response to pentagastrin was reduced after vagotomy. beta-Adrenergic block......The aim of the present study was, in paired experiments in dogs, to examine the effect of beta-receptor blockade on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV). The secretory response to pentagastrin was reduced after vagotomy. beta...

  5. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreevy, J.; Barton, R.; Housinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST stimulation. If the Cl pump is independent, HIST should stimulate Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited mucosa. A 1 hr control (CON) interval preceded exposure to OME (10 -4 M) in the nutrient solution. Potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), resistance (R), H flux (J/sup H/) and Cl flux (J/sup Cl/ with 36 Cl) were measured every 15 min. After 1 hr of OME exposure, HIST (10 -5 M) was added to the nutrient solution. The findings demonstrate that HIST stimulates Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited bullfrog gastric mucosa

  6. Effect of antrectomy on the nervous phase of gastric secretion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, J L; Wolfe, M M; Hocking, M P; McGuigan, J E; Woodward, E R

    1981-09-01

    A method is described for complete isolation of the stomach in the dog with vagal innervation intact. This involves esophagostomy, double mucosal closure of the pylorus and a Maydl gastric fistula combined with gastrojejunostomy. The latter is occluded during periods of study. In this preparation the responses to sham feeding and to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were reduced approximately 10-fold, reiterating the significant synergistic effect of gastrin on vagal stimulation of the parietal cell mass. However, significant acid secretion could still be induced in this preparation by both sham feeding and insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  7. Hormonal assay in gastric secretion of portal hypertension and peptic ulceration by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Moustafa, N.A.; Refaat, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relation between the plasma levels and the gastric secretion in cases of portal hypertension and the duodenal ulcer. The relation between gastrin levels and bleeding in case of duodenal ulcer was also studied regarding the role of acidity, gastrin level, and the portal pressure on the pathogenesis of bleeding from oesophageal varices. Finally, the relation between gastrin secretion and state of liver functions was tested. The radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) is the basic test in assessment of the gastrin. The obtained results revealed the following: 1. The fasting serum gastrin was increased in case of liver cirrhosis 2. The level of gastrin was markedly increased in case of peptic ulceration 3. The incidence of peptic ulceration was increased in case of liver cirrhosis.3 tab

  8. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  9. Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula, Débora; Ferreira, Anderson L; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A

    2008-02-01

    The gastroprotective mechanism of the natural diterpene ferruginol was assessed in mice and rats. The involvement of gastric prostaglandins (PGE(2)), reduced glutathione, nitric oxide or capsaicin receptors was evaluated in mice either treated or untreated with indometacin, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or ruthenium red, respectively, and then orally treated with ferruginol or vehicle. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of ethanol. The effects of ferruginol on the parameters of gastric secretion were assessed in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric PGE(2) content was determined in rats treated with ferruginol and/or indometacin. The reduction of gastric glutathione (GSH) content was determined in rats treated with ethanol after oral administration of ferruginol, lansoprazole or vehicle. Finally, the acute oral toxicity was assessed in mice. Indometacin reversed the gastroprotective effect of ferruginol (25 mg kg(-1)) but not NEM, ruthenium red or L-NAME. The diterpene (25 mg kg(-1)) increased the gastric juice volume and its pH value, and reduced the titrable acidity but was devoid of effect on the gastric mucus content. Ferruginol (25, 50 mg kg(-1)) increased gastric PGE(2) content in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the reduction in GSH observed due to ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Single oral doses up to 3 g kg(-1) ferruginol did not elicit mortality or acute toxic effects in mice. Our results showed that ferruginol acted as a gastroprotective agent stimulating the gastric PGE(2) synthesis, reducing the gastric acid output and improving the antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa by maintaining the GSH levels.

  10. Effects of nutritional status on gastric secretion and composition in X-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, D.W.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    Whole body x-irradiation of the rat with a sub-lethal (400 r) or lethal (800 r) dose causes a marked depression in secretion and composition of gastric juice with a maximum drop of the 8th day. Similarly, pepsin and gastricsin activities also decline progressively, being lowest on the 8th day post-irradiation. Radiation exposure of the rat also results in a sudden rise in serum and tissue histamine levels which occurs on the 1st day, and returns to normal on the 3rd day post-irradiation. The nutritional status of the animal appears to influence recovery from radiation injury. Rats fed adequate diets with respect to protein and vitamin A prior to irradiation (400 r) recover earlier from radiation injury than deficient animals. The above biochemical changes are associated with gross and severe degeneration of stomach cells in the x-irradiated rat. (author)

  11. GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimarães, Marta; Rodrigues, Pedro; Pereira, Sofia S

    2015-01-01

    for the treatment of severe obesity, a 54-year-old female with previous type 2 diabetes, developed post-prandial sweating, fainting and hypoglycemic episodes, which eventually led to the finding by ultrasound of a 1.8-cm solid mass in the pancreatic head. The 72-h fast test and the plasma chromogranin A levels were...... (471 pmol/g), insulin (139 pmol/g) and somatostatin (23 pmol/g). This is the first report of a GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pNET presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery. Although pNET are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the clinical approach...

  12. [Participation of parasympathetic part of nervous system in realization of bioflavonoids action on gastric secretion in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovkun, T V; Yanchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Y; Veselskyy, S P; Shalamay, A S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of corvitin--modified form of flavonoid quercetin on the stomach secretory function and physiological mechanisms involved in the maintenance of such effects in rat's pylorus-ligated model. In animals which corvitin was injected at a dose of 5 mg/kg, regardless of the route of administration--in the stomach or duodenum, did not observe any changes in the volume of gastric juice or general production of hydrochloric acid, compared with the control data. Dose of 40 mg/kg caused an increase in the volume of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid output as when administered in the stomach and in the duodenum. We also found that after the application of a large dose of corvitin (intragastrically) in the blood of experimental animals showed reduction in glucose levels, which was not detected when using the drug in a dose of 5 mg/kg. Nonspecific antagonist of M-cholinergic receptors--atropine almost completely blocked the enhancement of gastric secretion, which was caused by the introduction into the stomach of corvitin in large dose. From the present data, it is reasonable to conclude that intragastric administration of a large dose of corvitin to pylorus-ligated rats induces hypoglycemic reaction of blood, which may causes an increase in vagus nerve activity with subsequent stimulation of gastric secretion. The increase in gastric juice volume and gastric acid output induced by corvitin was completely inhibited by atropine. These results suggested that the increase in gastric secretion induced by intragastrically administered corvitin could be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system.

  13. Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucoloto, S; Romanello, L M F; Garcia, S B; Sobreira, L F R; Barbosa, A J A; Troncon, L E A

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of gastric myenteric denervation using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the time for gastric emptying, as well as gastric secretion, and mucosal epithelial cell size and population in rats. Wistar rats were treated with topical serosal application of BAC to the stomach. Control animals received saline. Ninety days after surgery, gastric emptying time, gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels were studied. Next, the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed, fixed in formalin and histologically processed for histomorphometry of the height, area and volume of the glandular portion, and volume and population of mucous, chief, parietal, G- and labelled cells. BAC animals showed a significant delay in gastric emptying and an increase in gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels. These animals also presented a significant reduction of myenteric neuron number, hypertrophy of parietal and chief cells, hyperplasia of G cells and an increase in the gastric mucosa area. The absence of the myenteric plexus seems to protect the stomach from the hyperplastic effects of hypergastrinemia. Gastric food stasis may act as a factor triggering morphological and functional alterations of the gastric epithelium. Although gastric food stasis is a common finding in medical practice, its physiopathological consequences are poorly understood and have not been frequently discussed in the literature.

  14. Effects of intense abdominal irradiation at a high dose (1100 rd) on gastric secretion and apparent feed digestibility in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Tricaud, Y.; Bourhoven, D.

    1980-01-01

    Gastric and pancreatic secretions were studied in 8 pigs irradiated at 1100 rd on the hind-half of the body. Irradiation always caused achlorhydria lasting at least 10 days. Recovery was partial and variable; rehabilitation or the persistence of anorexia closely depended on recovery. Stomachal mucosa response to gastrin stimulation was very disturbed. Impairment of the pancreatic endocrine function led to progressive diabetes; the exocrine function also seemed to decrease with the survival time

  15. Effect of crude methanol leaf extract of Combretum racemosum on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwugozie Nwachukwu Okwuosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of crude methanolic extract of Combretum racemosum (C. racemosum leaves on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion in rats. Methods: Phytochemical and acute toxicity tests were performed. Anti-secretory activity of C. racemosum extract was investigated in pyloric ligated rats administered histamine. Gastric juice was collected from all the animals and the volume, titratable acidity, pH and mucus content were measured. The effect of C. racemosum extract on calcium chloride induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum suspended in high potassium, calcium-deficient depolarizing solution was investigated. The H2 receptor antagonistic potency was also evaluated using the isolated non-gravid rat uterus. Results: Phytochemistry revealed the presence of abundant amounts of saponins and moderate amounts of glycosides, terpenoids, proteins, reducing sugar, resins, alkaloids, flavonoids and carbohydrates. The oral LD50 of the extract was greater than 8 000 mg/kg body weight in mice. Pretreatment of pyloric ligated rats with C. racemosum prior to histamine administration significantly reduced (P < 0.001 the volume of gastric juice and titratable acidity, and significantly increased (P < 0.001 gastric pH and gastric mucus when compared to the negative control. Both doses of C. racemosum protected rats significantly (P < 0.001 from histamine-induced ulceration. C. racemosum potently inhibited contractions evoked by calcium chloride in a dose-dependent and reversible manner with an IC50 of 1 132 µg/mL. It also antagonized the relaxant effect of histamine on the isolated rat uterus in a manner comparable to cimetidine. Conclusions: The leaves of C. racemosum possess gastric anti-secretory and anti-ulcer effects and justify its use in traditional medicine in South-East Nigeria for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  16. Demand for Zn2+ in acid-secreting gastric mucosa and its requirement for intracellular Ca2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingJing Liu

    Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that Zn(2+ plays a critical role in regulating acidity within the secretory compartments of isolated gastric glands. Here, we investigate the content, distribution and demand for Zn(2+ in gastric mucosa under baseline conditions and its regulation during secretory stimulation.Content and distribution of zinc were evaluated in sections of whole gastric mucosa using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Significant stores of Zn(2+ were identified in neural elements of the muscularis, glandular areas enriched in parietal cells, and apical regions of the surface epithelium. In in vivo studies, extraction of the low abundance isotope, (70Zn(2+, from the circulation was demonstrated in samples of mucosal tissue 24 hours or 72 hours after infusion (250 µg/kg. In in vitro studies, uptake of (70Zn(2+ from media was demonstrated in isolated rabbit gastric glands following exposure to concentrations as low as 10 nM. In additional studies, demand of individual gastric parietal cells for Zn(2+ was monitored using the fluorescent zinc reporter, fluozin-3, by measuring increases in free intracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ {[Zn(2+](i} during exposure to standard extracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ (10 µM for standard intervals of time. Under resting conditions, demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increased with exposure to secretagogues (forskolin, carbachol/histamine and under conditions associated with increased intracellular Ca(2+ {[Ca(2+](i}. Uptake of Zn(2+ was abolished following removal of extracellular Ca(2+ or depletion of intracellular Ca(2+ stores, suggesting that demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increases and depends on influx of extracellular Ca(2+.This study is the first to characterize the content and distribution of Zn(2+ in an organ of the gastrointestinal tract. Our findings offer the novel interpretation, that Ca(2+ integrates basolateral demand for Zn(2+ with stimulation of secretion of HCl into the lumen of the gastric

  17. Antiulcer effects of aqueous extract and a fraction of phyllanthus embelic fruit on gastric acid secretion and mucosal defence factors in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Zaman, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae) fruit has been empirically used since centuries in folkloric medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders including the gastric ulcers. In the present study, anti-ulcerogenic properties of the fruit, its aqueous extract and a purified fraction were determined in albino rats. Aqueous extract of the fruit protected rats against gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin. Partition of the water extract yielded fractions for which anti-ulcerogenic activity evaluation studies were conducted to find out the most effective fraction. Thin layer chromatography yielded the most purified active fraction, which was found to exert anti-ulcerogenic activity in the chemically induced and stress-induced gastric ulcers in albino rats. In addition, effect of the purified fraction on gastric secretion volume, pH, acid output, ulcer index, mucus secretion and peptic activity revealed it to be the most potent anti-ulcer fraction with efficacy comparable to the reference drug, famotidine. It may be suggested that anti-ulcerogenic activities of P. emblica fruit, Its aqueous extract and the purified fraction could be due to elevation of gastric mucus secretion and inhibition of gastric acid secretion. (author)

  18. Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Zhao, Beiyi R; Bound, Michelle J; Checklin, Helen L; Bellon, Max; Little, Tanya J; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient "preloads" can stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), slow gastric emptying, and reduce postprandial glycemic excursions. After sweet preloads, these effects may be signaled by sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), sweet taste receptors, or both. We determined the effects of 4 sweet preloads on GIP and GLP-1 release, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia. Ten healthy subjects were studied on 4 separate occasions each. A preload drink containing 40 g glucose, 40 g tagatose/isomalt mixture (TIM), 40 g 3-O-methylglucose (3OMG; a nonmetabolized substrate of SGLT1), or 60 mg sucralose was consumed 15 min before a (13)C-octanoic acid-labeled mashed potato meal. Blood glucose, plasma total GLP-1 and GIP, serum insulin, and gastric emptying were determined. Both glucose and 3OMG stimulated GLP-1 and GIP release in advance of the meal (each P < 0.05), whereas TIM and sucralose did not. The overall postprandial GLP-1 response was greater after glucose, 3OMG, and TIM than after sucralose (P < 0.05), albeit later after TIM than the other preloads. The blood glucose and insulin responses in the first 30 min after the meal were greatest after glucose (each P < 0.05). Gastric emptying was slower after both 3OMG and TIM than after sucralose (each P < 0.05). In healthy humans, SGLT1 substrates stimulate GLP-1 and GIP and slow gastric emptying, regardless of whether they are metabolized, whereas the artificial sweetener sucralose does not. Poorly absorbed sweet tastants (TIM), which probably expose a greater length of gut to nutrients, result in delayed GLP-1 secretion but not in delayed GIP release. These observations have the potential to optimize the use of preloads for glycemic control. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12611000775910.

  19. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  20. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  1. Lack of effect of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] infused at near-physiological concentrations on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Bartels, E; Orskov, C

    1992-01-01

    -stimulated (0.1 micrograms/kg/h from -90 to 120 min) gastric volume, acid and chloride output, on separate occasions, synthetic human GIP (1 pmol/kg/min) and/or GLP-1 [7-36 amide] (0.3 pmol/kg/min) or placebo (0.9% NaCl with 1% albumin) were infused intravenously (from -30 to 120 min) in 9 healthy volunteers...... secretion). In conclusion, (penta)gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion is not inhibited by physiological circulating concentrations of GIP or GLP-1 [7-36 amide]. Therefore, the insulinotropic action of these intestinal hormones is physiologically more important than their possible role...

  2. Gastric acid secretion in relation to personality, affect and coping ability in duodenal ulcer patients. A multivariate analysis. Hvidovre Ulcer Project Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, P

    1994-01-01

    The role of personality, mood state (affect) and coping ability (ego strength) on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion were assessed in 56 duodenal ulcer patients using the Minnesota, Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The patients had high scores on most MMPI scales, but basal acid output...... disorders found in peptic ulcer patients may evidently be consequences of the disease rather than causal factors.......The role of personality, mood state (affect) and coping ability (ego strength) on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion were assessed in 56 duodenal ulcer patients using the Minnesota, Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The patients had high scores on most MMPI scales, but basal acid output...

  3. A roentgenological study on the position of the stomach in Korean adults, and the radiological evaluation of gastric acid secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Jae

    1970-01-01

    The position and form of the stomach vary depending upon the position and habit of the body, spatial conditions of the abdominal cavity, phase of respiration, level of the liver and diaphragm. There has been much speculation about the criteria and significance of gastroptosis. Some regard gastroptosis as a manifestation of asthenic habit, while others claim that this entity is a generalized symptom complex. However, it appears that many clinicians in this country prefer to ascribe the gastric symptoms subtly to gastroptosis in the patients in whom no organic lesions can be detectable on x-ray study and physical examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, they say that level of the stomach is considerably lower in position and the incidence of gastroptosis is much higher in Koreans than in western peoples or in Japanese. Employing a roentgenological study the author made observations on the level and form of the stomach in 100 healthy Korean adults and on the interrelationships of the stomach, level of the other abdominal viscera and gastric emptying time in 46 symptomatic patients with no demonstrable organic lesions. The interrelationship between the acidity of gastric secretion and the mucosal pattern of the stomach and duodenum was also evaluated in 92 patients in whom no demonstrable organic lesion was found. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The lower pole of the stomach was lying below Jacob's line in 18% of 73 healthy men under 40 years of age and in 44% of the asymptomatic individuals over 40 years, while in symptomatic group it was lying below Jacob's line in 35% of 65 men under 40 years of age and in 56% of 71 patients over 40 years. 2. The incisura angularis of the stomach was observed lying below Jacob's line in 7.5% of the symptomatic groups. On the contrary, the incisura angularis was located above the level of the iliac crest in all of the healthy group. 3. The stomach of Korean adults was slightly higher in position than

  4. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...... be responsible for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. Th; defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  5. A double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of omeprazole on gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether an effect of omeprazole on gastric emptying is related to changes in the secretion of selected gut hormones. METHODS: The studies were performed in healthy men after 10 days' treatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily/placebo. Food inge...

  6. Oesophagitis, signs of reflux, and gastric acid secretion in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, K.E.; Ask, P.; Boeryd, B.; Fransson, S.G.; Tibbling, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a study comprising 100 patients referred to a surgical clinic with symptons suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, the value of different diagnostic procedures was investigated. Positive acid perfusion and 24-h pH tests were the commonest findings. Forty-nine per cent showed normal oesophageal mucosa or diffuse oesophagitis at endoscopy. The severity of heartburn and regurgitation did not differ between patients with normal oesophageal mucosa and oesophagitis of various severities. The severity of macroscopic oesophagitis was significantly corelated to the total reflux time, the presence of reflux or a hiatal hernia at radiology, an open cardia or reflux at endoscopy, pressure transmission or reflux, and low lower oesophageal sphincter pressure at manometry. Gastric hypersecretion was found in 66% of the patients. Gastric acid secretion was not correlated to the severity of oesophagitis or to the findings at 24-h pH test. In patients with severe oesophagitis the sensivity for radiologic, manometric and endoscopic signs of incompetence of the gastro-oesophageal junction was 94%.

  7. Oesophagitis, signs of reflux, and gastric acid secretion in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.E.; Ask, P.; Boeryd, B.; Fransson, S.G.; Tibbling, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a study comprising 100 patients referred to a surgical clinic with symptons suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, the value of different diagnostic procedures was investigated. Positive acid perfusion and 24-h pH tests were the commonest findings. Forty-nine per cent showed normal oesophageal mucosa or diffuse oesophagitis at endoscopy. The severity of heartburn and regurgitation did not differ between patients with normal oesophageal mucosa and oesophagitis of various severities. The severity of macroscopic oesophagitis was significantly corelated to the total reflux time, the presence of reflux or a hiatal hernia at radiology, an open cardia or reflux at endoscopy, pressure transmission or reflux, and low lower oesophageal sphincter pressure at manometry. Gastric hypersecretion was found in 66% of the patients. Gastric acid secretion was not correlated to the severity of oesophagitis or to the findings at 24-h pH test. In patients with severe oesophagitis the sensivity for radiologic, manometric and endoscopic signs of incompetence of the gastro-oesophageal junction was 94%

  8. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  9. The effects of chronic consumption of heroin on basal and vagal electrical-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Fatemeh N; Maghouli, Fatemeh; Vahedian, Jalal; Esmaeili, Farzaneh

    2004-10-01

    Addiction to opium and heroin is not only an important social and individual problem in the world but it also affects the human physiology and multiple systems. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of chronic heroin consumption on basal and vagus electrical-stimulated total gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats. The study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran from August 2002 to June 2003. Both male and female rats weighing 200-250 g were used. Rats received daily doses of heroin intraperitoneally starting from 0.2 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg/day up to the maintenance level of 0.7 mg/kg and continued until day 12. After anesthesia, tracheotomy and laparotomy, gastric effluents were collected by washout technique with a 15 minutes interval. The total titrable acid was measured by manual titrator, and the total pepsin content was measured by Anson's method. Vagal electrical stimulation was used to stimulate the secretion of acid and pepsin. Heroin results in a significant decrease in total basal acid and pepsin secretions (4.10 +/- 0.18 mmol/15 minutes versus 2.40 +/- 0.16 mmol/15 minutes for acid, pacid and pepsin secretions in vagotomized condition. Heroin also causes a significant decrease in vagal-electrically stimulated acid and pepsin secretions (14.70 +/- 0.54 mmol/15 minutes versus 4.30 +/- 0.21 mmol/15 minutes for acid, pacid and pepsin secretion, but not in vagotomized condition. Heroin may decrease acid secretion by inhibiting vagal release of acetylcholine within the gastric wall. Other probable mechanisms include: presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release or depressing the vagal center, inhibition of pentagastrin induced acid secretion, inhibitory effects via central mechanisms, probably mediated by the opiate receptors. Further studies are needed to recognize the actual mechanism.

  10. Adrenergic receptors and gastric secretion in dogs. Is a "tonic balance" relationship between vagal and beta 2-adrenergic activity a possibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F; Hovendal, C; Bech, K

    1984-01-01

    The relative influence of adrenergic receptors on gastric acid secretion in the dog stomach with different vagal activity or "tone" is almost unknown. beta-adrenoceptors seem to be most important for the direct effect of adrenergic stimulation on acid secretion. In this study the effects...... acid secretion was not influenced significantly by beta-blockade. Similar dose-response curves were found for non-vagotomized dogs with high beta 2-adrenergic tone and dogs with low vagal tone (vagotomy) after pentagastrin and histamine stimulated acid secretion. This study indicates...... that a counterbalance between beta 2-adrenergic and cholinergic vagal tone exists. A "tonic balance theory" is suggested and is probably involved in the resulting acid secretion after vagotomy....

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide and peptide YY from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of vagally induced gastric acid secretion in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, A; Petersen, H; Orskov, C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 7-36 amide and peptide YY (PYY) from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion in man. It is not clear, however, by which mechanism(s) they inhibit acid secretion. In dogs the inhibitory effect of PYY on acid secretion...

  12. Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy with a Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide-Secreting Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Accompanied by a Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsushi Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM is caused by the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP from malignant tumors. Although any tumor may cause HHM, that induced by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC or gastric cancer (GC is rare. We report here a 74-year-old male who displayed HHM with both ICC and GC and showed an elevated serum PTHrP level. Treatment of the hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, elcatonin, and zoledronic acid corrected his serum calcium level and improved symptoms. Because treatment of ICC should precede that of GC, we chose chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP and gemcitabine (GEM. Chemotherapy reduced the size of the ICC and decreased the serum PTHrP level. One year after diagnosis, the patient was alive in the face of a poor prognosis for an ICC that produced PTHrP. Immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP was positive for the ICC and negative for the GC, leading us to believe that the cause of the HHM was a PTHrP-secreting ICC. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP may be useful in discovering the cause of HHM in the case of two cancers accompanied by an elevated serum PHTrP level. Chemotherapy with CDDP and GEM may be the most appropriate treatment for a PTHrP-secreting ICC.

  13. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...... for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. The defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  14. Immunopathological and Modulatory Effects of Cag A+ Genotype on Gastric Mucosa, Inflammatory Response, Pepsinogens, and Gastrin-17 Secretion in Iraqi Patients infected with H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    2018-05-20

    significant difference was reported in lymphocyte grades among different disorders according to H. pylori IgG. A significant difference was reported in serum level of PG I; PG II; PG I/PG II; G-17 according to PMN and lymphocyte grades (P-value ˂ 0.01). PMNs grades positively correlated with gastric Cag A expression; H. pylori IgG; PG II; G-17 levels. PG I; PG I/ PG II correlated with lymphocyte grades (P-value ˂ 0.05); while PGII has a negative correlation (P-value = 0.039). Endoscopic mucosal finding does not reflect exactly the actual immunopathological changes of gastric mucosa during H. pylori infection. Secretion of gastrin was not affected by the presence of Cag A in gastric tissue. Instead, the fluctuation in the hormone level appears to be due to the presence of H. pylori infection in gastric tissue. Gastric tissue infiltration with PMNs & lymphocytes inflammatory infiltrates has a direct effect on PGs and gastrin levels in serum of infected patients. The level of PG I; PG II; G-17 secretion correlated with the development of immune response against H. pylori and production of specific H. pylori IgG. Finally, H. pylori can modulate gastric secretions through Cag A dependent and independent pathways.

  15. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Quist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); and others

    1996-05-01

    No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alteration in emptying rate. 12 healthy men were examined on two occasion: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with {sup 99m}Tc followed by 150 ml water labelled with {sup 111}In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15 min-min intervals in the postprandial period. New findings from the present study include a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II, and a linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I. Furthermore, in phase I a linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated. The findings from the present investigation have to be considered in the future design of studies that focus on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III. 14 refs.

  16. Exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 and blunted glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide secretion are associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass but not adjustable gastric banding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, Judith; Bessler, Marc; Inabnet, William

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to measure the circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and glucagon in patients who had undergone adjustable gastric banding (BND) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) to understand the differences...

  17. Meal sequence and glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretion in type 2 diabetes: a randomised, controlled crossover, exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Shinobu; Minami, Kohtaro; Maeda, Haruyo; Seino, Susumu; Nakada, Koji; Nosaka, Chihiro; Murotani, Kenta; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka; Yabe, Daisuke

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of dietary therapy for diabetes has focused on meal size and composition; examination of the effects of meal sequence on postprandial glucose management is limited. The effects of fish or meat before rice on postprandial glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretions were investigated. The experiment was a single centre, randomised controlled crossover, exploratory trial conducted in an outpatient ward of a private hospital in Osaka, Japan. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (n = 10), with age 30-75 years, HbA1c 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) or less, and BMI 35 kg/m(2) or less, were randomised evenly to two groups by use of stratified randomisation, and subjected to meal sequence tests on three separate mornings; days 1 and 2, rice before fish (RF) or fish before rice (FR) in a crossover fashion; and day 3, meat before rice (MR). Pre- and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were evaluated. Gastric emptying rate was determined by (13)C-acetate breath test involving measurement of (13)CO2 in breath samples collected before and after ingestion of rice steamed with (13)C-labelled sodium acetate. Participants, people doing measurements or examinations, and people assessing the outcomes were not blinded to group assignment. FR and MR in comparison with RF ameliorated postprandial glucose excursion (AUC-15-240 min-glucose: type 2 diabetes, FR 2,326.6 ± 114.7 mmol/l × min, MR 2,257.0 ± 82.3 mmol/l × min, RF 2,475.6 ± 87.2 mmol/l × min [p Japan Society for Promotion of Science, Japan Association for Diabetes Education and Care, and Japan Vascular Disease Research Foundation.

  18. Inhibitors of acid secretion can benefit gastric wound repair independent of luminal pH effects on the site of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitrack, Elise S; Aihara, Eitaro; Kenny, Susan; Varro, Andrea; Montrose, Marshall H

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The authors’ goal was to measure pH at the gastric surface (pHo) to understand how acid secretion affects the repair of microscopic injury to the gastric epithelium. Methods Microscopic gastric damage was induced by laser light, during confocal/two-photon imaging of pH-sensitive dyes (Cl-NERF, BCECF) that were superfused over the mucosal surface of the exposed gastric corpus of anaesthetised mice. The progression of repair was measured in parallel with pHo. Experimental conditions included varying pH of luminal superfusates, and using omeprazole (60 mg/kg ip) or famotidine (30 mg/kg ip) to inhibit acid secretion. Results Similar rates of epithelial repair and resting pHo values (~pH 4) were reported in the presence of luminal pH 3 or pH 5. Epithelial repair was unreliable at luminal pH 2 and pHo was lower (2.5±0.2, P pH 3). Epithelial repair was slower at luminal pH 7 and pHo was higher (6.4±0.1, PpH 3 or pH 7, omeprazole reduced maximal damage size and accelerated epithelial repair, although only at pH 3 did omeprazole further increase surface pH above the level caused by imposed damage. At luminal pH 7, famotidine also reduced maximal damage size and accelerated epithelial repair. Neither famotidine nor omeprazole raised plasma gastrin levels during the time course of the experiments. Conclusions Epithelial repair in vivo is affected by luminal pH variation, but the beneficial effects of acutely blocking acid secretion extend beyond simply raising luminal and/or surface pH. PMID:21997560

  19. Piperine treatment suppresses Helicobacter pylori toxin entry in to gastric epithelium and minimizes β-catenin mediated oncogenesis and IL-8 secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Park, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Woo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yang, Ji Yeong; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer initiation has been studied widely. The objective of our present study was to evaluate the effect of a single compound piperine on H. pylori infection and its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in vitro. Cytotoxicity was tested by Ez-cytox cell viability assay kit. Effects of piperine on H. pylori toxin gene expression and IL-8 expression in mammalian cells during infection were assessed by RT-PCR. Effects of piperine on toxin entry into host cells, E-cadherin cleavage by H. pylori, and the changes in H. pylori mediated β-catenin expression and IL-8 secretion were determined by immunoblotting. Piperine treatment restrained the entry of CagA and VacA into AGS cells. Piperine administration in H. pylori infection reduced E-cadherin cleavage in stomach epithelium. In addition, H. pylori induced β-catenin up-regulation was reduced. Piperine administration impaired IL-8 secretion in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. As we reported previously piperine restrained H. pylori motility. The possible reason behind the H. pylori inhibition mechanism of piperine could be the dwindled motility, which weakened H. pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. The reduced adhesion decreased the toxin entry thereby secreting less amount of IL-8. In addition, piperine treatment suppressed H. pylori protease led to reduction of E-cadherin cleavage and β-catenin expression resulting in diminished β-catenin translocation into the nucleus thus decreasing the risk of oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the preliminary report of piperine mediated H. pylori infection control on gastric epithelial cells in-vitro. PMID:27158376

  20. Gastric emptying and sieving of solid food and pancreatic and biliary secretions after solid meals in patients with nonresective ulcer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.A.; Thomson, J.B.; Jehn, D.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Deveny, C.; Meyer, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare with previously published findings in normal subjects and subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy the effects of nonresective ulcer surgery on (a) gastric emptying, grinding, and sieving of solid food and on (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions. Six subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy and 7 subjects with truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty were studied using a previously validated indicator perfusion system with its aspiration port placed in the proximal jejunum. All subjects were given a meal of 30 g of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, 60 g of beefsteak, and 100 ml of H/sub 2/O. In conjunction with a gamma-camera to measure total gastric emptying of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, this method allowed the estimation of the fraction of 99mTc-liver emptied from the stomach as particles of less than 1-mm diameter; in addition, it was possible to measure jejunal concentrations and outputs of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy, all parameters studied were indistinguishable from normal. Subjects with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty behaved similarly to subjects with vagotomy and antrectomy, showing (a) early precipitous emptying of food, (b) heterogeneous distribution of half-emptying times, (c) near normal concentration of biliary and pancreatic secretions, (d) markedly reduced jejunal flow rates, and (e) a reduction in postcibal trypsin secretion. In contrast to subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy, however, the majority of subjects with vagotomy and pyloroplasty did not show a persistent defect in grinding and sieving of solid food.

  1. A dark brown roast coffee blend is less effective at stimulating gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers compared to a medium roast market blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of (β) N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Postprandial diabetic glucose tolerance is normalized by gastric bypass feeding as opposed to gastric feeding and is associated with exaggerated GLP-1 secretion: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Dorte L; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    into the bypassed gastric remnant and on the second day perorally. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, incretin hormones, peptide YY, and free fatty acids were measured. RESULTS: Peroral feeding reduced 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (7.8 vs. 11.1 mmol/l) and incremental area under the glucose curve (iAUC......) (0.33 vs. 0.49 mmol . l(-1) . min(-1)) compared with gastroduodenal feeding. beta-Cell function (iAUC(Cpeptide/Glu)) was more than twofold improved during peroral feeding, and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 response increased nearly fivefold. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in postprandial glucose......OBJECTIVE: To examine after gastric bypass the effect of peroral versus gastroduodenal feeding on glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A type 2 diabetic patient was examined on 2 consecutive days 5 weeks after gastric bypass. A standard liquid meal was given on the first day...

  3. The glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide reduces postprandial glycemia independently of gastric emptying and insulin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gethmann, Arnica; Nauck, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) lowers glycemia by modulating gastric emptying and endocrine pancreatic secretion. Rapidly after its secretion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide is degraded to the metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide. The effects of GLP-1-(9-36) amide in humans are less well characterized. Fourteen...... healthy volunteers were studied with intravenous infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) amide, GLP-1-(9-36) amide, or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test meal was served, and gastric emptying was assessed. Blood was drawn for GLP-1 (total and intact), glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon measurements....... Administration of GLP-1-(7-36) amide and GLP-1-(9-36) amide significantly raised total GLP-1 plasma levels. Plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 increased to 21 +/- 5 pmol/l during the infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) amide but remained unchanged during GLP-1-(9-36) amide infusion [5 +/- 3 pmol/l; P

  4. Volume, distribution and acidity of gastric secretion on and off proton pump inhibitor treatment: a randomized double-blind controlled study in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Sauter, Matthias; Curcic, Jelena; Liu, Dian; Menne, Dieter; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner

    2015-09-02

    Postprandial accumulation of gastric secretions in the proximal stomach above the meal adjacent to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), referred to as the 'acid pocket', has been proposed as a pathophysiological factor in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and as a target for GERD treatment. This study assessed the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on the volume, distribution and acidity of gastric secretions in GERD and healthy subjects (HS). A randomized, double blind, cross-over study in 12 HS and 12 GERD patients pre-treated with 40 mg pantoprazole (PPI) or placebo b.i.d. was performed. Postprandial secretion volume (SV), formation of a secretion layer and contact between the layer and the EGJ were quantified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Multi-channel pH-monitoring assessed intragastric pH. A distinct layer of undiluted acid secretion was present on top of gastric contents in almost all participants on and off high-dose acid suppression. PPI reduced SV (193 ml to 100 ml, in HS, 227 ml to 94 ml in GERD; p < 0.01) and thickness of the acid layer (26 mm to 7 mm, 36 mm to 9 mm respectively, p < 0.01). No differences in secretion volume or layer thickness were observed between groups; however, off treatment, contact time between the secretion layer and EGJ was 2.6 times longer in GERD compared to HS (p = 0.012). This was not the case on PPI. MRI can visualize and quantify the volume and distribution dynamics of gastric secretions that form a layer in the proximal stomach after ingestion of a liquid meal. The secretion volume and the secretion layer on top of gastric contents is similar in GERD patients and HS; however contact between the layer of undiluted secretion and the EGJ is prolonged in patients. High dose PPI reduced secretion volume by about 50% and reduced contact time between secretion and EGJ towards normal levels. NCT01212614.

  5. Comparison of the Effect of Pre-operative Single Oral Dose of Tramadol and Famotidine on Gastric Secretions pH and Volume in Patients Scheduled for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. U.; Aqil, M.; Hussain, A.; Zahrani, T. A.; Hillis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology: Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results:There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-Tand Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  6. Helicobacter pylori antigen HP0986 (TieA) interacts with cultured gastric epithelial cells and induces IL8 secretion via NF-κB mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Mégraud, Francis; Tenguria, Shivendra; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-02-01

    The envisaged roles and partly understood functional properties of Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 are significant in the context of proinflammatory and or proapoptotic activities, the two important facilitators of pathogen survival and persistence. In addition, sequence analysis of this gene predicts a restriction endonuclease function which remained unknown thus far. To evaluate the role of HP0986 in gastric inflammation, we studied its expression profile using a large number of clinical isolates but a limited number of biopsies and patient sera. Also, we studied antigenic role of HP0986 in altering cytokine responses of human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells including its interaction with and localization within the AGS cells. For in vitro expression study of HP0986, 110 H. pylori clinical isolates were cultured from patients with functional dyspepsia. For expression analysis by qRT PCR of HP0986, 10 gastric biopsy specimens were studied. HP0986 was also used to detect antibodies in patient sera. AGS cells were incubated with recombinant HP0986 to determine cytokine response and NF-κB activation. Transient transfection with HP0986 cloned in pEGFPN1 was used to study its subcellular localization or homing in AGS cells. Out of 110 cultured H. pylori strains, 34 (31%) were positive for HP0986 and this observation was correlated with in vitro expression profiles. HP0986 mRNA was detected in 7 of the 10 biopsy specimens. Further, HP0986 induced IL-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner via NF-κB pathway. Serum antibodies against HP0986 were positively associated with H. pylori positive patients. Transient transfection of AGS cells revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of HP0986. HP0986 was moderately prevalent in clinical isolates and its expression profile in cultures and gastric biopsies points to its being naturally expressed. Collective observations including the induction of IL-8 via TNFR1 and NF

  7. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian

    2016-01-01

    in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The study was conducted...... as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control...

  8. The expression of Helicobacter pylori tfs plasticity zone cluster is regulated by pH and adherence, and its composition is associated with differential gastric IL-8 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno; Nunes, Alexandra; Vale, Filipa F; Rocha, Raquel; Gomes, João Paulo; Dias, Ricardo; Oleastro, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori virulence is associated with different clinical outcomes. The existence of an intact dupA gene from tfs4b cluster has been suggested as a predictor for duodenal ulcer development. However, the role of tfs plasticity zone clusters in the development of ulcers remains unclear. We studied several H. pylori strains to characterize the gene arrangement of tfs3 and tfs4 clusters and their impact in the inflammatory response by infected gastric cells. The genome of 14 H. pylori strains isolated from Western patients, pediatric (n=10) and adult (n=4), was fully sequenced using the Illumina platform MiSeq, in addition to eight pediatric strains previously sequenced. These strains were used to infect human gastric cells, and the secreted interleukin-8 (IL-8) was quantified by ELISA. The expression of virB2, dupA, virB8, virB10, and virB6 was assessed by quantitative PCR in adherent and nonadherent fractions of H. pylori during in vitro co-infection, at different pH values. We have found that cagA-positive H. pylori strains harboring a complete tfs plasticity zone cluster significantly induce increased production of IL-8 from gastric cells. We have also found that the region spanning from virB2 to virB10 genes constitutes an operon, whose expression is increased in the adherent fraction of bacteria during infection, as well as in both adherent and nonadherent fractions at acidic conditions. A complete tfs plasticity zone cluster is a virulence factor that may be important for the colonization of H. pylori and to the development of severe outcomes of the infection with cagA-positive strains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteri......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p...... linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  10. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol...... satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers...

  11. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  12. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Have Distinct Effects on Gallbladder Motility and Gastric Acid Secretion in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaj; Bomgren, Peter; Holmgren, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    distinct members of the CCK/gastrin family were identified in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), termed CCK and gastrin. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied...... values are 3.1 and 17.2 nM, respectively. Furthermore, gastrin had a significantly higher efficacy than CCK-8s. Thus, in spite of their close structural resemblance, there are clear differences between the two endogenous peptides in their action on gallbladder and gastric mucosa. It is concluded...

  13. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  14. Social Sensations of Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs....../symptoms; differential recognition of symptoms; and the embodied sociality of treatment....... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations...

  15. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Secretion of incretin hormones and the insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in women with a history of gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Askenas, M

    2005-01-01

    clamp experiment (140 mg/dl [7.8 mmol/l] over 120 min) with i.v. infusion of GIP (2 pmol kg(-1) min(-1); 30-90 min) was performed in 14 women in each group. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn for the measurement of glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GIP and GLP-1 (specific...... a hyperglycaemic clamp experiment. The secretion of GIP and GLP-1 was assessed following oral glucose ingestion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On separate occasions we performed an OGTT and administered an i.v. bolus of 20 pmol GIP/kg body weight in 20 women with pGDM and 20 control women. An additional hyperglycaemic...... immunoassays). Indices of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were calculated. Statistical analyses were carried out using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Following oral glucose ingestion, plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations increased to higher levels in the women with pGDM than...

  17. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  18. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  20. Thirst sensation and oral dryness following alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotoshi Inenaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial acute and chronic intakes of alcohol or ethanol (EtOH severely influence oral sensations, such as thirst and oral dryness (dry mouth, xerostomia. Thirst sensation and oral dryness are primarily caused by the activation of neurons in brain regions, including the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus, which are referred to as the dipsogenic center, and by a decrease in salivary secretion, respectively. The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy-alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of EtOH-induced diuresis; however, EtOH in high doses induces anti-diuresis. Recently, it has been proposed that the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde induces thirst via two distinct processes in the central nervous system from EtOH-induced diuresis, based on the results of animal experiments. The present review describes new insights regarding the induction mechanism of thirst sensation and oral dryness after drinking alcohol.

  1. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    ) = 0.15, P = 0.15 for intact GIP; r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.086 for total GIP). We conclude that gastric emptying does not appear to be influenced by GIP. The secretion of GIP after meal ingestion is not suppressed by its exogenous administration. The lack of effect of GIP on gastric emptying underlines......The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass....... Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...

  2. Differences in risk experience between sensation avoiders and sensation seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S

    The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject

  3. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1 is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Hussein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8 secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU and duodenal ulcer (DU was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01. The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7% and GU (70% than in those with NUD (13.3% (p 0.01. The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8% than those with GU (10% and NUD (8.9% (p 0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1. We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6. While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01. Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  4. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Majed, H S; Yousif, S T; Aswad, S I; Assafi, M S

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  5. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of Sardinian wild thistles (Onopordum spp.) inhibit TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and NF-κB pathway in human gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Arianna; Fumagalli, Marco; Sanna, Cinzia; Maxia, Andrea; Piazza, Stefano; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2018-01-10

    Thistles species (Family: Compositae) are traditionally used in the Mediterranean area, particularly in Sardinia. They are usually gathered from the wild and used for both food and therapeutic purposes, including gastrointestinal disorders. This work aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of eight wild thistles from Sardinia, in an in vitro model of gastric inflammation, and to identify the major active compounds in the extracts. The hydro-alcoholic extract of the aerial part of each species was prepared. After the induction of inflammation by the addition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (10ng/mL), AGS cells were treated with extracts/pure compounds under study. The inhibition of interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, IL-8 and NF-κB promoter activities and NF-κB nuclear translocation were evaluated. Extracts main components were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Only Onopordum horridum Viv. and Onopordum illyricum L. hydro-alcoholic extracts reduced, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells AGS. The effect was partially due to the NF-κB pathway impairment. Onopordum hydro-alcoholic extracts were also chemically profiled, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were the main compounds identified in the extract. Further investigations showed that 3,5 dicaffeoylquinic acid highly inhibited IL-8 secretion in AGS cells (IC 50 0.65μM), thus suggesting that this compound contributed, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity elicited by O. illyricum extracts. Our results suggest that Onopordum species may exert beneficial effects against gastric inflammatory diseases. Thus, these wild plants deserve further investigations as preventive or co-adjuvant agents in gastric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor vildagliptin does not accentuate glibenclamide-induced hypoglycemia but reduces glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Rehring, Erika; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 by vildagliptin enhances the concentrations of the active form of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). The present study asked whether vildagliptin accentuates glibenclamide-induced hy...

  7. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  8. Gastric emptying in chronic dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielaff, F.; Jahnel, P.; Sest, C.; Sydow, K.; Sapia, C.; Hass, A.; Buchali, K.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying of a semiliquid test meal with 5 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid as a marker was measured in 97 chronic dyspeptic patients and 16 healthy subjects. A comparison of half emptying time between both showed that chronic dyspeptic patients empty semiliquid meal at a significantly (p < 0.005) slower rate (at 70 +- 33 min) than healthy controls (at 52 x 20 min). The studies indicate that gastric stasis in chronic dyspepsia is not caused by inflammatory changes in gastric or duodenal mucosa nor by different gastric acid secretion. The presence of stasis cannot be predicted sufficiently by anamnestic complaints or endoscopic findings. (author)

  9. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  10. From sensation to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesulam, M M

    1998-06-01

    Sensory information undergoes extensive associative elaboration and attentional modulation as it becomes incorporated into the texture of cognition. This process occurs along a core synaptic hierarchy which includes the primary sensory, upstream unimodal, downstream unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic zones of the cerebral cortex. Connections from one zone to another are reciprocal and allow higher synaptic levels to exert a feedback (top-down) influence upon earlier levels of processing. Each cortical area provides a nexus for the convergence of afferents and divergence of efferents. The resultant synaptic organization supports parallel as well as serial processing, and allows each sensory event to initiate multiple cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Upstream sectors of unimodal association areas encode basic features of sensation such as colour, motion, form and pitch. More complex contents of sensory experience such as objects, faces, word-forms, spatial locations and sound sequences become encoded within downstream sectors of unimodal areas by groups of coarsely tuned neurons. The highest synaptic levels of sensory-fugal processing are occupied by heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic cortices, collectively known as transmodal areas. The unique role of these areas is to bind multiple unimodal and other transmodal areas into distributed but integrated multimodal representations. Transmodal areas in the midtemporal cortex, Wernicke's area, the hippocampal-entorhinal complex and the posterior parietal cortex provide critical gateways for transforming perception into recognition, word-forms into meaning, scenes and events into experiences, and spatial locations into targets for exploration. All cognitive processes arise from analogous associative transformations of similar sets of sensory inputs. The differences in the resultant cognitive operation are determined by the anatomical and physiological properties of the transmodal node that acts as the critical

  11. Rikkunshito improves globus sensation in patients with proton-pump inhibitor-refractory laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokashiki, Ryoji; Okamoto, Isaku; Funato, Nobutoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2013-08-21

    To investigate the effect of rikkunshito on laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms and gastric emptying in patients with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory LPR. In total, 22 patients with LPR were enrolled. Following a 2-wk treatment with PPI monotherapy, PPI-refractory LPR patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups (rikkunshito alone or rikkunshito plus the PPI, lansoprazole). LPR symptoms were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) score, gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed using the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), and gastric emptying was assessed using the radio-opaque marker method prior to and 4 wk following treatments. The 4-wk treatment with rikkunshito alone and with rikkunshito plus the PPI significantly decreased the globus sensation VAS scores. The VAS score for sore throat was significantly decreased following treatment with rikkunshito plus PPI but not by rikkunshito alone. Neither treatment significantly changed the GSRS scores. Rikkunshito improved delayed gastric emptying. We found a significant positive correlation between improvements in globus sensation and in gastric emptying (r² = 0.4582, P sensation in patients with PPI-refractory LPR, in part, because of stimulation of gastric emptying. Thus, rikkunshito is an effective treatment for PPI-refractory LPR.

  12. Piperine treatment suppresses Helicobacter pylori toxin entry in to gastric epithelium and minimizes β-catenin mediated oncogenesis and IL-8 secretion in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Park, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Woo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yang, Ji Yeong; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer initiation has been studied widely. The objective of our present study was to evaluate the effect of a single compound piperine on H. pylori infection and its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in vitro. Cytotoxicity was tested by Ez-cytox cell viability assay kit. Effects of piperine on H. pylori toxin gene expression and IL-8 expression in mammalian cells during infection were assessed by RT-PCR. Effects of piperine on toxin entry into host ...

  13. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  14. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on gastric volume, satiation and enteroendocrine secretion in Type 2 diabetes: a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Adrian; Bock, Gerlies; Giesler, Paula D

    2008-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 14 subjects with type 2 diabetes received vildagliptin (50mg bid) or placebo for 10-days in random order separated by a 2-week washout. On day 7, fasting and post-meal gastric volumes were measured by a (99m...... ingested was recorded and symptoms similarly measured using VAS. Results: Vildagliptin raised plasma GLP-1 concentrations. However, fasting (248 + 21 vs. 247 + 19ml, p= 0.98) and fed (746 + 28 vs. 772 + 26ml, p= 0.54) gastric volumes, did not differ when subjects received vildagliptin or placebo. Treatment...... with vildagliptin did not alter the maximum tolerated volume of Ensure((R)) (1657 + 308 vs. 1389 + 197 ml, p= 0.15) or water compared to placebo (1371 + 141 vs. 1172 + 156 ml, p= 0.23). Vildagliptin was associated with decreased PYY concentrations 60 minutes after initiation of the meal (166 +/- 27 vs. 229 +/- 34...

  15. Immediate enhancement of first-phase insulin secretion and unchanged glucose effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Christoffer; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    effectiveness with Bergman's minimal model. In the fasting state, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-S and β-cell function by HOMA-β. Moreover, mixed meal tests and OGTTs were performed. In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucose levels normalized after RYGB, first-phase insulin secretion in response...... to iv glucose increased two-fold and HOMA-β improved already 1 week postoperatively, with further enhancements at 3 months. Insulin sensitivity increased in the liver (HOMA-S) at 1 week and at 3 months in peripheral tissues (Si), whereas glucose effectiveness did not improve significantly. During oral...... first-phase insulin secretion to iv glucose and increased HOMA-β. A major role for improved glucose effectiveness after RYGB was not supported by this study....

  16. Sensation fiction, gender and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDonald, T.; Mangham, A.

    2013-01-01

    The heroine of Wilkie Collins’s The Law and the Lady (1875), Valeria Macallan, is in many ways a typical sensation heroine. She is resilient, independent and determined to get what she wants. What she wants, however, is not to marry rich, hide her bigamous past or inherit a fortune that is

  17. Early enhancements of hepatic and later of peripheral insulin sensitivity combined with increased postprandial insulin secretion contribute to improved glycemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2014-01-01

    after RYGB. Participants were included after a preoperative diet induced total weight loss of -9.2±1.2%. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with glucose tracer technique and beta-cell function evaluated in response...... after surgery. Insulin mediated glucose disposal and suppression of fatty acids did not improve immediately after surgery but increased at 3 months and 1 year likely related to the reduction in body weight. Insulin secretion increased after RYGB, but only in patients with type 2 diabetes and only...

  18. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  19. Effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and reserpine on gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... the secretion of gastric mucus in a system where glycoprotein erosion is measured together with adherent mucus secretion in the gastric mucosa in the unstimu- lated state. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and dopamine depletory agent ...

  20. Novel lansoprazole-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of gastric acid secretion-related ulcers: in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to combine nanoparticle design and enteric coating technique to sustain the delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ), in the treatment of acid reflux disorders. Lansoprazole-loaded Eudragit® RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNP-LPZ) as well as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PLGANP-LPZ) were prepared using a solvent evaporation/extraction method. The effects of nanoparticle charge and permeation enhancers on lansoprazole uptake was assessed in Caco-2 cells. The confocal microscopic images revealed the successful localization of nanoparticles in the cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells. The cellular uptake of positively charged Eudragit nanoparticles was significantly higher than that of negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles, which were enhanced by sodium caprate via the transcellular pathway. Both types of nanoparticles exhibited sustained drug release behavior in vitro. The oral administration of enteric-coated capsules filled with nanoparticles sustained and prolonged the LPZ concentration up to 24 h in ulcer-induced Wistar rats, and 92.4% and 89.2% of gastric ulcers healed after a 7-day treatment with either EC-ERSNP1010-Na caprate or EC-PLGANP1005-Na caprate, respectively.

  1. Decreased serum betatrophin levels correlate with improved fasting plasma glucose and insulin secretion capacity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaifeng; Yu, Haoyong; Lu, Junxi; Bao, Yuqian; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that serum betatrophin levels, a hormone derived from adipose tissue and liver, are elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To investigate the relationships among betatrophin and metabolic control, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function in obese Chinese patients with T2D who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). University hospital, China. This 1-year follow-up study included 34 obese individuals with T2D (18 males, 16 females) who underwent RYGB in our hospital. Anthropometric results, glucose levels, lipid profiles, and serum betatrophin levels were determined before and 1 year after RYGB. The serum betatrophin level decreased significantly after RYGB (72.0 ng/mL [33.4-180.9] versus 35.7 ng/mL [14.8-103.3]); Pfasting plasma glucose and negatively correlated with the changes in the 2-hour C-peptide/fasting C-peptide and homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function (Pfasting plasma glucose (β = .586, Pfasting C-peptide (β = -.309, P = .021). Circulating betatrophin might be involved in the regulation of glucose control and insulin secretion in obese Chinese with T2D soon after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  3. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  4. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  5. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  6. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susan J; Qu, Zhican; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Zhuo, Min

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB) to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral respons...

  7. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  8. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  9. POÉSIE, PAYSAGE ET SENSATION / Poetry, landscape and sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Collot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article effectue une refléxion téorique par rapport au paysage, question qui revêt un enjeuconsidérable dans le champ des sciences humaines et des pratiques sociales contemporaines, maisaussi, pour l’art et pour la poésie modernes. Il s’agit d’une notion qui se situe historiquement etstructurellement entre une pensée symbolique du Lieu qui a dominé l’Antiquité classique et leMoyen Âge, et une connaissance scientifique de l’espace qui se développe aux Temps modernes.À partir du Romantisme, notamment la poésie lyrique a fait du paysage un lieu d’expression de lasensibilité. En contrepartie, l’art et la littérature au XXème siècle ont eu tendance à se détournerde la représentation du monde extérieur pour explorer les ressources propres à leurs moyensd’expression. Ainsi, le paysage semble avoir perdu son endroit à la scène esthétique, c’est qui n’estpas vrai du tout, une fois que le thème continue à inspirer beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains.Controversée par nature, l’idée de paysage s’ouvre à plusiers interrogations, telques les conceptsde sensation et de de perception, cueillis chez Paul Valéry, lesquels sont amenés à ce text, commeune proposition de jouissance de la poésie entendue à la manière d’un endroit de réactivation dessensations et des affects. Mots-clés: Paysage, Sensation, Perception, Poésie, L’art.

  10. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  11. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...... be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on icarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa....

  12. Gastric pseudolymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Hellerich, U.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Wimmer, B.; Ruf, G.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is an uncommon benign lesion which poses a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, however, may occasionally precede true gastric lymphoma. Endoscopic, radiologic and pathological findings are not generally helpful in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. Benign gastric lymphoid hyperplasia could be mistaken radiologically for ulcerated gastric carcinoma and pathologically for malignant lymphoma. Recognition of this condition is important to prevent unnecessary treatment by surgery or radiotherapy. About 140 case reports have been published to date. This paper describes the cases of two further patients. (orig.) [de

  13. Testing haptic sensations for spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts\\' perceptions of the equivalent clinical events.

  14. Challenging the assumptions for thermal sensation scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Fuchs, Xaver; Becker, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Scales are widely used to assess the personal experience of thermal conditions in built environments. Most commonly, thermal sensation is assessed, mainly to determine whether a particular thermal condition is comfortable for individuals. A seven-point thermal sensation scale has been used...... extensively, which is suitable for describing a one-dimensional relationship between physical parameters of indoor environments and subjective thermal sensation. However, human thermal comfort is not merely a physiological but also a psychological phenomenon. Thus, it should be investigated how scales for its...... assessment could benefit from a multidimensional conceptualization. The common assumptions related to the usage of thermal sensation scales are challenged, empirically supported by two analyses. These analyses show that the relationship between temperature and subjective thermal sensation is non...

  15. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  16. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  17. Effect of Cimetidine and Gastric Acidity on the Gastric Mucosal Retention of 99mTc-Pertechnetate in Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Baik, Yong Whee

    1989-01-01

    99m Tc-Pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) is concentrated by the stomach after intravenous injection, allowing the detection of ectopic gastric mucosa. It has been used to develop a noninvasive test of gastric secretion. However the cellular site of concentration is still controversial, that is whether mucin-secreting epithelial cell or acid-secreting parietal cell. This study is planned to investigate the effects of cimetidine and gastric acidity on the retention of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall of the rat. Also we further attempted to clarify the uptake and secreting cell of TcO 4 - in the gastric mucosa. One hundred rats were divided into two groups, preliminary (40 rats) and main examination group (60 rats). Preliminary examination group was composed of fasting group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio in gastric wall and post-prandial group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching the maximal gastric acidity. Main examination group was composed of fasting group (30 rats), which was subdivided into control group (10 rats), cimetidine group (10 rats), Mylanta group (10 rats) and post-prandial group (30 rats), which was subdivided into 90 min group (10 rats), 90 min cimetidine group (10 rats), and 120 min group (10 rats). Retention ratio (%) of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall and the pH of the gastric contents were measured in the extracted stomach of the six groups. Gastric wail retention ratio of TcO 4 - was calculated by the gastric wall radioactivity (cpm) divided by total gastric radioactivity (cpm) at 30 mins after intravenous injection of 0.4 mCi of TcO 4 - . The results were as follows: 1) The time required for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio and the lowest gastric pH were 30 min and 90 min, respectively. 2) In the fasting group, the gastric wall retention ratio of TcO 4 - was significantly increased in the cimetidine group, compared with the control group (P 4 - retention ratio and gastric pH were well

  18. Are online poker problem gamblers sensation seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline

    2018-03-31

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perineal Sensation Predictive of Spina Bifida Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic examination, including perineal sensation, was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 117 consecutive patients with open spina bifida at St George's, University of London, and Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

  20. Visual sensations induced by relativistic pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Visual sensations were experienced when bursts of high-energy pions passed through the dark-adapted right eyes of three human subjects. The threshold for a visual sensation was typically 1 to 3 μrad at the retina. Data are presented to show that the mechanism is Cerenkov radiation generated within the vitreous humor. Threshold measurements agree with published optical data. A comparison is made between our observations and the light flashes observed in deep space by Apollo astronauts

  1. Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases scorpion toxin-induced gastric secretion in rats Ligadura do esôfago abdominal diminui a secreção gástrica induzida por toxina de escorpião em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Vidal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Scorpion toxin purified from Tityus serrulatus venom (Tx induces an increase in volume, acidity and pepsin secretion in the gastric juice of rats. Ligation of oesophagus has been shown to reduce the acid gastric secretion in rats. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of the esophageal ligation on gastric secretion induced by Tx in rats METHODS: Forty-four male albino rats were given water ad libitum, but no food for 20 to 24 hours, anesthetized with urethane and the trachea and jugular vein cannulated. Cervical or abdominal esophageal ligation or sham-operations were performed before and after the injection of 0.25 mg/kg of scorpion toxin (fraction T1 into the jugular vein. One hour later, the volume, acidity, pH and peptic activity of gastric juice were determined. RESULTS: The scorpion toxin induced an increase in gastric juice volume, acidity and pepsin output and a decrease in pH when injected into the vein of intact animals or in sham-operated animals. Cervical esophagus ligation did not interfere with the effects of toxin, however, ligation of the abdominal esophageal decreased the toxin effect on the rat stomach. CONCLUSION: Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases the gastric secretion induced by scorpion toxin.OBJETIVO: A toxina de escorpião purificada do veneno do escorpião Tityus serrulatus (Tx induz um aumento no volume, acidez e secreção de pepsina no suco gástrico de ratos. A ligadura do esôfago diminui a secreção ácida do estômago em ratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência da ligadura do esôfago sobre a secreção gástrica induzida pela Tx em ratos. MÉTODOS: 44 ratos machos, brancos foram administrados água ad libitum, mas não alimentados por 20 a 24 horas, anestesiados com uretana e canulados a traquéia e a veia jugular. Foram realizadas as ligaduras do esôfago cervical ou abdominal ou operações simuladas antes e após a administração na veia jugular de 0

  2. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  3. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  4. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E

    2011-01-07

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

  5. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion i...

  6. Inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric motility persists after vagal deafferentation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, Carl Frederik; Wettergren, André; Ørskov, Cathrine

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal hormone that is secreted in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and reduces postprandial gastric secretion and may play a physiological regulatory role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. The GLP-1...

  7. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit pancreatic secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Barbuskaite, Dagne; Tozzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    +/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HKα1 and HKβ subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HKα2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar...... of major ions in secretion follow similar excretory curves in control and PPI treated animals. In addition to HCO3-, pancreas also secretes K+. In conclusion, this study calls for a revision of the basic model for HCO3- secretion. We propose that proton transport is driving secretion, and that in addition...

  8. Sensation Following Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Jakob; Wickman, Marie; Hansson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Sensation is a neglected aspect of the outcome of breast reconstructions with implants. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the cutaneous somatosensory status in breasts following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with permanent adjustable prostheses and to analyze the patients' subjective experience of the sensation. Twenty-four consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive or in situ breast carcinoma were examined preoperatively and 2 years after mastectomy and reconstruction, for assessment of perception thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, and heat pain above and below the areola. Von Frey filaments and a Peltier element-based thermode were used. The patients completed a questionnaire concerning their experienced sensation in the reconstructed breast. Using quantitative somato-sensory testing, the sensation to all the examined modalities was significantly impaired compared to preoperatively. Most affected was the area above the areola. Patients given postoperative radiotherapy (n = 9) did not differ from those without radiotherapy (n = 15) regarding any of the modalities. All patients reported reduced sensation in the reconstructed breast compared to that preoperatively. Twenty-three patients stated that the reconstructed breast felt different from the other breast; nevertheless 16 reported that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast. The study revealed sensation impairment following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with implants. Patients should be informed about this effect preoperatively to allow adequate expectations regarding the sensation outcome. However, two-thirds of the study patients considered that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast, which must be one of the main purposes of a breast reconstruction.

  9. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  11. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  12. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  13. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess.

  14. Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues.

  15. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milbrandt Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral responses to noxious heat or mechanical stimuli were normal. Furthermore, behavioral responses remained reduced or blocked in NGFIB knockout mice even after repetitive application of cold stimuli. Our results provide strong evidence that the first transcription factor NGFIB determines the ability of animals to respond to cold stimulation.

  16. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition (acarbose) fails to enhance secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) and to delay gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hücking, K; Kostic, Z; Pox, C

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Acarbose is able to enhance GLP-1 release and delay gastric emptying in normal subjects. The effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibition on GLP-1 has been less evident in Type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of acarbose on GLP-1 release and gas...

  18. Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Adamski, K.; Stefan, M.

    1984-01-01

    Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

  19. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Keywords; Anacardium occidentale, aqueous extract, gastric acid secretion, rats, intragastric. *Address for correspondence: . esajibola@yahoo.com. Revised version accepted: March 2010. INTRODUCTION. The plant, Anacardium occidentale. L belongs to the. Family; Anacardiaceae. It is popularly called cashew. Extracts ...

  20. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  1. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rate of decay of auditory sensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, R.

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decay of auditory sensation was investigated by measuring the minimum silent interval that must be introduced between two noise pulses to be perceived. The value of this critical time Δt was determined for difierent intensity levels of both the first and the second pulse. It is shown

  3. Visual sensations induced by Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Pulses of relativistic singly charged particles entering the eyeball induce a variety of visual phenomena by means of Cerenkov radiation generated during their passage through the vitreous. These phenomena are similar in appearance to many of the visual sensations experienced by Apollo astronauts exposed to the cosmic rays in deep space

  4. Phantom breast sensations are frequent after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorthe Marie Helbo; Kehlet, Henrik; Gærtner, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Phantom breast sensation (PBS) following mastectomy has been recognized for many years. PBS is a feeling that the removed breast is still there. The reported prevalence and risk factors have not been established in large well-defined patient series. The purpose of this study was to examine...... the prevalence of PBS following mastectomy and associated risk factors....

  5. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  6. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  7. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Gastric Sleeve Surgery What's in ... or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  8. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  9. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  10. Urea and ammonia excretion into gastric juice in regularly dialyzed patients and patients after renal transplantation. I. Dialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, I; Marecková, O; Růzicková, J; Bláha, J; Straková, M; Reneltová, I; Jirka, J; Kocandrle, V; Zvolánková, K

    1978-01-01

    In regularly dialyzed patients in basal gastric juice and after stimulation with pentagastrin the volume of titrable acidity, urea and ammonia were assessed. It was revealed that in relation to the plasma urea concentration in basal juice the mean urea and ammonia concentration is roughly half and in stimulation juice roughly one third. The urea concentration in gastric juice is negatively correlated to the ammonia concentration. Urea excretion into the stomach depends on the plasma urea level and on the secretory gastric activity. The decisive factor of gastric secretion is probably parietal cell secretion. From the results ensues that gastric juice of dialyzed patients contains a quantitatively significant amount of urea and ammonia. Ammonia due to its neutralizing action distorts the examination of gastric acidity assessed by titration. The findings call for a revision of hitherto known data concerning gastric secretion of uraemic patients.

  11. [The influence of corvitin on secretory processes and blood flow in the rat gastric mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovkun, T V; Ianchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Ia; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Baranovs'kyĭ, V A

    2013-01-01

    We studied parameters of gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rat and blood flow in the rat gastric mucosa under the influence of drug corvitin used intragastrically in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg. Biochemical analysis of gastric juice was based on the determination of pH, total hydrochloric acid production and total protein, hexosamine and cysteine concentration. Gastric juice analysis in control rats found the presence of hexosamines-- a gastric mucus indicators and cysteine--free amino acid whith properties of a strong antioxidant. Concentration of these compounds in the gastric juice increased as a consequence of corvitin action. However, corvitin did not affect at these parameters of gastric secretion as the volume of gastric juice, pH, hydrochloric acid output rate, protein concentration. Additionally it was shown that corvitin in dose-dependent manner increased blood flow in the gastric mucosa. This results give reason to believe that corvitin can be considered as a tool that amplifies gastric mucosal defense mechanisms without affecting the secretion of gastric hydrochloric acid and total protein.

  12. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  13. The milk mucus belief: sensations associated with the belief and characteristics of believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, W K; Pinnock, C B

    1993-02-01

    The belief that milk produces mucus is widespread in the community and is associated with a significant reduction in milk consumption. Sensations associated with milk drinking were reported by otherwise healthy believers and non-believers in the milk-mucus effect (N = 169) in an unstructured interview, with further responses prompted about the duration, type and amount of milk causing the effect. The site predominantly affected was the throat, with sensations related to difficulty in swallowing and perceived thickness of mucus and salivary secretions, rather than excessive mucus production. The effect required only a small amount of milk and was reported to be of short duration. The chronic respiratory symptom history and dairy product intake of 130 of these subjects were also assessed. Milk-mucus believers were different from non-believers, reporting more respiratory symptoms and consuming less milk and dairy products. Symptoms consistent with the known effects of food allergy or intolerance were not reported.

  14. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  15. Cryotherapy, Sensation, and Isometric-Force Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E.; Newell, Karl M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes in sensation of pressure, 2-point discrimination, and submaximal isometric-force production variability due to cryotherapy. Design and Setting: Sensation was assessed using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design, with treatment (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), digit (finger or thumb), and sensation test time (baseline, posttreatment, or postisometric-force trials) as independent variables. Dependent variables were changes in sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination. Isometric-force variability was tested with a 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design. Treatment condition (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), and percentage (10, 25, or 40) of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were the independent variables. The dependent variables were the precision or variability (the standard deviation of mean isometric force) and the accuracy or targeting error (the root mean square error) of the isometric force for each percentage of MVIC. Subjects: Fifteen volunteer college students (8 men, 7 women; age = 22 ± 3 years; mass = 72 ± 21.9 kg; height = 183.4 ± 11.6 cm). Measurements: We measured sensation in the distal palmar aspect of the index finger and thumb. Sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination were measured before treatment (baseline), after treatment (15 minutes of ice immersion or control), and at the completion of isometric testing (final). Variability (standard deviation of mean isometric force) of the submaximal isometric finger forces was measured by having the subjects exert a pinching force with the thumb and index finger for 30 seconds. Subjects performed the pinching task at the 3 submaximal levels of MVIC (10%, 25%, and 40%), with the order of trials assigned randomly. The subjects were given a target representing the submaximal percentage of MVIC and visual feedback of the force produced as they pinched the testing device. The force exerted

  16. Opponency of astringent and fat sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-10-09

    In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high......H 6.9 v 6.8; p>0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mu mol/h; pstimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mu mol/h; pstimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mu mol/h; p>0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control...... experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p=0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid...

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  19. Measurement of gastric emptying by intragastric gamma scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbert, C H; Mathis, C; Bobillier, E; Laplace, J P; Horowitz, M

    1997-09-01

    Gastric emptying is usually measured in animals and humans by dilution/sampling or external scintigraphy. These methods are either time consuming or require expensive equipment. The capacity of a miniature gamma counter positioned in the stomach to measure emptying of liquid and solid meals was evaluated. In eight conscious pigs fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulae, gastric emptying of saline (500 mL), dextrose (20%, 500 mL), porridge (300 g) and scrambled eggs (300 g), all labelled with 3.5 MBq 99mTC, was evaluated. When positioned in the antrum the probe was unable to quantify gastric emptying. In contrast, measurements of the fractional emptying of saline over 4-min periods by the probe positioned in the corpus and quantification of radioactivity in the duodenal effluent correlated closely (r = 0.88, P < 0.05). Gastric emptying (50% emptying time) of saline and both solid meals measured by the probe was not significantly different from quantification of the duodenal effluent volume. No difference was observed also for the dextrose meal but only while gastric acid secretion was suppressed by omeprazole. We conclude that an intragastric gamma counter permits measurement of gastric emptying of homogeneous meals provided meal stimulation of gastric secretion was not extensive. This was possible probably by monitoring emptying from the proximal stomach.

  20. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Circadian typology and sensation seeking in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs.

  2. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion......The role of submandibular epidermal growth factor in protection of the gastric mucosa was investigated in rats. Removal of the submandibular glands and thereby submandibular epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rats to develop gastric lesions (ulcerations and ulcers) after administration......, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may...

  3. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  4. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  5. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urethral sensation following reconstructive pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, M G; Davis, C; Lowenstein, L; Mueller, E R; Brubaker, L; Kenton, K

    2014-11-01

    Most urethral neuromuscular function data focus on efferent rather than afferent innervation. We aimed to determine if changes exist in urethral afferent nerve function before and after reconstructive pelvic surgery (RPS). Secondarily, we compared afferent urethral innervation in women with and without stress urinary incontinence undergoing RPS. Participants underwent current perception threshold (CPT) and urethral anal reflex (UAR) testing prior to surgery and again post-operatively. Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Spearman's correlations were used and all tests were two-sided. p = 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Urethral CPT thresholds increased significantly after RPS, consistent with decreased urethral afferent function. Pre-operative urethral CPT thresholds at 5 and 250 Hz were lower in SUI women (10 [IQR 5-29], 40 [32-750]) compared with continent women (63 [14-99], 73 [51-109]; p = 0.45, p = 0.020), signifying increased urethral sensation or easier activation of urethral afferents in SUI women. Reconstructive pelvic surgery is associated with a short-term deleterious impact on urethral afferent function, as demonstrated by the higher levels of stimuli required to activate urethral afferent nerves (decreased urethral sensation) immediately after RPS. Women with SUI required lower levels of stimuli to activate urethral afferent nerves prior to RPS, although UAR latencies were similar regardless of concomitant SUI.

  8. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  9. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  10. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  11. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie [Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors Company (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specific human subject tests in a climate chamber. They were validated against a test of automobile passengers. The series is intended to present the models' rationale, structure, and coefficients, so that others can test them and develop them further as additional empirical data becomes available. A) The whole-body (overall) sensation model has two forms, depending on whether all of the body's segments have sensations effectively in the same direction (e.g warm or cool), or whether some segments have sensations opposite to those of the rest of the body. For each, individual body parts have different weights for warm versus cool sensations, and strong local sensations dominate the overall sensation. If all sensations are near neutral, the overall sensation is close to the average of all body sensations. B) The overall comfort model also has two forms. Under stable conditions, people evaluate their overall comfort by a complaint-driven process, meaning that when two body parts are strongly uncomfortable, no matter how comfortable the other body parts might be, the overall comfort will be near the discomfort level of the two most uncomfortable parts. When the environmental conditions are transient, or people have control over their environments, overall comfort is better than that of the two most uncomfortable body parts. This can be accounted for by adding the most comfortable vote to the two most uncomfortable ones. (author)

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Quantitation of (beta)N-Alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides in coffee by means of LC-MS/MS-SIDA and assessment of their gastric acid secretion potential using the HGT-1 cell assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Bardelmeier, Ina; Weiss, Carola; Rubach, Malte; Somoza, Veronika; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-02-10

    A straightforward stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) for the reliable quantitative determination of (beta)N-C(18:0)- to (beta)N-C(24:0)-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs) in coffee powder and beverages by means of LC-MS/MS was developed. The developed SIDA showing accuracy values of 92.6-107% and precision between 0.5 and 7% relative standard deviation for the individual derivatives allowed the sensitive and selective quantification of the target compounds in coffee beverages. Depending on the type of coffee, quantitation revealed C5HT levels between 65 and 144 microg/L in filtered coffee and up to 3500 microg/L in a French press beverage, thus indicating that about 0.3 or 7.2% of the C5HTs were extracted from the coffee powder into the beverage when using the cellulose filter method or the French press, respectively. To estimate the potential contribution of the C5HTs to the phenomenon of stomach irritation after ingestion of coffee brew, in vitro cell studies were performed with pure individual 5-hydroxytryptamides and a mixture of the predominating derivatives in ratios matching those found in coffee. All substances tested induced a decrease in the intracellular proton index (IPX) coined as an indicator of stomach acid secretion. While the biomimetic C5HT mixture was highest in its inducing effect, the individual stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid 5-hydroxytryptamide did not differ significantly from each other, but showed a less pronounced effect compared to arachinic acid 5-hydroxytryptamide. In conclusion, not the grade of saturation seems to determine the C5HT's mode of action in driving the stomach acid secretion, rather than the fatty acid chain length.

  14. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception.

  15. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  16. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Air Turbulence and sensation of draught

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Hanzawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    the sedentary subjects were exposed to six mean air velocities ranging from 0.05 m/s to 0.40 m/s. The air temperature was kept constant at 23°C. They were asked whether and where they could feel air movement and whether or not it felt uncomfortable. The turbulence intensity had a significant impact...... on the occurence of draught sensation. A model is presented which predicts the percentage of people dissatisfied because of draught as a function of air temperature, mean velocity and turbulence intensity. The model can be a useful tool for quantifying the draught risk in spaces and for developing air distribution...... systems with a low draught risk....

  18. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  19. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  20. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  1. Comparison of thermal comfort and sensation scales : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesely, Michal; Zeiler, Wim; Li, Rongling; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; te Kulve, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensation is a conscious feeling that grades the thermal environment, while thermal comfort expresses satisfaction with this feeling. Multiple scales to quantify thermal sensation and comfort have been developed throughout the history of research on thermal comfort. In this paper, the most

  2. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  3. 'Errors of Judgment': The Case of Pain Sensations | Loonat | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill, in his paper 'Introspective Awareness of Sensations', argues that we do sometimes commit 'errors of judgment' and he draws on an example that involves the perception of pain to illustrate his point. I analyze Hill's example and draw on other examples of pain sensations to show how errors of judgment are not possible.

  4. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  5. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  7. Sensation of agency and perception of temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    After adaptation to a fixed temporal delay between actions and their sensory consequences, stimuli delivered during the delay are perceived to occur prior to actions. Temporal judgments are also influenced by the sensation of agency (experience of causing our own actions and their sensory consequences). Sensory consequences of voluntary actions are perceived to occur earlier in time than those of involuntary actions. However, it is unclear whether temporal order illusions influence the sensation of agency. Thus, we tested how the illusionary reversal of motor actions and sound events affect the sensation of agency. We observed an absence of the sensation of agency in the auditory modality in a condition in which sounds were falsely perceived as preceding motor acts relative to the perceived temporal order in the control condition. This finding suggests a strong association between the sensation of agency and the temporal order perception of actions and their consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  9. Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time‐series data from 24‐h gastric and esophageal pH recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Luo; Mu, John C.; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B.; Gardner, Jerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding...

  10. Signal transduction pathways involved in intestinal salt and water secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Berghe (Nina)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes some novel aspects of the regulation of salt and water secretion in the intestinal epithelium. This process is not unique for the intestine, but a common and necessary function of many other organs, including the stomach (gastric juice), kidney (urine), sweatglands

  11. Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    1992-03-01

    The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator

  12. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; Román, L S

    1995-05-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  13. Transcriptional and Functional Characterization of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Repertoire of Gastric Somatostatin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Engelstoft, Maja S; Lund, Mari L

    2015-01-01

    In the stomach, somatostatin (SST) acts as a general paracrine negative regulator of exocrine secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen and endocrine secretion of gastrin, ghrelin, and histamine. Using reporter mice expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) under control of the SST promotor, we hav...

  14. Regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Yasuhara, Saki; Saito, Yasuyo; Kasuga, Momoko; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, "temperature sensation" and "thermal comfort." Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  15. Epiglottic cyst as an etiological factor of globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Bahtiyar; Karahatay, Serdar; Gerek, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Globus is a subjective complaint that describes a sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat. Despite being a well-known and common clinical condition, the etiological factors have not been definitely elucidated yet. The study was set up to ascertain the relationship between epiglottic cysts and globus sensation. All patients undergoing investigation and treatments for globus sensation were included in the study. Patients with epiglottic cysts but no other possible causes of globus sensation were constituted the series of patients. Patients were asked to assess the levels of complaint before and after the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excisions of the cysts. Epiglottic cysts were found in 10 (5.4%) of the 182 patients. Three of these 10 patients who had concomitant diseases or conditions that may cause globus sensation and one patient who refused the surgery were excluded from the study. All the remaining six patients reported relief of the globus sensation after the CO2 laser excisions of the cysts. Our results, obtained from this limited series, indicated that epiglottic cysts may be considered as one of the etiological factors of globus sensation.

  16. Regulation of gut hormone secretion. Studies using isolated perfused intestines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens Juul.

    2016-01-01

    hormones is highly increased after gastric bypass operations, which have turned out to be an effective therapy of not only obesity but also type 2 diabetes. These effects are likely to be due, at least in part, to increases in the secretion of these gut hormones (except GIP). Therefore, stimulation...... of the endogenous hormone represents an appealing therapeutic strategy, which has spurred an interest in understanding the regulation of gut hormone secretion and a search for particularly GLP-1 and PYY secretagogues. The secretion of the gut hormones is stimulated by oral intake of nutrients often including...

  17. Postvagotomy acid secretion and mucosal blood flow during beta-adrenoceptor stimulation and universal chemical sympathectomy in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, alpha blockade, and elimination of the adrenergic nerve function on mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in parietal-cell-vagotomized (PCV) gastric fistula dogs. Isoprenaline inhibited pentagastrin-stimulate......The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, alpha blockade, and elimination of the adrenergic nerve function on mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in parietal-cell-vagotomized (PCV) gastric fistula dogs. Isoprenaline inhibited pentagastrin...... to chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxy-dopamine, a false neurotransmitter that selectively destroys the adrenergic nerve terminals. Chemical sympathectomy increased the pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and stabilized the mucosal blood flow at the level before vagotomy, but with an increased...... ratio between blood flow and acid secretion. One may conclude that the sympathetic nerve system influences gastric function after vagotomy....

  18. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J. (Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham (UK); Birmingham General Hospital (UK))

    1982-06-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera.

  19. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  20. Gastric mucosal defence mechanism during stress of pyloric obstruction in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K; Ganguly, A K

    1987-04-01

    1. The integrity of the gastric mucosa and its ability to secrete mucus are believed to be essential for protection of gastric mucosa against ulceration induced by aggressive factors active in any stress situation. This study involves a three-compartmental analysis of gastric mucosal barrier in pylorus-ligated albino rats. 2. Quantitative analyses of histologically identifiable gastric mucosal epithelial neutral glycoproteins and gastric adherent mucus from oxyntic and pyloric gland areas, and components of non-dialysable mucosubstances in gastric secretion were made under stress of pyloric obstruction for 4, 8, and 16 h durations. Epithelial mucin was identified by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining technique and assessed from the ratio of gastric mucosal thickness to the depth of PAS positive materials in it. The remaining visible mucus adhered to the gastric mucosa was estimated by Alcian blue binding technique. The results were compared with that of identical control groups. 3. A significant reduction in mucosal epithelial PAS positive materials after 8 or 16 h of pylorus ligation was observed. 4. The Alcian blue binding capacity of the pyloric gland area was increased significantly after 4 h of pylorus ligation, while after 8 or 16 h it was reduced in both oxyntic and pyloric gland areas. 5. Significant reductions in the rate of gastric secretion and volume, as well as concentration of the components of non-dialysable mucosubstances, were observed, indicating decreased synthesis of mucus glycoproteins. 6. Disruption of the mucosal barrier may have occurred due to decreased mucus synthesis and acid-pepsin accumulation; both could be due to stress associated with gastric distension. 7. The present findings confirm the role of mucus in protecting the underlying gastric epithelium during stress. The adherent mucus offers a first line of defence and epithelial mucus a second line of defence.

  1. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part III: whole-body sensation and comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie; Han, Taeyoung

    2009-01-01

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specifi...

  2. More than a feeling: sensation from cortical stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M

    2008-01-01

    Changes in neuronal firing underlie sensation, but how many neurons are needed to perceive these activity shifts? Two new studies in Nature suggest that the experimental modulation of only a few neurons can influence perception.

  3. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  4. Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDO, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

  5. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  6. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses with metabolic step-changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; deDear, Richard

    2006-01-01

    at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise....... The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative...... average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10-5 min 25% and during the prior 20-10 min 10%....

  7. Development of gastric cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2004-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with histological gastritis, gastric atrophy, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the stomach. However, gastric cancer only develops in a minority of infected individuals. Such clinical diversity is caused by variations in the interactions between H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Based on evidence from three prospective epidemiological studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (IARC/WHO) concluded in 1994 that H. pylori has a causal linkage to gastric carcinogenesis and is a definite carcinogen in humans. Two large-scale, prospective, epidemiological studies have recently been reported in Japan and have confirmed that H. pylori infection constitutes a high risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, at least in males. In order to obtain evidence that eradication of H. pylori leads to a reduction in the occurrence of gastric cancer, reversibility of precancerous lesions, gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia should be proven after eradication treatment. A biopsy specimen from the lesser curvature of the corpus is the most sensitive for evaluating the regression of gastric atrophy on histology, and the evaluation needs be conducted at least 13 months after treatment. In a Mongolian gerbil model with or without low-dose chemical carcinogens, it has been demonstrated that H. pylori can lead to the development of gastric cancer. Experimental studies have elucidated that virulence factors of H. pylori interact with gastric epithelial cell signaling related to carcinogenesis. The cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is a major virulence gene cluster; it encodes the type IV secretion machinery system forming a cylinder-like structure. The CagA protein is translocated into target cells via this secretion system and induces a hummingbird phenotype, a growth factor-like effect. The other gene products are

  8. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Conscious sensation, conscious perception and sensorimotor theories of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the differences between our conscious sensations (color, sound, smell, etc.) could be linked to the different ways in which our senses process and structure information. It is also proposed that the organization of our conscious sensations into a conscious perception of a three-dimensional world could be linked to our mastery of sensorimotor contingencies. These hypotheses are supported by a number of observations, including the appearance of consciou...

  10. Physical Self Perception and Sensation seeking tendency in gym gores

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Annotation: The work deals with the relationship between physical self-concept and experience of the search terms sensation seeking. It contains theoretical research of these areas, their position in the discourse of fitness and also presents a starting points for comparison. The research was conducted on a group of gym-goers and analyzed the relationship of concepts Physical Self Perception Profile and Sensation Seeking Scale version V including individual subscales. Comparison showed a weak...

  11. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    OpenAIRE

    M Guszkowska; A Bołdak

    2010-01-01

    The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98); wakeboarding (n=30); snowboarding (n=30);...

  12. Probing the O-glycoproteome of Gastric Cancer Cell Lines for Biomarker Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira Campos, Diana Alexandra; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana

    2015-01-01

    biomarker assays. However, the current knowledge of secreted and circulating O-glycoproteins is limited. Here, we used the COSMC KO "SimpleCell" (SC) strategy to characterize the O-glycoproteome of two gastric cancer SC lines (AGS, MKN45) as well as a gastric cell line (KATO III) which naturally expresses...... at least partially truncated O-glycans. Overall we identified 499 O-glycoproteins and 1,236 O-glycosites in gastric cancer SCs, and a total 47 O-glycoproteins and 73 O-glycosites in the KATO III cell line. We next modified the glycoproteomic strategy to apply it to pools of sera from gastric cancer...... with the STn glycoform were further validated as being expressed in gastric cancer tissue. A proximity ligation assay was used to demonstrate that CD44 was expressed with the STn glycoform in gastric cancer tissues. The study provides a discovery strategy for aberrantly glycosylated O-glycoproteins and a set...

  13. Breast sensation after breast reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Stapleton, Sahael M; Basdag, Basak; Seal, Stella M; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-07-01

    Studies show some return of breast sensation after breast reconstruction; however, recovery is variable and unpredictable. Efforts are being made to restore innervation by reattaching nerves (neurotization). We sought to systematically review the literature addressing breast sensation after reconstruction. The following databases were searched: EMBASE, Cochrane, and PubMed. Additionally, the PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY journal was hand searched from 1960 to 2009. Inclusion criteria included breast reconstruction for cancer, return of sensation with objective results, and patients aged 18 to 90 years. Studies with purely cosmetic procedures, case reports, studies with less than 10 patients, and studies involving male patients were excluded. The initial search yielded 109 studies, which was refined to 20 studies with a total pool of 638 patients. Innervated flaps have a greater magnitude of recovery, which occurs at an earlier stage compared with the noninnervated flaps. Overall, sensation to deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps may recover better sensation than transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, followed by latissimus dorsi flaps, and finally implants. Women's needs and expectations for sensation have led plastic surgeons to investigate ways to facilitate its return. Studies, however, depict conflicting data. Larger series are needed to define the role of neurotization as a modality for improving sensory restoration. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  14. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  15. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  16. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  17. Luteolin suppresses angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation through inhibiting Notch1-VEGF signaling in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Mingde; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Baogui; Zhu, Zhenglun; Li, Jianfang; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2017-08-26

    Gastric cancer is a great threat to the health of the people worldwide and lacks effective therapeutic regimens. Luteolin is one of Chinese herbs and presents in many fruits and green plants. In our previous study, we observed that luteolin inhibited cell migration and promoted cell apoptosis in gastric cancer. In the present study, luteolin significantly inhibited tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through decreasing cell migration and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) tubes formed by gastric cancer cells were also inhibited with luteolin treatment. To explore how luteolin inhibited tubes formation, ELISA assay for VEGF was performed. Both of the VEGF secretion from Hs-746T cells and HUVECs were significantly decreased subsequent to luteolin treatment. In addition, cell migration was increased with the interaction between gastric cancer cells and HUVECs in co-culture assays. However, the promoting effects were abolished subsequent to luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited VEGF secretion through suppressing Notch1 expression in gastric cancer. Overexpression of Notch1 in gastric cancer cells partially rescued the effects on cell migration, proliferation, HUVECs tube formation, and VM formation induced by luteolin treatment. In conclusion, luteolin inhibits angiogenesis and VM formation in gastric cancer through suppressing VEGF secretion dependent on Notch1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  19. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  20. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  1. Activity of Brucea javanica oil emulsion against gastric ulcers in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE in animals. Gastroprotective potential of BJOE was studied on absolute ethanol, aspirin, reserpine and restraint plus water immersion-induced gastric ulcers in mice as well as glacial acetic acid (GAA and pyloric ligation (PL-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Except for ulcer scores, total acidity as well as pepsin activity as for the PL-induced gastric ulcer model and ulcer incidence as for the GAA-induced gastric ulcer model were also determined. Histopathological evaluation as for aspirin, reserpine, PL-induced models was conducted. Results showed that BJOE significantly (P < 0.05 reduced ulcer index in the mouse and rat models in a dose-dependent manner. It had significant (P < 0.05 suppressive effect on total activity of gastric juice as well in PL-induced model. Histopathological examination for the stomach samples confirmed the findings in the aspirin, reserpine or PL-induced gastric lesion models, which showed relatively complete mucosa structure and less inflammation. It is concluded that BJOE could be effective on gastric ulcer in rodents and its gastroprotective activity might be related to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory ability and promote gastric mucus secreted. The results may provide beneficial basis for increasing BJOE's clinical indication in future. Keywords: Gastric ulcer, Brucea javanica oil emulsion, Gastric mucosa, Ulcer scores, Glacial acetic acid, Pepsin activity

  2. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present s...

  3. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  4. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  5. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Line

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available NUCB2 is an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that has been implicated in various physiological processes like calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic regulation of feeding and TNF receptor shedding. In our previous study we identified NUCB2 as a potential tumour antigen eliciting autoantibody responses in 5.4% of gastric cancer patients but not in the healthy individuals. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying NUCB2 immunogenicity and to gain an insight into the physiological functions of NUCB2 in the stomach. mRNA expression analysis demonstrated that NUCB2 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, and downregulated in gastric tumours when compared with the adjacent relatively normal stomach tissues. The search for molecular alterations resulted in the identification of novel mRNA variants transcribed from an alternative promoter and expressed predominantly in gastric cancers. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels correspond to mRNA levels and revealed that NUCB2 is phosphorylated in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, a 55 kDa isoform, generated presumably by yet an unidentified post-translational modification was detected in gastric tumours and AGS gastric cancer cells but was absent in the relatively normal gastric mucosa and thereby might have served as a trigger for the immune response against NUCB2. Staining of stomach tissue microarray with anti-NUCB2 antibody revealed that it is expressed in the secretory granules of chief cells and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells in the functioning gastric glands which are lost in atrophic glands and tumour cells. Hence we propose that NUCB2 may be implicated in gastric secretion by establishing an agonist-releasable Ca2+ store in ER or Golgi apparatus, signalling via heterotrimeric Ga proteins and/or mediating the exocytosis of the secretory granules.

  6. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Kalnina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available NUCB2 is an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that has been implicated in various physiological processes like calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic regulation of feeding and TNF receptor shedding. In our previous study we identified NUCB2 as a potential tumour antigen eliciting autoantibody responses in 5.4% of gastric cancer patients but not in the healthy individuals. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying NUCB2 immunogenicity and to gain an insight into the physiological functions of NUCB2 in the stomach. mRNA expression analysis demonstrated that NUCB2 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, and downregulated in gastric tumours when compared with the adjacent relatively normal stomach tissues. The search for molecular alterations resulted in the identification of novel mRNA variants transcribed from an alternative promoter and expressed predominantly in gastric cancers. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels correspond to mRNA levels and revealed that NUCB2 is phosphorylated in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, a 55 kDa isoform, generated presumably by yet an unidentified post-translational modification was detected in gastric tumours and AGS gastric cancer cells but was absent in the relatively normal gastric mucosa and thereby might have served as a trigger for the immune response against NUCB2. Staining of stomach tissue microarray with anti-NUCB2 antibody revealed that it is expressed in the secretory granules of chief cells and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells in the functioning gastric glands which are lost in atrophic glands and tumour cells. Hence we propose that NUCB2 may be implicated in gastric secretion by establishing an agonist-releasable Ca2+ store in ER or Golgi apparatus, signalling via heterotrimeric Ga proteins and/or mediating the exocytosis of the secretory granules.

  7. Bovine alpha-lactalbumin stimulates mucus metabolism in gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Y; Shimokawa, Y; Toida, T; Matsui, H; Takase, M

    2007-02-01

    Bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), a major milk protein, exerts strong gastroprotective activity against rat experimental gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this activity, the influence of alpha-LA on gastric mucus metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, RGM1 cells (a rat gastric epithelial cell line) were selected for observation of the direct activity of alpha-LA on gastric mucosal cells and cultured in the presence of either alpha-LA or ovalbumin (OVA), a reference protein showing no gastroprotective activity. Amounts of synthesized and secreted mucin, a major component of mucus, were determined using [3H]glucosamine as a tracer, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the culture medium were determined by RIA. For the in vivo study, the thickness of the mucus gel layer, a protective barrier for gastric mucosa, was evaluated histochemically in rat gastric mucosa. alpha-Lactalbumin (3 mg/mL) significantly stimulated mucin synthesis and secretion in RGM1 cells and also increased PGE2 levels in the culture medium. In contrast, OVA showed no enhancing effects under identical conditions. Neither indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, nor AH23848, a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist, affected alpha-LA-induced enhancement of mucin synthesis and secretion. In vivo, oral administration of alpha-LA (300 mg/kg x 3 times/d x 7 d) increased the thickness of the mucus gel layer in rats. These results indicate that alpha-LA fortifies the mucus gel layer by stimulating mucin production and secretion in gastric mucus-producing cells, and that this enhancing effect is independent of endogenous PGE2. Comparison of the efficacy of alpha-LA with OVA suggests that the activities observed in RGM1 cells are closely related to the gastroprotective effects in rat gastric ulcer models. In conclusion, alpha-LA stimulates mucus metabolism, and this action may be responsible for its gastroprotective

  8. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  9. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  10. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Carruthers, S.G.; Grace, D.M.; King, M.; Mowbray, R.D.; Bondy, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  11. Self-Produced Tickle Sensation by Manipulating Visual Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Iizuka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to clarify how the distinction of self- (sense of agency, SOA and other-produced behavior can be synthesized and recognized in multisensory integration as our cognitive processes. To address this issue, we used tickling paradigm that it is hard for us to tickle ourselves. Previous studies show that tickle sensation by their own motion increases if more delay is given between self-motion of tickling and tactile stimulation (Blakemore et al. 1998, 1999. We introduced visual feedbacks to the tickling experiments. In our hypothesis, integration of vision, proprioception, and motor commands forms the SOA and disintegration causes the breakdown the SOA, which causes the feeling of others, producing tickling sensation even by tickling oneself. We used video-see-through HMD to suddenly delay the real-time images of their hand tickling motions. The tickle sensation was measured by subjective response in the following conditions; 1 tickling oneself without any visual modulation, 2 tickled by others, 3 tickling oneself with visual feedback manipulation. The statistical analysis of ranked evaluation of tickle sensations showed that the delay of visual feedback causes the increase of tickle sensation. The SOA was discussed with Blakemore's and our results.

  12. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  13. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué , Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, Franç ois; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  14. The Role of Body Sensations in Understanding One's Own Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balueva O.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are at least three different viewpoints among all theories of emotions that attempt to explain the role of body sensations in understanding one's own emotions. In order to compare the explanatory resources of these viewpoints we conducted a research in which the subjects (n=59 were shown a series of neutral and emotionally significant slides (taken from the IAPS database. During the slideshow we registered the subjects' pulse and galvanic skin response. The subjects were asked to assess the intensity of their emotional reactions and body sensations in response to the emotionally significant slides, and also filled in a questionnaire on emotional intelligence that enabled us to measure their ability to understand their own emotions as well as those of other people. The outcomes of our research show that sensations accompanying emotional experiences are not the result of interoception as they do not correspond with objective indicators of the changes in physiological arousal, whereas they do correspond in many ways with the subjects' emotional appraisal of the stimuli and selfassessment of sensations. These outcomes also revealed that subjective evaluations of body sensations correlate with emotional valence, while heart rate (the objective indicator of arousal correlates with modality of the emotion

  15. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  16. Water Sensation During Passive Propulsion for Expert and Nonexpert Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanagi, Kenta; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Norimasa

    2017-06-01

    This study determined whether expert swimmers, compared with nonexperts, have superior movement perception and physical sensations of propulsion in water. Expert (national level competitors, n = 10) and nonexpert (able to swim 50 m in > 3 styles, n = 10) swimmers estimated distance traveled in water with their eyes closed. Both groups indicated their subjective physical sensations in the water. For each of two trials, two-dimensional coordinates were obtained from video recordings using the two-dimensional direct linear transformation method for calculating changes in speed. The mean absolute error of the difference between the actual and estimated distance traveled in the water was significantly lower for expert swimmers (0.90 ± 0.71 meters) compared with nonexpert swimmers (3.85 ± 0.84 m). Expert swimmers described the sensation of propulsion in water in cutaneous terms as the "sense of flow" and sensation of "skin resistance." Therefore, expert swimmers appear to have a superior sense of distance during their movement in the water compared with that of nonexpert swimmers. In addition, expert swimmers may have a better perception of movement in water. We propose that expert swimmers integrate sensations and proprioceptive senses, enabling them to better perceive and estimate distance moved through water.

  17. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  18. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan

    2016-02-12

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  19. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2004-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  20. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  1. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T 4 ) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T 4 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of 3 H-dihydroalprenolol to β-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function

  2. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2015-04-09

    Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance-like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a vulnerability factor. © The Author 2015. Published by

  3. gastric acid secretion, mucus concentration and ulceration following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of consumption (ingestion) of Cannabis sativa on the gastrointestinal tract ... lungs from where it gets to the brain (Maykut,. 1985). .... least significant difference (LSD) test using SPSS version 15.0 ...

  4. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  5. Metastatic Signet-Ring Cell Gastric Carcinoma Masquerading as Breast Primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Chandra Doval

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the breast from an extra-mammary primary is a rare phenomenon; metastasis from gastric carcinoma to the breast is extremely so. We report a case who initially presented as mucin-secreting and signet-ring cell tumor of the ovary, and after an interval of 8 months with breast and chest wall metastatic nodules. The covert gastric primary eluded the oncologists at both presentations.

  6. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body will not get all of the calories from the food you eat. ... to a small hole in your pouch. The food you eat will now travel ... absorb fewer calories. Gastric bypass can be done in two ways. ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  8. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  9. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  10. Cancer-associated fibroblasts are positively correlated with metastatic potential of human gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of gastric cancer patients is difficult to predict because of defects in establishing the surgical-pathological features. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs have been found to play prominent role in promoting tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Thus raises the hypothesis that the extent of CAFs prevalence may help to establish the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Methods Immunochemistry and realtime-PCR experiments were carried out to compare the expression of proteins which are specific markers of CAFs or secreted by CAFs in the tumor and normal tissue specimens. The extent of CAFs' prevalence was graded according to immunochemical staining, and correlation was further analyzed between CAFs' prevalence and other tumor characteristics which may influence the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Results Nearly 80 percent of normal gastric tissues were negative or weak positive for CAFs staining, while more than 60 percent of gastric cancer tissues were moderate or strong positive for CAFs staining. Realtime-PCR results also showed significant elevated expression of FAP, SDF-1 and TGF-β1 in gastric cancer tissues compared to normal gastric tissues. Further analysis showed that CAFs' prevalence was correlated with tumor size, depth of the tumor, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis or peritoneum metastasis. Conclusions Reactive cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs were frequently accumulated in gastric cancer tissues, and the prevalence of CAFs was correlated with tumor size, depth of the tumor and tumor metastasis, thus give some supports for establishing the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients.

  11. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using 3 H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined

  12. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated...... the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form......, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering...

  13. Effect of sialoadenectomy and synthetic human urogastrone on healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    The effect of extirpation of the submandibular glands, an exocrine organ for epidermal growth factor/urogastrone (EGF/URO), and the effect of oral administration of synthetic human (EGF/URO) on healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats has been investigated. Removal of the submandibular glands...... delayed healing of chronic gastric ulcers when examined after 50, 100, and 200 days. Oral administration of synthetic human EGF/URO stimulated gastric ulcer healing when examined after 25 and 50 days of treatment. The effect of synthetic human EGF/URO was comparable with that of cimetidine. The combined...... administration of synthetic human EGF/URO and cimetidine further increased healing of gastric ulcers compared with administration of each substance. Neither synthetic human EGF/URO, nor removal of the submandibular glands had any influence on gastric acid secretion. This study showed that the submandibular...

  14. Intraoperative perception and sensation in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivannaboon, Sabong; Chansue, Ekktet

    2004-04-01

    To investigate intraoperative perception and sensation during Laser in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK). Sixty patients with uneventful LASIK were included. All procedures were performed by one surgeon with one technique. Any patient with intra-operative complications was excluded. The patients were asked to fill in the subjective evaluation form regarding their perception and sensation during the operation. Twenty-nine patients (48%) reported no pain and twenty-six patients (43%) reported no burning sensation during the surgery. Nineteen patients (32%) reported no light perception during the suction period of microkeratome. There was no correlation between duration of the suction and no light perception (R2 0.01). Thirty-four patients (56%) reported no trouble in maintaining visual fixation at the red light during the laser treatment. Ten patients (16%) reported they could clearly see the movement during the surgery and 5 out of 10 patients (50% of 16%) reported visual frightening. Fifty cases (84%) reported no visual frightening during the surgery after reassurance of the visual experience by the surgeon before the surgery. Patients undergoing LASIK may experience different visual perceptions. Reassurance of the intraoperative perception and sensation before the surgery can reduce the visual frightening.

  15. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velt, K.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) in changing environments. Therefore, 10 subjects stayed in a 30 °C, 50% relative humidity for 30 min in summer clothes and then moved to a 20 °C room where they remained seated for 30 min (Hot to Reference

  16. Textures of Time. A Study of Cinematic Sensations of Anachronism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.D.N.

    2008-01-01

    This research project presents a nonlinear method of encounters to investigate and affirm the spatial effects of anachronism on our traditional sensation of time in four unique and inventive cinematographic representations of the past: Elizabeth (Kapur 1998), Moulin Rouge (Luhrmann 2001), Russian

  17. Presence seeking and sensation seeking as motives for international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G

    1994-12-01

    Although independent research has identified presence seeking and sensation seeking as important motives for a variety of activities, there is sufficient conceptual overlap to suggest the concepts describe in part the same motive or are related. The possible relationship was examined in motives of students for international travel. Nonsignificant correlations suggest that, at least for this activity, they are differentiable.

  18. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  19. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  20. Motivations and sensation seeking characteristics of recreational storm chasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuangyu Xu; Sonja Wilhelm Stanis; Carla Barbieri; Jiawen. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about recreational storm chasing, a type of risk recreation that has increased in popularity since the 1990s. This study was conducted to understand factors associated with participation in recreational storm chasing in the United States. Particularly, this study assessed the motivations and sensation seeking attributes of recreational storm chasers, as...

  1. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We…

  2. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  3. Sensation seeking, gender and programme preferences in televised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport has emerged as one of the major media events of our time of such magnitude that it is no more possible to distinguish between the phenomena of television and sport. The purpose of this study is to determine the relations between sensation seeking, gender and preferences in viewing televised sport. The reason ...

  4. The association of hand preference and sensation seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderer, Sonja; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    Although the human body shows a superficial symmetry, the disparate functions and skills of both body halves lead to an asymmetrical use. As a result, lateral preferences are detectable, which also include the favoured use of one hand ('handedness'). The collection of questionnaire data on sensation seeking and the conduction of behavioral handedness tasks by 55 research participants enabled the investigation of the interaction of handedness and sensation seeking. For this procedure the age-homogeneous study population is divided according to the Handedness-Index (HI) - a calculated value, indicating the practical hand preference. The results reveal a stronger lateralization in right-handed participants as well as a difference in the mean value of hand use in the three handedness groups. Sensation seeking behavior shows significant negative correlations with age as well as with the HI. Higher scores of left-handers in Experience Seeking (ES), Sensation Seeking (SS) as well as in Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) indicate a larger risk investment in this handedness group. Hence, the results of this study suggest that handedness is a strong indicator of risk behavior.

  5. Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masny, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

  6. The response of skin hardness and pain sensation to ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaimaa A. Hamid

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... mation of LDS from venous hypertension are not known; it is likely to be .... position allowed the durometer to be both perpendicular to the leg and ... difference in pain sensation measured by NRS between control and study ...

  7. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  8. Estimation of thermal sensation during varied air temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, T; Tabuchi, R; Iwanaga, K; Harada, H; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-03-01

    Seven male students were exposed to four varied air temperature environments: hot (37 degrees C) to neutral (27 degrees C) (HN), neutral to hot (NH), cool (17 degrees C) to neutral (CN), and neutral to cool (NC). The air temperature was maintained at the first condition for 20 min, then was changed to the second condition after 15 min and was held there for 20 min. Each subject wore a T-shirt, briefs, trunks, and socks. Each sat on a chair and was continuously evaluated for thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and air velocity sensation. Some physiological and thermal parameters were also measured every 5 s during the experiment. The correlation between thermal sensation and skin temperature at 15 sites was found to be poor. The subjects felt much warmer during the rising phase of the air temperature (CN, NH) than during the descending phase (HN, NC) at a given mean skin temperature. However, thermal sensation at the same heat flux or at the same value of the difference between skin and air temperature (delta(Tsk - Ta)) was not so different among the four experimental conditions, and the correlation between thermal sensation and heat flux or delta(Tsk - Ta) was fairly good. The multiple regression equation of the thermal sensation (TS) on 15 sites of skin temperature (Tsk; degrees C) was calculated and the coefficient of determination (R*2) was found to be 0.656. Higher coefficients of determination were found in the equations of thermal sensation for the heat flux (H; kcal.m-2.h-1) at the right and left thighs of the subjects and on delta(Tsk - Ta) (degrees C) at 4 sites. They were as follows: TS = 2.04 - 0.016 Hright - 0.036 Hleft; R*2 = 0.717, TS = 1.649 + 0.013 delta(Tsk - Ta)UpperArm - 0.036 delta(Tsk - Ta)Chest - 0.223 delta(Tsk - Ta)Thigh-0.083 delta(Tsk - Ta)LowerLeg; R*2 = 0.752, respectively.

  9. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  10. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  12. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  13. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high .... tubes were removed and oral nutrition resumed. The .... surgical approach for perforated gastric cancer: One‑stage vs. two‑stage ...

  14. The precedence effect for lateralization at low sensation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverts, S T; Houtgast, T; van Beek, H H

    2000-10-01

    Using dichotic signals presented by headphone, stimulus onset dominance (the precedence effect) for lateralization at low sensation levels was investigated for five normal hearing subjects. Stimuli were based on 2400-Hz low pass filtered 5-ms noise bursts. We used the paradigm, as described by Aoki and Houtgast (Hear. Res., 59 (1992) 25-30) and Houtgast and Aoki (Hear. Res., 72 (1994) 29-36), in which the stimulus is divided into a leading and a lagging part with opposite lateralization cues (i.e. an interaural time delay of 0.2 ms). The occurrence of onset dominance was investigated by measuring lateral perception of the stimulus, with fixed equal duration of leading and lagging part, while decreasing absolute signal level or adding a filtered white noise with the signal level set at 65 dBA. The dominance of the leading part was quantified by measuring the perceived lateral position of the stimulus as a function of the relative duration of the leading (and thus the lagging) part. This was done at about 45 dB SL without masking noise and also at a signal-to-noise ratio resulting in a sensation level of 10 dB. The occurrence and strength of the precedence effect was found to depend on sensation level, which was decreased either by lowering the signal level or by adding noise. With the present paradigm, besides a decreased lateralization accuracy, a decrease in the precedence effect was found for sensation levels below about 30-40 dB. In daily-life conditions, with a sensation level in noise of typically 10 dB, the onset dominance was still manifest, albeit degraded to some extent.

  15. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  16. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  17. Enteroendocrine secretion of gut hormones in diabetes, obesity and after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is associated with a major weight loss and often causes remission in patients with type 2 diabetes. Surgery is also associated with dramatic increases in the secretion of the gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), both of which regulate appetite...... and food intake, while GLP-1 in addition functions as an incretin hormone, stimulating insulin secretion. It has been possible to probe the role of GLP-1 for the diabetes resolution after gastric bypass using a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, and it is clear that the enhanced beta cell sensitivity to glucose...... which underlies the enhanced insulin secretion in the patients after the operation depends critically on the increased GLP-1 secretion. Both hormones seem to contribute importantly to the reduction in food intake after bypass and, therefore, to the weight loss. Currently, there are no data to indicate...

  18. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  19. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  20. Phantom sensations in people with complete spinal cord lesions: a grounded theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.

  1. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a 99m technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it

  2. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  5. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  6. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent "noise," generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the β 3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by

  7. Sensationalism in front page photographs : Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Gabi; Pleijter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    GABI SCHAAP & ALEXANDER PLEIJTER Sensationalism in front page photographs: Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers Sensation in the news has been a longtime cause for social and scientific debate. Sensational news is thought to substitute 'serious' information needed for serious

  8. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  9. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  10. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their ability to suppress gastric acid secretion.

  11. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  12. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  13. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event

  14. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event.

  15. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, Oonagh; McClean, Conor M; Medlow, Paul; Davison, Gareth W; Trinick, Tom R; Duly, Ellie; Shafat, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent...

  16. The sensation of the look: The gazes in Laurence Anyways

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Corey Kai Nelson

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the gazes, looks, stares and glares in Laurence Anyways (Xavier Dolan, 2012), and examines their affective, interpretive, and symbolic qualities, and their potential to create viewer empathy through affect. The cinematic gaze can produce sensations of shame and fear, by offering a sequence of varied “encounters” to which viewers can react, before we have been given a character onto which we can deflect them, thus bypassing the representational, narrative and even the sym...

  17. Pulse Width Affects Scalp Sensation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Luber, Bruce; Westin, Gregory G; Lisanby, Sarah H

    Scalp sensation and pain comprise the most common side effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can reduce tolerability and complicate experimental blinding. We explored whether changing the width of single TMS pulses affects the quality and tolerability of the resultant somatic sensation. Using a controllable pulse parameter TMS device with a figure-8 coil, single monophasic magnetic pulses inducing electric field with initial phase width of 30, 60, and 120 µs were delivered in 23 healthy volunteers. Resting motor threshold of the right first dorsal interosseus was determined for each pulse width, as reported previously. Subsequently, pulses were delivered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at each of the three pulse widths at two amplitudes (100% and 120% of the pulse-width-specific motor threshold), with 20 repetitions per condition delivered in random order. After each pulse, subjects rated 0-to-10 visual analog scales for Discomfort, Sharpness, and Strength of the sensation. Briefer TMS pulses with amplitude normalized to the motor threshold were perceived as slightly more uncomfortable than longer pulses (with an average 0.89 point increase on the Discomfort scale for pulse width of 30 µs compared to 120 µs). The sensation of the briefer pulses was felt to be substantially sharper (2.95 points increase for 30 µs compared to 120 µs pulse width), but not stronger than longer pulses. As expected, higher amplitude pulses increased the perceived discomfort and strength, and, to a lesser degree the perceived sharpness. Our findings contradict a previously published hypothesis that briefer TMS pulses are more tolerable. We discovered that the opposite is true, which merits further study as a means of enhancing tolerability in the context of repetitive TMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction de la sensation des malaises thermiques: determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objet de contribuer à la réduction de la sensation des malaises thermiques à travers la recherche des orientations préférentielles des bâtiments dans les différentes zones du Togo à partir des conditions aérodynamiques et climatiques locales. Les données climatiques à savoir la température, ...

  19. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Distorted cognition of bodily sensations in subtypes of social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto; Seiwa, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between subtypes of social anxiety and distorted cognition of bodily sensations. The package of questionnaires including the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To identify subtypes of social anxiety, cluster analysis was conducted using scores of the SPS and SIAS. Five clusters were identified and labeled as follows: Generalized type characterized by intense anxiety in most social situations, Non-anxious type characterized by low anxiety levels in social situations, Averaged type whose anxiety levels are averaged, Interaction anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in social interaction situations, and Performance anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in performance situations. Results of an ANOVA indicated that individuals with interaction type fear the negative evaluation from others regarding their bodily sensations whereas individuals with performance type overestimate the visibility of their bodily sensations to others. Differences in salient aspects of cognitive distortion among social anxiety subtypes may show necessity to select intervention techniques in consideration of subtypes.

  1. ERC/mesothelin is expressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoaki; Kajino, Kazunori; Abe, Masaaki; Sato, Koichi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Sakurada, Mutsumi; Orita, Hajime; Wada, Ryo; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Hino, Okio

    2014-01-01

    ERC/mesothelin is expressed in mesothelioma and other malignancies. The ERC/mesothelin gene (MSLN) encodes a 71-kDa precursor protein, which is cleaved to yield 31-kDa N-terminal (N-ERC/mesothelin) and 40-kDa C-terminal (C-ERC/mesothelin) proteins. N-ERC/mesothelin is a soluble protein and has been reported to be a diagnostic serum marker of mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Gastric cancer tissue also expresses C-ERC/mesothelin, but the significance of serum N-ERC levels for diagnosing gastric cancer has not yet been studied. We examined the latter issue in the present study as well as C-ERC/mesothelin expression in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. We immunohistochemically examined C-ERC/mesothelin expression in tissue samples from 50 cases of gastric cancer, and we also assessed the C-ERC/mesothelin expression in 6 gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-1, MKN-7, MKN-74, NUGC-3, NUGC-4 and TMK-1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We also examined the N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations in the supernatants of cultured cells and in the sera of gastric cancer patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). N-ERC/mesothelin was detected in the supernatants of 3 gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-1, NUGC-4 and TMK-1) by ELISA, but its concentration in the sera of gastric cancer patients was almost same as that observed in the sera of the normal controls. In the gastric cancer tissues, C-ERC/mesothelin expression was associated with lymphatic invasion. N-ERC/mesothelin was secreted into the supernatants of gastric cancer cell lines, but does not appear to be a useful serum marker of gastric cancer.

  2. Gastric microbial community profiling reveals a dysbiotic cancer-associated microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Marques, Joana; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Costa, Jose L; Carneiro, Fatima; Machado, Jose C

    2018-01-01

    Objective Gastric carcinoma development is triggered by Helicobacter pylori. Chronic H. pylori infection leads to reduced acid secretion, which may allow the growth of a different gastric bacterial community. This change in the microbiome may increase aggression to the gastric mucosa and contribute to malignancy. Our aim was to evaluate the composition of the gastric microbiota in chronic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma. Design The gastric microbiota was retrospectively investigated in 54 patients with gastric carcinoma and 81 patients with chronic gastritis by 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing. Differences in microbial composition of the two patient groups were assessed using linear discriminant analysis effect size. Associations between the most relevant taxa and clinical diagnosis were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities was obtained with PICRUSt. Results The gastric carcinoma microbiota was characterised by reduced microbial diversity, by decreased abundance of Helicobacter and by the enrichment of other bacterial genera, mostly represented by intestinal commensals. The combination of these taxa into a microbial dysbiosis index revealed that dysbiosis has excellent capacity to discriminate between gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Analysis of the functional features of the microbiota was compatible with the presence of a nitrosating microbial community in carcinoma. The major observations were confirmed in validation cohorts from different geographic origins. Conclusions Detailed analysis of the gastric microbiota revealed for the first time that patients with gastric carcinoma exhibit a dysbiotic microbial community with genotoxic potential, which is distinct from that of patients with chronic gastritis. PMID:29102920

  3. Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Bays

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause.

  4. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations is Predictive, not Postdictive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause.

  5. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  6. Traces: making sense of urodynamics testing--Part 8: Evaluating sensations of bladder filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    The "Traces" series discusses how the urodynamic clinician generates usable data from a filling cystometrogram (CMG). Part 8 focuses on the question, "What are the sensations of bladder filling?" Recent research suggests that sensations of bladder filling wax and wane from consciousness in healthy persons free of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. Because of its invasive and atypical nature when compared to daily life, multichannel urodynamics testing cannot reproduce the numerous and complex variables that influence bladder sensation in the healthy individual, making the evaluation of sensations of bladder filling a particularly challenging component of the filling CMG. Routine assessment of bladder sensations focuses on identification of three landmarks--first sensation of bladder filling, first desire to void, and a strong desire to void. A fourth sensation, bladder fullness or a compelling desire to void, is recommended. In addition to assessing these sensations, the urodynamic clinician must assess sensations indicating associated disease or disorders affecting lower urinary tract function, including urgency, pain, and atypical sensations. This assessment should be completed in the context of the results of one or more validated instruments used to measure bladder sensations.

  7. Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Omar, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the analysis and modeling of vehicular thermal comfort parameters using a set of designed experiments aided by thermography measurements. The experiments are conducted using a full size climatic chamber to host the test vehicle, to accurately assess the transient and steady state temperature distributions of the test vehicle cabin. Further investigate the thermal sensation (overall and local) and the human comfort states under artificially created relative humidity scenarios. The thermal images are calibrated through a thermocouples network, while the outside temperature and relative humidity are manipulated through the climatic environmental chamber with controlled soaking periods to guarantee the steady state conditions for each test scenario. The relative humidity inside the passenger cabin is controlled using a Total Humidity Controller (THC). The simulation uses the experimentally extracted boundary conditions via a 3-D Berkeley model that is set to be fully transient to account for the interactions in the velocity and temperature fields in the passenger compartment, which included interactions from turbulent flow, thermal buoyancy and the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. The model investigates the human comfort by analyzing the effect of the in-cabin relative humidity from two specific perspectives; firstly its effect on the body temporal variation of temperature within the cabin. Secondly, the Local Sensation (LS) and Comfort (LC) are analyzed for the different body segments in addition to the Overall Sensation (OS) and the Overall Comfort (OC). Furthermore, the human sensation is computed using the Fanger model in terms of the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices. The experimental and simulation results show that controlling the RH levels during the heating and the cooling processes (winter and summer conditions respectively) aid the A/C system to

  8. Solifenacin objectively decreases urinary sensation in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda; Sabo, Edmond; Durazo-Arivzu, Ramón A; Fitzgerald, Mary P

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a device that measures urinary sensation during cystometry, and to use that device to determine whether treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with solifenacin is associated with a change in urinary sensation. Overall 15 women were recruited for this study, ten women with OAB and urodynamically demonstrated detrusor overactivity and five controls without OAB underwent filling cystometry twice with contemporaneous, continuous recording of urinary sensation. Women with OAB received solifenacin 10 mg daily during the weeks between testing. We compared the areas under the initial and repeat sensation-volume curves. While taking solifenacin, the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 329 ± 168 ml to 464 ± 123 ml (P sensation curve decreased (P sensation during the treatment of OAB with solifenacin. If clinical correlations are confirmed by future study, such urinary sensation measures may prove useful as assessment, treatment predictor, or outcome measures in OAB research and/or clinical care.

  9. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  10. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  12. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related ... in the developing world,4 although cancer records are not readily available for .... gastric cancers are identified at a late stage due to lack of ...

  13. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  14. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  15. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  16. Effect of gastric anacidity on the intestinal absorption of liver bound 57Co-labelled cobalamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittang, E.

    1987-01-01

    57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin injected in rabbit was transformed within the liver to 57 Co-labelled desoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcovalamin. The absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins could be determined with acceptable accuracy by the double isotope fecal excretion method. Treatment with the H 2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, did not result in decreased absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins in healthy individuals. R-protein and the R-proteincobalamin complex were determined by the FPLC Mono S chromatography method with a high degree of correlation to the charcoal method in saliva, gastric and duodenal juice, and with a high degree of reproducibility. Omeprazole markedly inhibited the gastric acid and pepsin secretion, but did nor inhibit the IF secretion. Omeprazole treatment resulted in anacidity in 14 of 17 individuals, but did not reduce the absorption of liver bound 57 Co-labelled cobalamins. The intrinsic factor concentration in gastric aspirates measured during the study was unchanged during omeprazole treatment. The release of cobalamins from liver homogenate was markedly inhibited by neutralized gastric juice in vitro, probably due to decreased pepsin mediated proteolysis. In vivo the cobalamin release from liver homogenate was modestly inhibited in the stomach but was unaffected in jejunum during omeprazole treatment. The major part of 57 Co-labelled liver cobalamins bound to R-protein in acid and neutral gastric juice in vitro, and omeprazole induced anacidity, did not influence the cobalamin binding either in gastric or jejunal juice in vivo

  17. Dimensions of sensation assessed in urinary urgency: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan; Williams, Marie

    2013-10-01

    Urinary urgency is an adverse sensory experience. Confirmation of the multidimensional nature of other adverse sensory experiences such as pain and dyspnea has improved the understanding of neurophysiological and perceptual mechanisms leading to innovations in assessment and treatment. It has been suggested that the sensation of urgency may include multiple dimensions such as intensity, suddenness and unpleasantness. In this systematic review we determine which dimensions of sensation have been assessed by instruments used to measure urinary urgency. A systematic search was undertaken of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Ageline, Web of Science, InformIT Health and Scopus databases to identify studies that included assessments of urinary urge or urgency. Articles were included in the analysis if they were primary studies that described the method used to measure urge/urgency in adults and published in English in peer reviewed publications since January 1, 2000. Articles were excluded from study if urgency was measured only in conjunction with other symptoms (eg frequency or incontinence) or if there was no English version of the instrument. Secondary analyses and systematic reviews were retained to hand search references for additional primary studies. Data were extracted for the instruments used to measure urge/urgency. For each instrument the items specific to urinary urgency were reviewed using a prospectively developed categorization process for the sensory dimension and the measurement metric. Items used to assess urinary urgency were collated in a matrix (sensory dimensions vs assessment metric). The most frequently used dimensions, metrics and combinations were descriptively analyzed. After removal of duplicate articles 1,048 full text articles were screened and 411 were excluded, leaving 637 eligible articles from which data were extracted. A total of 216 instruments were identified which were 1 of 6 types, namely 1) wider symptom questionnaires, 2) urgency

  18. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto-Rican Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Wall, Melanie M.; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation-seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Method Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (three assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation-seeking levels were characterized. Then, age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models (GMM). Results On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5–10) and increased during adolescence (ages 11–17). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico and among males vs. females. Four classes of sensation-seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation-seeking trajectories following the average for their age (“normative,” 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age (“low” sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an “accelerated” sensation-seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected, while a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation-seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation-seeking scores (“stabilizers”). Site (South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation-seeking trajectory. Conclusion It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26598479

  19. Case Report - Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  20. Histopathology of the gastric oxyntic mucosa in two different patient groups during long-term treatment with omeprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hage, Esther; Hendel, Lene; Gustafsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypochlorhydria, hypergastrinaemia, inflammation and Helicobacter pylori infection, dose and duration of omeprazole treatment may separately, or in combination, influence the proliferation of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and parietal cell changes in gastric mucosa. To assess the ...... of gastric mucosal inflammation, omeprazole dose, duration of treatment and acid inhibition. The level of gastrin secretion and high plasma gastrin appear to accelerate ECL cell proliferation and parietal cell changes possibly influenced by chronic gastritis and H. pylori infection....

  1. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the [Ca]i transient

  2. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  3. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1). The basal part of the gastric mucosa expressed parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in a subpopulation of likely ECL cells (and possibly other cells) and vitamin D3 1α...... suggest a possible link between gastric PTHLH and vitamin D and bone metabolism.......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  4. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Woo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101 on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.

  5. Surgical Elimination of the Gastric Digestion by Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Impacts on Food Sensitisation-a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri-Leidenmühler, Soheila; Lukschal, Anna; Schultz, Cornelia; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix; Birsan, Tudor; Diesner, Susanne C; Greisenegger, Elli K; Scheiner, Otto; Kopp, Tamara; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Prager, Gerhard; Untersmayr, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of gastric digestion due to pH elevation increases the risk for food allergy induction. As patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery have lower gastric acidity and less gastric gland secretion, we aimed to analyse in a prospective study the effect of limiting gastric digestion capacity by surgical intervention on the immune response towards allergens. Nine patients undergoing RYGB surgery for morbid obesity and one control patient having undergone surgery for treatment of an incisional hernia were enrolled in the study. Before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery, blood was collected for analysis of specific IgE antibodies, and patients were subjected to skin prick testing with 16 food and 18 aeroallergens. Skin prick test results revealed an increase of positive reactions indicating sensitisations towards the tested food and aeroallergens in 77.8 and 88.9 % of the patients, respectively, after surgical elimination of gastric digestion. These results were in line with elevated titers of food- and aeroallergen-specific IgE antibodies in 7 out of 9 (7/9) and 5/9 patients, respectively, after RYGB surgery. Serum cytokine levels revealed a mixed response for IFN-γ and were mostly beneath detection limit for IL-4. A change of IgE reactivity pattern occurred after impairment of gastric digestion due to surgical elimination underlining the important gastric gatekeeping function during oral sensitisation. Even though this study indicates an increased allergy risk for gastric bypass patients, further studies are needed to investigate in-depth the immunological changes associated with RYGB surgery.

  6. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  7. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensation seeking related to varied definition of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastol, O.U.; Drottz-Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. It has been shown in previous risk perception studies that some people report their definition or normal use of the concept of risk as e.g. mainly probability, a combination of probability and consequences, mainly consequences, or due to the nature of the event (Drottz-Sjoeberg, 1991). Another field of research has developed measures for personality traits, i.e. facets of Sensation Seeking; Disinhibition, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, and Boredom Susceptibility (Zuckerman, 1994). The design of the present study involved three independent groups of first year psychology students (N=93). They were presented with one of three response formats regarding their normal use of the word risk, i.e. an open-ended format, separate ratings of four items suggesting a definition of risk on five-point scales, and one single five-point scale with the extremes labelled probability and consequences, and with their combination as the scale mid-point. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was 'danger', but among the responses were also 'chance', and 'outcome'. Another finding was that people who defined risk as 'outcome' and 'chance', using the open-ended format tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale than those who defined risk as 'danger'. In addition, subjects who defined risk as the 'combination' of probability and consequences, using other response formats, also tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), especially as compared to those defining risk as the 'probability' of an event. (authors)

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on gastric cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  10. Serum gastrin and cholecystokinin are associated with subsequent development of gastric cancer in a prospective cohort of Finnish smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Gwen; Abnet, Christian C; Choo-Wosoba, Hyoyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastrin, which induces gastric acid secretion, and a structurally similar hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK)-a potent acid inhibitor, may each play a role in gastric cancer. However, few studies have investigated this hypothesis in humans. We therefore investigated whether serum gastrin...... or CCK concentrations at baseline were associated with the incidence of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA), oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinomas (EGJA) or gastric carcinoid tumours over 24 years of follow-up in a study nested within the all-male Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer...... suggest that high serum concentrations of gastrin may be associated independently with an increased risk of gastric cancer; the role of CCK in cancer risk is less clear....

  11. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  12. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  13. The Cold man. A clinical case of the cold sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of correlation between available knowledge and the current approach to Somatoform Disorders is highlighted.. Methods: the study, via the analysis of an unusual clinical case of an anomalous sensation of cold, examines various hypotheses on the physiopathology of somatization. Conclusions: a conceptualization would focus attention on the level of patients’ preoccupation with their symptoms, on the anomalies of the variations of perceptions and on patients’ hyperarousal. It could lead to a more harmonious position in psychiatry, between anthropologically-based understanding and interpretation of psychophysical information.

  14. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  15. Gastric cancer review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Peirce Carcas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease.

  16. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  17. Pancreatic and Intestinal Function Post Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D; Rakitt, Tina; Ou, Junhai

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the fact that the most effective treatment for morbid obesity today is gastric bypass surgery, some patients develop life-threatening nutritional complications associated with their weight loss. METHODS: Here we examine the influence of the altered anatomy and digestive...... physiology on pancreatic secretion and fat absorption. Thirteen post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients who had lost >100 lbs in the first year following surgery and who gave variable histories of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, were selected for study. Food-stimulated pancreatic enzyme secretion...... balance study when a normal diet was given containing ~100 g fat/d. RESULTS: Result showed that all patients had some fat malabsorption, but eight had coefficients of fat absorption associated with significantly lower feed-stimulated secretion rates of trypsin...

  18. Epigastric electrical impedance for the quantitative determination of the gastric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giouvanoudi, A C; Spyrou, N M

    2008-01-01

    Electrical impedance measurements have been used by scientists since the 1980s to investigate the gastric function. In this work, these measurements were carried out using the epigastrograph, a device generating alternating current of 32 kHz and injecting it in the gastric area of the human body with surface electrodes, located around the abdominal area. Although the method has been used for about three decades the physiological interpretation of these measurements is still under research. This work states that the electrical impedance measurements from the gastric area depend on the conductivity of the gastric lumen, due mainly to gastric acid secretions and to the conductivity and chemical form of the ingested meal. By choosing the proper test meal the gastric acidity in the empty, healthy stomach was also estimated. The estimated value is in accordance with the literature. The method is non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, simple to medical technologists and subjects, and involves no radiation risk. The method may form the basis for the development of a non-invasive gastric pH meter

  19. Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80. Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration and xanthine oxidase (XO and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue.

  20. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn

    2006-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer

  1. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  2. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  3. Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Valenciano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment.

  4. Sensation seeking and visual selective attention in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David J; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H; Levine, Andrew J; Lam, Mona N

    2008-11-01

    The association between sensation seeking and visual selective attention was examined in 31 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Sensation seeking was measured with Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V). Selective attention was assessed with a perceptual span task, where a target letter-character must be identified in a quickly presented array of nontarget letter-characters. As predicted, sensation seeking was strongly associated (R(2) = .229) with perceptual span performance in the array size 12 condition, where selective attention demands were greatest, but not in the easier conditions. The Disinhibition, Boredom Susceptibility, and Experience Seeking subscales of the SSS-V were associated with span performance. It is argued that personality factors such as sensation seeking may play a significant role in selective attention and related cognitive abilities in HIV positive adults. Furthermore, sensation seeking differences might explain certain inconsistencies in the HIV neuropsychology literature.

  5. Effect of wind speed on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuhan

    2018-06-01

    In this experiment, a method of questionnaire survey was adopted. By changing the air flow rate under the indoor and outdoor natural conditions, the subjective Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and the Thermal Comfort Vote (TCV) were recorded. The draft sensation can reduce the thermal sensation, but the draft sensation can cause discomfort, and the thermal comfort in a windy environment is lower than in a windless environment. When the temperature rises or the level of human metabolism increases, the person feels heat, the demand for draft sensation increases, and the uncomfortable feeling caused by the draft sensation may be reduced. Increasing the air flow within a certain range can be used to compensate for the increase in temperature.

  6. Sacral neuromodulation effects on periurethral sensation and urethral sphincter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jonathan L; Kenton, Kimberly; Greer, W Jerod; Ramm, Olga; Szychowski, Jeff M; Wilson, Tracey; Richter, Holly E

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on urethral neuromuscular function. Following IRB approval, women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) underwent standardized urethral testing prior to and after Stage 1 SNM implantation. Periurethral sensation was measured using current perception thresholds (CPT). Striated urethral sphincter activity was quantified using concentric needle electromyography (CNE) and Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) analysis software. Nonparametric analyses were used to characterize pre/post changes with intervention. Baseline CPT and CNE findings were compared between SNM responders and non-responders. Twenty-seven women were enrolled in this pilot study with a mean age of 61 ± 13 years. Twenty of 26 women (76.9%) responded to SNM and went to Stage 2 permanent implantation. Four (14.8%) withdrew after Stage 1 implantation; three of the four withdrawals had not had therapeutic responses to SNM. CPT and CNE parameters did not significantly differ from baseline 2 weeks after SNM. Pre-SNM urethral sensation was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, responders had larger amplitude, longer duration and more turns and phases at baseline approaching significance, reflecting more successful urethral reinnervation, than non-responders. SNM does not alter urethral neuromuscular function 2 weeks post Stage 1 implantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of satiety sensations and food intake after different preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, M; Crovetti, R; Testolin, G; Silva, S

    1995-08-01

    The reproducibility of three questions, related to fullness, satiety and desire to eat, rated on an unmarked triangle was verified. In four sessions 12 volunteers ate pasta with tomato sauce (520 kcal) and were asked to rate the sensations felt. There was no difference in rating scores of the replications so the proposed questionnaire provides a stable measure of sensations related to satiety. Subsequently three satiety conditions were studied. Two foods, one rich in carbohydrate, pasta (baked macaroni) and the other in protein, polpette (meatballs), were used as loads at two calorie levels and as preload before an "ad libitum" meal. All the three questions proved useful in discriminating between the different satiety conditions. The food intake underlines the specificity of satiety: subjects, after eating a preload which previously had satiated them, ate other foods in different amounts depending on the kind of preload eaten. Food intake was significantly higher after the pasta preload, furthermore "fullness" and "satiety" ratings were significantly highest after the meatball preload, suggesting that in our experimental conditions, meatballs were more satiating than pasta. In conclusion, this study highlights the validity of using several quite different questions to study hunger and satiety, together with the actual food intake.

  8. Features of the gastric periodic activity in conditions of NO-ergic system disbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is the main inhibitory mediator of the gastrointestinal smooth muscles’ relaxation which stimulates duodenal mucus and bicarbonate secretion. More recent studies have demonstrated that NO also protected the gastrointestinal tract by inhibiting gastric acid secretion. In this study we investigated gastric secretory and motor activity considering the NO imbalance condition. The experiments were carried out on male white laboratory rats (200–230 g. The control group was treated with 0.9% NaCl solution. The injections of NO donator (1.5 mg/kg of 0.1% (Sigma-Aldrich sodium nitroprusside solution were made in the second and the third groups during 6 and 12 days. The fourth and the fifth group were treated with NO synthesis inhibitor (40 mg/kg of 1% solution (Sigma-Aldrich Nω-nitro-L-arginine during 6 and 12 days respectively. Recording of gastric myoelectric activity (GMA and gastric juice collection were carried out under anesthesia (ketamine, 110 mg/kg. Next, its volume, pH, glycoprotein and pepsin were measured. Within 6-days stimulation of NO excess decreased gastric juice volume by 47% and increased pH compared to control samples. Pepsin level increased by 62% and glycoprotein level decreased by 68% compared to the checkpoint. After 6 days of L-NNA injections we observed the increase of gastric juice secretion volume (78% and pH level, however, pepsin concentration remained unchanged. Glycoprotein level increased by 21% compared to control samples. After 12 day NO synthesis inhibitor injections gastric secretion volume increased by 85%. Gastric juice pH level was 200% higher than the control value and exceeded gastric juice pH level (62% in the third group. In addition, pepsin level tended to decrease when NO deficiency simulation was prolonged. Glycoprotein level decreased by 41% compared to control samples and by 51% compared to the third group. Pepsin level decreased after 12 day NO-inhibitor injections as gastric juice p

  9. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid and the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Scheltema, Matthijs J; Sonne, David P

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, rectal administration of bile acids increases glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and reduces plasma glucose. In addition, oral bile acid sequestrants (BASs) reduce blood glucose by an unknown mechanism. In this study we evaluated the effects...... of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the BAS, colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin as well as gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite......, and delayed gastric emptying. We speculate that bile acid-induced activation of TGR5 on L cells increases GLP-1 secretion, which in turn may result in amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore our data suggest that colesevelam does not have an acute effect on GLP-1 secretion in humans....

  10. Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and present...

  11. The Japanese Version of the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale: A Validation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Masako Nishiwaki; Miho Takayama; Hiroyoshi Yajima; Morihiro Nasu; Jian Kong; Nobuari Takakura

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture sensations are considered essential in producing the treatment effect of acupuncture. The Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) is a frequently used scale in acupuncture research to measure acupuncture sensations. We translated the MASS into Japanese (Japanese MASS) based on Beaton's guidelines. 30 acupuncturists evaluated the relevancy and meaning of the 12 descriptors included in the Japanese MASS. The content validity ratios for 10 of the 12 descript...

  12. Metaplasia in the Stomach Arises From Gastric Chief Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Mills

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy and the induction of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. For example, mouse models have shown that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia can develop following oxyntic atrophy through transdifferentiation of zymogen-secreting chief cells. Evolution of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia from chief cells occurs via a coordinated dismantling of their secretory apparatus and reprogramming of their transcriptome. Increasing evidence suggests that the process of chief cell reprogramming requires the influence of inflammatory cytokines and requires both zymogen granule autophagy and alterations in gene transcription. It is likely that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia is a physiological repair mechanism that is similar to those that occur in other tissues (eg, pancreas for recruiting reparative progenitor cells in response to mucosal wounds. Chronic inflammation can induce a recurring pattern of persistent reprogramming/metaplasia that increases the risk for neoplasia.

  13. Comparison of consumption behavior and appetite sensations among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Chen, Shu-Chun; Chen, Tung-Fang; Ser, Kong-Han; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2017-01-01

    The promising postsurgical weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) from bariatric surgery can be attributed to modified eating physiology after surgical procedures. We sought to investigate the changes in the parameters of consumption behaviors and appetite sensations induced by a mixed meal tolerance test, and to correlate these alterations with age, body mass index, C-peptide levels, and duration of T2D 1 year after bariatric surgery. A total of 16 obese patients with T2D who underwent mini-gastric bypass (GB) and 16 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were enrolled in this study and evaluated using a mixed meal tolerance test one year after surgery. A visual analogue scale was used for scoring appetite sensation at different time points. The area under the curve (AUC) and the incremental or decremental AUC (ΔAUC) were compared between the two groups. One year after surgery, a decreasing trend in the consumption time was observed in the GB group compared to the SG group, while the duration of T2D before surgery was negatively correlated with the post-operative consumed time in those after GB. Patients who underwent GB had significantly higher fasting scores for fullness and desire to eat, higher AUC 0'-180' of scores for desire to eat, as well as more effective post-meal suppression of hunger and desire to eat compared with those undergoing SG one year after surgery. Post-operative C-peptide levels were negatively correlated with ΔAUC 0'-180' for hunger and ΔAUC 0'-180' for desire to eat in the GB group, while negatively correlated with ΔAUC 0'-180' for fullness in the SG group. Patients with T2D after either GB or SG exhibit distinct nutrient-induced consumption behaviors and appetite sensations post-operatively, which may account for the differential effects on weight loss and glycemic control after different surgery.

  14. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Thomson

    Full Text Available Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4 influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599 that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  15. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  16. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  17. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  18. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  1. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  2. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  3. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  4. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  5. Selected regulation of gastrointestinal acid-base secretion and tissue metabolism for the diamondback water snake and Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Snakes exhibit an apparent dichotomy in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) performance with feeding and fasting; frequently feeding species modestly regulate intestinal function whereas infrequently feeding species rapidly upregulate and downregulate intestinal function with the start and completion of each meal, respectively. The downregulatory response with fasting for infrequently feeding snakes is hypothesized to be a selective attribute that reduces energy expenditure between meals. To ascertain the links between feeding habit, whole-animal metabolism, and GI function and metabolism, we measured preprandial and postprandial metabolic rates and gastric and intestinal acid-base secretion, epithelial conductance and oxygen consumption for the frequently feeding diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer) and the infrequently feeding Burmese python (Python molurus). Independent of body mass, Burmese pythons possess a significantly lower standard metabolic rate and respond to feeding with a much larger metabolic response compared with water snakes. While fasting, pythons cease gastric acid and intestinal base secretion, both of which are stimulated with feeding. In contrast, fasted water snakes secreted gastric acid and intestinal base at rates similar to those of digesting snakes. We observed no difference between fasted and fed individuals for either species in gastric or intestinal transepithelial potential and conductance, with the exception of a significantly greater gastric transepithelial potential for fed pythons at the start of titration. Water snakes experienced no significant change in gastric or intestinal metabolism with feeding. Fed pythons, in contrast, experienced a near-doubling of gastric metabolism and a tripling of intestinal metabolic rate. For fasted individuals, the metabolic rate of the stomach and small intestine was significantly lower for pythons than for water snakes. The fasting downregulation of digestive function for pythons is

  6. Cannabinoids enhance gastric X/A-like cells activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cannabinoids may cause overeating in humans and in laboratory animals. Although, endogenous cannabinoids and their receptors (CB1 have been found in the hypothalamus, and recently also in gastrointestinal tract, the precise mechanism of appetite control by cannabinoids remains unknown. Recently, ghrelin--a hormone secreted mainly from the stomach X/A-like cells was proposed to be an appetite stimulating agent. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of a single ip injection of a stable analogue of endogenous cannabinoid--anandamide, R-(+-methanandamide (2.5 mg/kg and CP 55,940 (0.25 mg/kg, an exogenous agonist of CB1 receptors, on ghrelin plasma concentration and on ghrelin immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa of male Wistar rats. Four hours after a single injection of both cannabinoids or vehicle, the animals were anaesthetized and blood was taken from the abdominal aorta to determinate plasma ghrelin concentration by RIA. Subsequently, the animals underwent resection of distal part of stomach. Immunohistochemical study of gastric mucosa, using the EnVision method and specific monoclonal antibodies against ghrelin was performed. The intensity of ghrelin immunoreactivity in X/A-like cells was analyzed using Olympus Cell D image analysis system. The attenuation of ghrelin-immunoreactivity of gastric mucosa, after a single injection of R-(+-methanandamide and CP 55,940 was accompanied by a significant increase of ghrelin plasma concentration. These results indicate that stimulation of appetite exerted by cannabinoids may be connected with an increase of ghrelin secretion from gastric X/A-like cells.

  7. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  8. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avill, R.; Mangnall, Y.F.; Bird, N.C.; Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Seagar, A.D.; Johnson, A.G.; Read, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant

  9. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avill, R.; Mangnall, Y.F.; Bird, N.C.; Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Seagar, A.D.; Johnson, A.G.; Read, N.W.

    1987-04-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant.

  10. [Gastric emptying of a solid-liquid meal in gastroesophageal reflux in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, R; Hostein, J; Gignoux, C; Busquet, G; Lachet, B; Fournet, J

    1986-04-01

    Several studies concerning the relationships between gastroesophageal reflux (GOR), gastric emptying and esophageal motility are available. So far, results have been contradictory. The purpose of this work was to study gastric emptying in patients with GOR; to search for simultaneous esophageal motility disorders and to specify their type and frequency; to establish a potential relationship between motor disorders of the esophagus and the stomach in these patients. Thirty-two consecutive patients were selected according to clinical criteria, i.e. presence of at least two of the three characteristic symptoms of GOR, and the data of a three-hour post-prandial pH-metry. Gastric stasis related clinical manifestations (nausea, post-prandial vomiting, sensation of abdominal distension or of post-prandial epigastric fullness) were also searched for in all patients. A gastroscopy allowed to score esophagitis in each case. All patients, including adult controls underwent an esophageal manometry as well as a radionuclide determination of gastric emptying, after isotopic labelling of the solid (S) and liquid (L) phases of a test meal. The results showed that there was no significant modification of gastric emptying of the S and L phases of the meal in the group of patients with GOR whatever the intensity of the reflux, judged on the pH-metry results and the endoscopic data. Thus the average time of gastric half-emptying of S and L was respectively 115 and 52 min for the patients vs 111 and 51 min for the control group. As well, no correlation was found between the gastric emptying parameters and the presence or absence of clinical signs of gastric stasis or the amplitude of esophageal contraction waves. On an individual basis, two patients showed a significant decrease in gastric emptying of either the S or L phases without any attendant modification in the kinetics of the other. These results suggest that, in the adult, gastric emptying cannot be considered to be a

  11. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  12. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  13. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishii

    Full Text Available There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  14. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  15. Sensation seeking as risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2012-12-20

    High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  17. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  18. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Grey, Michael James

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement...... and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was assessed following trains of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  19. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Brenner

    Full Text Available Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  20. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Gereau, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  1. A remote instruction system empowered by tightly shared haptic sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi

    2007-09-01

    We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.

  2. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  3. Impact of Gastric H+/K+-ATPase rs2733743 on the Intragastric pH-Values of Dexlansoprazole Injection in Chinese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ning Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Not all patients with acid-related disorders receiving proton pump inhibitor (PP treatment get adequate gastric pH control. The genetic variation of receptors, metabolic enzymes, and transporters are known to cause failures of therapies. We have conducted a study to evaluate the influence of gastric H+/K+-ATPase, CYP2C19, and ABCB1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of dexlansoprazole injection in healthy Chinese subjects.Methods: A total of 51 subjects were enrolled for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study after a single intravenous administration of 20 or 30 mg dexlansoprazole. Plasma concentrations were determined using a chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The intragastric pH and baseline-adjusted intragastric pH parameters were introduced to evaluate the pharmacodynamic characters. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction.Results: The pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly influenced by CYP2C19 phenotypes, and gastric acid secretion inhibition were affected by both gastric H+/K+-ATPase and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Gastric H+/K+-ATPase genotypes had greater effects than CYP2C19 genotypes on the suppression of gastric acid secretion.Conclusion: Gastric H+/K+-ATPase polymorphism may be one of the main reasons that cause insufficient gastric acid inhibition.

  4. Quiescent gastric stem cells maintain the adult Drosophila stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Marie; Micchelli, Craig A

    2011-10-25

    The adult Drosophila copper cell region or "stomach" is a highly acidic compartment of the midgut with pH stem cells (GSSCs) produces the acid-secreting copper cells, interstitial cells, and enteroendocrine cells of the stomach. Our assays demonstrate that GSSCs are largely quiescent but can be induced to regenerate the gastric epithelium in response to environmental challenge. Finally, genetic analysis reveals that adult GSSC maintenance depends on Wnt signaling. Characterization of the GSSC lineage in Drosophila, with striking similarities to mammals, will advance the study of both homeostatic and pathogenic processes in the stomach.

  5. Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    It is important to know how thermal sensation is affected by normal aging under conditions that elevate core body temperature for the prevention of heat-related illness in older people. We assessed whether thermal sensation under conditions of normothermia (NT) and mild hyperthermia (HT) is lowered in older adults. Seventeen younger (23 ±  3 years) and 12 older (71 ±  3 years) healthy men underwent measurements of the cold and warmth detection thresholds ( ± 0.1 °C/s) of their chest and forearm skin, and whole body warmth perception under NT (esophageal temperature, T es, ~36.5 °C) and HT (T es, ~37.3 °C; lower legs immersed in 42 °C water) conditions. Warmth detection threshold at the forearm was increased in older compared with younger participants under both NT (P = 0.006) and HT (P = 0.004) conditions. In contrast, cold detection threshold at the forearm was decreased in older compared with younger participants under NT (P = 0.001) but not HT (P = 0.16). Mild hyperthermia decreased cold detection threshold at forearm in younger participants (P = 0.001) only. There were no effects of age and condition on warmth and cold detection thresholds at chest. Whole body warmth perception increased during HT compared with NT in both groups (both, P perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging.

  6. Relationship between ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Lidia; Gómez, Ma José; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Cañete, Antoni; Blázquez, Gloria; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen

    2014-06-22

    High- and low-avoidance Roman inbred rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I) were selected for extreme differences in two-way active avoidance. RHA-I rats also express less anxiety than RLA-I rats. This study compared male Roman rats in ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. Rats were first exposed in counterbalanced order to the hole-board test (forced exposure to novelty) and the Y-maze and emergence tests (free choice between novel and familiar locations). Then, rats were tested in 24-h, two-bottle preference tests with water in one bottle and ethanol (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% in successive days). Compared to RLA-I rats, RHA-I rats showed (1) higher frequency and time in head dipping, (2) higher activity, and (3) lower frequency of rearing and grooming in the hole-board test, and (4) remained in the novel arm longer in the Y-maze test. No strain differences were observed in the emergence test. RHA-I rats exhibited higher preference for and consumed more ethanol than RLA-I rats at all concentrations. However, both strains preferred ethanol over water for 2-4% concentrations, but water over ethanol for 6-10% concentrations. Factorial analysis with all the rats pooled identified a two-factor solution, one grouping preferred ethanol concentrations (2-4%) with head dipping and grooming in the hole board, and another factor grouping the nonpreferred ethanol concentrations (6-10%) with activity in the hole board and novel-arm time in the Y-maze test. These results show that preference for ethanol is associated with different aspects of behavior measured in sensation/novelty-seeking tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-invasive characterization of real-time bladder sensation using accelerated hydration and a novel sensation meter: An initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Anna S; Speich, John E; De Wachter, Stefan G; Ghamarian, Peter P; Le, David M; Colhoun, Andrew F; Ratz, Paul H; Barbee, Robert W; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a non-invasive, objective, and unprompted method to characterize real-time bladder sensation. Volunteers with and without overactive bladder (OAB) were prospectively enrolled in a preliminary accelerated hydration study. Participants drank 2L Gatorade-G2® and recorded real-time sensation (0-100% scale) and standardized verbal sensory thresholds using a novel, touch-screen "sensation meter." 3D bladder ultrasound images were recorded throughout fillings for a subset of participants. Sensation data were recorded for two consecutive complete fill-void cycles. Data from 14 normal and 12 OAB participants were obtained (ICIq-OAB-5a = 0 vs. ≥3). Filling duration decreased in fill2 compared to fill1, but volume did not significantly change. In normals, adjacent verbal sensory thresholds (within fill) showed no overlap, and identical thresholds (between fill) were similar, demonstrating effective differentiation between degrees of %bladder capacity. In OAB, within-fill overlaps and between-fill differences were identified. Real-time %capacity-sensation curves left shifted from fill1 to fill2 in normals, consistent with expected viscoelastic behavior, but unexpectedly right shifted in OAB. 3D ultrasound volume data showed that fill rates started slowly and ramped up with variable end points. This study establishes a non-invasive means to evaluate real-time bladder sensation using a two-fill accelerated hydration protocol and a sensation meter. Verbal thresholds were inconsistent in OAB, and the right shift in OAB %capacity-sensation curve suggests potential biomechanical and/or sensitization changes. This methodology could be used to gain valuable information on different forms of OAB in a completely non-invasive way. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  10. Effects of diabetes mellitus on gastric motility in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafsanjani, F.N.; Adeli, S.; Ardakani, Z.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ghotbi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases that affects most body organs. Peristaltic disorders and gastric distension have also been observed in diabetes. Because the effect of diabetes on gastric motility has not been fully examined, we decided to determine if gastric motility is also affected by diabetes in rat. This study was carried out at Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran from October 2004 to February 2005. Three groups of male wistar rats (control, vehicle, diabetic) weighing 200-250 g were used. Diabetic state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. Animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg thiopental sodium. After tracheostomy and laparatomy, a balloon was inserted into the stomach, which was attached to a pressure transducer system via a cannula and this whole system was connected to a physiograph. Acetylcholine (Ach) was the stimulant agent which was used intraperitoneally. There was no significant difference between basal intragastric pressures in three groups. Also there was no significant difference in the basal and Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure among the three groups. But Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure was more than the basal state in each group (control 28.3+-1.77 vs 14+-1.4, vehicle 30.8+-2.03 vs 15.9+-1.56 and diabetic 30.6+-0.05 vs 13.7+-0.84 mmHg). Although it has been shown that diabetes can change gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats, no significant change in gastric motility could be shown. (author)

  11. Ghrelin secretion in humans - a role for the vagus nerve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, S; Plamboeck, A; Hartmann, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is secreted from endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. Circulating levels rise in the preprandial phase, suggesting an anticipatory or cephalic phase of release, and decline in the postprandial phase, suggesting either the loss of a stimulatory factor...... or inhibition by factors released when nutrients enter the intestine. We hypothesized that vagal signals are not required for the (i) preprandial increase or (ii) postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels. Further, we wanted to investigate the hypothesis that (iii) glucagon-like peptide-1 might be implicated...... in the postprandial decline in ghrelin levels. METHODS: We measured ghrelin levels in plasma from sham-feeding and meal studies carried out in vagotomized individuals and controls, and from a GLP-1 infusion study carried out in fasting healthy young individuals. KEY RESULTS: We find that (i) ghrelin secretion...

  12. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  13. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  14. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  15. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  16. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  17. Sensation Seeking or Empathy? Physically Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors (ASBs Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Eman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.

  18. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  19. The Effects of Sensation Seeking, Physical Attractiveness of Stimuli, and Exposure Frequency on Liking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Joann

    1976-01-01

    Males (N=54) and 46 females who scored high or low on a sensation seeking scale were exposed to slides of physically attractive or unattractive person stimuli. High sensation seekers both liked and expected to recognize the physically attractive persons in the future more than the physically unattractive persons. (Author)

  20. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  1. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm 2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (T es ), ∼36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; T es , ∼37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  2. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  3. Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, PMA; Penninckx, FM

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal

  4. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  5. The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

  6. Chronic cough management: dealing with a sensation of irritation in the throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Among the various types of laryngeal paraesthesia suffered by chronic cough patients, we often encounter 'a sensation of irritation in the throat (SIT)'. Our study indicated that capsaicin cough threshold was significantly (P sensation. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  8. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  9. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  10. Roux en Y gastric bypass hypoglycemia resolves with gastric feeding or reversal: Confirming a non-pancreatic etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Belt Davis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postprandial hypoglycemia is an infrequent but disabling complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Controversy still exists as to whether the postprandial hyperinsulinemia observed is due to inherent changes in pancreatic β-cell mass or function or to reversible alterations caused by RYGB anatomy. We aimed to determine if gastric feeding or reversal of RYGB would normalize postprandial glucose and hormone excursions in patients with symptomatic hypoglycemia. Methods: We completed a prospective study of six patients with severe symptomatic RYGB hypoglycemia who underwent RYGB reversal. An additional subject without hypoglycemia who underwent RYGB reversal was also studied prospectively. Mixed meal tolerance testing (MTT was done orally (RYGB anatomy, via gastrostomy tube in the excluded stomach in the setting of RYGB, and several months after RYGB reversal. Results: All subjects reported symptomatic improvement of hypoglycemia after reversal of RYGB. Weight gain after reversal was moderate and variable. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 excursions were significantly diminished with gastric feeding and after reversal. Insulin secretion changed proportional to glucose levels and insulin clearance increased after reversal. Glucagon/insulin ratios were similar throughout study. We further compared the impact of modified sleeve gastrectomy reversal surgery to those with restoration of complete stomach and found no significant differences in weight regain or in postprandial glucose or hormone levels. Conclusions: Reversal of RYGB is an effective treatment option for severe postprandial hypoglycemia. The pathophysiology of this disorder is primarily due to RYGB anatomy resulting in altered glucose, gut, and pancreatic hormone levels and decreased insulin clearance, rather than inherent β-cell hyperplasia or hyperfunction. Keywords: Hypoglycemia, Insulin, Glucagon-like peptide 1, Roux en Y gastric bypass, Gastric bypass

  11. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  12. Sensation seeking and alcohol use by college students: examining multiple pathways of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use both directly and indirectly, through its impact on students' frequency of association with alcohol-using peers and the size of their drinking norm misperception. The findings suggest that interventions that seek to limit the frequency in which high sensation seekers associate with peers whose alcohol use is extreme or, alternatively, seek to facilitate social interactions of high sensation seekers with normative peers, may supplement efforts to influence sensation seekers' alcohol and other drug use through tailored mass media advertisements.

  13. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  14. Aggressive behavior: an alternative model of resting heart rate and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated biological correlate of aggression, and sensation seeking is frequently cited as the underlying causal explanation. However, little empirical evidence supports this mediating relationship. Furthermore, the biosocial model of violence and social push theory suggest sensation seeking may moderate the relationship between heart rate and aggression. In a sample of 128 college students (82.0% White; 73.4% female), the current study tested a moderation model as an alternative relationship between resting heart rate and sensation seeking in regard to aggression. Overall, the findings partially supported an interaction effect, whereby the relationship between heart rate and aggression was moderated by sensation seeking. Specifically, the oft-noted relationship between low resting heart rate and increased aggression was found, but only for individuals with low levels of sensation seeking. If replication supports this finding, the results may better inform prevention and intervention work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  16. How sudden is a compelling desire to void? An observational cystometric study on the suddenness of this sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate whether a compelling desire to void (CDV) is always perceived suddenly, or whether it can result from the gradual build-up of bladder-filling sensations. The pattern of filling sensations was evaluated during standard cystometric bladder filling in 75 patients who complained of urgency and showed detrusor overactivity during cystometry. Cystometric filling ended when a CDV was reported. The 'warning volume' is defined as the difference in volume between the first perception of filling and the volume at CDV. Different patterns of bladder-filling sensations were reported. A CDV occurred suddenly, without a preceding sensation in 13% of the patients, whereas 66% reported at least two normal preceding filling sensations before a CDV. The bladder volume at the CDV was significantly smaller in patients that reported no or just one preceding sensation compared with those that reported the normal pattern of two or three sensations (P perception was reported was not different regardless of whether it was described as a first sensation of filling, a first desire or a CDV (P = 0.42). The warning volumes were not different between patients with one or no standardized filling sensations (P = 0.7), but they were significantly smaller than in patients with two or three filling sensations (P = 0.85). A CDV can occur suddenly if normal filling sensation is disturbed, but also gradually if normal filling sensation is preserved. In cases of disturbed filling sensation, the volume at CDV and the warning volume are significantly lower.

  17. [Joint diagnostic value of four temperature sensation tests in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yun-Ming; Ai, Zhi-Hua; You, Zhi-Qing; Wan, Yong; Cheng, Ying; Lang, Hong-Mei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the joint diagnostic value of four temperature sensation tests in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Thermal sensory analyzer-II were applied to measure cool sensation (CS), warm sensation (WS), cold pain sensation (CP)and heat pain sensation (HP) of 308 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression model was adopted to create the new variable Temp4 from four temperature sensation tests to diagnose type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The ROC curve analysis was used to determine the best cut-off points of the four temperature sensation and Temp4, and the diagnostic value of it was evaluated. The means of temperature sensation tests of the diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) group were significantly different from those of the non-DPN group (P sensation tests to diagnose the DPN, the sensitivity of WS test was the highest, and the value was 0.710; but the specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index, diagnostic accuracy and Kappa value of cold sensation test were the highest, and the values were 0.842, 0.746, 0.799, 0.528, 77.92% and 0.535, respectively; the Kappa values of the other three temperature sensation tests were all greater than 0.4 (P sensation tests (P sensation quantitative tests were in good agreementand could be applied to diagnose DPN; the new variable Temp4 could be used for diagnosis of DPN with a higher diagnostic accuracy.

  18. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE M. SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. did not alter glutathione levels (GSH, but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus.

  19. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  20. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  1. How do different tests evaluate sensation in the lower urinary tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Kevin; De Wachter, Stefan; Van Meel, Tom; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Different tests can be used to evaluate lower urinary tract (LUT) sensation. The purpose of this study is to compare sensory tests in patients with voiding disorders. Seventy patients with various functional disorders of the LUT were admitted for a cystometry and an electrical perception threshold test of the bladder (bEPT) and distal urethra (uEPT). A pudendal EPT (pEPT) and pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials (pSSEP) were also determined. Correlations were calculated for somatosensory (uEPT, pEPT and pSSEP latency) and viscerosensory tests (volumes at filling sensations and bEPT). Fifty of the 70 patients (71%) had normal bladder filling sensations, with abnormal bEPT in 21/50 (41%), including 11 (22%) with no sensation at maximal electrical stimulation. Twenty out of 70 (29%) had an abnormal pattern of filling sensation, with increased bEPT in 13/20 (65%) and no sensation at electrical stimulation in 8/13 (40%). No significant correlation exists between filling sensation and bladder electrical perception thresholds (r 0.243). pEPT correlated with uEPT and SSEP (r > 0.035, p sensation. No significant correlation exists between volumes of filling sensations and bEPT (r 0.243). Therefore, both tests provide complementary information. Somatosensory tests of the pudendal nerve are correlated, so performing SSEP, pEPT and uEPT provides poor additional information to one of these tests alone. Somatosensory pudendal tests cannot be used to quantify filling sensation.

  2. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients’ satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shu Lin

    Full Text Available Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients' satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement and long-term (1 year after implant placement incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25% and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%, respectively. (2 For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94% of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96% of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%. When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery, the incidence is much lower (3% and most patients (91% would return to normal sensation.

  4. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    . After 4 h this pool of undiluted gastric secretions gradually is emptied into the duodenum, where the mucosal resistance is reduced by inhibition of the secretory activity of Brunner's glands, and ulceration rapidly develops. The time relationship is supported by histopathologic findings...

  5. Gastric retention and gastric ileus in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Senot, P.; Champigneulle, B.; Drouin, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report of 2 cases of paralytic ileus of the stomach (gastric atony) and of 14 cases of gastric retention, diagnosed from the radiographs obtained from a group of 1500 diabetic patients within seven years. These disorders occur in diabetes mellitus present for many years and associated with peripheral neuropathy. The above findings often present diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Conservative drug therapy is usually sufficient management. (orig.) [de

  6. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in......Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among...... which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61) appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated...

  7. [AFP-producing gastric cancer and hepatoid gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y K; Zhang, X T

    2017-11-23

    AFP-producing gastric cancer(AFPGC) and hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) are two special subtypes of gastric cancer. There are both correlation and difference between them. AFPGC is usually identified as primary gastric cancer with serum AFP level more than 20 ng/ml or showed AFP positive staining by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of HAS is mainly dependent on the pathological character of hepatocellular carcinoma-like differentiation of gastric cancer. The morbidity of AFPGC and HAS are rather low, especially the incidence of HAS is about 1%. The prognoses of these two subtypes are poorer than that of common gastric adenocarcinoma, due to a high incidence rate of liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis. With the development of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, gastric cancers, including these two rare subtypes, are now being investigated in more detail at the molecular level. Treatment remains the biggest challenge, early diagnosis and radical resection can dramatically improve patients'prognosis. Monitoring serum AFP and abdominal imaging examination during follow-up is important for early detection of liver metastasis. In combination with local treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of liver may further extend patients'survival time. Targeted therapy owes a great potential value in the future.

  8. Multiple Factors Related to the Secretion of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingChun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucagon-like peptide-1 is secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. It also improves beta-cell proliferation and prevents beta-cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. Additionally, glucagon-like peptide-1 delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite. The impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 has negative influence on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance related diseases. Thus, glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are now well accepted in the management of type 2 diabetes. The levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 are influenced by multiple factors including a variety of nutrients. The component of a meal acts as potent stimulants of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. The levels of its secretion change with the intake of different nutrients. Some drugs also have influence on GLP-1 secretion. Bariatric surgery may improve metabolism through the action on GLP-1 levels. In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing effective methods to regulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. This review summarizes the literature on glucagon-like peptide-1 and related factors affecting its levels.

  9. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  10. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  11. Fatigue sensation induced by the sounds associated with mental fatigue and its related neural activities: revealed by magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Iwamae, Masayoshi; Kim, Chongsoo; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that an inappropriately conditioned fatigue sensation could be one cause of chronic fatigue. Although classical conditioning of the fatigue sensation has been reported in rats, there have been no reports in humans. Our aim was to examine whether classical conditioning of the mental fatigue sensation can take place in humans and to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Ten and 9 healthy volunteers particip...

  12. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  13. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  14. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young

    1985-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen

  15. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen.

  16. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  17. Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor repertoire of gastric ghrelin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Park, Won-Mee; Sakata, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating secretion of the orexigenic-glucoregulatory hormone ghrelin remain unclear. Based on qPCR analysis of FACS-purified gastric ghrelin cells, highly expressed and enriched 7TM receptors were comprehensively identified and functionally characterized using in vitro......, ex vivo and in vivo methods. Five Gαs-coupled receptors efficiently stimulated ghrelin secretion: as expected the β1-adrenergic, the GIP and the secretin receptors but surprisingly also the composite receptor for the sensory neuropeptide CGRP and the melanocortin 4 receptor. A number of Gαi....../o-coupled receptors inhibited ghrelin secretion including somatostatin receptors SSTR1, SSTR2 and SSTR3 and unexpectedly the highly enriched lactate receptor, GPR81. Three other metabolite receptors known to be both Gαi/o- and Gαq/11-coupled all inhibited ghrelin secretion through a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gαi...

  18. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shuidouchi (Natto is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein, and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL and pH of gastric juice (3.1 of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL, gastrin (Gas level and increase somatostatin (SS, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide (NO and malonaldehyde (MDA contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing.

  19. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Garcia HA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastric obstructive symptoms. However, severe acute gastric volvulus can result in complete gastric outlet obstruction and ischemia. Consequently, acute gastric volvulus warrants immediate evaluation and management. The goals of management are to relieve the obstruction and prevent recurrent volvulus. Techniques to manage gastric volvulus depend on patient characteristics and the presence of gastric ischemia. In the absence of gastric ischemia, gastric volvulus can be managed with anterior abdominal wall gastropexy or paraesophageal hernia repair. If gastric ischemia is present, operative resection of the affected portion of the stomach is indicated. When operative management is indicated, many patients with gastric volvulus can be managed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic, endoscopic, or laparoendoscopic techniques. Keywords: gastric volvulus, paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia

  20. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  1. A role for pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of gastric emptying and short-term metabolic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2005-01-01

    of the solid meal. The change in hunger rating, satiety, desire to eat after the meal, or prospective consumption was not affected. The postprandial rise in plasma glucose was prolonged by PP. The postprandial rise in insulin was also delayed by PP. PP had no significant effect on the emptying of water...... synthetic human PP to study gastric emptying rates of a solid meal and postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal as well as the gastric emptying rate of water. DESIGN: This was a single-blind study. SETTING: The study was performed at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy adult...... subjects were studied. INTERVENTIONS: Infusion of saline or PP at 0.75 or 2.25 pmol/kg.min was given to eight subjects (gastric emptying of solid food), and infusion of saline or PP at 2.25 pmol/kg.min was given to six subjects (gastric emptying of water). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures...

  2. Role of interoceptive accuracy in topographical changes in emotion-induced bodily sensations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2017-01-01

    The emotion-associated bodily sensation map is composed of a specific topographical distribution of bodily sensations to categorical emotions. The present study investigated whether or not interoceptive accuracy was associated with topographical changes in this map following emotion-induced bodily sensations. This study included 31 participants who observed short video clips containing emotional stimuli and then reported their sensations on the body map. Interoceptive accuracy was evaluated with a heartbeat detection task and the spatial patterns of bodily sensations to specific emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral, were visualized using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses. Distinct patterns of bodily sensations were identified for different emotional states. In addition, positive correlations were found between the magnitude of sensation in emotion-specific regions and interoceptive accuracy across individuals. A greater degree of interoceptive accuracy was associated with more specific topographical changes after emotional stimuli. These results suggest that the awareness of one’s internal bodily states might play a crucial role as a required messenger of sensory information during the affective process. PMID:28877218

  3. Sensation seeking predicts brain responses in the old-new task: converging multimodal neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Adam L; Liu, Xun; Joseph, Jane; Vagnini, Victoria L; Kelly, Thomas H; Jiang, Yang

    2012-06-01

    Novel images and message content enhance visual attention and memory for high sensation seekers, but the neural mechanisms associated with this effect are unclear. To investigate the individual differences in brain responses to new and old (studied) visual stimuli, we utilized event-related potentials (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures to examine brain reactivity among high and low sensation seekers during a classic old-new memory recognition task. Twenty low and 20 high sensation seekers completed separate, but parallel, ERP and fMRI sessions. For each session, participants initially studied drawings of common images, and then performed an old-new recognition task during scanning. High sensation seekers showed greater ERP responses to new objects at the frontal N2 ERP component, compared to low sensation seekers. The ERP Novelty-N2 responses were correlated with fMRI responses in the orbitofrontal gyrus. Sensation seeking status also modulated the FN400 ERP component indexing familiarity and conceptual learning, along with fMRI responses in the caudate nucleus, which correlated with FN400 activity. No group differences were found in the late ERP positive components indexing classic old-new amplitude effects. Our combined ERP and fMRI results suggest that sensation-seeking personality affects the early brain responses to visual processing, but not the later stage of memory recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighborhood Moderation of Sensation Seeking Effects on Adolescent Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michaeline; Chassin, Laurie; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-09-01

    Adolescent substance use carries a considerable public health burden, and early initiation into use is especially problematic. Research has shown that trait sensation seeking increases risk for substance use initiation, but less is known about contextual factors that can potentially unmask this risk. This study utilized a diverse longitudinal subsample of youth (N = 454) from a larger study of familial alcoholism (53.1% female, 61% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27.8% Hispanic, 11.2% other ethnicity). Study questions examined sensation seeking in early adolescence (mean age = 12.16) and its relations with later substance use initiation (mean age = 15.69), and tested whether neighborhood disadvantage moderated sensation seeking's effects on initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Neighborhood disadvantage significantly moderated the relation between sensation seeking and all three forms of substance use. For the most part, sensation seeking effects were weakened as neighborhood disadvantage increased, with the most advantaged neighborhoods exhibiting the strongest link between sensation seeking and substance use initiation. These results highlight the importance of focusing on relatively advantaged areas as potentially risky environments for the sensation seeking pathway to substance use.

  5. Endocrine carcinoma of the pancreatic tail exhibiting gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.

  6. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Referral of sensation to an advanced humanoid robotic hand prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Birgitta; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Antfolk, Christian; Cipriani, Christian; Sebelius, Fredrik; Lundborg, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Hand prostheses that are currently available on the market are used by amputees to only a limited extent, partly because of lack of sensory feedback from the artificial hand. We report a pilot study that showed how amputees can experience a robot-like advanced hand prosthesis as part of their own body. We induced a perceptual illusion by which touch applied to the stump of the arm was experienced from the artificial hand. This illusion was elicited by applying synchronous tactile stimulation to the hidden amputation stump and the robotic hand prosthesis in full view. In five people who had had upper limb amputations this stimulation caused referral touch sensation from the stump to the artificial hand, and the prosthesis was experienced more like a real hand. We also showed that this illusion can work when the amputee controls the movements of the artificial hand by recordings of the arm muscle activity with electromyograms. These observations indicate that the previously described "rubber hand illusion" is also valid for an advanced hand prosthesis, even when it has a robotic-like appearance.

  8. The molecular and cellular basis of cold sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemy, David D

    2013-02-20

    Of somatosensory modalities, cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30 °C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biological effects has been poorly studied, yet new advances in our understanding of cold mechanisms may portend a better understanding of sensory perception as well as provide novel therapeutic approaches. Chief among these was the identification of a number of ion channels that either serve as the initial detectors of cold as a stimulus in the peripheral nervous system, or are part of rather sophisticated differential expression patterns of channels that conduct electrical signals, thereby endowing select neurons with properties that are amenable to electrical signaling in the cold. This review highlights the current understanding of the channels involved in cold transduction as well as presents a hypothetical model to account for the broad range of cold thermal thresholds and distinct functions of cold fibers in perception, pain, and analgesia.

  9. Phantom auditory sensation in rats: an animal model for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Brennan, J F; Coleman, J K; Sasaki, C T

    1988-12-01

    In order to measure tinnitus induced by sodium salicylate injections, 84 pigmented rats, distributed among 14 groups in five experiments, were used in a conditioned suppression paradigm. In Experiment 1, all groups were trained with a conditioned stimulus (CS) consisting of the offset of a continuous background noise. One group began salicylate injections before Pavlovian training, a second group started injections after training, and a control group received daily saline injections. Resistance to extinction was profound when injections started before training, but minimal when initiated after training, which suggests that salicylate-induced effects acquired differential conditioned value. In Experiment 2 we mimicked the salicylate treatments by substituting a 7 kHz tone in place of respective injections, resulting in effects equivalent to salicylate-induced behavior. In a third experiment we included a 3 kHz CS, and again replicated the salicylate findings. In Experiment 4 we decreased the motivational level, and the sequential relation between salicylate-induced effects and suppression training was retained. Finally, no salicylate effects emerged when the visual modality was used. These findings support the demonstration of phantom auditory sensations in animals.

  10. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  11. Gastric cancer risk in achlorhydric patients. A long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Dahl, C; Svendsen, L B

    1986-01-01

    Achlorhydria, determined by the augmented histamine test, is the functional expression of the most severe atrophic gastritis and is followed by a 4- to 6-fold increased risk of gastric cancer, as we found 5 cancers in 114 patients after a mean observation period of 8.4 years. The cancers developed...... from 1 to 17 years after achlorhydria diagnosis--three cases after more than 9 years. The study showed no difference in gastric cancer risk between patients with and without pernicious anaemia. Spontaneous achlorhydria is the late result of atrophic gastritis, which should be regarded the premalignant...... condition. The development of gastric cancer from pharmacologically reduced acid secretion must be regarded as highly hypothetical, since this is not followed by atrophic gastritis....

  12. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beissner

    Full Text Available Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1 placebo irritant solution, (2 placebo laser stimulation, and (3 imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS, while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm² and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS. Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon.

  13. Does the effect of acupuncture depend on needling sensation and manipulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jae-Eun; Moon, Won-Kyung; Cho, Seung-Hun

    2013-06-01

    Acupuncture sensation and manipulation have been considered to be an important component of acupuncture in traditional Asian medicine. However, there has been limited research as to whether acupuncture sensation is associated with therapeutic benefit. This study investigated the relationship between acupuncture sensation and analgesic effect according to acupuncture manipulation. Fifty-three healthy volunteers received three different forms of acupuncture in a single-blinded crossover design: superficial needling (0.3 cm), deep needling (2 cm) and needling with bi-directional rotation. The effects of acupuncture were evaluated by using the pressure pain threshold. Acupuncture sensation measurement was done in two ways. Both total acupuncture sensation and increase of the pressure pain threshold were maximum in needling with rotation, followed by deep needling and superficial needling. Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis was carried out to assess whether there was a significant difference; both showed significant difference (p = 0.000, 0.003). A paired sample t-test was carried out, which revealed that needling with rotation showed significant difference from both superficial needling and deep needling. Further, the correlation between the total acupuncture sensation and changes in pressure pain threshold were calculated using Pearson correlation; there was a significant correlation (p = 0.002, p = 0.013). Acupuncture sensation and pressure pain threshold increase according to the depth and rotation of acupuncture. Especially, both display significant increase with needle rotation. Further, there is a significant correlation between acupuncture needling sensation and increase in pressure pain threshold. It seems that needle rotation and acupuncture sensation play an important role in verifying the effect of acupuncture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  15. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Kant and the magnitude of sensation: a neglected prologue to modern psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative relations between the sensations and the stimuli that produce them are the domain of psychophysics, a branch of natural science not yet known at the time of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). But Kant's philosophical doctrines of perception imply that sensations can be quantified. Accordingly, he proposed not only to consider the magnitude of both sensations and stimuli but also to work out an appropriate mathematics that would relate these magnitudes to each other. This part of Kant's work received almost no attention up to the present time although it contains some essential elements of modern psychophysics.

  17. Modification of booming level for higher correlation with booming sensation; Booming level no koseidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, S; Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous study, we proposed a objective measure, i.e., Booming Level for quantifying booming sensation caused by car interior noise. In this paper, Booming Level was modified with its weighting function and within the process of calculation 1/3 octave band level was modified for the best match with subjective result. These modifications were conducted through a subjective experiment rating booming sensation with sounds having much lower frequency contents below 63Hz. With this modified Booming Level, we have obtained higher correlation for rating booming sensation with sounds having prominent low frequency components. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  18. Body schema and midline sensation influenced by unilateral manual stimulation of lower extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    Relevance: Clinical experience advocates manual stimulation in order to increase the sensation of the body and adjust the body schema. Unilateral treatment may affect the midline sensation and weight distribution in a standing position, but little evidence is available to support this procedure...... alignment was seen as a response to unilateral massage. It may be suggested, that the manipulated midline sensation and weight distribution reflects a state in which the participant's attention to a greater extent has been directed towards a specific body part due to the manual sensory stimulation. Impact...

  19. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  20. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Erian Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959. While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients, vomiting (54.2%, diarrhea (21.9%, and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%. Respiratory (23.0% and cardiocirculatory (16.7% symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%, medium chain triglycerides (54.2% or enhanced caloric density (65.6% of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%, dehydration (27.5% and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly

  1. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Honda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO or gastric pneumatosis (GP. In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  2. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  3. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  4. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Guillon, Françoise; Taourel, Patrice

    2014-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. CT is highly reliable for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus with two findings. The two signs are gastropyloric transition zone and abnormal location of the antrum. This allows fast surgical management of this emergency.

  5. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-01-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (sup(99m)Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gasritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis. (J.P.N.)

  6. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-02-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis.

  7. Clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer and symptomatic gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiteru

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer can be classified into two categories based on the absence or presence of symptoms at diagnosis. Differences in clinicopathological features and prognoses between asymptomatic gastric cancer (ACG) and symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC) can be used to inform diagnosis strategies and ultimately improve survival rates. All cases of gastric cancer (239 AGC, 323 SGC) diagnosed in our hospital between 1997 and 1999 were used in this study. ACG patients showed significantly higher frequency of males, cases of early cancer, cases found by a mass screening program, cases treated by endoscopic resection, cases treated by curative operation, cases of type 0 macroscopic finding, cases of histologically-differentiated type, and stage I cases. By contrast, SGC patients showed significantly higher numbers of cases treated by chemotherapy alone or best support care, cases of type 2, 3, and 4 macroscopic findings, cases occupying the whole stomach, and cases of stage II, III, IV. Statistically significant differences were also found for the 5-year survival rate (83.3% in AGC, 41.2% in SGC), the incidence of early cancer (90.1% in AGC, 83.7% in SGC), and for advanced cancer (38.7% in AGC, 22.7% in SGC). The higher incidence of advanced cases in SGC than in AGC (40.0% vs. 13.0%), coupled with the low 5-year survival rate of advanced SGC (22.7%), provides strong evidence of the importance of diagnosing gastric cancer during its asymptomatic period. (author)

  8. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaayit SFA

    2016-06-01

    the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines.Keywords: Rutaceae, antiulcer, antioxidant enzymes, histopathology, immunohistochemical proteins, cytokines

  9. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  10. Extraretinal induced visual sensations during IMRT of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt-CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs.

  11. Extraretinal induced visual sensations during IMRT of the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Wilhelm-Buchstab

    Full Text Available We observed visual sensations (VSs in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin.Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy with helical tomotherapy (TT. A megavolt-CT (MVCT was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm. The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%.There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs.

  12. The effects of carbonated water upon gastric and cardiac activities and fullness in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Shiori; Nagai, Hajime; Mura, Emi; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Although previous reports suggested that carbonated water drinking was effective against gastrointestinal symptoms, there is little information about the effects of carbonated water on gastric and appetite sensation. We therefore investigated the effect of carbonated water on short-term fullness with respect to gastric and cardiac responses in 19 healthy young women. Each subject was tested on three separate days at approximately 9 a.m. after an overnight fast. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) and heart rate (HR), was measured for 20 min in the fasting state and 40 min after ingestion of water. Preloads consisted of an equivalent amount (250 mL) of water (W) or carbonated water (CW) and no drinking (blank). Fullness scores were measured using visual analog scales. To determine gastric motility, we assessed the component of bradygastria (1-2 cycles/min [cpm]), normogastria (2-4 cpm), tachygastria (4-9 cpm), and dominant frequency of the EGG power spectrum. After ingestion of CW, significant increases in fullness scores were observed compared with W. All postprandial EGG powers were significantly greater than preprandial, but no group difference was found. However, a dominant frequency tended to shift toward a lower band after ingestion of W. A significantly higher HR was found following consumption of CW as opposed to W. Multiple regression analysis revealed that increased HR was a significant variable contributing to the variances in fullness after ingestion of CW at 40 min. Our data suggest that CW may induce a short-term, but significant, satiating effect through enhanced postprandial gastric and cardiac activities due possibly to the increased sympathetic activity and/or withdrawal of parasympathetic activity.

  13. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity as predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Pérez Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive and types of expression (physical/relational. A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain aged 13 to 18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism. This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

  14. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  15. Inverted-U-shaped correlation between dopamine receptor availability in striatum and sensation seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    to dopamine concentrations. Higher dopamine occupancy and dopamine concentrations explain the motivation that drives afflicted individuals to seek sensations, in agreement with reduced protection against addictive behavior that is characteristic of individuals with low binding potentials....

  16. Attachment, Social Value Orientation, Sensation Seeking, and Bullying in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Parolin, Laura; Tagini, Angela; Santona, Alessandra; Bosco, Andrea; De Carli, Pietro; Palmisano, Giovanni L.; Pergola, Filippo; Sarracino, Diego

    2018-01-01

    In this study, bullying is examined in light of the “prosocial security hypothesis”— i.e., the hypothesis that insecure attachment, with temperamental dispositions such as sensation seeking, may foster individualistic, competitive value orientations and problem behaviors. A group of 375 Italian students (53% female; Mean age = 12.58, SD = 1.08) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding attachment security, social values, sensation seeking, and bullying behaviors. Path analysis showed that attachment to mother was negatively associated with bullying of others, both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values, while attachment to father was directly associated with victimization. Sensation seeking predicted bullying of others and victimization both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values. Adolescents’ gender affected how attachment moderated the relationship between sensation seeking and problem behavior. PMID:29535668

  17. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  18. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  19. Reproducibility of urodynamic filling sensation at weekly interval in healthy volunteers and in women with detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Tom David; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of bladder sensation during standardized filling cystometry in female volunteers and overactive bladder (OAB) patients, repeated with weekly interval. We recruited 13 female nulliparous volunteers (age 21-47) and 17 female patients with OAB between (age 18-72). They participated in three investigation periods, each separated by 7 days to assess reproducibility of sensation related to standardized cystometry. Subjects were asked to report all sensations they felt during bladder filling. The previously described pattern of sensation was reported during bladder filling in all. Consecutive sensations corresponded to statistically higher bladder volumes. Volumes, at which different sensations of bladder filling were reported, were significantly higher in controls than in OAB patients [first sensation of filling (FSF) P = 0.003, first desire to void (FDV) P sensation/volume ratios were significantly higher in patients with OAB than in the healthy volunteers: FSF occurred at mean 46% and FDV at mean 73% of SDV in OAB patients, compared to 36% and 64% in healthy volunteers. Sensations proved highly reproducible when determined with weekly interval. Our data demonstrate that cystometric filling sensation determined in a standardized way with weekly interval is highly reproducible in healthy and in OAB patients. This finding has, in our opinion, clinical importance as it shows that the technique is reliable both for a sensory evaluation of the LUT as to study influence of treatment aimed at changing this sensation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...