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Sample records for sennaarensis formicidae ponerinae

  1. Morphology and ultrastructure of the mandibular gland in the ant Brachyponera sennaarensis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Johan; Al-Khalifa, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The 'samsum ant' Brachyponera sennaarensis is an invasive species in Saudi Arabia, where it forms a serious threat because of its painful sting. As part of a morphological survey of the exocrine system of this species, we studied the mandibular gland of males, queens and workers of this species. The gland of males is similar to the common anatomical appearance the mandibular gland has in ants in general, but is considerably different in queens and workers. In both female castes, the secretory cells are grouped in one single cluster, that is surrounded by a thick sheath of connective tissue. The duct cells, that transport the secretion towards the wrinkled reservoir, appear considerably folded. Both the sheath of connective tissue and the folded ducts are considered as a mechanical reinforcement of the gland, although the reason for such reinforcement remains unclear as we are not aware of any peculiar movements of the mandibles in queens and workers. At the ultrastructural level, the secretory cells in all castes are characterized by a well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is indicative for the elaboration of a non-proteinaceous and hence possibly pheromonal secretion. The clear structural differences between males and the two female castes, which so far had not been found in other ant species, show that the mandibular gland in B. sennaarensis most likely has a different caste-dependent function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

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    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  3. The complex nest architecture of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Márlon César; Batista, Nathan Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Candida Anitta Pereira; Antonialli, William Fernando

    2018-01-01

    In social insects, nests are very important structures built to provide a protected microhabitat for immature development and food storage and are the places where most interactions between all members of a colony occur. Considering that nest architecture is an important behavioural trait that can clarify essential points of the social level of the species, here we describe the architectural model of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer. Five subterranean nests were excavated; one of them filled with liquid cement for extraction of casts of chambers, shafts and tunnels. All nests were found in a woodland area, with Dystrophic Red Latosol soil, associated with roots of large trees and, differently from the pattern currently described for this subfamily, presented a complex structure with multiple entrances and more than one vertical shaft connected by tunnels to relatively horizontal chambers. The number of chambers varied from 24 to 77, with mean volume ranging from 200.09 cm3 to 363.79 cm3, and maximum depth of 134 cm. Worker population varied between 304 and 864 individuals with on average 8.28 cm2 of area per worker. All nests had at least one Hall, which is a relatively larger chamber serving as a distribution centre of the nest, and to our knowledge, there is no record of Ponerinae species building similar structure. All nests had chambers "paved" with pieces of decaying plant material and on the floor of some of them, we found a fungus whose identification and function are being investigated. Thus, our findings provide evidence to suggest that nests of O. chelifer can be considered complex, due to the great number and organization of chambers, shafts and connections, compared to those currently described for Ponerinae species. PMID:29298335

  4. The complex nest architecture of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer.

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    Ingrid de Carvalho Guimarães

    Full Text Available In social insects, nests are very important structures built to provide a protected microhabitat for immature development and food storage and are the places where most interactions between all members of a colony occur. Considering that nest architecture is an important behavioural trait that can clarify essential points of the social level of the species, here we describe the architectural model of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer. Five subterranean nests were excavated; one of them filled with liquid cement for extraction of casts of chambers, shafts and tunnels. All nests were found in a woodland area, with Dystrophic Red Latosol soil, associated with roots of large trees and, differently from the pattern currently described for this subfamily, presented a complex structure with multiple entrances and more than one vertical shaft connected by tunnels to relatively horizontal chambers. The number of chambers varied from 24 to 77, with mean volume ranging from 200.09 cm3 to 363.79 cm3, and maximum depth of 134 cm. Worker population varied between 304 and 864 individuals with on average 8.28 cm2 of area per worker. All nests had at least one Hall, which is a relatively larger chamber serving as a distribution centre of the nest, and to our knowledge, there is no record of Ponerinae species building similar structure. All nests had chambers "paved" with pieces of decaying plant material and on the floor of some of them, we found a fungus whose identification and function are being investigated. Thus, our findings provide evidence to suggest that nests of O. chelifer can be considered complex, due to the great number and organization of chambers, shafts and connections, compared to those currently described for Ponerinae species.

  5. Anticonvulsant Effects of Fractions Isolated from Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempt Ant Venom (Formicidae: Ponerinae

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    Diana Aline Morais Ferreira Nôga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, sources of new pharmacological substances, have large chemical diversity and architectural complexity. In this context, some toxins obtained from invertebrate venoms have anticonvulsant effects. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects about 65 million people worldwide, and approximately 30% of cases are resistant to pharmacological treatment. Previous studies from our group show that the denatured venom of the ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempt protects mice against bicuculline (BIC-induced seizures and death. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of compounds isolated from D. quadriceps venom against seizures induced by BIC in mice. Crude venom was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC resulting in six fractions referred to as DqTx1–DqTx6. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis revealed a major 431 Da compound in fractions DqTx1 and DqTx2. Fractions DqTx3 and DqTx4 showed a compound of 2451 Da and DqTx5 revealed a 2436 Da compound. Furthermore, the DqTx6 fraction exhibited a major component with a molecular weight of 13,196 Da. Each fraction (1 mg/mL was microinjected into the lateral ventricle of mice, and the animals were observed in an open field. We did not observe behavioral alterations when the fractions were given alone. Conversely, when the fractions were microinjected 20 min prior to the administration of BIC (21.6 nM, DqTx1, DqTx4, and DqTx6 fractions increased the latency for onset of tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, all fractions, except DqTx5, increased latency to death. The more relevant result was obtained with the DqTx6 fraction, which protected 62.5% of the animals against tonic-clonic seizures. Furthermore, this fraction protected 100% of the animals from seizure episodes followed by death. Taken together, these findings indicate that compounds from ant venom might be a potential source of new anticonvulsants molecules.

  6. Nine novel microsatellite markers for the army ant Simopelta pergandei (subfamily Ponerinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, D.J.C.; Boomsma, J.J.; Pierce, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Simopelta (subfamily Ponerinae) army ants are specialized predators of other ants in New World tropical forests. Although they show a striking convergence in overall life-history with the well known army ants of the subfamilies Aenictinae, Dorylinae, and Ecitoninae, the genus has been little...... studied. We developed and characterized nine novel microsatellite loci for S. pergandei with 2-8 observed alleles (mean: 5.2) and expected heterozygosities between 0.16 and 0.87 (mean: 0.68). Three of these loci reliably cross-amplified in a second species, S. pentadentata, with 4-8 alleles (mean: 8.......0) and expected heterozygosities between 0.32 and 0.85 (mean: 0.65). These genetic markers will be useful in studying the sociobiology and molecular ecology of Simopelta army ants and in elucidating convergent evolutionary trajectories that have culminated in the army ant lifestyle...

  7. Catalogue of " poneromorph" ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cristiane P. Scott-Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists the type specimes of 112 nominal " poneromorph" ant species housed in the Formicidae collection of the Hymenoptera laboratory, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP. The catalogue includes types of Amblyoponinae, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae, Ponerinae, and Proceratiinae, that is, all poneromorph (sensu Bolton, 2003 but for the monotypic Paraponerinae, of which the collection bears no type specimens. We present here information on type categories (holotype, paratype, syntype, lectotype, and paralectotype, label data, nomenclatural changes since the original description and type specimens conservation status. At last we present indexes for the taxa names presented.O presente catálogo lista os espécimes-tipo de 112 espécies nominais de formigas poneromorfas depositados no Laboratório de Hymenoptera do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP. O catálogo inclui tipos das subfamílias poneromorfas (no sentido de Bolton, 2003, isto é, Amblyoponinae, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae, Ponerinae e Proceratiinae, exceto Paraponerinae, monotípica, não representada nesta coleção por espécimes-tipo. Aqui são apresentadas informações sobre as categorias dos tipos de poneromorfos na coleção do MZSP (holótipo, parátipo, síntipo, lectótipo e paralectótipo, além de dados do rótulo, mudanças nomenclaturais desde a publicação original e uma breve avaliação sobre o estado de conservação dos espécimes. Por último, apresentamos índices para os taxons aqui catalogados.

  8. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  9. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  10. Contribution to the myrmecofauna (Formicidae, Hymenoptera of the Banat province, Serbia

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    Petrov Ivan Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant species collected in the season of 1997, with some specimens of earlier years are presented. Collected species belong to the four subfamilies with the following number of species: Ponerinae (1 species, Myrmicinae (30 Dolichoderinae (6, Formicinae (30. Collected species are mostly Palearctic, European, and Southeuropean. Three Holarctic (Lasius alienus, L. flavus and L. niger and four Mediterranean (Messor structor, Bothriomyrmex meridionalis Camponotus piceus and Cataglyphis aenescens species were also registered. Mediterranean species are probably the remnants of the fauna of the region of Pannonian sea.

  11. Invasive ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A rare quest or increasingly common indoor pest in Europe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Okrouhlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2015), s. 705-712 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/04/16.pdf

  12. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Luan D. Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, the present study aimed to investigate E. vizottoi's foraging strategies and dietary habits. First, we determined how abiotic factors constrained E. vizottoi's foraging patterns in the field by monitoring the foraging activity of 16 colonies on eight different days across two seasons. Second, we characterized E. vizottoi's diet by monitoring another set of 26 colonies during peak foraging activity. Our results show that E. vizottoi has foraging strategies that are similar to those of congeneric species. In spite of having a low efficiency index, colonies adopted strategies that allowed them to successfully obtain food resources while avoiding adverse conditions. These strategies included preying on other ant species, a foraging tactic that could arise if a wide variety of food items are not available in the environment or if E. vizottoi simply prefers, regardless of resource availability, to prey on other invertebrates and especially on other ant species.

  13. A new species of the Camponotus aureopilus VIEHMEYER, 1914 species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shattuck, S.; Janda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2009), s. 251-253 ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB612230701 Grant - others:U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : taxonomic description * Hymenoptera * Formicidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Species-Specificity of the Phengaris (Maculinea) – Myrmica Host System: Fact or myth? (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae; Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2007), s. 983-1004 ISSN 0361-6525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Lycaenidae * Formicidae * conservation * ecology * myrmecophily * parasitism Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2007

  15. Species-specificity of the Phengaris (Maculinea) – Myrmica host system: Fact or myth? (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae; Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, Pavel; Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2007), s. 983-1003 ISSN 0361-6525 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA AV ČR KJB600070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lycaenidae * Formicidae * conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2007

  16. Record and foraging behavior of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in vertebrate carcasses

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    Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the importance of participation by insects at cadaverous decomposition processes, and the limited use of the family Formicidae in criminal investigations, this study aims to record the foraging activity of four genera of ants in carcasses of birds and mammals. Observations occurred accidentally in two locations in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In total, seven species of ants foraging in eight vertebrate carcasses were recorded. In addition, the study reported for the first time the presence of Wasmannia in carcasses in Brazil.

  17. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  18. Eficiência de produtos termonebulígenos no controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em plantio de eucalipto Efficiency of products for thermonebulization on the control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in eucalypus plantations

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    Ronald Zanetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de produtos termonebulígenos, a base de clorpirifós ou de extratos vegetais, comparativamente ao uso de isca formicida, a base de sulfluramida, no controle de Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Foi avaliada a percentagem de paralisação das atividades de corte de folhas e de movimentação de formigas de A. laevigata aos três, 12, 36, 63 e 86 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Na última avaliação, os formigueiros foram abertos para a verificação da eficiência de controle. Todos os produtos testados apresentaram alta percentagem de paralisação das atividades de corte e de movimentação das formigas aos três e 12 dias após a aplicação, respectivamente. Os produtos a base de clorpirifós e um a base de extratos vegetais apresentaram alta eficiência no controle de A. laevigata, sendo mais efetivos que a isca formicida testada.The efficiency of products formulated with chlorpyrifos or plants extracts in thermonebuzation was evaluated and compared to the use of the granulated bait formulated with sulfluramid in the control of Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. The cutting activity and the movement of ants on the colonies were evaluated at three, 12, 36, 63 and 86 days after the application of the treatments. The colonies of these ants were excavated in the last evaluation to obtain the efficiency of each product. All products stopped the cutting activity and movements of the individuals of A. laevigata three and 12 days after their application, respectively. Products formulated with chlorpyrifos and one with plant extracts were more efficient than granulated bait.

  19. Registro de nido de Camponotus rufipes (Formicidae: Hymenoptera en un armario metálico dentro de una estructura urbana | Nesting report of Camponotus rufipes (Formicidae: Hymenoptera in a metallic cabinet insight an urban structure

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    Cristina Sainz-Borgo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban ants are common and have a great importance for humans, for the effects in the houses or for being vectors of pathogens. The present paper reports the presence of a nest of Camponotus atriceps (Formicidae: Hymenoptera inside a metal cabinet in a research laboratory at Simón Bolívar University (Caracas, Venezuela. This report constitutes one of the few records for this species in metallic structures, since they usually occupy wooden structures.

  20. Evaluation of the possible role of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as mechanical vectors of nematodes and protists

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    Fabio Villani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in Mogi das Cruzes (SP, it was found that L. humile was capable of carrying eggs of A. lumbricoides both in the field and laboratory conditions (1 worker, as well as was Camponotus rufipes (2, Solenopsis saevissima (1 and Acromyrmex niger (1. The cysts of Escherichia coli were found over three workers of C. rufipes. Although the frequency of the workers found transporting pathogens was low, the capacity of common household species in carrying pathogens like nematodes and protists was demonstrated.Os Nematoda e Protista podem ser transmitidos ao homem de diversas maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão mecânica por intermédio de formigas. Assim, esse trabalho procurou investigar a transmissão mecânica de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e cistos de Entamoeba coli pelos Formicidae. Através de experimentos com espécies mantidas em ninhos no laboratório (Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile e Monomorium pharaonis e com 17 espécies de formigas de uma área antropizada na região de Mogi as Cruzes (SP, foi possível constar que os ovos A. lumbricoides foram transportados por L. humile, tanto no campo (1 operária como no laboratório (1 operária, por Camponotus rufipes (2, por Solenopsis saevissima (1 e por Acromyrmrex niger (1. Em três operárias de C. rufipes foram encontrados cistos de E. coli. Apesar da baixa incidência de transporte, as três primeiras espécies pelo fato de viverem muito próximas ao ser humano, podem levar para

  1. New record and re-description of a gall-forming aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae, commonly confused in the north of South America, associated with an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Ronald Simbaqueba-Cortés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The gall-forming aphid Tetraneura fusiformis is recorded for the first time for Northern South America. Its identity is clarified, and descriptions of this species and that of T. nigriabdominalis, with which it is commonly confused, are offered. The association of this sap sucking insect with the ant Linepithema angulatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is recorded for the first time as well

  2. The first record of a fly of the family Milichiidae (Diptera) interacting with an ant of the genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yusah, K. M.; Fayle, Tom Maurice

    -, č. 2 (2014), e4168 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Formicidae * Polyrhachis illaudata * Myrma Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238064/pdf/biodiversity_data_journal-2-e4168.pdf

  3. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of Andorra

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    Abel Bernadou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, checklists of the ant fauna of several European countries have been published or updated. Nevertheless, no ant checklists have hitherto been published for the principality of Andorra, a small landlocked country located in the eastern part of the Pyrenees. This work presents a critical list of the ant species of Andorra based on a review of the literature and on the biological material we collected during several field campaigns conducted in Andorra since the year 2005. Seventy-five species belonging to 21 genera of Formicidae were recorded. Nine species were recorded for the first time in Andorra: Aphaenogaster gibbosa (Latreille, 1798, Camponotus lateralis (Olivier, 1792, Camponotus piceus (Leach, 1825, Formica exsecta Nylander, 1846, Lasius piliferus Seifert, 1992, Tapinoma madeirense Forel, 1895, Temnothorax lichtensteini (Bondroit, 1918, Temnothorax niger (Forel, 1894, Temnothorax nigriceps (Mayr, 1855. The most speciose genera were Formica Linnaeus, 1758 and Temnothorax Forel, 1890 with 14 and 12 species, respectively. The ant fauna of Andorra is mostly dominated by Central European species (some are typical cold climate specialists; however species belonging to the Mediterranean ant fauna were also found. This can be explained by the particular geographic situation of Andorra which is characterized by a high mountain Mediterranean climate.

  4. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2009-12-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam. After 2 h, the number of fipronil-treated ants unable to walk out of test arenas did not differ from control ants. Median lethal time (LT50) after topical treatment was lowest in the bifenthrin treatment, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and then fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with topically treated ant corpses serving as donors. There was low to moderate horizontal activity in bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr treatments, with no temperature effect in bifenthrin treatments and a positive temperature effect in chlorfenapyr treatments. Mortality in the fipronil treatments was highest and was positively correlated with temperature. Thiamethoxam treatments did not differ from controls at 10 degrees C, but mortality increased with temperature. To evaluate contact activity, either all of 20% of the ants in a cohort were exposed to insecticide-treated pine needles. In both tests, mortality was highest in fipronil and bifenthrin treatments, followed by thiamethoxam, with lowest mortality in chlorfenapyr treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control. Mortality data suggest that lack of recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  5. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Both immobilization and mortality occurred most quickly with bifenthrin, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with three ratios of topically treated donor ant corpses to live recipients (5, 10, or 20% donors). Bifenthrin had the greatest horizontal activity of the chemicals tested. For chlorfenapyr, the only treatments having higher mortality than controls were the highest percentage donors at either 10 or 30 degrees C. Horizontal activity of fipronil was temperature dependent only with the highest proportion of donors and was lower than that ofbifenthrin but higher than that of chlorfenapyr or thiamethoxam. Mean mortality due to thiamethoxam was similar to that with chlorfenapyr. Significant mortality occurred in all of the 20 and 30 degrees C thiamethoxam treatments, but none of the 10 degrees C treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control bridge. Mortality data suggest that a reduction in recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  6. First cytogenetic characterization of a species of the arboreal ant genus Azteca Forel, 1978 (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae

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    Danon Cardoso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed karyotype characterization of a species of the genus Azteca (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae. Cerebral ganglia from Azteca trigona Emery, 1893 were excised and submitted to colchicine hypotonic solution and chromosomal preparations were analyzed through conventional staining with Giemsa, C-banding, silver nitrate staining (AgNO3 and sequential base-specific fluorochromes. The analysis shows that A. trigona has a diploid number of 28 chromosomes. The karyotype consists of five metacentric pairs, seven acrocentric pairs and two pseudo-acrocentric pairs, which represents a karyotype formula 2K= 10M + 14A + 4AM and a diploid number of the arms 2AN = 38. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution revealed a positive block on distal region of the short arm of fourth metacentric pair, which was coincident with Ag-NOR band and CMA3 fluorochrome staining, meaning that rDNA sequences are interspaced by GC-rich base pairs sequences. The C-banding also marked short arms of other chromosomes, indicating centric fissions followed by heterochromatin growth. The karyotype analysis of A. trigona allowed the identification of cytogenetic markers that will be helpful in a difficult taxonomic group as Azteca and discussion about evolutionary aspects of the genome organization.

  7. Studi berbagai jenis sarang permanen untuk mengembangbiakkan semut hitam, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Ahmad Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Black ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is one of the biological agents that can be used to control the cocoa pod borer Conopomorpha cramerella and Helopeltis sp. To effectively prevent C. cramerella infestation, high population of black ants are required. Population growth of black ants in three types of permanent nests and non permanent nest were observed during 3 months. Every month, five nests of each type were taken at random and then all stadia were calculated. The permanent nests will support ant population for some years and the black ant population per nest is higher when compared to nest made of dried cocoa leaves only. Permanent nests are made of 75 pieces of dried cocoa leaves which are placed in plastic bags with ventilation holes. In the longer term permanent black ant nests are more cost effective then ant nests which have been made from only dried leaves because frequent replacement is not required. Permanent ant nests will also ensure a stable black ant population is maintained.

  8. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  9. Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-05-15

    May 15, 1990 ... Supplemental Library User's Guide 1983 Edition. pp. 131-144. (Ed.) S. Ioyner. SAS Institute Incorporated, Cary,. North Carolina. CORBARA, B., LACHAUD, I. & FRESNEAU, D. 1989. Individual variability, social structure and division of labour in the ponerine ant, Ectatommo. ruidum Roger (Hymenoptera,.

  10. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Revision of the fungus-farming ant genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae

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    Ana Ješovnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini is a Neotropical group of fungus-farming ants known for its problematic taxonomy, caused by low morphological variability across the species, vague and old species descriptions, and an outdated and incomplete key published in 1916. Recent molecular studies revealed that Sericomyrmex is the product of a rapid recent radiation, with a divergence date of 4.3 million years ago. Here we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Sericomyrmex based on morphology and a recently published molecular phylogeny. We discuss and illustrate morphological characters for Sericomyrmex workers, males, queens, and larvae. We report 18 standard morphological measurements and 5 indices for 529 workers, 50 queens, and 39 males, which we employ in morphometric analyses. The revised genus Sericomyrmex comprises eleven species, including three new species, here described as S. maravalhas sp. n., S. radioheadi sp. n., and S. saramama sp. n. We also redescribe S. amabilis Wheeler, S. bondari Borgmeier, S. lutzi Wheeler, S. mayri Forel, S. opacus Mayr, S. parvulus Forel, S. saussurei Emery, and S. scrobifer Forel. The number of recognized species (11 is lower than the previously recognized 19 species and 3 subspecies. The following species and subspecies are synonymized: under S. opacus [=S. aztecus Forel syn. n., S. zacapanus Wheeler syn. n., and S. diego Forel syn. n.]; under S. bondari [=S. beniensis Weber syn. n.]; under S. mayri [=S. luederwaldti Santschi syn. n., S. moreirai Santschi syn. n., S. harekulli Weber syn. n., S. harekulli arawakensis Weber syn. n., S. urichi Forel syn. n.]; under S. saussurei [=S. burchelli Forel syn. n., S. impexus Wheeler syn. n., S. urichi maracas Weber syn. n.]; and under S. parvulus [=S. myersi Weber syn. n.]. We provide a key to Sericomyrmex species for the worker caste and information on the geographic distributions of all species.

  12. Nest spacing and architecture, and swarming of males of Dinoponera quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil

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    A. Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available Dinoponera quadriceps is a queenless neotropical ponerinae ant. Nest spacing and abundance were investigated in a remnant of the Atlantic forest in Northeast Brazil. Males were captured with a light trap between August 1994 and July 1996. Nest density varied from 15 to 40 ha-1. An overdispersion of nests suggests that the intraspecific competition may be an important factor regulating their spatial arrangement. Territory size was correlated with worker population size of the colonies. The nests had up to 16 chambers, with variations in their architecture closely related to habitat diversification. Populations varied from 12 to 97 adult workers per nest, with a mean density of 1,618 workers ha-1 and a live biomass of 461 g ha-1 (n = 13 nests. Males swarm continually throughout almost all months of the year, suggesting that production and swarming are more influenced by mechanisms that regulate the sexual activity of workers than by climatic factors.

  13. Catalogue of Dacetini and Solenopsidini ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mônica Antunes Ulysséa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists ant (Formicidae types of the Myrmicinae tribes Dacetini (Acanthognathus and Strumigenys and Solenopsidini (Allomeurs, Carebarella, Megalomyrmex, Monomorium, Oxyepoecus, Solenopsis, Carebara and Tropidomyrmex housed in the Formicidae collection of the Laboratório de Hymenoptera, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo/MZSP, Brazil. In total, the collection includes 141 types of these tribes, 41 of the Dacetini (nine holotypes and paratypes, 15 holotypes, 13 paratypes and four syntypes and 100 of the Solenopsidini (28 holotypes and paratypes, eight holotypes, 29 paratypes, 27 syntypes, four lectotypes and paralectotypes, one lectotype and three paralectotypes, of which 37 and 89 are of still recognized species, respectively. We record label information, condition of the specimens, nomenclatural changes and type status, as well as provide indexes of the listed taxa.

  14. Comportamento de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae inquilinas de cupins (Isoptera: Termitidae em pastagem

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    Carla Cristina Dutra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o tipo de interação entre formigas e os cupins os quais habitam o mesmo ninho. Os experimentos foram de duas maneiras: A- para testar a relação de predação, os tratamentos usados foram: três formigas e um cupim, três formigas e três cupins, e três formigas e doze cupins; B- para testar a relação de proteção os tratamentos foram: três formigas e três cupins de um mesmo ninho e três formigas de um ninho diferente. Para verificar predação foram testadas diferentes origens de formigas e cupins. Os testes foram em arenas e placas de Petri. Os comportamentos observados foram: não responde; contato e abandono; agarra o cupim e luta. As espécies estudadas foram Camponotus sp. e Cornitermes silvestrii Emerson. No experimento A, nas arenas foi observado o comportamento de contato e abandono das formigas sobre um cupim significativamente diferente para formigas que não co-habitava com o cupim, já para um grupo de cupins o comportamento foi não responde. Na placa de Petri as formigas responderam ao contato com os cupins com comportamento de contato e abandono, morder e luta com o cupim, mas não houve diferença estatística entre os comportamentos. No experimento B observou-se luta entre as formigas de ninhos diferentes. Os experimentos mostraram que as formigas que co-habitam cupinzeiros não tiveram nenhuma resposta agressiva ou de predação com relação aos cupins dos quais co-habitam, mas também não tiveram comportamento de proteção com os mesmos, sugerindo que esta interação entre formigas e cupins é de inquilinismo.Behavior of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Co-inhabit of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae in grassland.Abstract. The aim of this study was to verify the kind of interactions between ants and termites that habit the same nest. Two kinds of experiments were done: A- to test the relation of predation, we used three ants and one termite, three ants and three termites and

  15. Primeiro registro da quenquém cisco-da-Amazônia Acromyrmex hystrix Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae para o estado do Maranhão, Brasil

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    Wesley Dáttilo

    2010-12-01

    Abstract. It is recorded, for the first time, using pitfall traps, four workers of ant “quenquém-cisco-da-Amazônia”, Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae in a cave at state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. However, we could not imply any additional information about the abundance of this species in the region once that this record was accidental. The region where the individuals were found is placed at border of state of Maranhão and state of Tocantins suggesting that this species also occurs in this state.

  16. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island

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    Eli Sarnat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp., Guadalcanal (107 spp., Malaita (70 spp., Santa Isabel (68 spp., and Rennell (66 spp.. Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago’s ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity.

  17. Incomplete Homogenization of Chemical Recognition Labels Between Formica sanguinea and Formica rufa Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Living in a Mixed Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Formica sanguinea Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a slave-making species, i.e., it raids colonies of host species and pillages pupae, which are taken to develop into adult workers in a parasite colony. However, it has been unclear if the coexistence of F. sanguinea with slave workers requires uniformity of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), among which those other than n -alkanes are believed to be the principal nestmate recognition cues utilized by ants. In this study, a mixed colony (MC) of F. sanguinea and Formica rufa L. as a slave species was used to test the hypothesis that CHCs are exchanged between the species. Chemical analysis of hexane extracts from ants’ body surfaces provided evidence for interspecific exchange of alkenes and methyl-branched alkanes. This result was confirmed by behavioral tests during which ants exhibited hostility toward conspecific individuals from the MC but not toward ones from homospecific colonies of their own species. However, it seems that species-specific differences in chemical recognition labels were not eliminated completely because ants from the MC were treated differently depending on whether they were con- or allospecific to the individuals whose behavioral reactions were tested. These findings are discussed in the context of mechanisms of colony's odor formation and effective integration of slaves into parasite colony. PMID:25502026

  18. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

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    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  19. The effect of Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales on the aggression and boldness of Myrmica scabrinodis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Ferenc Báthori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of ectosymbiotic Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota fungi and their hosts are rather understudied. Rickia wasmannii Cavara is a common ant-associated Laboulbeniales species that has been reported in 17 countries of Europe, and frequently infects Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, a common ant species host, in high density. These make M. scabrinodis and R. wasmannii appropriate model organisms for studies on fungal host-ectosymbiont interactions. Aggressiveness and boldness of infected and uninfected M. scabrinodis workers from northern and eastern Hungary were studied in two laboratory-established behavioural experiments. Infected workers were significantly less aggressive and less bold (i.e. less likely to leave nest shelters than the uninfected ones. These results suggest that R. wasmannii has considerable effects on the behaviour of M. scabrinodis. Our study brings an evidence that infection of ants with Laboulbeniales might negatively affect the workers’ behaviour. In special, the competitive abilities might be affected most by these fungi, since remaining inside and behaving submissively is not effective behaviour in the case of significant competition for resources among colonies.

  20. The influence of Lasius neoniger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on population growth and biomass of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Johnson, D W; Brown, G C

    2010-12-01

    In the United States, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are often tended by the aphid-tending ant, Lasius neoniger Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In this study, we examined the effects of tending by ants on the density and biomass of soybean aphids on soybeans in Kentucky. We performed cage studies that limited access by ants and/or natural enemies. We used a split-plot design with natural enemy access as the main plot and ant attendance as the sub plot. We found that natural enemy access negatively affected aphid population density in the presence of tending ants, seen as a three- to four-fold increase in aphid density when natural enemies were excluded. In addition, we found that ant tending positively affected aphid biomass, both when natural enemies were given access to aphids or when natural enemies were excluded, seen by a two-fold increase in aphid biomass when ants tended aphids, both in the presence or absence of natural enemies. Biomass accumulation is seen as an important measurement for assessing aphid performance, and we argue that aphid-tending by ants can have an influence on natural field populations of soybean aphids. Agronomic practices that affect ant abundance in soybeans may influence the performance and hence pest outbreaks for this economically important pest. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  1. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand.

  2. Insights into the evolution, biogeography and natural history of the acorn ants, genus Temnothorax Mayr (hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebus, Matthew

    2017-12-13

    Temnothorax (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is a diverse genus of ants found in a broad spectrum of ecosystems across the northern hemisphere. These diminutive ants have long served as models for social insect behavior, leading to discoveries about social learning and inspiring hypotheses about the process of speciation and the evolution of social parasitism. This genus is highly morphologically and behaviorally diverse, and this has caused a great deal of taxonomic confusion in recent years. Past efforts to estimate the phylogeny of this genus have been limited in taxonomic scope, leaving the broader evolutionary patterns in Temnothorax unclear. To establish the monophyly of Temnothorax, resolve the evolutionary relationships, reconstruct the historical biogeography and investigate trends in the evolution of key traits, I generated, assembled, and analyzed two molecular datasets: a traditional multi-locus Sanger sequencing dataset, and an ultra-conserved element (UCE) dataset. Using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and summary-coalescent based approaches, I analyzed 22 data subsets consisting of 103 ingroup taxa and a maximum of 1.8 million base pairs in 2485 loci. The results of this study suggest an origin of Temnothorax at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, concerted transitions to arboreal nesting habits in several clades during the Oligocene, coinciding with ancient global cooling, and several convergent origins of social parasitism in the Miocene and Pliocene. As with other Holarctic taxa, Temnothorax has a history of migration across Beringia during the Miocene. Temnothorax is corroborated as a natural group, and the notion that many of the historical subgeneric and species group concepts are artificial is reinforced. The strict form of Emery's Rule, in which a socially parasitic species is sister to its host species, is not well supported in Temnothorax.

  3. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Wiezik

    Full Text Available Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting and open habitats (pitfall trapping, and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24 than litter sifting (16. Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated

  4. Field suppression of the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a tropical fruit orchard in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Evann; Follett, Peter A; Price, Don K; Stacy, Elizabeth A

    2008-08-01

    The little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is an invasive ant that forms supercolonies when it successfully invades new areas. W. auropunctata was first reported in Hawaii in 1999, and it has since invaded a variety of agricultural sites, including nurseries, orchards, and pastures. Amdro (hydramethylnon; in bait stations), Esteem (pyriproxyfen; broadcast bait), and Conserve (spinosad; ground spray) were tested for their efficacy against W. auropunctata in a rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum L. and mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., orchard by making treatments every 2 wk for 16 wk. Relative estimates of ant numbers in plots was determined by transect sampling using peanut butter-baited sticks. Significant treatment effects were observed on weeks 13-17, with reductions in ant counts occurring in the Amdro and Esteem treatments. During this period, the reduction in ant numbers from pretreatment counts averaged 47.1 and 92.5% in the Amdro and Esteem plots, respectively, whereas ant numbers in the untreated control plots increased by 185.9% compared with pretreatment counts. Conserve did not cause a reduction in ant counts as applied in our experiment. No plots for any of the treatments achieved 100% reduction. Pseudococcidae were counted on branch terminals at 4-wk intervals. The two predominant species, Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) were significantly lower in the Amdro and Esteem treatments on week 16 compared with controls. Many W. auropunctata were found nesting in protected sites in the orchard trees, which may have compromised the ground-based control methods. Absolute density estimates from shallow core samples taken from the orchard floor indicated the W. auropunctata supercolony exceeded 244 million ants and 22.7 kg wet weight per ha.

  5. Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

    2012-12-01

    Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-β-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and β-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties.

  6. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  7. Diversity of the ground-dwelling ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae of a moist,montane forest of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L Hites

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the so called "green islands" of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste" are economically, socially, and ecologically important, relatively little is known about their biodiversity. We present the results of the first survey of the ground-dwelling ant fauna of a secondary forest in the Serra de Baturité (4° 05’ - 4° 40’ S / 38° 30’ - 39° 10’ W, among the biggest of the moist, montane forests of the state of Ceará, Brazil. From February to March 2001, samples were taken every 50 m along twelve 200 m transects, each separated from the others by at least 50 m and cut on either side of a recreational trail. Where possible, two transects were cut from the same starting point on the trail, one on either side. At each sample site two methods were used, as recommended in the ALL protocol: a pitfall trap and the treatment of 1 m² of leaf litter with the Winkler extractor. The myrmecofauna of the Serra de Baturité is quite diverse: individuals from 72 species, 23 genera, and six subfamilies were collected. The observed patterns of specific richness show the same tendencies noted in other tropical regions, particularly the frequency of capture distribution with many rare and few abundant species. Differences with the Atlantic and Amazonian forests were also observed, especially the relative importance of the Ponerinae and Formicinae subfamilies, indicating a possible influence of the surrounding "caatinga" (savanna-like ecosystem on the myrmecofauna of the moist,montane forest. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:165-173. Epub 2005 Jun 24Se presentan los resultados del primer inventario de la mirmecofauna del suelo en un parche de bosque montano húmedo del "Nordeste" semi-árido brasileño. Aunque estos parches o "islas verdes" son importantes económica, social, y ecológicamente, se conoce relativamente poco acerca de su biodiversidad. La investigación fue llevada a cabo en un bosque secundario en la Serra de Baturité, uno de los mayores del

  8. Effect of ant attendance by Monomorium minimum (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on predation and parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John J; Horn, David J

    2008-10-01

    Ant attendance is known to affect the population dynamics of aphids and may increase or decrease aphid populations through stimulation, predation, or protection. In this study, we performed a series of laboratory experiments to examine the effects of ant attendance on populations of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines. Aphid colonies were exposed to the predators Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae) and a parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Aphidiidae) in the presence and absence of attending Monomorium minimum (Formicidae). We also tested for direct effects of ant attendance in the absence of natural enemies. Ants attending soybean aphid populations were observed harassing or killing O. insidiosus and H. axyridis. Attendance interfered with both predator species, resulting in reduced predation and an increase in aphid numbers up to 10-fold in the presence of ants. Ants were not observed directly interfering with the parasitoid A. colemani, but the number of parasitized aphids was higher in aphid colonies that were left unattended by ants.

  9. Generic diversity of ants (Himenopteros: Formicidae in forest set, forest border and areas cultivated three Communities of the Municipality of Coripata, Nor Yungas Department of La Paz, Bolivia

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    Mamani-Mamani Beatriz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity is the variety of all the vegetables, animals and the microorganisms that end up coexisting and interaction inside an ecosystem to be interrelated to each other. The ants represent the biggest abundance inside the insects. The family Formicidae is characterized by the importance that has in the natural ecosystems and for the variety of ecological functions that you/they complete, due to the association with many plants and animals. They have a great variability in the feeding and they use diverse nidificación forms; however they are very scarce the carried out studies. The present investigation was carried out in the municipality of Coripata, where the family Formicidae showed bigger abundance and wealth among habitats. For that they settled the 5 traps of having fallen by place (Altuspata, Choro and Alto Choro in three types of different habitats (forest, forest border and cultivation during 12 months. 15026 individuals were distributed in 6 subfamilies with 26 goods and 46 species y/o morfoespecies found in total. This shows that it exists a great wealth and abundance of ants in this ecosystem. The subfamilies Ecitoninae showed a bigger number of individuals for the habit form that you/they have of being depredators and nomadic. The biggest wealth and abundance of ants was identified in the area of forest of the place Altuspata. Inside the subfamilies Ecitoninae the species Labidus spininoides and Labidus praedator presented bigger number, and with regard to the places one has similarity as for the quantity of individuals.

  10. Características químicas do lixo de formigueiros de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae mantidos com diferentes substratos Chemical characteristics of nest refuse of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae reared with different substrates

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    Marcelo Braga Bueno Guerra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As saúvas (Atta spp. estão amplamente distribuídas pelo continente Sul-Americano e são consideradas importantes componentes do ecossistema neotropical. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado o efeito de formigueiros no enriquecimento do solo e na facilitação ao estabelecimento de espécies vegetais. Possivelmente o enriquecimento do solo seja devido ao acúmulo de matéria orgânica decomposta em câmaras de descarte (lixo no interior das colônias. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a composição química do lixo de formigas cortadeiras. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar os teores de nutrientes do lixo produzido por colônias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, em laboratório, mantidas com folhas de duas espécies de plantas. Os tratamentos foram dois tipos de substrato (Acalypha sp. ou Bauhinia sp., repetidos quatro vezes. Oito colônias foram divididas em dois grupos (n = 4, e cada grupo foi mantido com apenas um tratamento. Após 30 dias de experimento, as amostras de folhas e lixo foram secas em estufa (70 ºC e submetidas à digestão ácida, para determinação das concentrações de N, P, K, S, Ca e Mg. Diferenças nas concentrações dos macronutrientes entre os tratamentos (lixo ou folha foram comparadas por meio de ANOVA e teste T. As concentrações de nutrientes no lixo foram sempre maiores do que nas folhas, independentemente da espécie cortada. Folhas de Acalypha sp. apresentaram concentrações significativamente maiores do que folhas de Bauhinia sp. com relação aos teores de P, Ca, Mg e S; entretanto, as concentrações do lixo em todos os formigueiros foram muito próximas, indicando incorporação adicional de nutrientes por meio do fungo, excreções e, ou, cadáveres no lixo. Esses resultados indicam que, independentemente do substrato cortado, o lixo produzido apresenta maiores concentrações de nutrientes do que as folhas, sendo importante locus de reciclagem de nutrientes no

  11. Diversidade de formigas epigéicas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em três ambientes no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, Londrina, Paraná Epigeic ants diversity (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in three environments in Mata dos Godoy State Park, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Danielle T. Lopes

    Full Text Available Considerando o escasso conhecimento sobre a mirmecofauna do estado do Paraná, o presente estudo objetivou comparar as assembleias de formigas encontradas em três ambientes (mata primária, área de reflorestamento e capoeira do Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, Londrina, Paraná. Para as coletas foram utilizadas iscas de sardinha e armadilhas pitfalls. Foram coletadas 102 espécies, pertencentes a 38 gêneros de nove subfamílias de formigas. Myrmicinae foi a subfamília com o maior número de espécies (58 spp., seguida por Formicinae (20 spp., Ponerinae (9 spp., Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae, Ecitoninae e Pseudomyrmecinae (3 espécies cada, Dolichoderinae (2 spp. e Proceratiinae (1 espécie. Os gêneros mais ricos em espécies foram Pheidole Westwood, 1839 e Camponotus Mayr, 1861, respectivamente com 14 e 11 espécies. A mata primária apresentou os maiores valores de riqueza, número de espécies exclusivas e diversidade (92 spp., 20 spp. e H' = 3,51, respectivamente, seguida da área de reflorestamento (73 spp., 6 spp. e H' = 3,47 e capoeira (67 spp., 4 spp. e H' = 3,34. Os valores de similaridade entre os três ambientes foram próximos. A riqueza observada, em cada série de amostra, foi entre 33 e 53 espécies e a riqueza estimada foi entre 35 e 86 espécies. A ocorrência de sete guildas de formigas foi definida em espécies onívoras, predadoras especialistas, predadoras generalistas de serapilheira, formigas legionárias, arborícolas dominantes, dominantes de solo e cultivadoras de fungo.Considering the poor knowledge about the ant fauna of the state of Paraná, Brazil, this study aimed to compare the ant assemblages in three environments (primary forest, reforested area and secondary growth forest of Mata dos Godoy State Park, municipality of Londrina. This study was carried out between December 2004 and March 2005. Ant collections were made using sardine baits and pitfall traps. We collected 102 ant species belonging to 38 genera of

  12. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records

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    Mônica A. Ulysséa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. The Caatingas occur predominantly in northeastern Brazil and comparatively it is the biome that received less attention than any other ecosystem in Brazil, representing the region where invertebrate groups are less known. We present here the first list of ant species of the Caatingas, compiling information from the literature, from a study of samples preserved in alcohol in the Laboratory of Entomology (Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, and from a field survey conducted in Milagres, Bahia, submitting standardized 1-m² samples of the leaf-litter to Winkler extractors. Summing all information, 11 subfamilies, 61 genera and 173 species (plus one subspecies of ants are recognized in the biome. This species number does not consider morphospecies that could not be named due to the lack of reliable recent taxonomic information for some Neotropical ant genera. The list presented here for ant species of the Caatingas is therefore underestimated, but it is relevant because it allows the identification of areas to be sampled in order to improve our knowledge of the diversity of ants in this biome.

  13. Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Stela de Almeida Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In this paper we investigate how seasonal flooding influences the composition of assemblages of ants foraging on trees in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During the flood in the Pantanal, a large area is covered by floods that are the main forces that regulate the pattern of diversity in these areas. However, the effects of such natural disturbances in the ant communities are poorly known. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temporal variation in assemblages of ants foraging on trees in the Pantanal of Miranda. Samples were collected during a year in two adjacent areas, one who suffered flooding during the wet period and another that did not suffer flooding throughout the year. In 10 sites for each evaluated habitat, five pitfall traps were installed at random in trees 25 m apart from each other. In the habitat with flooding, the highest richness was observed during the flooding period, while there was no significant change in richness in the area that does not suffer flooding. The diversity of species between the two evaluated habitats varied significantly during the two seasons. Most ants sampled belong to species that forage and nest in soil. This suggests that during the flood in flooded habitats, ants that did not migrate to higher areas without flooding adopt the strategy to search for resources in the tree canopy.

  14. Type specimens of the traditional Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ant tribes deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil: Adelomyrmecini, Basicerotini, Blepharidatt ini, Crematogastrini, Formicoxenini, Lenomyrmecini, Myrmicini, Phalacromyrmecini, Pheidolini, Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini and Tetramoriini

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    Mônica Antunes Ulysséa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists ant types of 12 traditional Myrmicinae ant tribes (Adelomyrmecini, Basicerotini, Blepharidattini, Crematogastrini, Formicoxenini, Lenomyrmecini, Myrmicini, Phalacromyrmecini, Pheidolini, Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini and Tetramoriini housed in the Formicidae Collection of the Hymenoptera Laboratory, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP, Brazil, completing the publication of Myrmicinae types deposited in this institution. We adopted the traditional classification for Myrmicinae tribes to follow the already published catalogues regarding the Attini, Cephalotini, Dacetini and Solenopsidini and published catalogues in this series. In total, the present catalogue includes types of 213 nominal species, of which 169 are still valid. Twelve species listed here are represented by holotypes only, 28 by holotypes and paratypes, 102 species by paratypes only, 65 species by syntypes, and five species by lectotypes and paralectotypes. We record the label information, morphological condition of the specimens, nomenclatural changes, and type status, following the recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN.

  15. Determinação do fator de conversão em colônias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae e sua relação com a qualidade do material vegetal cortado Determination of the conversion factor in colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and its relationship with the quality of harvested leaf substrate

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    Leandro Sousa-Sou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras (Atta e Acromyrmex são consideradas importantes pragas na agricultura e silvicultura, mas pouco se sabe sobre os reais danos dessas espécies. Uma forma bastante difundida de avaliação do dano é por meio do cálculo da taxa de conversão, dividindo-se o peso do material cortado pelo peso de lixo produzido pelas colônias. Foi levantada a hipótese de que a qualidade do substrato cortado pode influenciar no forrageamento das operárias, alterando a taxa de conversão e dificultando as estimativas de dano. A taxa de conversão de oito colônias de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae foi calculada com duas espécies vegetais com diferentes concentrações de lignina e celulose, para testar essa hipótese. Colônias mantidas com folhas de baixa qualidade (razão lignina/celulose elevada tiveram maior forrageamento e produziram mais lixo. Entretanto, a taxa de conversão das colônias foi semelhante com essas duas plantas (média = 1,54. Esse valor está dentro da variação encontrada para outras espécies no campo (1,5-1,8, indicando um fator semelhante de conversão entre os gêneros Atta e Acromyrmex. O consumo médio de material vegetal, em termos de pesos seco e fresco, de uma colônia de A. sexdens rubropilosa com 4.500 operárias, foi estimado em 520 e 1.100 g/ano, respectivamente.Leaf-cutting ants (Atta and Acromyrmex are important pests in agriculture and forestry, although few data exist on the actual damage caused by these species. A model used to evaluate damage by leaf-cutting ants are estimates of the conversion factor, which is the ratio between the weight of material cut by the ants and the refuse produced by the colonies. The hypothesis that substrate quality influences foraging by workers, modifying the conversion factor and impairing damage estimates was put forward. To test this hypothesis, the conversion factor was calculated for eight colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel

  16. EFEITO DE FORMULAÇÕES GRANULADAS DE DIFERENTES PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS E À BASE DE FOLHAS E DE SEMENTES DE GERGELIM, Sesamum indicum, NO CONTROLE DE FORMIGUEIROS DE Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    Alberto Dorval

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de diferentes iscas formicidas comercializadas e de outras fabricadas artesanalmente à base de gergelim, Sesamum indicum, no controle de formigueiros de saúva-limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908. O experimento foi realizado em reflorestamento de Eucalyptus camaldulensis com dez anos de idade e dois de rebrota. Foram empregados dez tratamentos, incluindo a testemunha, tendo como ingredientes ativos: clorpirifós, sulfluramida, fipronil, farinha de folhas de gergelim (15%, farinha de sementes de gergelim (10%, 20% e 30%. A verificação da mortalidade dos formigueiros foram realizadas aos 30, 60, 90 e 150 dias após o tratamento. As iscas mais eficientes foram à base de sulfluramida e fipronil, seguida da formulação à base de farinha de folhas de gergelim (15%. As iscas à base de sulfluramida e de fipronil atingiram o controle máximo na avaliação dos 30 dias enquanto as iscas à base de folhas de gergelim (15% apresentou controle satisfatório só a partir da terceira avaliação, isto é, aos 90 dias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos com a isca à base de folhas de gergelim (15% são encorajadores, mostrando que estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados.

  17. Response of the grass-cutting ant Atta capiguara Gonçalves, 1944 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae to sugars and artificial sweeteners Resposta da saúva Atta capiguara Gonçalves, 1944 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae a açúcares e edulcorantes artificiais

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    Maria Aparecida Castellani Boaretto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of toxic baits made of dehydrated citric pulp to control grass-cutting ants can lead to unsatisfactory results because of the low attractiveness of the substrate to worker ants. This work aimed to identify attractive substances, with potential for incorporation in a matrix of granulated baits for grass-cutting ants, among several kinds of sugars and substances used in artificial sweeteners. Experiments were carried out in mature nests of Atta capiguara (Hym.: Formicidae set in pasture. Studied substances were sucrose, fructose, soluble starch, raffinose, maltose, lactose, sorbose, cellobiose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, melezitose, saccharine and cyclamate (at 5.0% w/v. Later, on maltose, xylose, sucrose, fructose and glucose solutions were included at 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0% and 20.0% w/v, respectively. Cellulose rectangles were used as vehicle and number of rectangles carried into the colonies was evaluated. Carrying rates were very low with maximum means of 9.6% for lactose and 6.0% for arabinose and cyclamate, at the 5.0% concentration. No differences (P > 0.05 were observed relatively to the control (distilled water. No effects were detected for solution, concentration and for the interaction of these factors. Sugars and artificial sweeteners studied were not attractive to Atta capiguara workers, turning their inclusion as attractants in toxic ant baits not viable.O uso de iscas tóxicas, formuladas à base de polpa cítrica desidratada, para o controle de formigas cortadeiras de gramíneas pode levar a resultados insatisfatórios devido à baixa atratividade do substrato às operárias. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar substâncias atrativas e com potencial para incorporação em matrizes de iscas granuladas para formigas cortadeiras de gramíneas, dentre diversos tipos de açúcares e edulcorantes artificiais. Os experimentos foram realizados em ninhos adultos de Atta capiguara Gon

  18. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina First record of cadaverous arthropod fauna in human and animal substrates in San Juan, Argentina

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    Fernando H. Aballay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.In order to determine the specific composition of cadaverous arthropod fauna associated to different decomposing vertebrate substrates, we studied the carrion arthropods that feed on outdoor carcasses in San Juan province, Argentina. Arthropods were collected on animal and human remains in the field and on carcasses of domestic pig placed outdoors under controlled conditions. Forty species of carrion arthropods belonging to four orders and 15 families were recorded for the first time in this province. We present the first record of forensic fauna in Argentina of the necrophagous species Megelenophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and three

  19. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina

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    Fernando H. ABALLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

  20. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Borowiec Lech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  1. Exotic ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov,Kal

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide transfer of plants and animals outside their native ranges is an ever increasing problem for global biodiversity. Ants are no exception and many species have been transported to new locations often with profound negative impacts on local biota. The current study is based on data gathered since the publication of the “Ants of Ohio” in 2005. Here I expand on our knowledge of Ohio’s myrmecofauna by contributing new records, new distributional information and natural history notes. ...

  2. The evolution of genome size in ants

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    Spagna Joseph C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta, and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg. Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus, trapjaw ants (Odontomachus, fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex, harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex, carpenter ants (Camponotus, a fire ant (Solenopsis, and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia. Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may

  3. Five new records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ahmed; Reyes-López, Joaquin L

    2015-01-01

    A recent catalogue of the rich ant fauna of Morocco included 214 species, with later studies adding an additional 12 species. Following recent fieldwork in the north of Morocco, we report five new records for the country (Plagiolepis pygmaea Latreille, 1798, Ponera testacea Emery, 1895, Strumigenys tenuipilis Emery, 1915, Temnothorax pardoi Tinaut, 1987, and Tetramorium parvioculum Guillem & Bensusan, 2009) and we present new data on the distribution and natural history of six additional species. This work brings the total number of ants known from Morocco to 233, taking into account two species which were omitted in the list of Cagniant. © Crown copyright 2015.

  4. Geographic Spread of Gnamptogenys triangularis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ectatomminae

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    Joseph A. MacGown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gnamptogenys triangularis (Mayr, native to the forests of South and Central America, is a predatory ant that feeds on millipedes. In its native range, this species is known from Buenos Aires, Argentina (38.1°S in the south to Costa Rica (10.4°N in the north, with records from eight countries in South America (all except Chile, French Guiana, and Paraguay, and the two southernmost countries of Central America (Panama and Costa Rica. The first records of G. triangularis outside its native range came from Florida beginning in 1985 (six sites: 25.5°–30.4°N and Alabama in 1996 (one site: 30.4°N. Here we present the first records of G. triangularis from Mississippi, dating from 2002–2010 (five sites: 30.5°–31.2°N. Based on its South American range, it appears that G. triangularis has the potential to spread to forests throughout much of the southeastern USA. There are no documented impacts of G. triangularis, and it seems unlikely that this species will ever become a major pest.

  5. Myrmica elmesi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) a new species from Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Himender; Sharma, Yash Paul

    2011-01-01

    Myrmica elmesisp. n. is described from Himalaya. This species belongs to the pachei group of Myrmica speciesand is distinct from the species described in this group hitherto, which is represented by 14 species including three from Indian Himalaya. Myrmica elmesi is the fourth species of the diverse pachei group found in Himalaya; it was collected from the transitional zone and is described with notes on its ecology, this gains significance in the sense that ecology of most of the old world Myrmica is either unknown or poorly known.

  6. Mating, hybridisation and introgression in Lasius ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Have, Tom; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    Recent reviews have shown that hybridisation among ant species is likely to be more common than previously appreci-ated, but that documented cases of introgression remain rare. After molecular phylogenetic work had shown that Euro-pean Lasius niger (LINNAEUS, 1758) and L. psammophilus SEIFERT, 1992...... (formerly L. alienus (FOERSTER, 1850)) are unlikely to be very closely related, we decided to analyse an old data set confirming the conclusion by PEARSON (1983) that these two ants can indeed form viable hybrids. We show that signatures of introgression can be detected in a Danish site...... sympatrically. This would imply that multiple accessible field sites are available to study the molecular details of hybridisation and in-trogression between two ant species that have variable degrees of sympatry throughout their distributional ranges...

  7. Ergatomorph wingless males in Technomyrmex vitiensis Mann, 1921 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, DEC 19 (2016), s. 25-34 ISSN 1070-9428 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : behaviour * biology * greenhouses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016 http://jhr.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=8904

  8. Do Formica species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have a different attack mode?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabelis, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    It is questioned whether a different degree of agressiveness of Formica species will lead to a different type of lesions of their victims and if so whether dissimilar lesions, caused by two related Formica species (Formica rufa and F polyctena), might give support to their morphological separation.

  9. POPULATION GENETICS OF Atta sexdens rubropilosa (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants collected from five brazilian localities was evaluated with PCR-RAPD technique. We used 15 primers producing 148 fragments of which 123 (83,11 % contained polymorphisms. The estimated Shannon index was 0.3836 ± 0.2335 showing that these ants possess high genetic diversity. The GST value was 0,2372 and PT = 0,184, indicating that the analyzed populations are moderately differentiated and 82 % of the variation obtained occur within populations. Although Mantel’s test had shown correlation between genetic distances and geographic was observed that Ivatuba and Itambé (33,8 km have the small geographical distance and the largest genetic distance. The lower genetic distance was estimated for Maringá and Ivatuba but this localities have a small geographic distance (42,3 km, indicating that there are no barriers for mating among reproducers in these populations. The high degree of polymorphism (83,11 % and the ability to cross among the populations in the studied regions indicate that this species of leaf-cutting ant is well adapted to the region; therefore, integrated control programs can be developed.

  10. Comparative Immature Morphology of Brazilian Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis

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    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although common in Brazil, the biology of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith is still poorly studied. Larval descriptions are useful to genus-level ant systematics and sometimes to species-level taxonomy. This study presents a detailed description of juveniles of S. saevissima from Brazil, which were compared with Brazilian specimens of Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, and Solenopsis altipunctata Pitts. Different larval instars were separated by diagnostic morphological traits which were confirmed by observing moults. Reproductive larvae could be easily sorted by their distinctive body dimensions and shape. Contrary to previous reports on this species, the larvae of S. saevissima proved to be generally identical to those of S. invicta, while a few specimens resembled those of other close species, such as Solenopsis megergates Trager. Mature larvae thus presented considerable intraspecific variation in some characters recently proposed to aid fire ant species separation (morphology of head hairs.

  11. A new carpenter ant, Camponotus parabarbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from India

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    Himender Bharti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of carpenter ant, collected in the Shivalik range of Himalaya is described and illustrated based on the worker and gyne castes under the name Camponotus parabarbatus sp. n. Presence of dense, short setae on gena and ventral surface of head resembles it most to Camponotus barbatus Roger, 1863 distributed in Southeast Asia. A regional identification key of Camponotus species is provided from the Shivalik hills of Indian Himalaya.

  12. Description of the immatures of Linepithema humile Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    DANIEL R SOLIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Linepithema humile Mayr is an ant species originally native to South America that has been spread accidently throughout the globe through international trade. It is a serious urban and crop pest. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the larvae of this species apart from a brief description based on a few specimens. The present investigation is aimed at describing every immature stage of L. humile. Three larval instars were determined through the frequency distribution of the maximum width of head capsules from a sample of 525 larvae. The morphological descriptions were based on 150 eggs, 70 larvae, and 90 pupae examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Some morphological characteristics reported to be typical of Linepithema Mayr larvae were confirmed - dolichoderoid body shape, presence of dorsal protuberance, sparse simple body hairs, presence of nine pairs of spiracles and dolichoderoid mandibles. We concluded that an earlier published description was based on queen larvae, and that the protuberance is only present in worker larvae. The information provided in this study may aid ant systematics and phylogenetics, as well provide a better understanding of the biology of this species.

  13. New fossil ants in French Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Nel, André; Néraudeau, Didier; Lacau, Sébastien; Guyot, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies on the ant phylogeny are mainly based on the molecular analyses of extant subfamilies and do not include the extinct, only Cretaceous subfamily Sphecomyrminae. However, the latter is of major importance for ant relationships, as it is considered the most basal subfamily. Therefore, each new discovery of a Mesozoic ant is of high interest for improving our understanding of their early history and basal relationships. In this paper, a new sphecomyrmine ant, allied to the Burmese amber genus Haidomyrmex, is described from mid-Cretaceous amber of France as Haidomyrmodes mammuthus gen. and sp. n. The diagnosis of the tribe Haidomyrmecini is emended based on the new type material, which includes a gyne (alate female) and two incomplete workers. The genus Sphecomyrmodes, hitherto known by a single species from Burmese amber, is also reported and a new species described as S. occidentalis sp. n. after two workers remarkably preserved in a single piece of Early Cenomanian French amber. The new fossils provide additional information on early ant diversity and relationships and demonstrate that the monophyly of the Sphecomyrminae, as currently defined, is still weakly supported.

  14. On the Hymenoptera (exclusive of the Anthophila and Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, P.

    1913-01-01

    Our knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Island of Waigeu hitherto has been based on the material collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace and described by Mr. Frederick Smith in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 1863, pp. 6—48. Omitting the bees (5 species) and the ants (27 species) Smith

  15. Worker laying in leafcutter ant Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus (Formicidae, Attini)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERTO S. CAMARGO; LUIZ C FORTI; JULIANE F. S. LOPES; NEWTON C. NORONHA; ANGELO L. T. OTTATI

    2007-01-01

    We studied the process of offspring production in queenless colonies of Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus, and particularly evaluated the ovary development of workers as a function of their age. For this, subcolonies were set up and evaluated at different periods of isolation from the queen (2, 4 and 6 months), besides individually labeled age groups. The subcolonies were assessed according to offspring production and ovaries containing oocytes or not. The evaluations showed worker oviposition and development of males originating from worker-laid eggs. At 2 months' absence ofthe queen, eggs and larvae were found, with eggs in a higher proportion than larvae. After 4 months, the proportion of eggs had reduced while larvae had increased, and a pupa was found in one subcolony. At 6 months, besides a higher share of larvae, one pupa and one adult male were found. Dissection of workers revealed ovaries containing oocytes during the periods of evaluation. Only a group of medium-sized and large workers, 23.3%, 20.9% and 37.5% of the population from each period assessed in queenless subcolonies respectively, presented developed oocytes in the ovary. The same was observed in colonies with a queen, with 17.6%, 19.6% and 7.8% of the group of dissected workers from each time period, respectively. With respect to worker age, we observed by dissection of the ovary, that the greatest percentage of individuals with ovarioles containing oocytes occurred at 45 days (6 weeks) up to 90 days (12 weeks). These results probably are associated with the workers reproduction and the laying of trophic and reproductive eggs in colonies with and without a queen; these eggs have distinct functions in each situation.

  16. Mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mating strategy of Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) and to clarify the factors that related to the nuptial flight. The nuptial flight was investigated over three seasons in the Darwin area, Australia, in which a total of 19 swarmings were observed....... All swarmings were observed on days where no rain fell before 15:00 h, and with wind speed ≤18 km/h. On days of swarming air pressure was significantly higher (mean ± SD: 1009.3 ± 1.6 hPa) than on rainless days without swarming (mean ± SD: 1006.9 ± 1.2 hPa). Several swarmings took place during...

  17. Population genetics of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belizario Cantagalli, Liriana; Aparecida Mangolin, Claudete; Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki, Maria Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The genetic variability of Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants collected from five Brazilian localities was evaluated with PCR-RAPD technique. we used 15 primers producing 148 fragments of which 123 (83.11 %) contained polymorphisms. the estimated Shannon index was 0.3836 ± 0.2335 showing that these ants possess high genetic diversity. the G S T value was 0.2372 and Φ p t = 0.184, indicating that the analyzed populations are moderately differentiated and 82 % of the variation obtained occur within populations. although mantel's test had shown correlation between genetic distances and geographic was observed that Ivatuba and Itambe (33.8 km) have the small geographical distance and the largest genetic distance. the lower genetic distance was estimated for Maringa and Ivatuba but this localities have a small geographic distance (42.3 km), indicating that there are no barriers for mating among reproducers in these populations. the high degree of polymorphism (83.11 %) and the ability to cross among the populations in the studied regions indicate that this species of leaf-cutting ant is well adapted to the region; therefore, integrated control programs can be developed.

  18. THE MYRMICINE ANT GENUS ALLOMERUS MAYR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

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    FERNÁNDEZ FERNANDO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Allomerus Mayr is revised. The genus isapparently monophyletic based on the antennal club confi guration. I recognize 8 species(4 described as new: Allomerus brevipilosus n. sp. (Brazil, A. decemarticulatusMayr (Brazil, French Guiana, A. dentatus n. sp. (Venezuela, A. maietae n. sp.(Brazil, A. octoarticulatus Mayr (=A. tuberculatus Forel n. syn. = A. octoarticulatusvar. demerarae W. M. Wheeler n. syn. = A. novemarticulatus Wheeler & Mann n.syn. [Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru], A. septemarticulatus Mayrstatus rev. (Brazil, A. undecemarticulatus n. sp. (Venezuela and A. vogeli Kempf(Venezuela, Brazil. Better knowledge of the taxonomy of Allomerus is needed tounderstand the apparently sporadic differences in antennal fl agellomere number andspeciation processes that are probably linked to plant cavity colonization.

  19. A quantification of predation rates, indirect positive effects on plants, and foraging variation of the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Dyer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available While a clear consensus is emerging that predators can play a major role in shaping terrestrial communities, basic natural history observations and simple quantifications of predation rates in complex terrestrial systems are lacking. The potential indirect effect of a large predatory ant, Paraponera clavata Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae, on herbivores was determined on rainforest trees at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Prey and other food brought back to nests by 75 colonies of P. clavata were quantified, taking into account temporal, seasonal, and microhabitat variation for both foraging activity and composition of foraging booty. The dispersion and density of ant colonies and combined density with the mean amounts of prey retrieval were used to calculate rates of predation per hectare in the two forests. In addition, herbivory was measured on trees containing P. clavata and on trees where the ants were not foraging. Colonies at La Selva brought back significantly more nectar plus prey than those at Barro Colorado Island, but foraging patterns were similar in the two forests. At both forests, the ants were more active at night, and there was no significant seasonal or colonial variation in consumption of nectar, composition of foraging booty, and overall activity of the colonies. At La Selva, trees containing P. clavata colonies had the same levels of folivory as nearest neighbor trees without P. clavata but had significantly lower folivory than randomly selected trees. Predation by this ant was high in both forests, despite its omnivorous diet. This insect predator is part of potentially important top-down controls in these wet and moist forests.

  20. Distribución espacial de Cordyceps spp. (Ascomycotina: Clavicipitaceae y su impacto sobre las hormigas en selvas del piedemonte amazónico de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjuán Tatiana

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad del género Cordyceps, hongo entomopatógeno, en hormigas del piedemonte Amazónico colombiano (450-600 msnm, enero y mayo de 1998, épocas seca y lluviosa, respectivamente. La recolección de hormigas sanas y parasitadas por Cordyceps se llevó a cabo en tres bosques con distintos regímenes de perturbación: natural, antrópico y poco perturbado. Se establecieron 100 cuadrantes de 1 m² por cada bosque. Las muestras fueron tomadas en hojarasca, arbustos y troncos como sustratos, y cada 50 cm hasta 2 m de altura los estratos verticales. El género Azteca fue el predominante en el bosque poco perturbado, mientras Camponotus, Pheidole y Crematogaster abundaron en los bosques con perturbación natural y antrópica. El bosque con perturbación natural presentó 759 individuos de C. unilateralis y 69 de C. lloydii var. binata parasitando hormigas Camponotus spp. (Formicidae: Formicinae. Se encontraron sólo seis casos de C. kniphofioides var. ponerinarum y C. australis en las hormigas Paraponera clavata y Pachycondyla crassinoda (Formicidae: Ponerinae. En el bosque perturbado antrópicamente se presentaron 34 ejemplares de C. unilateralis en Camponotus mientras que en el menos perturbado no se observaron hormigas parasitadas. Se halló que las hormigas Camponotus spp. que son parasitadas por C. unilateralis y C. lloydii var. binata se ubican preferencialmente en el sustrato hoja, hasta 1 m de altura. Se determinó que la incidencia de la interacción Cordyceps / hormiga no está influenciada por el estado de conservación del bosque, sin embargo, la variación de la humedad relativa y la presencia o ausencia de la hormiga hospedera son factores que influyen en la diversidad de Cordyceps en hormigas. Se encontró, además, que la distribución microespacial de la interacción sigue un patrón determinado, aportando más argumentos a la hipótesis de que los mecanismos de dispersión de Cordyceps coevolucionaron con la

  1. Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ant genus Mycetarotes Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Notas sobre as formigas cultivadoras de fungos do gênero Mycetarotes Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Mayhé-Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycetarotes is a small genus of the exclusively Neotropical fungus-growing ants, that includes M. parallelus (Emery, M. senticosus Kempf, M. acutus Mayhé-Nunes and M. carinatus Mayhé-Nunes. We hereby revise historical and recent information regarding Mycetarotes species for the first time, providing an identification key to workers, diagnoses, synoptic illustrated redescriptions of the species, including those of sexuals when known, updates of distributional records, and nest pictures of M. carinatus and M. parallelus. We comment the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships among Mycetarotes and related genera, and on their geographical distribution. The available biological information on the genus is summarized.O gênero Mycetarotes inclui quatro espécies de formigas cultivadoras de fungos, exclusivamente encontradas na região Neotropical: M. parallelus (Emery, M. senticosus Kempf, M. acutus Mayhé-Nunes and M. carinatus Mayhé-Nunes. Apresentamos pela primeira vez um resumo sobre as informações disponíveis para as espécies do gênero, fornecendo uma chave para a identificação das operárias, diagnoses e redescrições sinópticas ilustradas das espécies, incluindo as dos alados, quando conhecidos, atualização dos registros de distribuição e fotografias dos ninhos de M. carinatus e M. parallelus. Comentamos a taxonomia e as relações de parentesco entre Mycetarotes e gêneros cognatos, e sobre sua distribuição geográfica. As informações biológicas disponíveis sobre o gênero também foram resumidas.

  2. Modelo arquitetônico de ninhos da formiga Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Nest architecture of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Santana Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Para descrever o padrão de construção e ocupação dos ninhos de Ectatomma vizottoi, foram escavados oito ninhos durante o período de novembro de 2004 a agosto de 2006, em Dourados-MS. Os orifícios de entrada ou saída dos ninhos desta espécie possuem formato elipsóide, com acesso a um túnel alargado, similar a uma antecâmara, a qual é conectada a câmaras mais profundas do ninho. Os ninhos podem alcançar até 360,0 cm de profundidade, e apresentam de três a dez câmaras. São construídos independentemente de raízes de plantas, e o solo de seus túneis e câmaras é compactado, apresentando compartimentos específicos para depósitos de detritos da colônia. O aumento da densidade de formigas conduz a um aumento do número de câmaras, bem como da profundidade do ninho, mantendo, entretanto, um volume médio para o mesmo, evidenciando um padrão para o tamanho das câmaras dos ninhos.The construction pattern and occupancy of Ectatomma vizottoi was described, during November 2004-August 2006 period, in Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul by excavation of eight nests. The entrance openings, or exit, have an ellipsoid shape and lead to a wide tunnel, similar to a hall, which is connected to other deeper chambers in the nest. The nests reach up to 360 cm deep and contain three to ten chambers. Nests are constructed independently of plants and roots presence, and the soil of the tunnels and chambers are compacted, with specific compartments for colony deposit of detritus. The increase of the ant density led to an increase in nest depth and number of chambers, maintaining an average nest volume, which indicates a standard size for nest chambers.

  3. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum; Danos de Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em Parica, Schizolobium amazonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: amehl@cpatu.embrapa.br; Harada, Ana Y. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Zoologia. Setor de Invertebrados], e-mail: ahara@museu-goeldi.br

    2009-03-15

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  4. Fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on Santa Catarina Island, Brazil: patterns of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic survey on fungus-growing ants (Attini was made at 14 beaches on Santa Catarina Island (SC, Brazil. The samplings were manual, in soil or litterfall, in the following habitats: sandy beach, herbaceous vegetation and shrubby vegetation. From 12 species of Attini (ten of Acromyrmex Mayr and two of Cyphomyrmex Mayr, the most frequent were Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery and Acromyrmex crassispinus Forel, collected, respectively, on eight and ten of the monitored beaches. Altogether, Sorensen’s similarity coefficients were high (range: 0.59-0.80, in spite of the lower numbers of ant species on sandy beaches

  5. Taxonomic revision of the genus Prionopelta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in the Malagasy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Overson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we revise the taxonomy of the genus Prionopelta for the Malagasy region, treating seven species, six of which are newly described (P. laurae sp. n., P. seychelles sp. n., P. subtilis sp. n., P. talos sp. n., P. vampira sp. n., P. xerosilva sp. n., and one redescribed (P. descarpentriesi Santschi. One species, P. seychelles, is restricted to Seychelles, while the six remaining species treated are endemic to Madagascar.

  6. LEAF-CUTTING ANTS Acromyrmex niger SMITH, 1858 (HYMENOPTERA; FORMICIDAE) USED AS BIOINDICATORS OF AGROTOXICS RESIDUES

    OpenAIRE

    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli; Denise Alves Lopes; Ana Lúcia Paes Barateiro Stuchi; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the condition of leaf-cutting ant pests in agroecosystems, it is undeniable the benefits they can bring in certain situations or environments. The leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex attack mainly leaves of vegetables and fruit trees exposing not only to the agrochemicals used for their control as well as to those used for the control of other pests. Due to the bioindicator potential of environmental quality of the ants and their frequent exposure to agrochemicals such as organo...

  7. An Overview of Integrated Management of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Brazilian Forest Plantations

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    Ronald Zanetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian forest producers have developed integrated management programs to increase the effectiveness of the control of leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex. These measures reduced the costs and quantity of insecticides used in the plantations. Such integrated management programs are based on monitoring the ant nests, as well as the need and timing of the control methods. Chemical control employing baits is the most commonly used method, however, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods, besides plant resistance, can reduce the quantity of chemicals applied in the plantations.

  8. Sampling efficacy for the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Suckling, David Maxwell; Baird, David; Vander Meer, Robert K; Christian, Sheree J; Lester, Philip J

    2011-10-01

    Cost-effective detection of invasive ant colonies before establishment in new ranges is imperative for the protection of national borders and reducing their global impact. We examined the sampling efficiency of food-baits and pitfall traps (baited and nonbaited) in detecting isolated red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) nests in multiple environments in Gainesville, FL. Fire ants demonstrated a significantly higher preference for a mixed protein food type (hotdog or ground meat combined with sweet peanut butter) than for the sugar or water baits offered. Foraging distance success was a function of colony size, detection trap used, and surveillance duration. Colony gyne number did not influence detection success. Workers from small nests (0- to 15-cm mound diameter) traveled no >3 m to a food source, whereas large colonies (>30-cm mound diameter) traveled up to 17 m. Baited pitfall traps performed best at detecting incipient ant colonies followed by nonbaited pitfall traps then food baits, whereas food baits performed well when trying to detect large colonies. These results were used to create an interactive model in Microsoft Excel, whereby surveillance managers can alter trap type, density, and duration parameters to estimate the probability of detecting specified or unknown S. invicta colony sizes. This model will support decision makers who need to balance the sampling cost and risk of failure to detect fire ant colonies.

  9. GlobalAnts: a new database on the geography of ant traits (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parr, C. L.; Dunn, R. R.; Sanders, N. J.; Weisser, M. D.; Photakis, M.; Bishop, T. R.; Fitzpatrick, M. C.; Arnan, X.; Baccaro, F. B.; Brandao, C. R. F.; Chick, L.; Donoso, D. A.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Gómez, C.; Grossman, B. F.; Munyai, T. C.; Pacheco, R.; Retana, J.; Robinson, A.; Sagata, K.; Silva, R. R.; Tista, M.; Vasconcelos, H.; Yates, M.; Gibb, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2017), s. 5-20 ISSN 1752-458X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : assemblages * ecology * functional trait Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/icad.12211/full

  10. Effect of Tithonia diversifolia mulch on Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jonathan; Montoya-Lerma, James; Calle, Zoraida

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an insecticidal effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray (Asterales: Asteraceae) foliage on workers of Atta cephalotes L. and inhibitory effects of this plant on the growth of the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (A. Müler) Singer. To evaluate the potential of T. diversifolia as a biological control treatment of this important pest, we assessed the effect of green manure (mulch) of this plant on natural nests of A. cephalotes, in Cali, Colombia. Three treatments were randomly assigned to 30 nests: 1) green mulch of T. diversifolia, 2) green mulch of Miconia sp., Ruiz & Pav. and 3) unmulched control. Every 2 wk for 6 mo, the surface of the nests was completely covered with leaves. Physical and chemical parameters of nest soil were assessed before the first and after the last application of the mulch. Ant foraging in T. diversifolia-treated nests decreased by 60% after the initial applications of the mulch, while nest surface area decreased by 40%. When the nests covered with T. diversifolia were opened, it was observed that the superficial fungus chambers had been relocated at a greater depth. In addition, microbial activity and soil pH increased by 84% and 12%, respectively, in nests covered with plant residues. In conclusion, the continued use of T. diversifolia mulch reduces foraging activity and negatively affects the internal conditions of the colonies, thereby inducing the ants to relocate the fungus chambers within the nests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. A novel relationship between ants a leafhopper (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, F. M.; Schlick-Steiner, B.C.; Holzinger, W.; Komposch, Ch.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Sanetra, M.; Christian, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 101, - (2004), s. 689-692 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : araneae * auchenorrhyncha * honeydew Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.657, year: 2004

  12. Cerrado ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as indicators of edge effects

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    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale agricultural production in Brazil preferentially occupies plateaus reclaimed from areas originally covered by Cerrado (savanna. Depending on the region, a percentage of the pristine vegetation coverage must be preserved by law, resulting in the creation of fragmented legal Cerrado reserves. The geometry of these relatively small legal reserves creates new habitat edges and ecotones, whose effects on the invertebrate fauna are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of abrupt edges resulting from soy production on ground-dwelling ant assemblages in the Brazilian Cerrado. The study sites are located within the Amazon region, in the state of Maranhão, northern Brazil, but were covered by Cerrado on a relatively low plateau, irregularly inter-spaced with gallery forests along streams. We compared species richness and species composition of ground-dwelling ants along eight transects set 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m into the sensu stricto Cerrado and 50 and 100 m into the soy field. The collecting periods covered the wet and dry seasons. Effects on ant species richness were non-significant, although composition of the assemblages was significantly affected by edge effects, which were, in part, found to be species specific. We hypothesize that edge effects are probably greater than estimated because of the shape and complexity of reserves. Consideration of edge effects in the Cerrado Biome should enable the design of appropriate reserve sizes and shapes to meet conservation goals.

  13. Las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae asociadas a pulgones (Hemiptera, Aphididae en la provincia de Valencia

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    Suay-Cano, V. A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six species of ants associated with aphids, belonging to twelve genera, are collected. Three subfamilies are identified, being the Formicinae the more represented about number of samples, genera and species. On the other hand, Lasius niger has been the species that is found with a more number of aphids (fifty eight species, and it seems to be the ant with a more capacity to establish associations with the different species of aphids. 224 different associations between the ants and the aphids are established and 164 of them are not recorded in the bibliography consulted for Spain.

    Se han recogido veintiséis especies de hormigas asociadas a pulgones, pertenecientes a doce géneros. De las tres subfamilias identificadas, Formicinae ha sido la más representada en cuanto a número de muestras, géneros y especies. Lasius niger, por otra parte, ha sido la especie que se ha encontrado junto a un mayor número de pulgones (cincuenta y ocho especies, demostrando ser la hormiga con mayor capacidad para establecer asociaciones con las diferentes especies de pulgones. Se han establecido un total de 224 asociaciones diferentes entre las hormigas y los áfidos, de las cuales 164 no se han encontrado citadas en la bibliografía consultada para España.

  14. A revision of Malagasy species of Anochetus mayr and Odontomachus latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Brian L Fisher

    Full Text Available Species inventories are essential for documenting global diversity and generating necessary material for taxonomic study and conservation planning. However, for inventories to be immediately relevant, the taxonomic process must reduce the time to describe and identify specimens. To address these concerns for the inventory of arthropods across the Malagasy region, we present here a collaborative approach to taxonomy where collectors, morphologists and DNA barcoders using cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 participate collectively in a team-driven taxonomic process. We evaluate the role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate species identification and description. This revision is primarily based on arthropod surveys throughout the Malagasy region from 1992 to 2006. The revision is based on morphological and CO1 DNA barcode analysis of 500 individuals. In the region, five species of Anochetus (A. boltonisp. nov., A. goodmanisp. nov., A. grandidieri, and A. madagascarensis from Madagascar, and A. pattersonisp. nov. from Seychelles and three species of Odontomachus (O. coquereli, O. troglodytes and O. simillimus are recognized. DNA barcoding (using cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 facilitated caste association and type designation, and highlighted population structure associated with reproductive strategy, biogeographic and evolutionary patterns for future exploration. This study provides an example of collaborative taxonomy, where morphology is combined with DNA barcoding. We demonstrate that CO1 DNA barcoding is a practical tool that allows formalized alpha-taxonomy at a speed, detail, precision, and scale unattainable by employing morphology alone.

  15. Further revisionary studies on the ant genus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini

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    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I hereby revise, for the second time, the primarily Neotropical solenopsidine ant genus Megalomyrmex, describing M. wettereri n. sp., of the Silvestrii group, based on workers and gynes. Megalomyrmex latreillei Forel is synonymyzed under M. foreli Emery. The gyne of M. poatan is described and that of M. wallacei redescribed; males of M. acauna, M. incisus and M. wallacei are described. New locality records are given for M. ayri, M. cupecuara, M. goeldii, M. iheringi, M. modestus, and M. wallacei (Modestus group; M. acauna, M. balzani, M. cyendyra, M. emeryi, M. foreli, M. glaesarius, M. leoninus, M. staudingeri, and M. timbira (Leoninus group; M. poatan, M. silvestrii, and M. symmetochus (Silvestrii group, and M. drift, M. incisus, M. myops and M. pusillus (Incisus group. New biological data are recorded for M. acauna, M. goeldii, and M. wallacei. Comments are made for M. bidentatus, M. miri and M. mondabora.Reviso, pela segunda vez, o gênero neotropical de formigas Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini, descrevendo M. wettereri n. sp. do grupo Silvestrii com base em operárias e gines (rainhas. Megalomyrmex latreillei Forel é sinonimizada sob M. foreli Emery. A gine de M. poatan é descrita e a de M. wallacei é redescrita; os machos de M. acauna, M. incisus e M. wallacei são descritos. Novos registros de localidade são apresentados para M. ayri, M. cupecuara, M. goeldii, M. iheringi, M. modestus, e M. wallacei (grupo Modestus; M. acauna, M. balzani, M. cyendyra, M. emeryi, M. foreli, M. glaesarius, M. leoninus, M. staudingeri, e M. timbira (grupo Leoninus; M. poatan, M. silvestrii, e M. symmetochus (grupo Silvestrii, e M. drift, M. incisus, M. myops e M. pusillus (grupo Incisus. Novos dados biológicos são apresentados para M. acauna, M. goeldii, e M. wallacei e outros comentários são apresentados para M. bidentatus, M. miri e M. mondabora.

  16. Ingested boric acid effect on the venom chemistry of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a field evaluation of a boric acid bait against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, it was observed that workers of intoxicated colonies produced stings with less toxic effects compared to workers from healthy colonies. In this study, the effect of boric acid on the levels o...

  17. Socially-parasitic Myrmica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Himalaya, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Himender; Radchenko, Alexander; Sasi, Sishal

    2016-01-01

    A new socially-parasitic species, Myrmica latra sp. n. is described based on a queen and male from Indian Himalaya. Its queen differs from other species by the distinctly narrower petiole and postpetiole, blunt and non-divergent propodeal spines, and a darker body colour. The taxonomic position of the three known Himalayan socially-parasitic Myrmica species is discussed, and Myrmica ereptrix Bolton 1988 is transferred to the smythiesii species-group. It is supposed that Myrmica nefaria Bharti 2012 is a temporary social parasite, but Myrmica ereptrix and Myrmica latra sp. n. are permanent social parasites, and a key for their identification is provided.

  18. Diversidade de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em sistemas de cultivo de algodoeiro no Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, André Fábio Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    Diversos estudos mostram que as formigas exercem papéis importantes para o funcionamento dos agroecossistemas. Néctar extrafloral, exsudados de pulgões e alta densidade de herbívoros atraem formigas predadoras para o algodoeiro, que poderiam protegê-lo de danos por pragas. Isso dependeria de circunstâncias regionais, da intensidade de manejo de sistemas de cultivo específicos e da densidade e agressividade de formigas dominantes. Os objetivos gerais desse estudo foram avaliar o...

  19. Selección del alimento en la hormiga argentina, Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868) Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valles-Ibáñez, Guillem de

    2009-01-01

    Asignatura: Etología de los recursos pesqueros (Licenciatura Ciencias del Mar) La hormiga argentina Linepithema humile cambia la composición relativa de carbohidratos y proteínas en su dieta en función de la estación del año. Se demuestra cómo en Gran Canaria, durante el nvierno, las obreras prefieren los alimentos ricos en carbohidratos frente a alimentos ricos en proteínas o mixtos. ABSTRACT The Argentine ant Linepithema humile changes the relative composition of carbohydrates and pro...

  20. DIVERSIDADE DE FORMIGAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE DA SERRAPILHEIRA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE USO DO SOLO

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    Edison Bisognin Cantarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Litter ant species found in four sites located in northwestern Rio Grande do Sul state were listed in this study to verify the impact of human activities conducted in rural areas. The method used for the collection of litter ants was the Winkler extractor. There were collected 6,300 specimens belonging to eight subfamilies, 18 tribes, 31 genera and 108 species. Native forest presented the highest richness observed with 90 species collected, followed by 65 eucalyptus species, and agriculture and pasture with 20 exotic species each. Margalef’s diversity index was 11.21 for area with native forest, 8.37 for eucalypt, 3.48 for agriculture, and 2.71 in exotic pasture area. The Shannon’s diversity indices obtained were 2.89, 3.15, 2.43 and 1.98 and equitability indices of 0.64, 0.75, 0.84 and 0.66 for areas with native forest, eucalyptus, agriculture and exotic pasture, respectively. The highest diversity index for the eucalypt area may be due to the age of the forest (28 years and the fact that it has not been managed as well as due to the presence of understory of native species, forming a continuous canopy and thick litter layer. On the other hand, since the native forest has suffered human interventions, it has a lower Shannon’s diversity index compared to the eucalypt area.

  1. DIVERSIDADE DE FORMIGAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) DA SERRAPILHEIRA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE USO DO SOLO

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarelli,Edison Bisognin; Fleck,Marciane Danniela; Granzotto,Fabiane; Corassa,Janaína De Nadai; d'Avila,Marcia

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Neste trabalho são listadas as espécies de formigas de serrapilheira encontradas em quatro ambientes localizados na região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fim de verificar o impacto da ação antrópica realizada no meio rural. Para a coleta das formigas da serrapilheira foi utilizado o método do extrator de Winkler. Foram coletados 6.300 espécimes pertencentes a oito subfamílias, 18 tribos, 31 gêneros e 108 espécies. A floresta nativa possui a maior riqueza observada com 90 es...

  2. First record of the vulnerable social parasite ant Plagiolepis grassei in Italy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Enrico Schifani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first Italian records of the rare parasitic ant species Plagiolepis grassei Le Masne, 1956 are here reported. This species is considered as “Vulnerable” by the IUCN’s Red List, and was previously recorded from France and Spain only.

  3. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

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    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  4. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly...... with reference to the closely related species Oecopylla smaragdina (Fabricius) whose mating occur during nuptial flights. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is of importance for its successful application in biological control programs. We conducted field and screen house experiments during two...

  5. Cooperation and conflict in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) farming mutualisms : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, Aniek B. F.

    Farming practices, in which one organism (here: "the host") promotes the growth of the organism it relies on for food (here: "the symbiont"), are not restricted to human hosts. Among the non-human farmers, ants are particularly successful. Farming is an example of mutualism: an interaction between

  6. Fumigant Activity of Sweet Orange Essential Oil Fractions Against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hongli; Zhong, Balian; Yang, Aixue; Kuang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhigang; Chun, Jiong

    2017-08-01

    Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively. Monoterpenes were the most abundant components, accounting for 73.56% to 94.86% of total orange oil fractions, among which D-limonene (65.28-80.18%), β-pinene (1.71-5.58%), 3-carene (0.41-4.01%), β-phellandrene (0.58-2.10%), and linalool (0.31-2.20%) were major constituents. Fumigant bioassay indicated that all orange oil fractions exerted good fumigant toxicity against workers of fire ants at 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/centrifuge tubes, and B1 had the strongest insecticidal potential, followed by A1, B2, A2, B3, and A3. The fractions composed of more high volatile molecules (A1 and B1) showed greater fumigant effects than others. Compounds linalool and D-limonene, which were the constituents of the orange oil, exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity against red imported fire ant workers. Linalool killed red imported fire ant workers completely at 5, 10, and 20 mg/tube after 8 h of treatment, and D-limonene induced >86% mortality at 8 h of exposure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Revision of the Middle American clade of the ant genus Stenamma Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae

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    Michael Branstetter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stenamma is a cryptic “leaf-litter” ant genus that occurs in mesic forest habitats throughout the Holarctic region, Central America, and part of northwestern South America (Colombia and Ecuador. The genus was thought to be restricted primarily to the temperate zone, but recent collecting efforts have uncovered a large radiation of Neotropical forms, which rival the Holarctic species in terms of morphological and behavioral diversity. By inferring a broad-scale molecular phylogeny of Stenamma, Branstetter (2012 showed that all Neotropical species belong to a diverse Middle American clade (MAC, and that this clade is sister to an almost completely geographically separated Holarctic clade (HOC. Here, the Middle American clade of Stenamma is revised to recognize 40 species, of which 33 are described as new. Included in the revision are a key to species based on the worker caste, and for each species where possible, descriptions and images of workers and queens, images of males, information on geographic distribution, descriptions of intraspecific variation, and notes on natural history. Several species groups are defined, but the majority of species remain unassigned due to a lack of diagnostic morphological character states for most molecular clades. The following species are redescribed: S. alas Longino, S. diversum Mann, S. expolitum Smith, S. felixi Mann, S. huachucanum Smith, S. manni Wheeler, and S. schmidti Menozzi. The following are described as new: S. andersoni sp. n., S. atribellum sp. n., S. brujita sp. n., S. callipygium sp. n., S. catracho sp. n., S. connectum sp. n., S. crypticum sp. n., S. cusuco sp. n., S. excisum sp. n., S. expolitico sp. n., S. hojarasca sp. n., S. ignotum sp. n., S. lagunum sp. n., S. llama sp. n., S. leptospinum sp. n., S. lobinodus sp. n., S. longinoi sp. n., S. maximon sp. n., S. megamanni sp. n., S. monstrosum sp. n., S. muralla sp. n., S. nanozoi sp. n., S. nonotch sp. n., S. ochrocnemis sp. n., S. pelophilum sp. n., S. picopicucha sp. n., S. saenzae sp. n., S. sandinista sp. n., S. stictosomum sp. n., S. tiburon sp. n., S. tico sp. n., S. vexator sp. n., and S. zelum sp. n. Although many of the newly defined species consist of challenging species complexes, this study establishes a robust baseline that will guide future work on the systematics of MAC Stenamma. The total global diversity of Stenamma now includes 84 extant species.

  8. Thelytokous parthenogenesis by queens in the dacetine ant Pyramica membranifera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuminori; Touyama, Yoshifumi; Gotoh, Ayako; Kitahiro, Shungo; Billen, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Thelytokous parthenogenesis in which diploid females are produced from unfertilized eggs, was recently reported for some ant species. Here, we document thelytokous reproduction by queens in the polygynous species Pyramica membranifera. Queens that emerged in the laboratory were kept with or without workers under laboratory conditions. Independent colony founding was successful for a few queens if prey was provided. All artificial colonies, which started with a newly emerged queen and workers produced new workers and some of the colonies also produced female sexuals. Some of the female sexuals shed their wings in the laboratory and started formation of new polygynous colonies. Workers had no ovaries and thus, were obligatorily sterile.

  9. Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

    2005-07-01

    The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.Behavioural observations and limited nest excavations revealed that R. minuchae does not produce sexuals every year, the number of sexuals is low, and the sex ratio tends to be female biased. Females typically exhibit two distinct activity periods. The first, the mating period, takes place in early afternoon: the ants "call" near the natal nest, mate and then return to their nest. The second, the dispersal period takes place in late afternoon: the mated females exit their nest and fly in search of a new, non-parasitized Proformica longiseta host nest. Males are highly active during the mating period, but will remain inactive in the dispersal period even if experimentally presented with virgin females. It appears that females are monogamous, while males are polygamous. When males are late arriving at the female calling site, the females will frequently congregate presumably calling in chorus. The low reproductive efficiency exhibited by R. minuchae, coupled with the postulated low genetic variation in the population, as sisters may mate with the same male, could result in a low survival rate and risk of eventual extinction. The observed decrease in nest density we observed during the 2004 season may be indicative of such a process.

  10. Monthly fluctuation of termite caste proportions (Isoptera) within fire ant mounds (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; J.T. Vogt; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2003-01-01

    Monthly abundance and caste proportions of subterranean termites (Reticulitennes spp.) inhabiting red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) mounds were recorded during 1999 and 2000 from a relatively undisturbed forest edge in Tuskegee, Alabama. Temperature data were also recorded at these mounds; mean air, soil, and mound temperatures followed a sine model over...

  11. Three new species and reassessment of the rare Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Leptanilloidinae

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    Marek Borowiec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides: L. gracilis sp. n. based on workers from Mexico and Guatemala, L. erinys sp. n. based on workers and a gyne from Ecuador, and L. femoralis sp. n. based on workers from Venezuela. The description of L. gracilis is a northern extension of the known range of the genus, now numbering eleven described species. We also describe and discuss three unassociated male morphotypes from Central America. We report the occurrence of a metatibial gland in Leptanilloides and a fused promesonotal connection (suture in some species. We provide a modified, detailed diagnosis of the genus and a revised key to the worker caste of the known species.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  13. Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Wagner Calixto Morais

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 ± 3.2 g e 22.0 ± 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

  14. Mandibular gland chemistry of four Caribbean species of Camponotus (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan A. Torres; Roy R. Snelling; Murray S. Blum; Rusell C. Flournoy; Tappey H. Jones

    2001-01-01

    The volatile components of whole-body extracts of males, females and workers were analyzed in four species of Neotropical ants in the formicine genus, Camponotus. The species, C. kaura, C. sexguttatus, C. ramulorum and C. planatus, represent three different subgenera. Volatile mandibular gland components were found only in male extracts in three of the species. In C....

  15. Nest Relocation and Colony Founding in the Australian Desert Ant, Melophorus bagoti Lubbock (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Patrick Schultheiss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Even after years of research on navigation in the Red Honey Ant, Melophorus bagoti, much of its life history remains elusive. Here, we present observations on nest relocation and the reproductive and founding stages of colonies. Nest relocation is possibly aided by trail laying behaviour, which is highly unusual for solitary foraging desert ants. Reproduction occurs in synchronised mating flights, which are probably triggered by rain. Queens may engage in multiple matings, and there is circumstantial evidence that males are chemically attracted to queens. After the mating flight, the queens found new colonies independently and singly. Excavation of these founding colonies reveals first insights into their structure.

  16. Occurrence of polygyny in Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans Santschi 1925 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Souza Danival José de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygyny denotes the coexistence of two or more mated and fertile queens in the colony. A colony of Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans Santschi containing 14 queens was collected on campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, aiming to verify if they were all egg-layers and fertile . The volume of the fungus garden in the nest was about 500 ml with a large number of larvae and pupae. Observation of the ovarian development and spermathecae indicates that 13 queens had copulated and ovary did not show morphological differences among them. This could indicate that polygyny is not accidental and may represent an adaptative strategy to optimize the development of the initial colony in A. subterraneus molestans.

  17. A diverse ant fauna from the mid-cretaceous of Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Phillip Barden

    Full Text Available A new collection of 24 wingless ant specimens from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Albian-Cenomanian, 99 Ma comprises nine new species belonging to the genus Sphecomyrmodes Engel and Grimaldi. Described taxa vary considerably with regard to total size, head and body proportion, cuticular sculpturing, and petiole structure while all species are unified by a distinct shared character. The assemblage represents the largest known diversification of closely related Cretaceous ants with respect to species number. These stem-group ants exhibit some characteristics previously known only from their extant counterparts along with presumed plesiomorphic morphology. Consequently, their morphology may inform hypotheses relating to basal relationships and general patterns of ant evolution. These and other uncovered Cretaceous species indicate that stem-group ants are not simply wasp-like, transitional formicids, but rather a group of considerable adaptive diversity, exhibiting innovations analogous to what crown-group ants would echo 100 million years later.

  18. The Origin of Workerless Parasites in Leptothorax (S. Str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Jürgen Heinze

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origin of workerless parasitic ants parasitizing colonies of Leptothorax (s.str. is investigated using data on morphology, chromosome number, and allozyme phenotype of both social parasites and their hosts. Of the three previously proposed pathways, the evolution of workerless parasites from guest ants or slave-makers is unlikely, at least according to a phenogram obtained by UPGMA clustering of Nei's similarities based on seven enzymes, lntraspecific evolution of the workerless parasites Doronomyrmex goesswaldi, D. kutteri, and D. pacis from their common host, Leptothorax acervorum cannot be excluded with the present data. The workerless parasite L. paraxenus, however, clearly differs from its host, L. cf. canadensis, in morphology and biochemistry, and most probably did not evolve from the latter species. It is proposed to synonymize Doronomyrmex under Leptothorax (s.str..

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic Formica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae based on mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Goropashnaya

    Full Text Available Ants of genus Formica demonstrate variation in social organization and represent model species for ecological, behavioral, evolutionary studies and testing theoretical implications of the kin selection theory. Subgeneric division of the Formica ants based on morphology has been questioned and remained unclear after an allozyme study on genetic differentiation between 13 species representing all subgenera was conducted. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus were examined using mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b and a part of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6. All 23 Formica species sampled in the Palaearctic clustered according to the subgeneric affiliation except F. uralensis that formed a separate phylogenetic group. Unlike Coptoformica and Formica s. str., the subgenus Serviformica did not form a tight cluster but more likely consisted of a few small clades. The genetic distances between the subgenera were around 10%, implying approximate divergence time of 5 Myr if we used the conventional insect divergence rate of 2% per Myr. Within-subgenus divergence estimates were 6.69% in Serviformica, 3.61% in Coptoformica, 1.18% in Formica s. str., which supported our previous results on relatively rapid speciation in the latter subgenus. The phylogeny inferred from DNA sequences provides a necessary framework against which the evolution of social traits can be compared. We discuss implications of inferred phylogeny for the evolution of social traits.

  20. New evidences supporting trophobiosis between populations of Edessa rufomarginata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae and Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ants

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    Daniel Paiva Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its important effect on the maintenance of tritrophic interactions among plants, insect herbivores, and ants, there is still a paucity of natural history and basic biology information involving trophobiosis among Heteroptera stink bugs. Here, based on previous observations of a new trophobiotic interaction between Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 and Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius, 1775 ants, we describe the chemical profile of the honeydew obtained by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. There were mainly three different sugars (trehalose, glucose, and sorbose within our samples. The extrafloral nectaries of Caryocar brasiliense Camb., the host plant of E. rufomarginata, attracts a wide assemblage of Cerrado ants with varying aggressiveness toward herbivores. Therefore, this facultative trophobiotic interaction may allow the survival of the stink bug while feeding on the risky, highly ant-visited plant. Given the rarity of trophobiotic interactions between Pentatomidae species and ants and considering a zoological perspective within this family, here we discuss the ecological and evolutionary routes that may allow the rise of these interactions.

  1. The Hymenopterous Poison Apparatus. X. Morphological and Behavioral Changes in Atta texana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry R. Hermann; John C. Moser; Allen N. Hunt

    1970-01-01

    Atta texana (Buckley) and other members of this genus no longer utilize the 8th and 9th gonapophyses as part of their defensive system. Although the sclerites that comprise the stinging apparatus in most aculeate Hymenoptera are present in the species, they seem to function only in the deposition of trail pheromones. A mechanical and chemical defense...

  2. Vegetation Changes in a Native Forest Produced by Atta vollenweideri Forel 1893 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, J A; Sabattini, R A; Cian, J C; Sabattini, I A

    2018-02-01

    Herbivory is an important factor to generate spatial mosaics with variations in a plant community composition and organization. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of Atta vollenweideri Forel 1893 nests on herbaceous and shrub vegetation in a degraded native forest of the Espinal ecoregion. The study was carried out in the Protected Area and Multiple Use Nature Reserve called Estancia "El Carayá" (Entre Ríos, Argentina). Ten A. vollenweideri nests were selected by simple random sampling through internal roads, and two transects were drawn from the center of the nest (0 m) up to 60 m away in opposite directions. The line intercept method was used to quantify the percentage of vegetation cover of herbaceous and shrub species, while the floristic composition was estimated by the Canfield method. Afterwards, a nonparametric test between positions and a conglomerate analysis to evaluated distance were applied. Grass species, legumes, and sedges fell in the adjacent areas to nests, highlighting the bare soil at the crest and base of the nests. Fifteen plant species were identified, and two families correspond to monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. In conclusion, the nests of A. vollenweideri affect the community of herbaceous and shrub vegetation of the studied degraded native forest of the Espinal ecoregion since these ants perform a high selection of herbaceous species considered as pioneers of plant successions.

  3. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In social insects, antimicrobial secretions are often used collectively for the benefit of the whole colony, which is an important component in social immunity. Many ant species build nests in which air circulation can be controlled. Volatile antimicrobial agents would be ideal in implementing socia...

  4. Twigs of Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth. Burkart as a nesting resource for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Guilherme Morais da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ants can use twigs from fragments of tree branches as a nesting resource. The present study analyzed gatherings of ants in twigs of Albizia niopoides, a Fabaceae native to the Atlantic Forest that is used in landscaping in parks and squares in Brazil. Expeditions were performed in an urban park located in Atlantic Forest areas between February and June 2014. A total of 70 twigs with ants were collected and included 9357 workers, 2309 broods ants, 68 winged ants and 19 queens. Four subfamilies, 10 genera and 17 species/morphospecies were recorded. The species with the largest number of nests were Nylanderia sp.1, Hypoponera sp.4, and Wasmannia auropunctata. Ants of different species were found coexisting in the same twig, and Pheidole gr. tristis was the most common species found sharing a nest. Among the species recorded, only Pseudomyrmex gracilis and P. phyllophilus are arboreal; the others also live in litter. For some species, our results indicate that the twig occupation in the litter can be structured and not by chance. No correlation was found between the twig structure and the colony components.

  5. Estudio morfobiométrico de la larva de Crematogaster scutellaris Oliv. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1992-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia el desarrollo larvario de Crematogaster scutellaris Oliv., hormiga arborícola muy frecuente en la región mediterránea, que practica sus nidos en la corteza del alcornoque {Quercus suber L.), causando graves daños en el corcho. El número de fases larvarias se ha determinado mediante técnicas biométricas, utilizando para ello 273 larvas recogidas en alcornocales de Andalucía Occidental. Completamos este estudio con una breve descripción de la larva de ú...

  6. Sublethal effect of imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feeding, digging, and foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybee and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fi...

  7. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest ants, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicot...

  8. [Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Pará State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants.

  9. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

    2009-01-01

    São descritas pela primeira vez injúrias causadas por Solenopsis saevissima F Smith em árvores de paricá, Schizolobium amazonicum, em Dom Eliseu, PA. Essa formiga ataca folhas e o fuste, onde são abertos orifícios e galerias, até a região apical da planta. Brotos terminais e novas brotações também são atacados e destruídos, prejudicando a formação de um tronco retilíneo e uniforme para comercialização. Ninhos arborícolas construídos pelas formigas foram observados em algumas plantas. Injur...

  10. Trophobiosis in the arboricolous ant .i.Liometopum microcephalum./i. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Kašpar, J.; Petráková, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 231-239 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * arboricolous * ants * trophobiosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013

  11. Phylogeny and population genetic structure of ant genus Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Borovanská, Michaela; Zima, Jan; Youngerman, E.; Pierce, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 28-40 ISSN 1445-5226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(CZ) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acropyga * Hymenoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016

  12. Ecology of New Guinea ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - exploring an unknown fauna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Klimeš, Petr; Borowiec, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2009), s. 109-109 ISSN 1994-4136. [Central European Workshop of Myrmecology /2./. 17.05.2007-19.05.2007, Szeged] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Hymenopetra Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in two rubber plantations in Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

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    Suparoek Watanasit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ants play important roles in tropical rainforest ecosystems. In southern Thailand, many such areas have been extensivelylogged and replaced by rubber plantations. Since changes to the environment can cause changes to the diversity offlora and fauna, the objectives of this study were to determine habitat influences on the ant composition between homogenousand heterogeneous rubber plantations, and to investigate if any environmental factors can be directly correlated withchanges in the ant community. Three 100 m–line-transects, spaced 100 m apart, were laid out at two study sites. Four samplingmethods, hand collecting (HC, leaf litter sampling (LL, honey bait (HB and soil sampling (SS, were used to sample ants.Temperature, humidity, and precipitation were recorded. Samples were collected every two months from June 2004 to April2005. The results showed that a total of six subfamilies (Aenictinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinaemand Pseudomyrmecinae, comprising 29 genera and 87 species were found in the two study sites. The dominant genera werePheidole and Crematogaster, followed by Pheidologeton and Pachycondyla. The sampling methods used in this studyindicated that LL and HC were most suitable for sampling ants, and any combination of sampling methods detected moreant species than a single method did. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA grouped ant species between the two typesof rubber plantation, and also divided ant species into three groups by sampling method: HC group, SS group and LL+HBgroup. DCA did not group ant species by seasonal changes, however. Further, canonical correspondence analysis detectedno effect of temperature, humidity, or precipitation on the ant community.

  14. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony development...... capita brood production by the resident queen, triggered by the adopted pupae. Thus pupae transplantation may be used to shorten the time it takes to produce weaver ant colonies in ant nurseries, and may in this way facilitate the implementation of weaver ant biocontrol in West Africa....

  15. The effect of Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) ant nest on selected soil chemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Holec, Michal; Kalčík, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2003), s. 205-212 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : ants * phosphorus pH * carbon Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.711, year: 2003

  16. Pengaruh Beauveria bassiana terhadap Mortalitas Semut Rangrang Oecophylla smaragdina (F. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Mochammad Sodiq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the laboratory and cacao plantation in Kaliwining Jember, during August to November 2008. The objective of this research was to study the effect of B. bassiana on the mortality of larvae, pupae and adults of O. smaragdina. A factorial completly randomized design was used in the laboratory experiment. Two factors were tested in the experiment, the first factor was spore concentration; the second factor was the stadia of the ants (larva, pupa and adult. The experiment was replicated, 4 (four times. The field research used a randomized block complete design with four treatments and four replications. Results of this study showed that B. bassiana was the mortality source of larva, pupa and adult stages of O. smaragdina. A concentration of 108 spores/ml B. bassiana was effective to control larvae and pupae of O. smaragdina.

  17. Cytogenetic data on the threatened leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier, 1939 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso de; Teixeira, Gisele Amaro; Mariano, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira; Teixeira, Marcos da Cunha; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2015-10-01

    The karyotype of the threatened ant species Atta robusta is described so as to establish the evolutionary relationships of this taxon with other leafcutter ants. Standard Giemsa staining, C-banding, NOR banding, fluorochromes CMA3/DAPI, Hsc-FA technique and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probe were conducted on a population from Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, allowing for comparisons with data available on Atta and other fungus-growing ant species. The diploid chromosome number observed for A. robusta was 2n=22, and the karyotypic formula was 18m+2sm+2st. Heterochromatic blocks were observed in the centromeric region of most chromosomes, where one pair of metacentric chromosomes is characterized by a GC-rich heterochromatic band in the interstitial region of its long arm. The detection of 18S rDNA using FISH confirmed the presence of single NOR for A. robusta. This is the first report of rDNA 18S detection using FISH for leafcutter ants. The cytogenetic results of this study confirm the information available for Atta and allow us to confirm the conserved chromosome number, morphology and banding pattern within the genus for the taxa studied to date, which included species from three out of the four groups of Atta indicated by molecular data. The accumulation of cytogenetic data on fungus-growing ants enhances the understanding of the genomic evolutionary patterns of Atta, since it belongs to a group of recent origin between the most well studied ants. Cytogenetic data does not indicate restrictions in relocation or reintroduction in areas where populations were extinct due to the conserved karyotype. This study allows for cytogenetic comparison of A. robusta with other ants of Atta, emphasizing the importance of chromosomal information for species conservation. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

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    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  19. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S.; Harada, Ana Y.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  20. A phylogenetic perspective on the association between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and black yeasts (Ascomycota: Chaetothyriales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, Marie; Voglmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Veronika; Gueidan, Cécile; Nepel, Maximilian; Moreno, Leandro; de Hoog, Sybren; Selosse, Marc-André; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2017-03-15

    The frequency and the geographical extent of symbiotic associations between ants and fungi of the order Chaetothyriales have been highlighted only recently. Using a phylogenetic approach based on seven molecular markers, we showed that ant-associated Chaetothyriales are scattered through the phylogeny of this order. There was no clustering according to geographical origin or to the taxonomy of the ant host. However, strains tended to be clustered according to the type of association with ants: strains from ant-made carton and strains from plant cavities occupied by ants ('domatia') rarely clustered together. Defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) with an internal transcribed spacer sequence similarity cut-off of 99% revealed that a single MOTU could be composed of strains collected from various ant species and from several continents. Some ant-associated MOTUs also contained strains isolated from habitats other than ant-associated structures. Altogether, our results suggest that the degree of specialization of the interactions between ants and their fungal partners is highly variable. A better knowledge of the ecology of these interactions and a more comprehensive sampling of the fungal order are needed to elucidate the evolutionary history of mutualistic symbioses between ants and Chaetothyriales. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Two new species of Leptanilloides Mann, 1823 (Formicidae: Dorylinae from the Andes of southern Ecuador

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    Thibaut Delsinne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Leptanilloides are described: L. copalinga Delsinne & Donoso sp. nov., and L. prometea Delsinne & Donoso sp. nov., based on workers collected in the leaf litter and soil of the Andes of southern Ecuador. Both species belong to the L. biconstricta species-group (formally diagnosed here. The metatibial gland, considered a synapomorphy for Dorylinae, is observed in L. prometea sp. nov. but seems absent in L. copalinga sp. nov. We provide a COI DNA barcode for both species and a revised key for the worker caste of all known species in the genus. We also describe a single male identified as a potential new Leptanilloides species on the basis of morphology. Furthermore, its mitochondrial COI gene sequence does not match any previously barcoded species. However, we refrain from giving it a specific name because of our lack of knowledge about the worker caste. So far, half of the 14 Leptanilloides species have been discovered above 1500 m in the mountain forests or páramos of the Ecuadorian Andes, confirming, if needed, the biological significance of these threatened habitats.

  2. Taxonomic updates for some confusing Micronesian species of Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clouse, R. M.; Blanchard, B. D.; Gibson, R.; Wheeler, W. C.; Janda, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, SEP 01 (2016), s. 139-152 ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Camponotus micronesicus sp.n. * Camponotus tol sp.n. * Campotonus kubaryi stat. rev. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2016

  3. The Aenictus ceylonicus species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeyawat Jaitrong Jaitrong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aenictus is a diverse group of army ants in the Old World tropics and subtropics. The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group are revised to include twenty-three species (4 named and 19 new species: Aenictus appressipilosus sp. n., A. baliensis sp. n., A. brevipodus sp. n., A. concavus sp. n., A. cylindripetiolus sp. n., A. eguchii sp. n., A. formosensis Forel, 1913 stat. n., A. fuchuanensis Zhou, 2001, A. gonioccipus sp. n., A. itoi sp. n., A. jawadwipa sp. n., A. khaoyaiensis sp. n., A. lifuiae Terayama, 1984, A. longicephalus sp. n., A. maneerati sp. n., A. minipetiolus sp. n., A. pilosus sp. n., A. pinkaewi sp. n., A. sundalandensis sp. n., A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993, A. watanasiti sp. n., A. wilaiae sp. n., and A. wiwatwitayai sp. n. Aenictus ceylonicus var. formosensis Forel is removed from synonymy with A. ceylonicus and raised to full species. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for A. ceylonicus. Redescriptions of Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866 (India and Sri Lanka and A. doryloides Wilson, 1964 (India are provided. The queen of A. cylindripetiolus is described. A key to the Southeast Asian species of the group is given based on the worker caste. Most of the Southeast Asian species of this species group have more or less limited distribution ranges. This may be due to the poor dispersal ability generally seen among the Aenictus species, in which the propagule (reproductive unit is an apterous queen plus accompanying workers.

  4. Dynamic disease management in trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Bruner, Gaspar; Gomez, Ernesto B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multipartner mutualisms have potentially complex dynamics, with compensatory responses when one partner is lost or relegated to a minor role. Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are mutualistic associates of basidiomycete fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria; the former are atta...

  5. Queen Size Variation in the Ponerine Ant Ponera coarctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liebig

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens of Ponera coarctata show a pronounced variation in size as measured by ommatidia number and Weber's alitrunk length. Isometric size variation and the normal distribution of size categories indicate that, despite these differences, only one queen morph exists. Queen size varies less within colonies than between colonies, and thus appears to be colony specific. Ovary length apparently varies with queen size. Similar size variations as in queens also occured in males, but not in workers.

  6. Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from two species of Acromyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. N. Pinto

    Full Text Available The control of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants is necessary due to the severe damage they cause to diverse crops. A possibility was to control them using the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt that characteristically produces insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs. The ICPs have been effective in controlling lepidopterans, dipterans, and coleopterans, but their action against hymenopterans is unknown. This paper describes an attempt to isolate Bt from ants of two Acromyrmex species, to evaluate its pathogenicity towards these ants, and to test isolates by PCR. Bacterial isolates of Bt obtained from A. crassispinus and A. lundi have been assayed against A. lundi in the laboratory. The bioassays were carried out in BOD at 25°C, with a 12-hour photoperiod, until the seventh day after treatment. The Bt isolates obtained were submitted to total DNA extraction and tested by PCR with primers specific to cry genes. The results showed Bt presence in 40% of the assessed samples. The data from the in vivo assays showed a mortality rate higher than 50% in the target population, with the Bt HA48 isolate causing 100% of corrected mortality. The PCR results of Bt isolates showed a magnification of DNA fragments relative to cry1 genes in 22% of the isolates, and cry9 in 67%. Cry2, cry3, cry7, and cry8 genes were not detected in the tested samples, and 22% had no magnified DNA fragments corresponding to the assessed cry genes. The results are promising not only regarding allele identification in new isolates, but also fort the assays aimed at determining the Bt HA48 LC50's, which can eventually be applied in controlling of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

  7. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  8. A new fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) bait base carrier for moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2010-10-01

    A new water-resistant fire ant bait (T-bait; cypermethrin 0.128%) consisting of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a carrier was developed and evaluated against a standard commercial bait (Advion; indoxacarb 0.045%) under both laboratory and field conditions. When applying the normal T-bait or Advion in the laboratory, 100% of Solenopsis invicta Buren worker ants were killed within 4 days. However, when the T-bait and Advion were wetted, 70.6 and 39.7% of the ants were killed respectively. Under field conditions, dry T-bait and dry Advion had almost the same efficacy against ant colonies. However, when T-bait and Advion came in contact with water, the former's ability to kill S. invicta colonies in the field was only marginally reduced, while Advion lost virtually all of its activity. In addition, DDGS was also shown to be compatible with a number of other insecticides, such as d-allethrin, permethrin and pyrethrin. Based on its properties of remaining attractive to the fire ants when wetted, combined with its ant-killing abilities both in the laboratory and in the field, T-bait is an efficient fire ant bait, especially under moist conditions.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pheromone-assisted techniques to improve the efficacy of insecticide sprays against Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Tsai, Kasumi; Lopez, Carlos M; Campbell, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    Outdoor residual sprays are among the most common methods for targeting pestiferous ants in urban pest management programs. If impervious surfaces such as concrete are treated with these insecticides, the active ingredients can be washed from the surface by rain or irrigation. As a result, residual sprays with fipronil and pyrethroids are found in urban waterways and aquatic sediments. Given the amount of insecticides applied to urban settings for ant control and their possible impact on urban waterways, the development of alternative strategies is critical to decrease the overall amounts of insecticides applied, while still achieving effective control of target ant species. Herein we report a "pheromone-assisted technique" as an economically viable approach to maximize the efficacy of conventional sprays targeting the Argentine ant. By applying insecticide sprays supplemented with an attractive pheromone compound, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, Argentine ants were diverted from nearby trails and nest entrances and subsequently exposed to insecticide residues. Laboratory experiments with fipronil and bifenthrin sprays indicated that the overall kill of the insecticides on Argentine ant colonies was significantly improved (57-142% increase) by incorporating (Z)-9-hexadecenal in the insecticide sprays. This technique, once it is successfully implemented in practical pest management programs, has the potential of providing maximum control efficacy with reduced amount of insecticides applied in the environment.

  11. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any transfer tests, suggesting that multiple feedings from multiple donors may be necessary to produce queen mortality. The results of the transfer tests demonstrate the role of trophallaxis in the distribution of thiamethoxam and confirm that thiamethoxam is effectively transferred in Argentine ant colonies. The distribution of thiamethoxam within Argentine ant colonies was further examined using protein marking coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the marker. The distribution of thiamethoxam was highly efficient, with 79 +/- 13% of workers testing positive at 15 min and 100 +/- 0% of workers testing positive at 6 h. In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that water-storing crystals effectively deliver thiamethoxam to all castes and life stages of Argentine ants and may offer an effective tool for Argentine ant management.

  12. Taxonomic review of ant genus Nylanderia Emery, 1906 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in India

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    Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Indian Nylanderia fauna is revised for the first time. Seven species are recognized, of which Nylanderia himalayana sp. nov. is described as new. Hitherto undescribed female and male castes of N. birmana are described for the first time. Photomontage images and comparative diagnosis by workers are provided. Information on the distribution of Indian Nylanderia is given. A revised key to the workers of Nylanderia for the Indian region is provided.

  13. Leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex niger Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) used as bioindicators of agrotoxics residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liriana Belizi; Rio Cantagalli; Denise Alves Lopes; Ana Liscia Paz Barateiro Stuchi; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the condition of leaf-cutting ant pests in agroecosystems, it is undeniable the benefits they can bring in certain situations or environments. The leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex attack mainly leaves of vegetables and fruit trees exposing not only to the agrochemicals used for their control as well as to those used for the control of other pests. Due to the bioindicator potential of environmental quality of the ants and their frequent exposure to agrochemicals such as organophosphates, neonicotinoids and growth regulators insecticide used for pest control, it is necessary to study the sublethal effects that these pesticides may cause. The electrophoresis technique was used to study the activity of esterase isozymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics of A. niger, combined with changes in the expression of isozymes after contamination by pesticides. A. niger showed eight regions of esterase activity, which were called EST-1, EST-2, EST-3, EST-4, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7 and EST-8 according to the electrophoretic mobility. As the specificity to α and β - naphthyl acetate substrates, the EST-7 and EST-8 may be classified as α esterase and the others as ± b esterases. EST-5 is considered an enzyme of the type cholinesterase ii and the others are of the type carboxylesterase. The electrophoretic analysis showed partial inhibition to all esterases subjected to the contact with Malathion organophosforate at the concentrations 1 x 10-3 % and 5 x 10-3 %, which may be considered as a biomarker for the presence of residues of this insecticide in the environment. The regression analysis for sublethal effects of the tested pesticides demonstrated correlation between dose and mortality only for Thiametoxam neonicotinoid pesticide.

  14. A new species of the ant genus Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Caribbean region

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    Matthew Prebus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bothriomyrmex enigmaticus sp. nov. is described from the island of Hispañola based on one nest collection. This is the first collection of the genus Bothriomyrmex (Emery, 1869 from the Caribbean region, and the second species to be described from the Americas. While sharing several characters with B. paradoxus (Dubovikoff & Longino, 2004 from Costa Rica and Honduras, B. enigmaticus sp. nov. diverges in several key characters, including palp formula. However, a morphometric comparison to Palearctic species of the tribe Bothriomyrmecini suggests affinities to B. paradoxus, Chronoxenus wroughtoni (Forel, 1895 of the eastern Palearctic, and to a lesser extent an undescribed species of Arnoldius (Dubovikoff, 2005 from Australia and B. corsicus (Santschi,1923 of the western Palearctic.

  15. The status of the fungi-grower ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Puerto Rico and adjacent islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1989-01-01

    Ants of the tribe Attini (fungus grower) collect different organic materials that are used to grow a fungus. It was thought that the fungus mycelium was the only source of nutrition for these ants, but Quinlan and Cherrett found that Atta cephalotes (L.) squeezes oils from fresh leaves and uses them as food.  These oils supplement the fungus material eaten by this...

  16. Trail pheromone of the leaf-cutting ant,Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J H; West, J R; Silverstein, R M; Jutsum, A R; Cherrett, J M

    1982-08-01

    The most active component of the trail pheromone of the leafcutting ant,Acromyrmex octospinosus, is methyl 4-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate (I). Two pyrazine isomers (II) and (III) are present but inactive.

  17. Hormigas del género Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en Colombia

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    Juanita Rodríguez Arrieta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la revisión de las especies del género  Odontomachus en Colombia, con el fin de establecer nuevos caracteres útiles en la clasificación. Se encontraron 19 especies de las 25 neotropicales. Se revisaron las colecciones entomológicas del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacionales de Colombia y del Instituto Alexander von Humboldt. En el estudio se muestran las descripciones para las siguientes especies: O. bauri, O. baiumbonatus, O. brunneus, O. caelatus, O. chelifer, O. cormutus, O. erythrocephalus, O. haemotodus, O. hastatus, O. mayi, O. meinerti, O. mormo, O. opaciventris, O. panamensis, O. rectangulares, O. ruginodis, O. scalptus y O. yucatecus. Las hormigas del género Odontomachus están ampliamente distribuidas en Colombia y se encuentran desde el nivel del mar hasta los 2.000 metros de altitud. Aún persisten algunos problemas en la taxonomía del grupo debido a la presencia de complejos de especies muy similares morfológicamente. Los caracteres empleados en el reconocimiento de los miembros del género Odontomachus son básicamente aquellos propuestos por Brown en 1976. en general, éstos se diferencian por caracteres de escultura, forma de ciertas estructuras y en algunos casos por el tamaño. Uno de los caracteres útiles en la determinación de especies muy similares propuesto en este estudio, es la presencia y forma del proceso metasternal, el cual solo había sido mencionado por Brown (1976 para la determinación de Odontomachus haematodus. Aunque se han encontrado caracteres útiles en la separación de especies muy parecidas, aún es necesario realizar una revisión de las especies de la región neotropical, utilizando caracteres de los machos, para esclarecer algunas dudas que hoy en día persisten.

  18. Behavior of Paussus favieri (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussini: A Myrmecophilous Beetle Associated with Pheidole pallidula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Emanuela Maurizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several specimens of the myrmecophilous beetle Paussus favieri were reared in ant nests of Pheidole pallidula. Their interactions were recorded and all behaviors observed are described. Duration and frequency of five behaviors of P. favieri were analyzed with ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests; these comprised rewarding, antennal shaking, antennation, escape, and “no contact”. Significant differences both in duration and in frequency among behaviors were detected. The main result is that the rewarding behavior, during which the beetle provides attractive substances to the host, is performed significantly more frequently than all others. This result strongly supports the hypothesis that the chemicals provided by the beetles and licked by the ants are of great importance for the acceptance and the full integration of P. favieri in the ant society. This result also suggests that, contrary to previous findings and interpretations, the myrmecophilous strategy of P. favieri is very similar to the symphilous strategy described for P. turcicus. The occasional interactions of some beetle specimens with the P. pallidula queen were recorded, illustrated, and discussed, indicating the possibility of a more complex strategy of P. favieri involving a chemical mimicry with the queen. In addition, the courtship performed by the beetle is described for the first time, together with a peculiar “cleaning” behavior, which we hypothesize functions to spread antennal chemicals over the body surfaces.

  19. Can anthropic fires affect epigaeic and hypogaeic Cerrado ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) communities in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Júnior, Ernesto de Oliveira; Cuissi, Rafael Gonçalves; Nelson Henrique de Almeida, Curi; Demetrio, Guilherme Ramos; Lasmar, Chaim José; Malves, Kira

    2016-03-01

    Fire occurrences are a common perturbation in Cerrado ecosystems, and may differently impact the local biodiversity. Arthropods are one of the taxa affected by fires, and among them, ants are known as good bioindicators. We aimed to evaluate the effect of anthropic fires on epigaeic and hypogaeic ant communities (species richness and composition) in Cerrado areas with different post-fire event recovery periods. We conducted the study in four Cerrado areas during two weeks of 2012 dry season: one unburned and three at different post-fire times (one month, one and two years). We sampled ants with pitfall traps in epigaeic and hypogaeic microhabitats. We collected 71 ant morpho-species from 25 genera. In the epigaeic microhabitat we sampled 56 morpho-species and 42 in the hypogaeic microhabitat. The area with the shortest recovery time presented lower epigaeic ant species richness (4.3 ± 2.00) in comparison to the other areas (8.1 ± 2.68 species on one year area; 10.3 ± 2.66 species on two years area; 10.4 ± 2.31 species on control area), but recovery time did not affect hypogaeic ant species richness. Regarding ant species composition, fire did not directly affect hypogaeic ant species, which remained the same even one month after fire event. However, two years were not enough to reestablish ant species composition in both microhabitats in relation to our control group samples. Our study is the first to assess anthropic fire effects upon epigaeic and hypogaeic ants communities; highlighting the importance of evaluating different microhabitats, to more accurately detect the effects of anthropic disturbances in biological communities. We concluded that ant communities are just partially affected by fire occurrences, and epigaeic assemblages are the most affected ones in comparison to hypogaeic ants. Furthermore the study provides knowledge to aid in the creation of vegetation management programs that allow Cerrado conservation.

  20. LEAF-CUTTING ANTS Acromyrmex niger SMITH, 1858 (HYMENOPTERA; FORMICIDAE USED AS BIOINDICATORS OF AGROTOXICS RESIDUES

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    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli

    2014-05-01

    A pesar de la condición de plaga de las hormigas cortadoras en agroecosistemas, no se pueden negar los beneficios que ellas pueden traer en determinadas situaciones o en determinados ambientes. Las hormigas cortadoras del género Acromyrmex atacan principalmente las hojas de hortalizas y hojas de plantas fructíferas, exponiéndose no solo a los agroquímicos utilizados para su control sino también a aquellos utilizados en el control de otras plagas. Debido al potencial bioindicador de la calidad ambiental de las hormigas y su frecuente exposición a los agrotóxicos como organofosforados, neonicotinoides y reguladores de crecimiento, utilizados en el control de plagas, es necesario el estudio de los efectos subletales que estos agrotóxicos pueden causar. La técnica de electroforesis fue utilizada para evaluar la actividad de las isoenzimas esterasas involucradas en el metabolismo de xenobióticos de  A. niger, asociada a las alteraciones en la expresión de las isoenzimas después de la contaminación con pesticidas.  Acromyrmex niger demostró ocho regiones de actividad esterasa, las cuales fueron denominadas EST-1, EST-2, EST-3, EST-4, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7 e EST-8 de acuerdo con la movilidad electroforética. En cuanto a la especificación de los substratos α y β-nafitl acetato, las EST-7 e EST-8 son clasificadas como α- esterasa y las demás αβ esterasas. EST-5 es considerada una enzima del tipo colinesterasa II y las demás son carboxilesterasas. El análisis electroforético presentó inhibición parcial para todas las esterasas sometidas al contacto con malathion en las concentraciones 1x10-3 % e 5x10-3 %, que puede ser considerado un biomarcador para la presencia de residuos de este insecticida en el ambiente. El análisis de regresión para el efecto subletal de los pesticidas evaluados demostró correlación entre la dosis y la causa de muerte solo para el pesticida neonicotinoide thiametoxam.

  1. Microencapsulated bait: Does it work with Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preference of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta for microencapsulated (MC) pyriproxifen based corn grit baits (P-bait) was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. A positive correlation between the microencapsulation rate and water tolerance ability of P-bait was observed. A 20% in...

  2. Heat-induced symmetry breaking in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae escape behavior.

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    Yuan-Kai Chung

    Full Text Available The collective egress of social insects is important in dangerous situations such as natural disasters or enemy attacks. Some studies have described the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in ants, with two exits induced by a repellent. However, whether symmetry breaking occurs under high temperature conditions, which are a common abiotic stress, remains unknown. In our study, we deposited a group of Polyrhachis dives ants on a heated platform and counted the number of escaping ants with two identical exits. We discovered that ants asymmetrically escaped through two exits when the temperature of the heated platform was >32.75°C. The degree of asymmetry increased linearly with the temperature of the platform. Furthermore, the higher the temperature of heated platform was, the more ants escaped from the heated platform. However, the number of escaping ants decreased for 3 min when the temperature was higher than the critical thermal limit (39.46°C, which is the threshold for ants to endure high temperature without a loss of performance. Moreover, the ants tended to form small groups to escape from the thermal stress. A preparatory formation of ant grouping was observed before they reached the exit, indicating that the ants actively clustered rather than accidentally gathered at the exits to escape. We suggest that a combination of individual and grouping ants may help to optimize the likelihood of survival during evacuation.

  3. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails.

  4. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Subterranean ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae as prey of fossorial reptiles (Reptilia, Squamata: Amphisbaenidae in Central Brazil

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    Flávia de Araújo Esteves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ant diversity observed in stomach contents of fossorial reptiles was compared to the subterranean ant richness collected using traditional and modern techniques of ant collections. We analyzed the alimentary tract of 64 specimens of amphisbaenians (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis, and 25 Leposternon infraorbitale collected during the fauna rescue for the construction of Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam in the Tocantins River (from 1992 to 1997, in Minaçu County, Goiás, Brazil. We found only five ant species present in the stomach contents, all belonging to the army ants subfamily Ecitoninae. In contrast, the traditional techniques for subterranean ants' collection are far more efficient than the exam of fossorial reptile's stomach contents, collecting a much richer and diverse ant fauna. The exclusive occurrence of army ants in the alimentary tract of these fossorial reptiles suggests that they trace the chemical trails laid by the ants while moving inside and over the soil. Further, the occurrence of the epigaeic army ants Eciton and Labidus in the stomach contents suggests that amphisbaenians may forage on the soil surface as well.A diversidade de formigas no conteúdo estomacal de répteis fossoriais foi comparada à riqueza de formigas subterrâneas coletadas com o uso de técnicas tradicionais e modernas para sua coleta. Analisamos o trato alimentar de 64 espécimes de anfisbenídeos (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis e 25 Leposternon infraorbitale coletados durante o resgate da fauna para a construção da represa da Hidroelétrica da Serra da Mesa no Rio Tocantins (de 1992 a 1997, na cidade de Minaçu, Goiás, Brasil. Encontramos apenas cinco espécies de formigas presentes nos conteúdos estomacais aqui examinados, todas pertencentes à subfamília das formigas-de-correição, Ecitoninae. Ao contrário, as técnicas tradicionais de coleta de formigas subterrâneas são muito mais eficientes que o exame dos conteúdos estomacais de répteis fossoriais, coletando uma fauna muito mais rica e diversa de formigas. A ocorrência exclusiva de formigas-de-correição no trato alimentar destes répteis fossoriais sugere que eles seguem trilhas químicas deixadas pelas formigas à medida que se elas movimentam no interior e sobre o solo. Ainda, a ocorrência das formigas-de-correição epigéicas Eciton e Labidus nos conteúdos estomacais analisados sugere que os anfisbenídeos podem também forragear na superfície do solo.

  6. Survey of Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Eucalyptus plantations in the region of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Márcio S.; Delia Lucia, Terezinha M.C.; Mayhé-Nunes, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858); Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trach...

  7. Comportamento de forrageio de Camponotus sericeiventris Guérin, 1838 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em ambiente urbano

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    Thiago Elisei

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. Camponotus sericeiventris Guérin are described as omnivorous, their diet including floral and extrafloral nectar, exudates of hemipteran and lepidopteran, prey, seed and fruit foraged in the environment. The aim of this study was to examine the foraging behavior of C. sericeiventris, correlating the foraging activity and climatic factors as well as quantify and identify the resources exploited by the species and time of the foraging and action range. The specie studied was influenced positively by variations in the temperature. In most of the returns (94.81%, n = 7,072 the ants did not carry a load visible. Only 5.19% (n = 387 of the returns were identified and distributed as feces (35.40%, n = 137, animal protein (27.65%, n = 107 and vegetable fiber (36, 95%, n = 143. Two foraging trails, from colony to trees where ants were seeking resources, were measured (73 and 86 m representing an average of the distance of 79.5 ± 9.19 m, resulting in 19,596 m² of colony action. The duration of foraging of the C. sericeiventris had an average of 67 ± 16’97’’ (37’03’’- 101’ minutes. The results of this study provide important insights into understanding the dynamics of foraging activity of the C. sericeiventris in the human environment. Moreover, it shows the interaction of this specie with the environmental.

  8. Description of an injury in a human caused by a false tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833 with a revision on folkloric, pharmacological and clinical aspects of the giant ants of the genera Paraponera and Dinoponera (sub-family Ponerinae Descrição de injúria humana causada por falsa tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833 com revisão dos aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos das formigas gigantes do gênero Paraponera e Dinoponera (sub-família Ponerinae

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    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors observed an injury caused by the sting of a false tocandira ant in the hand of an amateur fisherman and they describe the clinical findings and the evolution of the envenoming, which presented an acute and violent pain, cold sweating, nausea, a vomiting episode, malaise, tachycardia and left axillary's lymphadenopathy. About three hours after the accident, still feeling intense pain in the place of the sting, he presented an episode of great amount of blood in the feces with no history of digestive, hematological or vascular problems. The intense pain decreased after eight hours, but the place stayed moderately painful for about 24 hours. In that moment, he presented small grade of local edema and erythema. The authors still present the folkloric, pharmacological and clinical aspects related to the tocandiras stings, a very interesting family of ants, which presents the largest and more venomous ants of the world.A partir de um acidente causado pela picada de uma formiga falsa tocandira na mão de um pescador amador, os autores descrevem os achados clínicos locais observados, tais como edema, eritema e dor excruciante e a evolução do envenenamento, que cursou com fenômenos sistêmicos imediatos, como sudorese fria, náuseas, vômitos, mal estar, taquicardia e linfadenopatia axilar à esquerda. Após três horas, a dor intensa persistia e o paciente apresentou um episódio de hematoquesia, sem história anterior de enfermidades do trato digestivo, hematológicas ou vasculares. O uso de analgésicos (Tramal® 300 mg/dia, água quente e gelo não melhorou a dor, que arrefeceu em oito horas, tendo permanecido por cerca de 24 horas. São apresentados ainda os aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos relacionados às picadas de tocandiras.

  9. Descrição de injúria humana causada por falsa tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833) com revisão dos aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos das formigas gigantes do gênero Paraponera e Dinoponera (sub-família Ponerinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Moraes, Roberto Henrique Pinto

    2005-01-01

    The authors observed an injury caused by the sting of a false tocandira ant in the hand of an amateur fisherman and they describe the clinical findings and the evolution of the envenoming, which presented an acute and violent pain, cold sweating, nausea, a vomiting episode, malaise, tachycardia and left axillary's lymphadenopathy. About three hours after the accident, still feeling intense pain in the place of the sting, he presented an episode of great amount of blood in the feces with no hi...

  10. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

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    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. morschi como uma espécie detritófaga.A total of 400 nests of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, in order to verify the substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use vegetable or animal material (excrements of lepidopteran larvae or carcasses of beetles or ants or even not identified material that are used to culture the fungus. Thus, ecologically speaking, C. morschi can be considered a detritiphagous species.

  11. Efecto de los cortafuegos sobre el ensamble de hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae en una región semiárida, Argentina Effects of firebreaks on ant density (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in a semiarid region, Argentina

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    Francisco Rodrigo Tizón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En las regiones áridas y semiáridas los bordes de los caminos o cortafuegos pueden afectar variables micro-climáticas las cuales, a su vez, alteran la abundancia de las hormigas que nidifican en el suelo. Se estudió la densidad de nidos en ambientes con diferentes características edáficas (suelos sueltos y compactados, y de cobertura de vegetación (monte cerrado, pastizal y suelo desnudo. El área de estudio se encuentra en el sur del Caldenal (sudeste de La Pampa, tiene 12 ha clausuradas al pastoreo con seis unidades experimentales en cada una de las cuales se seleccionaron tres sitios con cobertura leñosa (monte, con cobertura herbácea (pastizal y con el 80% de suelo desnudo (cortafuegos. En cada sitio se registraron la temperatura superficial, y la humedad, el pH, y el grado de compactación del suelo. La densidad de nidos se evaluó colocando tres transectas (80 m x 5 m al azar por cada unidad experimental. La temperatura del suelo fue mayor en los cortafuegos y la compactación del suelo fue mayor en los ambientes de monte y pastizal. El ensamble de hormigas estudiado no mostró diferencias (p>0,05 de nidificación entre los ambientes. En cambio, Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863 se encontró principalmente en los cortafuegos donde los suelos sueltos con mayor porosidad permiten mayor intercambio gaseoso e infiltración de agua. La construcción de cortafuegos favorece el establecimiento de especies cortadoras de hojas que por ventajas competitivas podrían afectar negativamente la composición de la comunidad de hormigas y las comunidades vegetales.In arid and semiarid regions, the presence of roads or firebreaks can affect microclimatic variables that influence the abundance of soil nesting ants. We studied ant nest density in environments with different soil types (loose and compacted soil, and vegetation cover (shrubland, grassland and bare soil south of Caldenal, La Pampa, Argentina. We selected three areas with woody cover (shrubland, herbaceous cover (grass, and 80% of bare soil (firebreaks within a 12 ha study area where large herbivores were excluded. We recorded soil surface temperature, humidity, pH and degree of soil compaction in each area. The density of nests was assessed by randomly placing three transects (80 m x 5 m in each experimental unit. Soil temperature was higher in firebreaks and soil compaction was higher in the shrubland and the grassland. No differences in ant assemblage were found regarding nest density among environments. However, Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863 was found mostly in firebreaks where loose soil with greater porosity allows more gas exchange and water infiltration. Our findings revealed that the construction of firebreaks favors the establishment of leaf-cutting ants, which due to their competitive advantage, could negatively affect ant and plant composition in the community.

  12. Inventário estruturado de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em floresta ombrófila de encosta na ilha da Marambaia, RJ Structured inventory of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in atlantic slope rain-forest of Marambaia Island, RJ

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    Michel de S. Schütte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As formigas são componentes funcionais importantes em florestas tropicais devido aos papéis ecológicos que exercem, à grande biomassa e à riqueza de espécies. Embora a Mata Atlântica seja um dos ecossistemas mais bem estudados no Brasil, ainda faltam informações sobre a diversidade de formigas nos fragmentos florestais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A riqueza e composição da assembléia de formigas em floresta ombrófila de encosta na ilha da Marambaia (RJ foi estudada através de um inventário estruturado em uma área de 0,6 ha. Armadilhas do tipo "pitfall" e coletas manuais foram empregadas na serapilheira e sobre a vegetação entre os meses de janeiro e julho de 2004. Um total de 29 gêneros e 82 espécies foi encontrado na amostragem. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies foram maiores nas amostras de março do que de julho. Já a eqüitatividade e diversidade de formigas nas amostras não foram influenciadas pela época da coleta. As amostras de formigas em galhos mortos adicionaram seis espécies à lista, acrescentando informações sobre a biologia das espécies. As amostras sobre plantas totalizaram 32 espécies de formigas, das quais 12 foram exclusivas, como as espécies de Pseudomyrmex e algumas de Crematogaster e Pachycondyla. Este estudo pretende contribuir para o desenvolvimento de prioridades conservacionistas em um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do mundo.Ants are an important functional component in tropical forest due to their ecological roles, biomass and species diversity. Although the Atlantic Forest is one of the best studied ecosystems in Brazil, there is a lack of information about ant diversity in forest fragments of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The composition and richness of the ant fauna from atlantic slope rain-forest in Marambaia island-RJ were assessed by the structured inventory in an area of 0.6 ha. Pitfalls traps and hand collecting were used for sampling ants in the litter and on vegetation from January to July/2004. A total of 29 genera and 82 species were found in this survey. Ant abundance and richness were higher in March than in July samples. Eveness and diversity of ants in the samples were not affected by the time of the year. Collections of ants from dead twigs yielded an additional seven species and provided information about the ant biology. Sampling ants on plants resulted in 32 species but 12 species were not recorded in litter samples. Some species were recorded exclusively on vegetation, such as Pseudomyrmex, Crematogaster and Pachychondyla species. This study aims to contribute to the development of conservation priorities in one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world.

  13. Caracterização de ninhos e atividade forrageadora de Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em plantio de eucalipto Caracterization of nest and foraging activity of Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus stand

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    Márcio Silva Araújo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven nests of T. fuscus Emery, 1834 have been studied for their structure. These nests, which opened at the soil surface, had two to four chambers located one above the other. Externally all of these nests presented a heap of brownish-yellow debris that was constituted basically by remains of vegetable material. The total nest population was, on average, 1,048 individuais. The diel pattern of foraging of this species was studied for four consecuti ve months on two nests. This activity occurred predominantly in the night period, and the workers transported, mainly, dry vegetation to the nest.

  14. Reconhecimento da prole por operárias companheiras e não companheiras de ninho em Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Brood recognition by workers of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Danival José de Souza

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de discriminação de formas jovens de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus por operárias adultas da mesma subespécie. Eram oferecidas, na área de forrageamento, larvas e pupas companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, sendo quantificado o comportamento frente a essas formas jovens. Foram utilizadas colônias oriundas do município de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil, mantidas em condições de laboratório. Os resultados evidenciaram que essa subespécie não é capaz de discriminar formas jovens companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, ou seja, transportaram indiscriminadamente as formas jovens oferecidas para o interior do ninho. Também não se observou diferença significativa para o tempo de resposta de aceitação de prole companheira e não companheira de ninho.This study investigated the behavioral response (acception or rejection of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus to their brood and to brood from different colonies of this subespecies. The four colonies used in the bioassays came from Paraopeba, MG, Brazil. Workers accepted either brood from their colonies or from different colonies. There was no significant difference on the time for brood acceptance (transport to the interior of the nest among nestmates and non-nestmates.

  15. Estudos citogenéticos em formigas neotropicais do gênero Gnamptogenys Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ectatomminae Cytogenetic studies in Neotropical ants of the genus Gnamptogenys Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ectatomminae

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    Davileide S. Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados os cariótipos de três espécies neotropicais do gênero Gnamptogenys Roger: Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr, Gnamptogenys sp. e Gnamptogenys annulata Mayr, coletadas em Viçosa (Minas Gerais e Ilhéus (Bahia. O número cromossômico de G. striatula nas duas localidades foi 2n=34, com fórmula cariotípica 2K=24M+10A. Em Gnamptogenys sp., o número cromossômico foi de 2n=46 (fêmea e n=23 (machos, com a fórmula cariotípica 2K=18M+28A. O número cromossômico de G. annulata foi 2n=68 com a fórmula cariotípica 2K= 6M+62A. Esse tipo de estudo complementa outros estudos iniciados por nosso grupo sobre a citogenética das formigas poneromorfas (sensu Bolton e poderá contribuir no melhor entendimento da evolução das formigas deste grupo considerado primitivo.Studies on the karyotypes of three Neotropical species of the genus Gnamptogenys (Ectatomminae, Ectatommini have been carried out: Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr, Gnamptogenys sp. and Gnamptogenys annulata Mayr, collected at Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil and Ilheus (Bahia, Brazil. The chromosome number of G. striatula was established from individuals taken in colonies from both localities was 2n=34, with the karyotype formula 2K=24M+10A. In Gnamptogenys sp., the chromosomal number was 2n=46 (females and n=23 (males, and its karyotype formula was 2K=18M+28A. The chromosomal number of G. annulata was 2n=68 with the karyotype 2K= 6M + 62A. This study complements THOse carried out by our research group on cytogenetics of the poneromorph ants (sensu Bolton and would contribute to the better understanding of the ant evolution in this group considered primitive.

  16. Redescripción de la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Redescription of the worker of Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and first record from La Pampa (Argentina

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    Estela M. Quirán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado está compuesto por obreras y fue recolectado sobre Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae, dentro de las agallas de Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.The worker of Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr is redescribed and mentioned for the first time for La Pampa province (Argentina. The material studied was integrated by workers and was collected on Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae at Santa Rosa, La Pampa within galls of Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae.

  17. Levantamento de Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em povoamento de Eucalyptus na região de Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil Survey of Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus plantations in the region of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Márcio S. Araújo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858; Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery, 1894 and three morphospecies of Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893. Taxa belonging to the genus Atta Fabricius, 1804 represented 39.14 and 41.22% of the total number of nests found in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantings, respectively. For Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 these values were 14.34 and 13.16%; for Trachymyrmex, 40.59 and 30.89%; for Mycocepurus Forel, 1893, 5.34 and 12.50% and Sericomyrmex Mayr, 1865, 0.59 and 2.23% in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantations, respectively.

  18. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae with resurrections of the genera Stigmatomma and Xymmer.

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    Masashi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available In a male-based revision of ants of the subfamily Amblyoponinae from the Southwest Indian Ocean islands (SWIO: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, and Seychelles, we explore and reconsider male morphological characters that distinguish genera within the group. Our investigation redefines Amblyopone Erichson sensu Brown (1960, here referred to as Amblyopone sensu lato, into three genera: Xymmer Santschi stat. rev.,Amblyopone sensu stricto, Stigmatomma Roger stat. rev. All species names under Amblyopone s. l. reassign into Xymmer and Amblyopone s. s., which are small, well-defined genera, and Stigmatomma, a large group with a generic delimitation that still needs further refinement. Based on a study of male mandible characters and our scenario for mandibular evolution of the worker caste within Amblyopone s. l, we conclude that Amblyopone s. s. nests outside of XMAS (Xymmer+Mystrium+Adetomyrma+Stigmatomma clade. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Xymmer as comb. rev.: muticus. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Stigmatomma as comb. rev.: amblyops, armigerum, bellii, bierigi, bruni, celata, chilense, denticulatum, elongatum, emeryi, feae, impressifrons, luzonicum, minuta, normandi, oregonense, pallipes, quadratum, reclinatum, rothneyi, santschii, saundersi, silvestrii, zwaluwenburgi; as comb. nov.: agostii, annae, besucheti, boltoni, caliginosum, cleae, crenatum, degeneratum, egregium, electrinum, eminia, exiguum, falcatum, ferrugineum, fulvidum, gaetulicum, gingivalis, glauerti, gnoma, gracile, groehni, heraldoi, lucidum, lurilabes, monrosi, mystriops, noonadan, octodentatum, ophthalmicum, orizabanum, papuanum, pertinax, pluto, punctulatum, rubiginoum, sakaii, smithi, trigonignathum, trilobum, wilsoni, zaojun, and testaceum. A male-based key to the genera of Malagasy amblyoponine ants, their diagnoses, and a discussion of the evolution of the morphological character of males in the subfamily are given, and the distinguishing characters of each are illustrated. In addition, our results predict that Paraprionopelta belongs in the XMAS clade and that Concoctio should have males with two mandibular teeth.

  19. Revision and Microtomography of the Pheidole knowlesi Group, an Endemic Ant Radiation in Fiji (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)Myrmicinae).

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    Fischer, Georg; Sarnat, Eli M; Economo, Evan P

    2016-01-01

    The Fijian islands, a remote archipelago in the southwestern Pacific, are home to a number of spectacular endemic radiations of plants and animals. Unlike most Pacific archipelagos, these evolutionary radiations extend to social insects, including ants. One of the most dramatic examples of ant radiation in Fiji has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole. Most of the 17 native Fijian Pheidole belong to one of two species groups that descended from a single colonization, yet have evolved dramatically contrasting morphologies: the spinescent P. roosevelti species group, and the more morphologically conservative P. knowlesi species group. Here we revise the knowlesi group, in light of recent phylogenetic results, and enhanced with modern methods of X-ray microtomography. We recognize six species belonging to this group, including two of which we describe as new: Pheidole caldwelli Mann, Pheidole kava sp. n., Pheidole knowlesi Mann, P. ululevu sp. n., P. vatu Mann, and P. wilsoni Mann. Detailed measurements and descriptions, identification keys, and high-resolution images for queens, major and minor workers are provided. In addition, we include highly detailed 3D surface reconstructions for all available castes.

  20. Behavioral Differentiation and Ovarian Development of Unmated Gynes, Queens, and Workers of Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida 1987 (Formicidae, Ectatomminae

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    Alexsandro Santana Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral differentiation and ovarian development of unmated gynes, queens, and workers of Ectatomma vizottoi were investigated in laboratory conditions. Forty-one behavioral acts were identified and quantified for workers, 19 for queens and 24 for unmated gynes, for an overall species repertoire of 42 different behavioral acts. Ovipositing reproductive eggs was an exclusive task of the queen, whereas workers showed 15 caste-specific behaviors. The most important (frequent behaviors for the queens were brood care, immobility, and reproduction, and for workers were immobility, grooming/interaction, brood care, and foraging. Unmated gynes (not winged primarily showed immobility, brood care, grooming/interaction, and foraging. Analysis of ovarian development showed that unmated gynes had little-developed ovarioles, in contrast to queens. Queens and unmated gynes showed a clear behavioral differentiation, in which queens played the role of reproducers and unmated gynes performed activities belonging to the worker repertoire. Despite the presence of several breeding queens in the colony, functional monogyny was the rule.

  1. Revision of the Malagasy Camponotus edmondi species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Formicinae): integrating qualitative morphology and multivariate morphometric analysis.

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    Rakotonirina, Jean Claude; Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    The Malagasy Camponotus edmondi species group is revised based on both qualitative morphological traits and multivariate analysis of continuous morphometric data. To minimize the effect of the scaling properties of diverse traits due to worker caste polymorphism, and to achieve the desired near-linearity of data, morphometric analyses were done only on minor workers. The majority of traits exhibit broken scaling on head size, dividing Camponotus workers into two discrete subcastes, minors and majors. This broken scaling prevents the application of algorithms that uses linear combination of data to the entire dataset, hence only minor workers were analyzed statistically. The elimination of major workers resulted in linearity and the data meet required assumptions. However, morphometric ratios for the subsets of minor and major workers were used in species descriptions and redefinitions. Prior species hypotheses and the goodness of clusters were tested on raw data by confirmatory linear discriminant analysis. Due to the small sample size available for some species, a factor known to reduce statistical reliability, hypotheses generated by exploratory analyses were tested with extreme care and species delimitations were inferred via the combined evidence of both qualitative (morphology and biology) and quantitative data. Altogether, fifteen species are recognized, of which 11 are new to science: Camponotus alamaina sp. n. , Camponotus androy sp. n. , Camponotus bevohitra sp. n. , Camponotus galoko sp. n. , Camponotus matsilo sp. n. , Camponotus mifaka sp. n. , Camponotus orombe sp. n. , Camponotus tafo sp. n. , Camponotus tratra sp. n. , Camponotus varatra sp. n. , and Camponotus zavo sp. n. Four species are redescribed: Camponotus echinoploides Forel, Camponotus edmondi André, Camponotus ethicus Forel, and Camponotus robustus Roger. Camponotus edmondi ernesti Forel, syn. n. is synonymized under Camponotus edmondi . This revision also includes an identification key to species for both minor and major castes, information on geographic distribution and biology, taxonomic discussions, and descriptions of intraspecific variation. Traditional taxonomy and multivariate morphometric analysis are independent sources of information which, in combination, allow more precise species delimitation. Moreover, quantitative characters included in identification keys improve accuracy of determination in difficult cases.

  2. Revision of the Middle American clade of the ant genus Stenamma Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)

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    Branstetter, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stenamma is a cryptic “leaf-litter” ant genus that occurs in mesic forest habitats throughout the Holarctic region, Central America, and part of northwestern South America (Colombia and Ecuador). The genus was thought to be restricted primarily to the temperate zone, but recent collecting efforts have uncovered a large radiation of Neotropical forms, which rival the Holarctic species in terms of morphological and behavioral diversity. By inferring a broad-scale molecular phylogeny of Stenamma, Branstetter (2012) showed that all Neotropical species belong to a diverse Middle American clade (MAC), and that this clade is sister to an almost completely geographically separated Holarctic clade (HOC). Here, the Middle American clade of Stenamma is revised to recognize 40 species, of which 33 are described as new. Included in the revision are a key to species based on the worker caste, and for each species where possible, descriptions and images of workers and queens, images of males, information on geographic distribution, descriptions of intraspecific variation, and notes on natural history. Several species groups are defined, but the majority of species remain unassigned due to a lack of diagnostic morphological character states for most molecular clades. The following species are redescribed: Stenamma alas Longino, Stenamma diversum Mann, Stenamma expolitum Smith, Stenamma felixi Mann, Stenamma huachucanum Smith, Stenamma manni Wheeler, and Stenamma schmidti Menozzi. The following are described as new: Stenamma andersoni sp. n., Stenamma atribellum sp. n., Stenamma brujita sp. n., Stenamma callipygium sp. n., Stenamma catracho sp. n., Stenamma connectum sp. n., Stenamma crypticum sp. n., Stenamma cusuco sp. n., Stenamma excisum sp. n., Stenamma expolitico sp. n., Stenamma hojarasca sp. n., Stenamma ignotum sp. n., Stenamma lagunum sp. n., Stenamma llama sp. n., Stenamma leptospinum sp. n., Stenamma lobinodus sp. n., Stenamma longinoi sp. n., Stenamma maximon sp. n., Stenamma megamanni sp. n., Stenamma monstrosum sp. n., Stenamma muralla sp. n., Stenamma nanozoi sp. n., Stenamma nonotch sp. n., Stenamma ochrocnemis sp. n., Stenamma pelophilum sp. n., Stenamma picopicucha sp. n., Stenamma saenzae sp. n., Stenamma sandinista sp. n., Stenamma stictosomum sp. n., Stenamma tiburon sp. n., Stenamma tico sp. n., Stenamma vexator sp. n., and Stenamma zelum sp. n. Although many of the newly defined species consist of challenging species complexes, this study establishes a robust baseline that will guide future work on the systematics of MAC Stenamma. The total global diversity of Stenamma now includes 84 extant species. PMID:23794874

  3. Colony growth of two species of Solenopsis fire ants(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reared with crickets and beef liver

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    Most diets for rearing fire ants and other ants contain insects such as crickets or mealworms. Unfortunately, insect diets are expensive, especially for large rearing operations, and are not always easily available. This study was designed to examine colony growth of Solenopsis fire ants on beef liv...

  4. A new species of Trachymyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae fungus-growing ant from the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico

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    Sergio R. Sánchez-Peña

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a new species of Trachymyrmex, T. pakawa sp. n., from the Gran Sierra Plegada range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the states of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. Trachymyrmex pakawa is a large-sized species compared to other North American Trachymyrmex. Its geographic distribution includes the piedmont of the Gran Sierra Plegada at La Estanzuela, Monterrey, as well as peripheral mountains segregated from the Sierra Madre Oriental (Cerro de las Mitras, Sierra de Zapalinamé, Cañon de San Lorenzo, Cerro de las Letras. The preferred habitats of T. pakawa include oak-pine forest at La Estanzuela, xeric oak forest at Zapalinamé and mesic Chihuahuan desert scrub with sotol (Dasylirion at other sites. All localities are on slopes, on very rocky, shallow lithosols overlaying large boulders. This species nests under and between large boulders and rocks. It has not been observed on alluvial or better developed, deeper soils, and it is absent from sites with human activity (urban, disturbed, and landscaped areas. It is closely related to and morphologically similar to Trachymyrmex smithi. The known distribution ranges of T. pakawa and T. smithi almost overlap in Saltillo, Coahuila state. The main character that distinguishes the new species from T. smithi is longer antennal scapes in T. pakawa; also, different nesting habits (rocky slopes vs. alluvial sites or deep sand in T. smithi, and geographic distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and the first intron of the F1 copy of the nuclear protein-coding gene Elongation Factor 1- α (EF1-α-F1 confirm a sister-species relationship between T. pakawa and T. smithi. Bayesian coalescent analyses indicate a divergence time of about 8.00 million years before present (95% confidence interval: 4.8–11.5 mya between T. pakawa and T. smithi. The divergence of the lineages of T. pakawa and T. smithi could have been driven by the Pliocene-Holocene desertification of southwestern North America. This process resulted in isolated mesic refugia and forests in the Madrean ranges and piedmonts of northeastern Mexico (the current habitat of T. pakawa while T. smithi adapted to the deeper, often sandy soils on the drier desert plains of Coahuila and Chihuahua states in Mexico, and New Mexico and Texas in the USA. Within the Nearctic species of the Trachymyrmex septentrionalis species group, T. pakawa is the species that is closest (by geographical distribution to Neotropical species of Trachymyrmex like T. saussurei.

  5. Long-term impact of agriculture on the survival of wood ants of the Formica rufa group (Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabelis, Bram; Korczyńska, Julita

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agriculture on wood ants of the Formica rufa group was investigated in a small-scale agricultural landscape with many woodland fragments in the east of the Netherlands. An inventory of nests was carried out in 1986, and repeated in 2014. The number of nests of F. rufa and F.

  6. Biodiversity on Broadway--enigmatic diversity of the societies of ants (Formicidae on the streets of New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pećarević

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year, a larger proportion of the Earth's surface is urbanized, and a larger proportion of the people on Earth lives in those urban areas. The everyday nature, however, that humans encounter in cities remains poorly understood. Here, we consider perhaps the most urban green habitat, street medians. We sampled ants from forty-four medians along three boulevards in New York City and examined how median properties affect the abundance and species richness of native and introduced ants found on them. Ant species richness varied among streets and increased with area but was independent of the other median attributes measured. Ant assemblages were highly nested, with three numerically dominant species present at all medians and additional species present at a subset of medians. The most common ant species were the introduced Pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum and the native Thief ant (Solenopsis molesta and Cornfield ant (Lasius neoniger. The common introduced species on the medians responded differently to natural and disturbed elements of medians. Tetramorium caespitum was most abundant in small medians, with the greatest edge/area ratio, particularly if those medians had few trees, whereas Nylanderia flavipes was most abundant in the largest medians, particularly if they had more trees. Many of the species encountered in Manhattan were similar to those found in other large North American cities, such that a relatively small subset of ant species probably represent most of the encounters humans have with ants in North America.

  7. Chemical properties of forest soils as affected by nests of .i.Myrmica ruginodis./i. (Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Véle, A.; Frouz, Jan; Holuša, J.; Kalčík, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2010), s. 122-127 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : ant nests * Myrmica * soil chemical properties Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  8. A new species of Trachymyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) fungus-growing ant from the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Chacón-Cardosa, Manuela Citlali; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Ward, Lauren; Resendez-Pérez, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Here we describe a new species of Trachymyrmex, T. pakawa sp. n., from the Gran Sierra Plegada range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the states of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. Trachymyrmex pakawa is a large-sized species compared to other North American Trachymyrmex. Its geographic distribution includes the piedmont of the Gran Sierra Plegada at La Estanzuela, Monterrey, as well as peripheral mountains segregated from the Sierra Madre Oriental (Cerro de las Mitras, Sierra de Zapalinamé, Cañon de San Lorenzo, Cerro de las Letras). The preferred habitats of T. pakawa include oak-pine forest at La Estanzuela, xeric oak forest at Zapalinamé and mesic Chihuahuan desert scrub with sotol (Dasylirion) at other sites. All localities are on slopes, on very rocky, shallow lithosols overlaying large boulders. This species nests under and between large boulders and rocks. It has not been observed on alluvial or better developed, deeper soils, and it is absent from sites with human activity (urban, disturbed, and landscaped areas). It is closely related to and morphologically similar to Trachymyrmex smithi. The known distribution ranges of T. pakawa and T. smithi almost overlap in Saltillo, Coahuila state. The main character that distinguishes the new species from T. smithi is longer antennal scapes in T. pakawa; also, different nesting habits (rocky slopes vs. alluvial sites or deep sand in T. smithi), and geographic distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the first intron of the F1 copy of the nuclear protein-coding gene Elongation Factor 1- α (EF1-α-F1) confirm a sister-species relationship between T. pakawa and T. smithi. Bayesian coalescent analyses indicate a divergence time of about 8.00 million years before present (95% confidence interval: 4.8–11.5 mya) between T. pakawa and T. smithi. The divergence of the lineages of T. pakawa and T. smithi could have been driven by the Pliocene-Holocene desertification of southwestern North America. This process resulted in isolated mesic refugia and forests in the Madrean ranges and piedmonts of northeastern Mexico (the current habitat of T. pakawa) while T. smithi adapted to the deeper, often sandy soils on the drier desert plains of Coahuila and Chihuahua states in Mexico, and New Mexico and Texas in the USA. Within the Nearctic species of the Trachymyrmex septentrionalis species group, T. pakawa is the species that is closest (by geographical distribution) to Neotropical species of Trachymyrmex like T. saussurei. PMID:29118621

  9. The Tetramorium tortuosum species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae revisited - taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical T. capillosum species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we revise the taxonomy of the Tetramorium tortuosum species group members encountered in the Afrotropical region, which we have placed in its own subgroup: the T. capillosum species complex. We re-describe the two previously known species T. capillosum Bolton and T. tabarum Bolton, and describe the new species T. hecate sp. n. The geographic distribution of the three species appears to be restricted to the equatorial rainforests of Central Africa. We provide a diagnosis of the T. capillosum species complex, an illustrated identification key to species level, and worker-based species descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, high-quality montage images, and distribution maps. Furthermore, we discuss biogeography and composition of the globally distributed T. tortuosum group.

  10. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Bioindicadoras de Degradação Ambiental em Poxoréu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Wilian de Oliveira; Dorval, Alberto; Peres Filho, Otávio; Vaez, Caroline dos Anjos; Ribeiro, Edilene Silva

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as espécies de formigas que ocorrem em áreas degradadas pela mineração de diamantes, definindo as espécies bioindicadoras desta degradação. O estudo realizado entre junho de 2010 e abril de 2011, bimestralmente, em Poxoréu - MT, amostrou quatro ambientes: A1 – área degradada pela mineração; A2 – área com vegetação de cerrado antropizado recentemente; A3 – vegetação antropizada há cerca de 30 anos; A4 – área de cerrado preservado. Em cada ambiente, foram...

  11. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Natalie R; Fisher, Brian L; Girman, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species diversification on the island, and helps achieve a more universal understanding of the generation of biodiversity on Madagascar.

  12. The effects of food presentation and microhabitat upon resource monopoly in a ground-foraging ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae community

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    Terrence P McGlynn

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Neotropical wet forests several species of omnivorous, resource-defending ants, live and forage in close proximity to one another. Although the forest floor is heterogeneous in microhabitat and food quantity, little is known about the impact of microhabitat and food variation upon resource monopoly among ants. We investigated how food type and microhabitat influence food monopoly in resource-defending ants in old-growth tropical wet forest in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. We measured several microhabitat characteristics at 66 points in a 0.5 hectare plot, and baited each point with two categories of tuna bait. These baits were presented in "split" and "clumped" arrangements. We measured the frequency of bait monopoly by a single species, as well as the number of recruited ant foragers at a bait. Out of five common species, two (Wasmannia auropunctata and Pheidole simonsi more frequently monopolized one bait type over the other, and one (P. simonsi recruited more ants to the split baits. We then considered the recruitment response by all ant species in the community. We found that the frequency of monopoly, sharing, and the absence of ants at a given point in the rainforest differed with bait type. The frequency of monopoly was associated with microhabitat type in two out of eight microhabitat variables (leaf litter depth and palms; variation in two other types (canopy tree distance and leafcutter ant trails was associated with changes in forager number. In at least two ant species, food presentation affected monopoly at baits; among all resource-defending ants, the microhabitats where ants foraged for food and the type of food located determined in part the frequency of monopoly and the number of foragers at the food item. These results suggest that the location and presentation of food items determines in part which ant species will utilize the resource.En los bosques húmedos de la Región Neotropical conviven varias especies de hormigas omívoras, defensoras de recursos alimenticios. Aunque el suelo del bosque es heterogéneo en microhábitat y alimento, se sabe poco sobre el impacto de ambos en las hormigas. Se investiga cómo influencian el tipo de alimento y el microhábitat la forma en que estas hormigas acaparan el alimento en un bosque húmedo tropical maduro (bajuras de Costa Rica. Se midieron ocho características de microhábitat en 66 puntos de una parcela de 0.5 ha. En cada punto se colocaron dos categorías de cebo (atún: "dividido" y "agrupado." Se midió el acaparamiento de cebo por especie y el número de hormigas por cebo. De cinco especies comunes, dos (Wasmannia auropunctata y Pheidole simonsi monopolizaron con más frecuencia uno de los dos tipos de cebo, y una (P. simonsi tuvo más individuos en los cebos divididos. La frecuencia de monopolio, comportamiento, y la ausencia de hormigas en punto dado en el bosque varió con el tipo de cebo. La frecuencia de acaparamiento se asoció con tipo de microhábitat en dos variables de microhábitat: profundidad de la hojarasca y palmas; la variación en distancia de bóvedas de árboles y caminos de hormigas cortadoras de hojas se asoció con cambios en el número de buscadores de alimento. En al menos dos especies la presentación del alimento afectó el acaparamiento; entre todas las hormigas estudiadas, los microhábitats y el tipo de alimento determinan en parte la frecuencia de acaparamiento y el número de individuso que llega al alimento. Estos resultados sugieren que la localización y presentación de alimento determina en parte cual especie de hormiga utilizará el recurso.

  13. First description of the sexuals of Camponotus opaciventris Mayr, 1879 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with notes on distribution in Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachkoo, Aijaz Ahmad; Akbar, Shahid Ali

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of Camponotus ants in India is mostly based on the worker caste, described in about 96% of the known species (AntWeb 2016). However, nearly 48% of these ant species are only known from workers, with no record of sexual forms. To improve knowledge of Indian Camponotus , we here describe sexuals of Camponotus opaciventris Mayr 1879. The hitherto unknown sexuals of Camponotus opaciventris Mayr 1879 are described for the first time. Workers are redescribed and distribution of this ant species in Indian Western Himalaya is herewith detailed.

  14. Faunistic analysis of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita in degraded ecosystems of Chapecó town, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to investigate the ant fauna in degraded environments and to comprehend how this group behaves in such ecosystems, faunistic analysis was initially conducted with the ants collected in an area in Chapecó town that had been subjected to flooding in function of the construction of the mouth of a dam on the Chapecó River (a branch of the larger Uruguay River. The collections were carried out between October 2001 and September 2002. We used pit-fall traps, sweeping nets, entomologic umbrellas and leaf litter collections for fragments covered by bushes and grass. The fauna was characterized through the constancy and dominancy indexes. A number of 34.642 specimens of ants, belonging to 32 species, 19 genera and six subfamilies, were collected. The species Labidus sp., Atta sp. and Ectatomma edentatum stood out as being either accessory or both constant and dominant.

  15. The ant nest of Crematogaster rogenhoferi (Mayr, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Tarutao National Park, Satun Province, Southern Thailand

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    Suparoek Watanasit

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nests of the ant Crematogaster rogenhoferi (Mayr, 1879 were investigated at Tarutao National Park, Satun Province. Fifteen ant nests were selected at random along Phante Malacca Bay between the 2-7 March 2004. They built their nests from leaf and stick debris on branches of trees, at between 248-469 cm above the ground level. The vegetation on which nests were built was composed of 5 species: Vitex pinnata L., Oleasalicifolia Wall, Syzygium gratum (Wight, Ardisia elliptica Thum and one unknown species. The physical features of each nest were recorded. The average dimensions of the nest width and length were 10.65±2.57 cm and 22.10±1.22 cm, respectively.Each nest was cut into small pieces for counting the numbers of each caste and developing stages. The results showed that the average number of queens, winged females, males and workers in each nest were 1.53±0.38, 1,753.33±506.55, 4,970.67±2,227.00, 15,577.93±2,637.84 respectively, while the developing stages of pupae, larvae, eggs were 1,589.93±480.37, 4,113.20±1,469.49 and 1,942.80±741.67 respectively. Thus the total number of ants in the population in each nest was 29,949.40±5,358.31.The relationships between the number of castes, developing stages and physical features of the nests were explored. The Spearman Rank Correlation indicated that the width of nest positively correlated with the number of queens (rs = 0.862, p = . 000, winged females (rs = 0.691, p = 0.004 and workers (rs = 0.667, p = 0.007. A comparison of the effects of vegetation types on the number of castes and development stages, showed that vegetation type did have an influence but only on the number of the worker caste (F = 7.712, P = 0.011, one-way ANOVA. Most workers were associated with nests from Vitex pinnata. No nests were found on the dominant tree species of the area probably due to its ability to produce an insect repellant oil.

  16. Cardiocondyla pirata sp. n. – a new Philippine ant with enigmatic pigmentation pattern (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Bernhard Seifert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the ant genus Cardiocondyla Emery, 1869 – Cardiocondyla pirata sp. n. – is described from the Philippines. The species belongs to an Indo-Malayan group of six species that is characterized by workersa strongly bilobate postpetiolar sternite and a thickset mesosoma with strongly convex dorsal profile as well as wingless, ergatoid males with sickle-shaped mandibles. The female castes show a pigmentation pattern not known from any ant worldwide. Ifany adaptive value, a possible function of this structure is supposed to be visual dissolution of body shape in order to irritate predators.

  17. Distribution and Diversity of the Cryptic Ant Genus Oxyepoecus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae in Paraguay with Descriptions of Two New Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Delsinne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the diversity and distribution of the ant genus Oxyepoecus in Paraguay. Oxyepoecus inquilinus is recorded for the first time, and new distribution data are given for O. rastratus and O. vezenyii. Published data for O. bruchi, O. rastratus, O. reticulatus, and O. vezenyii are summarized. Two new species are described (O. bidentatus n. sp. and O. striatus n. sp., and a key to the workers of the seven Paraguayan Oxyepoecus species is provided. At Teniente Enciso National Park, four species cooccur. This locality appears as a promising site for studies documenting the biology of this poorly known ant genus, and because of the IUCN “vulnerable“ Red List classification of O. inquilinus, the importance of the Teniente Enciso National Park for biological conservation is clearly established.

  18. Taxonomy of the African army ant Dorylus gribodoi Emery, 1892 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) - new insights from DNA sequence data and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöning, Caspar; Gotwald, William H.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Numerous species in the Old World army ant genus Dorylus have been described based on a single sex or caste. Our analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences of specimens from the same population reveals that D. gribodoi Emery males are conspecific with D. gerstaeckeri Emery...... a nest in Ivory Coast, is provided. Dorylus gerstaeckeri st. quadratus Santschi is shown to be distinct from D. gribodoi and synonymised under Dorylus kohli Wasmann. Similar studies examining the relationship between species described based on males and others described based on workers are needed...

  19. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  20. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Bioindicadoras de Degradação Ambiental em Poxoréu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian de Oliveira Rocha

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as espécies de formigas que ocorrem em áreas degradadas pela mineração de diamantes, definindo as espécies bioindicadoras desta degradação. O estudo realizado entre junho de 2010 e abril de 2011, bimestralmente, em Poxoréu - MT, amostrou quatro ambientes: A1 – área degradada pela mineração; A2 – área com vegetação de cerrado antropizado recentemente; A3 – vegetação antropizada há cerca de 30 anos; A4 – área de cerrado preservado. Em cada ambiente, foram instaladas 11 armadilhas pitfall, equidistantes 15 metros, para a coleta de formigas durante 24 horas. Os indivíduos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Proteção Florestal/FENF/UFMT e triados para posterior identificação. As espécies bioindicadoras foram indicadas por meio de análises faunísticas. As espécies Camponotus (Myrmaphaenus sp.1 e Forelius brasiliensis podem ser consideradas bioindicadoras de degradação ambiental na área de garimpo de diamantes e antropização, enquanto Camponotus atriceps, Pachycondyla crassinoda e Paraponera clavata podem ser consideradas bioindicadoras de cerrado preservado.

  1. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam M. R. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus ochraceus, were tested against worker ants in the laboratory. The two species were highly virulent, achieving 50 percent worker mortality within 4-5 days. It is the first time A. ochraceus, a commonly found fungal species, is reported to infect Atta species at a high prevalence. Possible uses for the fungus within biological control are discussed.

  2. Annual and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of Litter-Dwelling Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Atlantic Semideciduous Forests

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    Flávio Siqueira de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed ant fauna in the leaf litter in an Atlantic Semideciduous forest in the State Park of Rio Doce (PERD. The work aimed to produce basic information about habitat effects on diversity, as well as about how the ant fauna in a such buffered forest habitat, as the litter layer, could respond the climate variation in a short and long term. We sampled two years in two distinct forest physiognomies, which respond to different geomorphologic backgrounds, in dry and rainy seasons. Species composition, richness and abundance of these forests were distinct. However, both forests hosted similar numbers of rare and specialized, habitat demanding species, thus suggesting both are similarly well preserved, despite distinct physiognomies. However, the lower and more open forest was, more susceptible to dry season effects, showing a steeper decline in species numbers in such season, but similar numbers in the wet seasons. The pattern varied between years, which corroborates the hypothesis of a strongly variable community in response to subtle climatic variation among years. The present results are baselines for future long term monitoring projects, and could support protocols for early warnings of global climatic changes effects on biodiversity.

  3. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma.

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    Ana Ješovnik

    Full Text Available Fungus-farming ("attine" ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6-66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly suggests that the loss coincided with the origin of attine ants.

  4. The action of post-dispersal beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on scats of Didelphis spp. (Mammalia: Didelphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Carlos Cáceres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A two year study of dung beetles and ants acting on scats of two species of opossum (Didelphis spp. was carried out. Scats were left in the field in order to detect post-dispersal agents. A portion of each scat (30 % was examined for seeds in the laboratory. Beetles were recovered from burrows (51 % of 84 faecal samples left in the field where they either buried scats of opossums or were attracted, together with ants, to pitfalls (N= 10 baited with opossum scats. Dung beetles were the main post-dispersal agents of seeds found in scats of opossums, rolling the scats away or burying then on the site of deposition. They buried faeces at 4 to 15 cm in depth (N= 22 tunnels. The main dung beetles identified (medium to large size were Eurysternus (28.7 % in pitfalls and Dichotomius (13.7 %, Coprophanaeus (seen only directly on faeces, besides small-bodied beetles (Por dos años estudiamos los escarabajos coprófagos y las hormigas que actúan en las heces de zarigüellas (Didelphis. Se dejaron excrementos en el campo para descubrir los agentes secundarios de dispersión. Una parte de cada excremento (30 % fue analizada en laboratorio para estimar el número de semillas. Se recolectaron escarabajos del suelo (51 % de 84 excrementos dejados en el campo. También capturamos escarabajos y hormigas con trampas (N= 10. Los escarabajos coprófagos son los principales agentes secundarios de dispersión. Ruedan los excrementos o los entierran a 4-15 cm de profundidad (N= 22 túneles. Los escarabajos coprófagos de mayor tamaño fueron Eurysternus cyanescens (28.7 % en trampas, Dichotomius assifer (13.7 % y Coprophanaeus saphirinus (sólo visto en madrigueras y directamente sobre los excrementos. Los escarabajos de menos de 10 mm fueron el 57.6 %. La hormiga Acromirmex sp. fue 25.5 % del total de hormigas capturadas en trampas. Hallamos varias especies de semillas en los excrementos, muchos de ellos enterrados por los escarabajos, y algunas fueron extraídas por las hormigas. Estos agentes secundarios ayudan a evitar los depredadores de semillas (eg. roedores y aceleran la formación del banco de semillas, pues no las comen

  5. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  6. Chemical releases of social behavior, II. source and specificity of the odor trail substances in four attine genera. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray S. Blum; John C. Moser; A.D. Cordero

    1964-01-01

    The higher members of the tribe Attini characteristically lay persistent and extensive odor trails especially in many neotropical areas. Thus, in Acromyrmex and Atta, long columns of foraging workers are frequently present on the odor trails but in the less specialized attine genera, workers may forage either in files or singly. Weber (1958...

  7. The influence of insecticides and vegetation in structuring Formica mound ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Maine lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Beth; Drummond, Francis A

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the influence of new, reduced-risk insecticides on natural enemies within agroecosystems is essential to developing integrated pest management strategies. Three species of mound-building Formica ants are abundant throughout Maine lowbush blueberry fields (Formica exsectoides Forel, F. glacialis Wheeler, and F. ulkei Emery). All three species have been described in the literature as predaceous, with research demonstrating that F. exsectoides preys on major pest insects of lowbush blueberry. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of common-use and newly introduced insecticides on Formica sp. ant communities in lowbush blueberry fields. Laboratory assays indicated that the commonly applied insecticide phosmet is toxic to F. exsectoides, even after 8 d of field weathering (P insecticides, such as acetamiprid, had little effect on survival of all three species. Abundance of each species in the field varied with lowbush blueberry pesticide-use strategy and amount of nonblueberry vegetation. Both F. exsectoides and F. glacialis were most abundant in organic fields; however, overall F. glacialis was the most abundant in fields of all management types. Field surveys support laboratory results suggesting that phosmet is highly toxic to these species and influences their spatial pattern. Manipulation of the crop to conserve natural enemies in lowbush blueberry is difficult because the crop is not planted; therefore, we must look closely at the incorporation of low toxicity insecticides with natural enemies to efficiently control pest insects.

  8. Low variation in ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers of the symbiotic fungi of leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Pinhati A.C.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (tribe Attini are symbiotic with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus (tribe Leucocoprineae, which they cultivate on vegetable matter inside their nests. We determined the variation of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA gene loci and the rapidly evolving internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2 of 15 sympatric and allopatric fungi associated with colonies of 11 species of leafcutter ants living up to 2,600 km apart in Brazil. We found that the fungal rDNA and ITS sequences from different species of ants were identical (or nearly identical to each other, whereas 10 GenBank Leucoagaricus species showed higher ITS variation. Our findings suggest that Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutters living in geographic sites that are very distant from each other cultivate a single fungal species made up of closely related lineages of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. We discuss the strikingly high similarity in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the Atta and Acromyrmex symbiotic L. gongylophorus studied by us, in contrast to the lower similarity displayed by their non-symbiotic counterparts. We suggest that the similarity of our L. gongylophorus isolates is an indication of the recent association of the fungus with these ants, and propose that both the intense lateral transmission of fungal material within leafcutter nests and the selection of more adapted fungal strains are involved in the homogenization of the symbiotic fungal stock.

  9. Three new species of the genus Gnamptogenys (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from southern China with a key to the known Chinese species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Gnamptogenys Roger, 1863 are described from southern China: Gnamptogenys dentihumera Chen, Lattke & Zhou, sp. n., Gnamptogenys nanlingensis Chen, Lattke & Zhou, sp. n. and Gnamptogenys quadrutinodules Chen, Lattke & Zhou, sp. n. A distribution map and an identification key to workers for the known species of China are provided.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and diversification of trap-jaw ants in the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larabee, F. J.; Fisher, B. L.; Schmidt, C. A.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Janda, Milan; Suarez, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, OCT 01 (2016), s. 143-154 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 156/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Odontomachus * Anochetus * trap-jaw ants Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790316301804

  11. Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) communities in reclaimed and unreclaimed brown coal mining spoil dumps in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, Michal; Frouz, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2005), s. 345-357 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600660505; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/01/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : succession * ant * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2005

  12. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyregis A Nunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp. and Camponotus (8 spp. being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%, while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%. Most of the species (22 showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months. Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species observed each month. The speciesaccumulation curves (observed and estimated indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant abundance (R2=0.68. A similar negative linear correlation was found for species occurrences against rainfall (R2=0.71, and for mean number of species per pitfall trap against rainfall (R2=0.71. However, some species showed equal abundance, occurrence and mean number of individuals per pitfall trap in both seasons, while others showed a much higher abundance and occurrence during the rainy season. Pitfall trapping as a method to sample ground-foraging ant assemblage of the Caatinga biome and potential factors responsible for lower pitfall trap performance during rainy season are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1637-1650. Epub 2011 December 01.La Caatinga semiárida es el cuarto bioma más grande de Brasil. Pese a ello, es también el bioma brasileño cuya biota continúa siendo la más pobremente estudiada, especialmente en lo que se refiere a grupos de invertebrados. En este estudio se examinó durante un año el grupo de hormigas que forrajean en el suelo de un área de Caatinga y se evaluó el efecto de la lluvia sobre las trampas de caída. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área del municipio de Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, estado de Ceará. Se estableció un transecto de 200m con 20 puntos de muestreo equidistantes. El muestreo del transecto se realizó mensualmente durante 12 meses, entre Agosto 2008-Agosto 2009. En cada punto de muestreo se colocó al principio de cada mes una trampa de caída parcialmente llena con una mezcla de etanol y monoetilenglicol y se mantuvo en el campo durante siete días. Se recogieron 39 especies pertenecientes a seis subfamilias y 19 géneros, además de dos especies sin identificar, siendo Pheidole (10 spp y Camponotus (8 spp los taxones con más especies. Veintitrés especies fueron frecuentes, se registraron en más del 50% de los 12 transectos muestreados. Cinco especies tuvieron una frecuencia intermedia (25 a 50%, mientras 13 fueron relativamente infrecuentes (menos del 25%. La mayoría de las especies (22 mostraron una presencia baja, encontrándose en menos del 10% de las 240 muestras (20 muestras cada mes durante 12 meses. Sólo cinco especies fueron recogidas en más del 50% de las muestras, fueron además responsables de casi toda la abundancia total (número de individuos capturados de todas las especies mensual. Las curvas de acumulación de especies (observadas y estimadas indicaron que se consiguió un muestreo suficiente y que se había recogido cerca del 92% de la fauna estimada de hormigas terrícolas forrajeras. Se recogieron 40 y 29 especies durante las estaciones seca y lluviosa, respectivamente, con una riqueza de especies mensual entre 13 y 28. La abundancia total de especies mostró una disminución drástica durante la estación de lluvias, y se encontró una correlación linear negativa entre la pluviosidad y la abundancia total de hormigas (R2=0.68. Una correlación linear negativa similar se encontró entre la ocurrencia de especies y la pluviosidad (R2=0.71, y entre el número medio de especies por trampa de caída y la pluviosidad (R2=0.71. Sin embargo, mientras se observó que algunas especies tenían la misma abundancia, presencia, y número medio de individuos por trampa de caída en ambas estaciones, otras tenían una abundancia y presencia mucho mayor durante la estación lluviosa. Se discute el uso de trampas de caída como método para muestrear el grupo de hormigas que forrajean en el suelo del bioma de la Caatinga, así como los factores potenciales responsables del rendimiento más bajo de las trampas de caída durante la estación lluviosa.

  13. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyregis A Nunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp. and Camponotus (8 spp. being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%, while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%. Most of the species (22 showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months. Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species observed each month. The speciesaccumulation curves (observed and estimated indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant abundance (R2=0.68. A similar negative linear correlation was found for species occurrences against rainfall (R2=0.71, and for mean number of species per pitfall trap against rainfall (R2=0.71. However, some species showed equal abundance, occurrence and mean number of individuals per pitfall trap in both seasons, while others showed a much higher abundance and occurrence during the rainy season. Pitfall trapping as a method to sample ground-foraging ant assemblage of the Caatinga biome and potential factors responsible for lower pitfall trap performance during rainy season are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1637-1650. Epub 2011 December 01.

  14. Farmers' perceptions and practices in use of Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith)(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for biological control of pests of Sapodilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Cuc, N.T.T.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, a majority (61%) of 190 sapodilla farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam considered the black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith), beneficial in decreasing damage by the fruit borer Alophia sp. (51%), the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell) (43%), and "bad" ants, notably Cardiocondyla

  15. Foraging loads of red wood ants: Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in relation to tree characteristics and stand age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Foraging efficiency is critical in determining the success of organisms and may be affected by a range of factors, including resource distance and quality. For social insects such as ants, outcomes must be considered at the level of both the individual and the colony. It is important to understand whether anthropogenic disturbances, such as forestry, affect foraging loads, independent of effects on the quality and distribution of resources. We asked if ants harvest greater loads from more distant and higher quality resources, how individual efforts scale to the colony level, and whether worker loads are affected by stand age. Methods. First, we performed a fine-scale study examining the effect of distance and resource quality (tree diameter and species on harvesting of honeydew by red wood ants, Formica aquilonia, in terms of crop load per worker ant and numbers of workers walking up and down each tree (ant activity (study 1. Second, we modelled what the combination of load and worker number responses meant for colony-level foraging loads. Third, at a larger scale, we asked whether the relationship between worker load and resource quality and distance depended on stand age (study 2. Results. Study 1 revealed that seventy percent of ants descending trees carried honeydew, and the percentage of workers that were honeydew harvesters was not related to tree species or diameter, but increased weakly with distance. Distance positively affected load mass in both studies 1 and 2, while diameter had weak negative effects on load. Relationships between load and distance and diameter did not differ among stands of different ages. Our model showed that colony-level loads declined much more rapidly with distance for small diameter than large diameter trees. Discussion. We suggest that a negative relationship between diameter and honeydew load detected in study 1 might be a result of crowding on large diameter trees close to nests, while the increase in honeydew load with distance may result from resource depletion close to nests. At the colony level, our model suggests that very little honeydew was harvested from more distant trees if they were small, but that more distant larger trees continued to contribute substantially to colony harvest. Although forestry alters the activity and foraging success of red wood ants, study 2 showed that it does not alter the fundamental rules determining the allocation of foraging effort.

  16. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of the department of Antioquia, Colombia and new records for the country

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    Erika Valentina Vergara-Navarro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioquia is a state (department of Colombia, located in the northwestern Andes of South America. Geologically, the northwestern region of the Western Range in Antioquia and Chocó includes the fault resulting from the connection between the Isthmus of Panamá and South America. The Occidental and Central cordilleras in Colombia are characterized by a number of reliefs, valleys and water basins, containing historical biological refuges and endemisms. In this study, we present the first species-level checklist of the 255 species (in 64 genera and 14 subfamilies of ants currently known in Antioquia. One hundred and fifty-two (152 species had previously been registered for the state in different publications. Here, 103 additional species are recognized. Most of these species are distributed in other bioregions of the country as well. Forty-six percent are present in the Amazon Province and 36% in the Colombian Orinoco River basin. Less than 3% are found in the arid lands of the Colombian Caribbean area, Guyana, and the Colombian Pacific Province, plus the Caribbean islands. Sixty-three percent of the species are shared with Costa Rica. Our checklist constitutes the largest roster of ants at the species level for a state in Colombia to date and constitutes the beginning of the assessment of ant diversity in Antioquia. Many more field trips are necessary to gain a better understanding of the ant composition of this state. The following 13 species are new to the records for Colombia: Azteca diabolica, Camponotus amoris, C. eurynotus, C. pachylepis, C. propinquus, C. tonduzi, Cerapachys toltecus, Cylindromyrmex whymperi, Myrmicocrypta urichi, Pheidole angulifera, Pseudomyrmex lisus, Solenopsis subterranea and Trachymyrmex zeteki

  17. Genetic diversity and structure of Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini), an endangered species endemic to the restinga ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; Fernandes Salomão, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-09-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of the ant Atta robusta were assessed by ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeats) in 72 colonies collected from 10 localities in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo (48 colonies) and Rio de Janeiro (24 colonies). The ISSR pattern included 67 bands, 51 of them (76.1%) polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high level (57.4%) of inter-population variation, which suggested a high degree of genetic structure that was confirmed by UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic average) cluster analysis. The significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) indicated isolation that reflected the distance between locations. Overall, the populations were found to be genetically divergent. This finding indicates the need for management plans to preserve and reduce the risk of extinction of A. robusta.

  18. Impact of African weaver ant nests [Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)] on Mango [Mangifera indica L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae)] leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Sinzogan, Antonio; Adandonon, Appolinaire

    2015-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are appreciated for their control of pests in plantation crops. However, the ants´ nest building may have negative impacts on trees. In this study we tested the effect of ant densities and nest building on the leaf performance of mango trees. Trees were divided into three groups......: trees without ants, trees with low and trees with high ant densities. Subsequently, the total number of leaves, the proportion of leaves used for nest construction, and tree growth was compared between these groups. The percentage of leaves used for nests was between 0.42-1.2 % (mean = 0...

  19. Riqueza da fauna de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae que habita as camadas superficiais do solo em Seara, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rosa da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos, pela primeira vez, dados sobre a riqueza que compõem as comunidades de formigas subterrâneas no Sul do Brasil, comparando os resultados com dados sobre a fauna de formigas de serapilheira na mesma região, a partir de um estudo realizado em 9 sítios de Seara, oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, no domínio da Floresta Tropical Atlântica. Coletamos nas amostras de solo e serapilheira 113 espécies de formigas em 37 gêneros, sendo menos ricas as amostras de solo (71 espécies em 24 gêneros, enquanto que na serapilheira coletamos 81 espécies em 36 gêneros. Esses habitats compartilham 39 espécies. O índice de similaridade de Morisita-Horn indicou baixa sobreposição na composição de espécies entre a fauna de solo e serapilheira. Os valores de similaridade entre os sítios podem ser considerados médios. Uma análise de ordenação (NMDS indicou diferenças na estrutura de comunidades entre as faunas de solo e serapilheira e distribuição espacial agregada da fauna subterrânea. Nossos resultados indicam que existe uma forte complementariedade entre os dois segmentos de fauna. Concluímos que a fauna de formigas subterrâneas é um importante componente da riqueza de espécies de formigas que habita o solo e, que portanto protocolos para levantamentos quantitativos de formigas, devem incluir amostras de solo para uma melhor avaliação da sua diversidade em florestas tropicais.We present here, for the first time, data on species richness and abundance of subterranean ant assemblages in southern Brazil, based on a research on the subterranean ant fauna in 9 sites in Seara, West of Santa Catarina State, in the domain of Tropical Atlantic Forest, comparing our results with those of a leaf litter ant fauna survey conducted in the same region. We collected in both soil and litter samples 113 ant species belonging to 37 genera. Ants were much less species rich in soil samples (71 species in 24 genera, while in leaf litter we collected 81 ant species in 36 genera. These habitats share 39 ant species. Morisita-Horn similarity index indicated lower species overlap between soil and litter samples. The similarity values between sites can be considered medium. Overall, ordination analysis (nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in community structure between ant litter and subterranean ant faunas, and showed that the spatial distribution of subterranean species is aggregated. Our results indicate that there is a strong complementarity between these two faunistics segments. We conclude that the subterranean ant fauna is an important component of ant species richness in the soil; therefore survey protocols should include soil samples for a better assessments of the ant diversity in tropical forests.

  20. First standardized inventory of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the natural grasslands of Paraná: New records for Southern Brazil

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    Weslly Franco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the large number of studies investigating ant diversity in Brazilian biomes, no ant-related studies have been carried out in Campos Gerais, a grassland physiognomy in Paraná state. The present study is the first inventory of the ant fauna in one of the few conservation units protecting the Campos Gerais landscape, the Guartelá State Park (PEG. Sixty samples were collected from different habitats within PEG using pitfall traps. Qualitative samples of leaf litter were collected from forest fragments and submitted to Winkler extractors. In addition, manual qualitative sampling was carried out in the various physiognomies within the PEG. A total of 163 species was collected and sorted into 43 genera and nine subfamilies. Five genera and 28 species were recorded for the first time in the state of Paraná. Out of these, 17 species were also recorded for the first time in the Southern Region of Brazil and two were recorded for the first time to the country. The significant species richness in the PEG and the high number of new records is a strong sign of this ecosystem’s potential to reveal taxonomic novelties. These results suggest that PEG, and the Campos Gerais as a whole, should be the target of greater conservation efforts to preserve native remnants.

  1. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible

  2. Histiostoma Blomquisti N. SP. (Acari: Histiostomatidae) A phoretic mite of the red imported ant, Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Wirth; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    The new species Histiostoma bJol1lquisti n. sp., associated with the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta, is described by its deutonymph. A putative adult female is depicted. The deutonymphs only attach to female alates, dealates and queens of S. invicta. While queens may be covered by more than 200 deutonymphs over their entire bodies, the numbers of deutonymphs...

  3. The ant assemblage visiting extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis (Malvaceae) in a mangrove forest in Southeast Brazil (Hymenoptera : Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cogni, R; Freitas, AVL

    2002-01-01

    Ant species visiting extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of Hibiscus pernambucensis were studied in a daily flooded mangrove forest in Picinguaba, Southeast Brazil. Nineteen ant species in five subfamilies were observed visiting the EFNs. The most common species (in order of abundance) were Camponotus sp.2, Brachymyrmex sp. and Pseudomyrmex gracilis during the warm season and Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus crassus and Camponotus sp.2 during the cold season. A twenty-four hour census showed that ant ac...

  4. Determining the most effective concentration of cypermethrin and the appropriate carrier particle size for fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective particle size of DDGS (distiller's dried grains with solubles) as fire ant bait carrier, as well as the most effective concentration of cypermethrin as a toxicant against the red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren under laboratory conditions. The DDGS particle size did not affect the fire ant's preference for the bait, but it did affect the mass of DDGS being carried back to the nest. The size of the DDGS particles and the mass of DDGS being carried back to the nest were positively correlated. The most efficient particle size of DDGS was 0.8-2 mm. The concentration of cypermethrin has a specific range for killing fire ants in an efficient manner. Neither a very low nor a very high concentration of cypermethrin was able to kill fire ants efficiently. The most effective concentration of cypermethrin was 0.13% in DDGS when mixed with 15% shrimp shell powders and 11% soybean oil. Based on its ability to kill fire ants when mixed with cypermethrin, as well as the advantage of having a larger area coverage when sprayed in the field, DDGS as the carrier and cypermethrin as the toxicant can be considered to be an efficient way to prepare fire ant bait for controlling fire ants in infested areas. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Sinopsis de las hormigas dacetinas de los géneros daceton perty y acanthognathus mayr (formicidae: myrmicinae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Galvis

    2007-01-01

    se obtuvo una nueva especie registrada para Colombia del género Acanthognathus (A. brevicornis y una nueva especie para la ciencia. En cuanto al género Daceton, este se encontró distribuido a varios departamentos de la Orinoquía y Amazonía colombianas (Caquetá, Meta, Guaviare, Vichada, Guanía. El uso intensivo de trampas especializadas (principalmente Winkler así como el continuo muestreo en áreas protegidas o de interés ha incrementado el número de especies de hormigas de hojarasca colectadas, entre las cuales se encuentran las de estos dos géneros.

  6. EFEITO DO FOGO SOBRE A RIQUEZA DE FORMIGAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ASSOCIADAS À Pinus elliottii ENGELM. NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Jardel Boscardin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at assessing the effect of fire over an ant fauna associated to Pinus elliottii Engelm. The study was developed in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, in an experimental area next to the Campus of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, in a 28-year-old plantation of an hectare of Pinus elliottii, spacing 2m x 2m, on which a fire happened in the end of November, 2008. One month later, an ant fauna sampling was initiated, being concluded in November, 2009. The method of interception of wandering insects has been used through soil traps without attraction, distributed in the center of the population, being prepared 10 traps in simple linear transection, in intervals of 10 meters that remained buried for 48 hours. After such period, the biological material was packed in plastic pots, transported to the laboratory for a triage, where the ants were separated into morphospecies and proceeded to identification.From the surveys, 25 ant species were found, distributed in eleven genera, eight tribes and four subfamilies. From these, the ones who presented the biggest occurrence frequencies in their respective subfamilies were Pseudomyrmex termitarius (46,7%, Acromyrmex crassispinus, and Pachycondyla striata (both with 35,8%, and Camponotus blandus (25,0%. Fire is an agent of environmental disturbance many times significant, causing positive and negative effects over the edaphic fauna. Its action might have caused a negative indirect effect over Crematogaster victima and positive over Pseudomyrmex termitarius, Acromyrmex crassispinus, Pachycondyla striata and Camponotus blandus present in the understory of Pinus elliottii, after the fire.

  7. EFEITO DO FOGO SOBRE A RIQUEZA DE FORMIGAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ASSOCIADAS À Pinus elliottii ENGELM. NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do fogo sobre a fauna de formigas associada à Pinus elliottii Engelm. O estudo foi desenvolvido no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, numa área experimental junto ao Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, em um plantio de um hectare de Pinus elliottii com 28 anos de idade, com espaçamento de 2 m x 2 m, no qual ocorreu um incêndio no final de novembro de 2008. Um mês após, iniciou-se uma amostragem da fauna de formigas, concluída em novembro de 2009. Utilizou-se o método de interceptação de insetos perambulantes através do uso de armadilhas de solo sem atrativo, distribuídas no centro do povoamento, sendo dispostas 10 armadilhas em transecto linear simples, a intervalos de 10 metros e que permaneceram enterradas por 48 horas. Ao final deste período, o material biológico foi acondicionado em potes plásticos, encaminhado ao laboratório para triagem, onde as formigas foram separadas em morfoespécies e prosseguiram para identificação. A partir dos levantamentos foram encontradas 25 espécies de formigas distribuídas em onze gêneros, oito tribos e quatro subfamílias. Destas, as que apresentaram maiores frequências de ocorrência em suas respectivas subfamílias foram Pseudomyrmex termitarius (46,7%, Acromyrmex crassispinus e Pachycondyla striata (ambas com 35,8%, e Camponotus blandus (25,0%. O fogo é um agente de distúrbio ambiental por vezes significativo, causando efeitos positivos e negativos sobre a fauna edáfica. Sua ação pode ter gerado efeito indireto negativo sobre Crematogaster victima e positivo sobre Pseudomyrmex termitarius, Acromyrmex crassispinus, Pachycondyla striata e Camponotus blandus presentes no sub-bosque de Pinus elliottii, pós-incêndio. 

  8. Worker morphology of the ant Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr (Formicidae, Ectatomminae in different landscapes from the Atlantic Forest domain

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    Roseli F. Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators.

  9. Temporal polyethism, life expectancy, and entropy of workers of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida, 1987 (Formicidae: Ectatomminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Vieira, Alexsandro; Desidério Fernandes, Wedson; Fernando Antonialli-Junior, William

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the changes in the behavioral repertoire over the course of life and determined the life expectancy and entropy of workers of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi. Newly emerged ants were individually marked with model airplane paint for observation of behaviors and determination of the age and life expectancy. Ants were divided into two groups: young and old workers. The 36 behaviors observed were divided into eight categories. Workers exhibit a clear division of tasks throughout their lives, with young workers performing more tasks inside the colony and old workers, outside, unlike species that have small colonies. This species also exhibits an intermediate life expectancy compared to workers of other species that are also intermediary in size. This supports the hypothesis of a relationship between size and maximum life expectancy, but it also suggests that other factors may also be acting in concert. Entropy value shows a high mortality rate during the first life intervals.

  10. Nuptial flights behavior of the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and weather factors triggering flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2016-01-01

    years, we found that sexuals aggregate on nest surfaces prior to flights. We also found that flights took place during the raining season, and all flights took place in evenings just before sunset. Further to these, days with flights were associated with higher relative humidity and less sun shine...... collection of mated queens to stock ant nurseries that supply ant colonies for IPM-programs....

  11. A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

    2001-08-01

    Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

  12. Discovery of the Dinoponera lucida male (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), a threatened giant ant from the Atlantic rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárraga, Mayron E; Lattke, John E; Azevedo, Celso O

    2017-11-10

    The male of the endangered ant Dinoponera lucida Emery is described, providing morphometric measurements, high-resolution images, and a distribution map of the species. This ant inhabits the Brazilian Atlantic forest, an ecosystem strongly impacted by fragmentation. The males show clear morphological differences from the known males of other species of Dinoponera. We briefly discuss the relevance of the male description for the conservation strategies of this ant.

  13. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...... from the rice diet, relative to the leaf diet controls. Enzyme activity in the older, bottom sections of fungus gardens decreased, indicating a faster processing of the rice substrate compared to the leaf diet. These results suggest that leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens can rapidly adjust enzyme...

  14. Genetic diversity and structure of Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini), an endangered species endemic to the restinga ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; Fernandes Salomão, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of the ant Atta robusta were assessed by ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeats) in 72 colonies collected from 10 localities in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo (48 colonies) and Rio de Janeiro (24 colonies). The ISSR pattern included 67 bands, 51 of them (76.1%) polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high level (57.4%) of inter-population variation, which suggested a high degree of genetic structure that was confirmed by UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic average) cluster analysis. The significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) indicated isolation that reflected the distance between locations. Overall, the populations were found to be genetically divergent. This finding indicates the need for management plans to preserve and reduce the risk of extinction of A. robusta. PMID:25249782

  15. Two new Paraparatrechina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae species from the Seychelles, with notes on the hypogaeic weissi species-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John LaPolla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent survey work in the Seychelles has revealed two new species of Paraparatrechina that are here described: P. illusio sp. n. and P. luminella sp. n. A revised key to the workers of Paraparatrechina for the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions is provided. The taxonomy of the hypogaeic weissi species-group is also reviewed in light of recent field collections. The species P. sordida is revived from synonymy and given new status (as a full species and a discussion of the morphologically peculiar species-group is provided. With the description of the two species and the removal of another species from weissi synonomy there are now 16 Paraparatrechina species known from the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions.

  16. Ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species from southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Mostafa Sharaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We revise the taxonomy of the myrmicine ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group for the Arabian Peninsula. Six species are recognized: Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, M. clavicorne André, 1881, M. exiguum Forel, 1894, M. holothir Bolton, 1987, M. mohammedi sp. n., and M. sarawatense Sharaf & Aldawood, 2013. On the basis of the worker caste, we describe Monomorium mohammedi sp. n. from the southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We designate a neotype for Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti and redescribe and illustrate the worker caste. Furthermore, we provide a worker-based species identification key, distribution maps for the treated species, and ecological and biological notes, if available. Monomorium holothir is recorded for the first time from the KSA. Also, we propose M. clavicorne var. punica Santschi, 1915a as a junior synonym of M. clavicorne, as well as M. dryhimi Aldawood & Sharaf, 2011 and M. montanum Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 to be treated as junior synonyms of Monomorium exiguum.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Indo-Pacific carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus) reveals waves of dispersal and colonization from diverse source areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clouse, R. M.; Janda, Milan; Blanchard, B.; Sharma, P.; Hoffmann, B. D.; Andersen, A. N.; Czekanski-Moir, J. E.; Krushelnycky, P.; Rabeling, C.; Wilson, E. O.; Economo, E. P.; Sarnat, E. M.; General, D. M.; Alpert, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 424-437 ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Felloswhip(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Camponotus * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12099/epdf

  18. Gaeolaelaps Invictianus, a new and unusual species of Hypoaspidine Mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) phoretic on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Walter; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    A new species ofhypoaspidine laelapid mite, Gaeolaelaps invictianus, associated with the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren in the southern United States of America is described. This new species is unusual among the gamasine Mesostigmata in lacking a postanal seta in adults of both sexes and among species of Gaeolaelaps in being phoretic on dispersing male...

  19. EXPLORANDO EL PAPEL DE LA HORMIGA GENERALISTA SOLENOPSIS GEMINATA (FORMICIDAE: MYRMICINAE EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE SENNA SPECTABILIS (FABACEAE: CAESALPINIOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La colonización de los potreros por especies vegetales diferentes a los pastos está limitada por la escasez de dispersores primarios y la poca disponibilidad de sitios adecuados para la germinación de las plantas. Las hormigas generalistas de potrero podrían promover la dispersión secundaria de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica mediante la manipulación y el transporte de semillas hacia sus nidos. En este estudio se examinó la necesidad de la escarificación mecánica para la germinación de semillas de tres especies de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica: Guazuma ulmifolia, Pithecellobium dulce y Senna spectabilis en condiciones de laboratorio. La escarificación potenció la germinación de G. ulmifolia (5% vs. 37% y S. spectabilis (0% vs. 98.5% y disminuyó la germinación de P. dulce (94% vs. 87%. Se concluye que la escarificación mecánica es necesaria para la germinación de S. spectabilis y G. ulmifolia. Con el objeto de explorar si las hormigas inciden en la germinación, en el laboratorio se ofrecieron semillas de S. spectabilis sin escarificar a colonias de la hormiga de fuego Solenopsis geminata. No se obtuvo germinación, lo que sugiere que esta especie de hormiga no realiza escarificación mecánica ni química a las semillas, pero tampoco hubo evidencia de daño físico a las semillas. Finalmente, se comparó la germinación de semillas escarificadas de S. spectabilis en suelo de nidos inactivos de S. geminata y en suelo adyacente al nido, en invernadero y campo. En invernadero la germinación fue mayor en suelo de nidos que en suelo adyacente (98% vs. 86%, respectivamente pero en el campo sucedió lo contrario (24% vs. 43%, respectivamente. No se encontró evidencia que los cambios provocados al suelo por S. geminata favorezcan la germinación de S. spectabilis. Se recomienda evaluar la contribución del suelo de nidos en etapas post-germinación de establecimiento, supervivencia y crecimiento de plántulas.

  20. Do Mound Disturbance and Bait Placement Affect Bait Removal and Treatment Efficacy in Red Imported Fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Different Seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing P. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides empirical evidence that disturbing mound immediately before application, as opposed to label recommendation, did not reduce foraging activity of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, except for about 10-min delay in foraging. Despite the delayed foraging, there was no significant difference in the amount of baits foraged between disturbed and undisturbed colonies. Eventually, >96% of the baits were foraged, with the maximum removal occurred by 2 and 3 h, respectively, in summer and spring trial. The fastest and great amount of bait removal 1 h post-treatment occurred to baits placed on mound, followed by 0.18–0.3-m from mound base, and the slowest 1.08–1.2-m from mound base. All treatment gave 100% control 1 mo later, regardless of the season, without colony relocation or new colony invasion in the test plots.

  1. Identification, expression, and immuno-reactivity of Sol i 2 & Sol i 4 venom proteins of queen red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Stephanie A; Haghipour-Peasley, Jilla; Hoffman, Donald R; Deslippe, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    We report on two low-molecular weight proteins that are stored in the venom of queen red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Translated amino acid sequences identified one protein to have 74.8% identity with the Sol i 2w worker allergen, and the other protein was found to have 96/97% identity with Sol i 4.01w/4.02w worker allergens. Both Sol i 2 and Sol i 4 queen and worker proteins were expressed using pEXP1-DEST vector in SHuffle™ T7 Express lysY Escherichia coli. Proteins were expressed at significant concentrations, as opposed to the μg/ml amounts by our previous expression methods, enabling further study of these proteins. Sol i 2q protein bound weakly to human IgE, sera pooled from allergic patients, whereas Sol i 2w, Sol i 4.01w, and Sol i 4q proteins bound strongly. Despite Sol i 2w and Sol i 2q proteins having 74.8% identity, the queen protein is less immuno-reactive than the worker allergen. This finding is consistent with allergic individuals being less sensitive to queen than worker venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attack of the invasive garden ant: aggression behaviour of Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against native Lasius species in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Lommen, Suzanne T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species often dramatically change native species communities by directly and indirectly out-competing na-tive species. We studied the direct interference abilities of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus VAN LOON, BOOMSMA & ANDRÁSFALVY, 1990, by performing one-to-one aggression test...

  3. Karawajew's ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Alexander V; Radchenko, Alexander G

    2016-03-30

    The collection of W.A. Karawajew is one of the richest and most famous ant collections of the World. Much of this collection consists of dry mounted specimens, including types of about 550 taxa, housed in the Shmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev). Nevertheless, we located a considerable part of Karawajew's collection, containing about 25,000 specimens in alcohol, that is preserved in the National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev). The latter material was recently examined and we found types of 24 taxa. This type material was partly mounted, re-ordered and catalogued. In this paper we present a catalogue of these type specimens housed in the National Museum of Natural History.

  4. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum, the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  5. Gland origin and electroantennogram activity of volatile compounds in Ghost Ants, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and behavioral response to (Z)-9-Nonadecene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds in Tapinoma melanocephalum workers were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and iridodials that are common in ants of the genus of Tapinoma, (Z)-9-nonadecence was identified the first time in mandibular glands. Elec...

  6. ESTUDIOS SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO DE Acromyrmex lundi Guering (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE PROCEDENCIAS DE Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Martínez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El ataque de las hormigas cortadoras es una de las principales razones de pérdida de plantas durante la etapa de establecimiento de un monte forestal. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la intensidad de forrajeo de Acromyrmex lundi asociado a algunas condiciones ambientales y procedencias de Eucalyptus globulus y estimar el impacto de la herbivoría sobre el crecimiento inicial de estos árboles. Dos ensayos se llevaron a cabo durante dos temporadas estivo-otoñales consecutivas, en el Campo Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Luján, Argentina. Los materiales de diferentes procedencias fueron dispuestos en bloques equidistantes a 5 m de un nido activo de A. lundi. Durante doce semanas se contabilizó el número de hojas cortadas por las hormigas y se registraron algunas variables meteorológicas. En el segundo año la mitad de las parcelas fue protegida de las hormigas y se midieron variables de crecimiento. Los materiales de todas las procedencias fueron atacadas por A. lundi, aunque el número de hojas cosechada fue significativamente diferente sólo entre los orígenes Flinders Island (52,5 hojas y Nullo Mountain (28,5 hojas. El número de días lluviosos fue el único factor ambiental que se relacionó positivamente con la actividad de las hormigas.Todos los tratamientos redujeron significativamente la altura, el diámetro y el área foliar cuando fueron atacados por las hormigas. Las distintas procedencias compensaron diferencialemnte la herbivoría. Se discuten los resultados en función de los criterios a tener en cuenta para la selección de materiales genéticos como herramienta de manejo y control del ataque de A. lundi.

  7. Integrating Paleodistribution Models and Phylogeography in the Grass-Cutting Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Southern Lowlands of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykon Passos Cristiano

    Full Text Available Past climate changes often have influenced the present distribution and intraspecific genetic diversity of organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of populations of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863, a leaf-cutting ant species restricted to the open plains of South America. Additionally, we modeled the distribution of this species to predict its contemporary and historic habitat. From the partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I of 128 A. striatus workers from 38 locations we estimated genetic diversity and inferred historical demography, divergence time, and population structure. The potential distribution areas of A. striatus for current and quaternary weather conditions were modeled using the maximum entropy algorithm. We identified a total of 58 haplotypes, divided into five main haplogroups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that the largest proportion of genetic variation is found among the groups of populations. Paleodistribution models suggest that the potential habitat of A. striatus may have decreased during the Last Interglacial Period (LIG and expanded during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM. Overall, the past potential distribution recovered by the model comprises the current potential distribution of the species. The general structuring pattern observed was consistent with isolation by distance, suggesting a balance between gene flow and drift. Analysis of historical demography showed that populations of A. striatus had remained constant throughout its evolutionary history. Although fluctuations in the area of their potential historic habitat occurred during quaternary climate changes, populations of A. striatus are strongly structured geographically. However, explicit barriers to gene flow have not been identified. These findings closely match those in Mycetophylax simplex, another ant species that in some areas occurs in sympatry with A. striatus. Ecophysiological traits of this species and isolation by distance may together have shaped the phylogeographic pattern.

  8. Intraspecific variation and influence of diet on the venom chemical profile of the Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Formicidae) ant evaluated by photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Rafaella Caroline; Firmino, Ellen Liciane Barbosa; Mendonça, Angelica; Sguarizi-Antonio, Denise; Pereira, Márlon César; da Cunha Andrade, Luis Humberto; Antonialli-Junior, William Fernando; Lima, Sandro Marcio

    2017-10-01

    Studies of venomous animals have shown that environmental and genetic factors contribute to determining the chemical composition of venom. It is well known that external effects cause differences in the toxicity, concentration, and prey specificity of venom. However, the influence of different factors on the chemical profile of Hymenoptera venom remains little explored. In view of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate intraspecific differences and the influence of diet on the chemical profile of Ectatomma brunneum venom using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. For the study of intraspecific variation of the venom, foragers were collected at locations with different environmental conditions, such as urban, intermediate, woodland and monoculture sites. To investigate the influence of diet on the venom, two colonies were sampled in the same area and were maintained in the laboratory under controlled diet conditions and at room temperature. The mid-infrared absorption spectra obtained were interpreted using discriminant function analysis. The results showed significant differences among the chemical profiles of the venoms of individuals from different environments and individuals exposed to a controlled diet in the laboratory, suggesting that venom composition was determined not only by genetic traits inherent to the species, but also by exogenous factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An assessment of leaf-litter and epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) living in different landscapes of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta de Jesus Santos; Elmo Borges Azevedo Koch; Clarissa Machado Pinto Leite; Tiago Jordão Porto; Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has a rich biodiversity increasingly threatened by human activities. Since the colonial period, the coast of the state of Bahia is among the most affected regions of Brazil by anthropic pressure. Bahia encloses Atlantic Forest remnants distributed in an area reaching 100-200 km along the east-west axis, by 1,000 km along the north-south axis, parallel to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. We report hereafter the results of an intensive field survey of leaf litter a...

  10. Effect of the presence of brood and fungus on the nest architecture and digging activity of Acromyrmex subterraneus Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Carlos Magno dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the stimuli that trigger digging behavior in Acromyrmex subterraneus during nest building. The hypothesis was that the presence of the fungus garden and/or brood triggers the excavation of tunnels and chambers. For the experiment, the excavation rate of individually marked workers kept in plastic cylinders filled with soil was recorded. Four treatments were applied: (1 30 medium-sized workers, 5 g fungus garden and 30 brood items (larvae and pupae; (2 30 medium-sized workers and 5 g fungus garden; (3 30 medium-sized workers and 30 brood items; (4 30 medium-sized workers without fungus and brood. After 24 h, morphological parameters of nest structure (length and width of the chambers and tunnels in cm and the volume of excavated soil were recorded. In contrast to the expected findings, no change in morphological structure, rate of excavation by workers, or volume of excavated soil was observed between treatments, except for tunnel width, which was greater, when no brood or fungus garden was present. Thus, the results do not support the hypothesis that the fungus garden and/or brood are local stimuli for nest excavation or that they mold the internal architecture of the nest. Although this hypothesis was confirmed for Acromyrmex lundii and Atta sexdens rubropilosa, the same does not apply to A. subterraneus. The digging behavior of workers is probably the result of adaptation during nest building in different habitats.

  11. Diversity and ecology of arboricolous ant communities of Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a New Guinea rainforest with descriptions of four new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; McArthur, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, Sep 8 (2014), s. 141-158 ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP505/12/P875; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008 Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Formicinae * arboreal insects * Coccoidea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2014

  12. Taxonomy of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in the Afrotropical region with a revision of the P. arnoldi clade and description of four new species

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    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Proceratium Roger is updated for the Afrotropical region. We give an overview of the genus in the region, provide an illustrated identification key to the three clades (P. arnoldi, P. stictum and P. toschii clades and revise the P. arnoldi clade. Four new species from the P. arnoldi clade are described as new: P. sokoke sp. n. from Kenya, P. carri sp. n. from Mozambique, and P. nilo sp. n. and P. sali sp. n. from Tanzania. In order to integrate the new species into the existing taxonomic system we present an illustrated identification key to distinguish the seven Afrotropical species of the P. arnoldi clade. In addition, we provide accounts for all members of the P. arnoldi clade including detailed descriptions, diagnoses, taxonomic discussions, distribution data and high quality montage images.

  13. The first cytogenetic data on Strumigenys louisianae Roger, 1863 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Dacetini: the lowest chromosome number in the Hymenoptera of the neotropical region.

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    Ana Paula Alves-Silva

    Full Text Available In the present study, the first cytogenetic data was obtained for the ant species Strumigenys louisianae, from a genus possessing no previous cytogenetic data for the Neotropical region. The chromosome number observed was 2n = 4, all possessing metacentric morphology. Blocks rich in GC base pairs were observed in the interstitial region of the short arm of the largest chromosome pair, which may indicate that this region corresponds to the NORs. The referred species presented the lowest chromosome number observed for the subfamily Myrmicinae and for the Hymenoptera found in the Neotropical region. Observation of a low chromosome number karyotype has been described in Myrmecia croslandi, in which the occurrence of tandem fusions accounts for the most probable rearrangement for its formation. The accumulation of cytogenetic data may carry crucial information to ensure deeper understanding of the systematics of the tribe Dacetini.

  14. Effect of irradiation on queen survivorship and reproduction in the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta,(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and a generic phytosanitary irradiation treatment for ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ants are common hitchhiker pests on traded agricultural commodities that could be controlled by postharvest irradiation treatment. We studied radiation tolerance in queens of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren to determine the dose sufficient for its control. Virgin or fertile queens...

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and systematic position of two new species of the ant genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from Southeast Asia

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    Shingo Hosoishi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct new species of the ant genus Crematogaster, C. khmerensis sp. nov. and C. pfeifferi sp. nov., are described from Cambodia and Malaysia, respectively. The two species are unique among Asian Crematogaster in that they have vertically directed propodeal spines, but their systematic positions have not been determined based on morphological characters alone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 89 Crematogaster taxon matrices previously published plus C. khmerensis sp. nov., using nuclear genes, reveals that C. khmerensis sp. nov. is nested within the Australo-Asian Crematogaster clade. Morphological assignment of the developed pronotal shoulders implies a close relationship between C. khmerensis sp. nov. and the C. tetracantha-group. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we erect a new species group, C. khmerensis-group, to contain C. khmerensis sp. nov. and C. pfeifferi sp. nov. Divergence time estimates using MCMCTree shows that the root node of the C. khmerensis sp. nov. terminal is estimated to be of middle Miocene age at 15 million years old. The position of the C. khmerensis-group well supports the Oriental- to Australian-region dispersal history that has been proposed for the Australo-Asian Crematogaster clade.

  16. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diversity of the ground-dwelling ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of a moist, Montane forest of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, N L; Mourão, M A N; Araújo, F O; Melo, M V C; de Biseau, J C; Quinet, Y

    2005-01-01

    Although the so called "green islands" of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste" are economically, socially, and ecologically important. relatively little is known about their biodiversity. We present the results of the first survey of the ground-dwelling ant fauna of a secondary forest in the Serra de Baturité (4 degrees 05'-4 degrees 40' S / 38 degrees 30'-39 degrees 10' W), among the biggest of the moist, montane forests of the state of Ceará, Brazil. From February to March 2001, samples were taken every 50 m along twelve 200 m transects, each separated from the others by at least 50 m and cut on either side of a recreational trail. Where possible, two transects were cut from the same starting point on the trail, one on either side. At each sample site two methods were used, as recommended in the ALL. protocol: a pitfall trap and the treatment of 1 m2 of leaf litter with the Winkler extractor. The myrmecofauna of the Serra de Baturité is quite diverse: individuals from 72 species, 23 genera, and six subfamilies were collected. The observed patterns of specific richness show the same tendencies noted in other tropical regions, particularly the frequency of capture distribution with many rare and few abundant species. Differences with the Atlantic and Amazonian forests were also observed, especially the relative importance of the Ponerinac and Formicinae subfamilies, indicating a possible influence of the surrounding "caatinga" (savanna-like ecosystem) on the myrmecofauna of the moist, montane forest.

  18. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  19. Entedoninae wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in tropical America, with new species and notes on their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Christer; Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Eulophidae associated, or presumed to be associated with ants are described: two species of Horismenus Walker and one species of Microdonophagus Schauff. Information on the biology is also included. The two Horismenus species are from Chiapas, Mexico. Horismenus myrmecophagus sp. n. is known only from females and is a gregarious endoparasitoid in larvae of the weaver ant Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The parasitoids pupate inside the host larva, and an average of 6.7 individuals develops per host. This is the second time a species of genus Horismenus is found parasitizing the brood of a formicine ant of genus Camponotus. Horismenus microdonophagus sp. n. is described from both males and females, and is a gregarious endoparasitoid attacking the larvae of Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a predator on ant brood found in nests of Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The new species of Microdonophagus, Microdonophagus tertius, is from Costa Rica, and known only from the female. Nothing is known about its biology but since another species in same genus, Microdonophagus woodleyi Schauff, is associated with ants through its host, Microdon larva (with same biology as Horismenus microdonophagus), it is possible that also Microdonophagus tertius has this association. A new distributional record for Microdonophagus woodleyi is also reported, extending its distribution from Panama and Colombia to Brazil. PMID:22140342

  20. Comparative reproductive biology of the social parasite Acromyrmex ameliae de Souza, Soares & Della Lucia and of its host Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ilka M F; Della Lucia, Terezinha M C; Pereira, Alice S; Serrão, José E; Ribeiro, Myriam M R; De Souza, Danival J

    2010-01-01

    Social parasites exhibit several characteristics that allow them to exploit their host species efficiently. The smaller size of parasite species is a trait commonly found in ants. In this work, we investigated several aspects of the reproductive biology of Acromyrmex ameliae De Souza, Soares & Della Lucia, a recently discovered parasite of Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel. Sexuals of A. ameliae are substantially smaller than those from host species. Parasite queens laid significantly less worker eggs than host queens and inhibit sexual production of the host. The sex ratio of parasite species is highly female biased. Interestingly, we have observed parasite coupling on the laboratory, inside the nests and in the ground, opening the possibility to use controlled mating to study genetic approaches of parasitism in the ants.

  1. PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

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    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

  2. A Brazilian population of the asexual fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii (Formicidae, Myrmicinae, Attini cultivates fungal symbionts with gongylidia-like structures.

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    Virginia E Masiulionis

    Full Text Available Attine ants cultivate fungi as their most important food source and in turn the fungus is nourished, protected against harmful microorganisms, and dispersed by the ants. This symbiosis evolved approximately 50-60 million years ago in the late Paleocene or early Eocene, and since its origin attine ants have acquired a variety of fungal mutualists in the Leucocoprineae and the distantly related Pterulaceae. The most specialized symbiotic interaction is referred to as "higher agriculture" and includes leafcutter ant agriculture in which the ants cultivate the single species Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Higher agriculture fungal cultivars are characterized by specialized hyphal tip swellings, so-called gongylidia, which are considered a unique, derived morphological adaptation of higher attine fungi thought to be absent in lower attine fungi. Rare reports of gongylidia-like structures in fungus gardens of lower attines exist, but it was never tested whether these represent rare switches of lower attines to L. gonglyphorus cultivars or whether lower attine cultivars occasionally produce gongylidia. Here we describe the occurrence of gongylidia-like structures in fungus gardens of the asexual lower attine ant Mycocepurus smithii. To test whether M. smithii cultivates leafcutter ant fungi or whether lower attine cultivars produce gongylidia, we identified the M. smithii fungus utilizing molecular and morphological methods. Results shows that the gongylidia-like structures of M. smithii gardens are morphologically similar to gongylidia of higher attine fungus gardens and can only be distinguished by their slightly smaller size. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the fungal ITS sequence indicates that the gongylidia-bearing M. smithii cultivar belongs to the so-called "Clade 1"of lower Attini cultivars. Given that M. smithii is capable of cultivating a morphologically and genetically diverse array of fungal symbionts, we discuss whether asexuality of the ant host maybe correlated with low partner fidelity and active symbiont choice between fungus and ant mutualists.

  3. Phylogeny of Lasius ants based on mitochondrial DNA and morphology, and the evolution of social parasitism in the Lasiini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Folková, D.; Zrzavý, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 595-614 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Lasius * Acanthomyops Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.213, year: 2004

  4. Rediscovery of the enigmatic fungus-farming ant "Mycetosoritis" asper Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Implications for taxonomy, phylogeny, and the evolution of agriculture in ants.

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    Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper. Since the description of the type specimen in 1887, only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In 2014 we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. asper in the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina, Brazil. We describe here for the first time the male and larva of the species and complement the previous descriptions of both the queen and the worker. We describe, also for the first time, M. asper biology, nest architecture, and colony demographics, and identify its fungal cultivar. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that both M. asper and M. clorindae are members of the genus Cyphomyrmex, which we show to be paraphyletic as currently defined. More precisely, M. asper is a member of the Cyphomyrmex strigatus group, which we also show to be paraphyletic with respect to the genus Mycetophylax. Based on these results, and in the interest of taxonomic stability, we transfer the species M. asper, M. clorindae, and all members of the C. strigatus group to the genus Mycetophylax, the oldest available name for this clade. Based on ITS sequence data, Mycetophylax asper practices lower agriculture, cultivating a fungal species that belongs to lower-attine fungal Clade 2, subclade F.

  5. Value of Riparian Vegetation Remnants for Leaf-Litter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Miguel Á; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E

    2015-12-01

    Riparian remnants are linear strips of vegetation immediately adjacent to rivers that may act as refuges for biodiversity, depending on their habitat quality. In this study, we evaluated the role of riparian remnants in contributing to the diversity of leaf-litter ants by determining the relationship between ant diversity and several riparian habitat characteristics within a human-dominated landscape in Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 2012 during both dry and rainy seasons at 12 transects 100 m in length, where 10 leaf-litter samples were collected along each transect and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. A total of 8,684 individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, and seven subfamilies were collected. The observed mean alpha diversity accounted for 34.4% of the total species recorded and beta diversity for 65.6%. Species richness and composition were significantly related to litter-layer depth and soil compaction, which could limit the distribution of ant species depending on their nesting, feeding, and foraging habits. Riparian remnants can contribute toward the conservation of ant assemblages and likely other invertebrate communities that are threatened by anthropogenic pressures. In human-dominated landscapes where remnants of riparian vegetation give refuge to a diverse array of myrmecofauna, the protection of the few remaining and well-preserved riparian sites is essential for the long-term maintenance of biodiversity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Local distortion of the earth’s magnetic field as a proposal for handling the leafcutter ant species Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Hernán Paz Penagos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the spatial orientation of social insects (bees, termites and ants concerning their search for food, foraging and transporting it have received considerable attention during the last few years. Such studies have been aimed at learning so as to apply it to robotics (multiagents and ecological pest control. However, little is known about the types of orientation mechanism and their integration in such insects. This article presents some geomagnetic field detection studies dealing with controlling them by magnetotaxis or orientation experiments in Sasaima (Cundinamarca to formulate an ecological management proposal for ants from this species which greatly affect Colombian agriculture.

  7. An assessment of leaf-litter and epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae living in different landscapes of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Roberta de Jesus Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has a rich biodiversity increasingly threatened by human activities. Since the colonial period, the coast of the state of Bahia is among the most affected regions of Brazil by anthropic pressure. Bahia encloses Atlantic Forest remnants distributed in an area reaching 100-200 km along the east-west axis, by 1,000 km along the north-south axis, parallel to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. We report hereafter the results of an intensive field survey of leaf litter and epigaeic ants realized in forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest landscapes within the original extension of the biome in 11 localities distributed along four degrees of latitude in the state of Bahia. In each site, 16 plots were collected using pitfall and eight using Winkler traps. We identified 391 ant species belonging to 71 genera and nine subfamilies. Among all species recorded, 21 were common to the whole 11 localities, while 98 species were recorded in a single locality. This study highlights the richness and diversity of epigaeic and leaf-litter ants living in the northern part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and is one of the most representative soil ants’ inventories ever done in this biome for a single state of Brazil.

  8. Distribución, mortalidad y asociación con plantas, de nidos de Paraponera clavata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la isla de Barro Colorado, Panamá

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    Rolando Pérez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución, mortalidad, reclutamiento y asociación con plantas, de 308 nidos de la hormiga neotropical Paraponera clavata en una parcela de cincuenta hectáreas de bosque viejo en la isla de Barro Colorado entre septiembre de 1993 y febrero de 1995. Los nidos estaban distribuidos uniformemente a través de toda la parcela, y se asociaban de manera significativa con el tipo de hábitat, existían más nidos de los esperados en las planicies altas y en la sección de bosque más joven de la parcela. La densidad promedio era de 6.2 nidos por hectárea. Los nidos con un mayor número de vecinos entre 0 y 20 m de distancia, tenían una mayor probabilidad de morir, si se comparaban con aquéllos que se encontraban separados por distancias mayores. La mortalidad era entre 13.36 y 69.64% dependiendo del intervalo de censo, y el reclutamiento fue del 22.63 y 31.72%. Los nidos se encontraron en las bases de 84 especies de plantas, en 34 familias con cuatro categorías de forma de vida: 76 especies eran árboles, 5 especies eran arbustos, 2 especies eran palmas y 1 era liana. Ocho especies de plantas se asociaban positivamente con los nidos de la hormiga. Plantas medianas entre 8 y 63.9 cm de DAP eran las más utilizadas. Arboles y arbustos pequeños presentan muy poca asociación con los nidos. La hormiga no se asocia con árboles que tienen nectarios extraflorales. El 53% de los nidos tenían a Phrynus gervaisii (Amblypygi: Phrynidae habitando en el interior. Estos nidos presentaron menores tasas de mortalidad en comparación con el resto.We studied the distribution, mortality and association with plants, of 308 nests of the neotropical ant Paraponera clavata, in a permanent 50 hectare plot in old-growth forest on Barro Colorado island between September 1993 and February 1995. Ant nests were uniformly dispersed throughout the plot, and significantly associated with the high plateau and patch of young forest in the plot. The average density was 6.2 nests per hectare. Mortality of nests was higher with increasing number of neighbors within 20 m, compared to those separated at greater distances. The mortality was between 13.36% and 69.64% depending on the census interval, and recruitment between 22.63% and 31.72%. The nests were found in 84 plant species of 34 families, pertaining to four life forms: 76 species were trees, 5 were shrubs, 2 were palms and one was a liana. We tested for association between ant nests and tree species and tree size by examining whether nests were more common in certain categories than would be expected by change. Eight species of plants were positively associated with Paraponera clavata. The ant preferentially selected trees between 8 and 63.9 cm diameter at breast height. Trees and small shrubs were not associated with the nests. No association was found between ant nests and trees with extra-floral nectaries. Fifty-three percent of the nests had a Phrynus gervaisii (Amblypygi: Phrynidae cohabiting inside. These nests had lower mortality rates than the rest.

  9. Colony Structure and Nest Location of Two Species of Dacetine Ants: Pyramica ohioensis (Kennedy & Schramm and Pyramica rostrata (Emery in Maryland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Richard M. Duffield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of numerous Pyramica ohioensis and P. rostrata colonies living in acorns, as well as the efficient recovery of colonies from artificial nests placed in suitable habitats, opens a new stage in the study of North American dacetine ants. Here we present detailed information, based on 42 nest collections, on the colony structure of these two species. P. ohioensis colonies are smaller than those of P. rostrata. Both species are polygynous, but nests of P. ohioensis contain fewer dealate queens than those of P. rostrata. This is the first report of multiple collections of Pyramica colonies nesting in fallen acorns, and of the use of artificial nesting cavities to sample for dacetines in the soil and leaf litter. We describe an artificial cavity nest design that may prove useful in future investigations.

  10. Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n., a new species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from China, with a key to the Chinese members of the group

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    Michael Staab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aenictus is the most species-rich genus of army ants in the subfamily Dorylinae and one of the most species rich ant genera in China and the world. In this paper, a new species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group, Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n., is described and illustrated based on the worker caste. The new species occurs in the subtropical forests of south-east China and is morphologically most similar to A. henanensis Li & Wang, 2005 and A. wudangshanensis Wang, 2006. Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n. can be distinguished from both species by the shape of the subpetiolar process. The new species also resembles Aenictus lifuiae Terayama 1984 and A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993 but clearly differs in various features of the cuticular sculpture. A key to the Chinese species of the A. ceylonicus group based on the worker caste is provided, which may help to reassess and clarify the taxonomic status of the abundant Chinese records of the true A. ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866, a species which almost certainly does not occur in China. Several new locality records are given, among them the first record of A. watanasiti Jaitrong & Yamane, 2013 from China.

  11. Intraspecific and Intracolonial Variation in the Profile of Venom Alkaloids and Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the Fire Ant Solenopsis saevissima Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire ants are aggressive Neotropical ants that are extensively similar in general biology and morphology, making species identification difficult. Some fire ant species are top-rated pests spreading throughout the world by trade vessels. Many researchers attempted to sort between invasive and native species by using chemical characters, including patterns of venom alkaloids. The present study is the first to report intraspecific variation in some chemical characters, namely, cuticular hydrocarbons and venom alkaloids, within the Brazilian fire ant species Solenopsis saevissima and also reports on within-nest variations among members of different castes. Two different haplotypes (cryptic species of S. saevissima were clearly identified, one presenting a predominant combination of the venom alkaloids cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidine with the cuticular hydrocarbons C23, 3-Me-C23, 10-C25 : 1, C25, and 3-Me-C25, and the other a predominant combination of cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-tridecenylpiperidine with predominance of 12-C25 : 1, C25, 11-Me-C25, 3-Me-C25, 13-C27 : 1, C27, and 13-Me-C27. Intranest variations revealed that the proportions among these compounds varied sensibly among workers of different sizes, gynes, and males (no alkaloids were detected in the latter. Larva contained vestiges of the same compounds. The recorded chemical profiles are quite different from previous reports with S. saevissima samples from São Paulo. The finds thus support other recent claims that S. saevissima includes cryptic species; the study, moreover, adds the find that they can occur in the same geographical location.

  12. A new ant species of Oxyepoecus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae, with the description of Oxyepoecus browni gyne and new records for the genus

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    Mônica A. Ulysséa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Oxyepoecus Santschi, 1926, Oxyepoecus regularis sp. nov., based on workers and a gyne collected in "Caatinga Arbórea" (Arboreal Shrubland in Milagres and "Mata Seca" (Dry Forest in Boa Vista do Tupim, both in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The gyne of Oxyepoecus browni Albuquerque & Brandão, 2004, collected in the same leaf litter ant survey, is also described. In addition, we present new records for Oxyepoecus species in Northeastern Brazil.

  13. Chemical and behavioural studies of the trail-following pheromone in the leaf-cutting ant Atta opaciceps, Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos, R. S.; Mendonca, A. L.; Cabral Jr, C. R.; Vaníčková, Lucie; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 86, Mar (2016), s. 25-31 ISSN 0022-1910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : venom gland * trail pheromone * two-dimensional gas chromatography * leaf-cutting ants Atta sp. Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2016

  14. How common is trophobiosis with hoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) inside ant nests (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)? Novel interactions from New Guinea and a world-wide overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Borovanská, Michaela; Plowman, Nichola S.; Leponce, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 26, FEB 01 (2018), s. 31-45 ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36098G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) FNRS-17-04 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ants * Fulgoroidea * Formicinae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2016

  15. A catalogue of Cephalotini ant types (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

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    Lívia P. Prado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenoptera laboratory of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP houses one of the most representative collections of Neotropical ants worldwide. This is due to the wide geographical distribution of its specimens, and also because of the comparatively large number of types and taxa represented. The catalogue, following the general recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, lists types of the tribe Cephalotini deposited in the collection of MZSP; also providing information regarding labels, original publications, state of conservation of specimens, taxonomic status of listed species, and their current classification when different from the original. An index for the listed taxa is also provided. In total, the catalogue lists types of 43 nominal species, of which 23 are still valid, from the two recognized genera Cephalotes and Procryptocerus (four represented by holotypes, 17 by holotypes and paratypes, 15 by paratypes, five by syntypes, one by a lectotype and one by a neotype.

  16. Teste da Hipótese “Size-Grain”: Influência da Rugosidade do Ambiente sobre Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Luciano Martins

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that smaller ants are more successful in exploring environmental interstices than larger ants, whereas environments with less rugosity are better for larger ants. The experiment was conducted in a secondary forest located in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State (23 11’00’’S, 44 11’44’’O. Fourteen sites were randomly selected and in each site three plots (50cm x 50cm were demarcated. The leaf litter was removed from the plots and were applied treatments that simulated environments with different rugosity levels: low (no leaf litter, medium (only bamboo leaves and high (with leaf litter. Food baits were exposed in the center of the plots and the first ant that access the baits was collected. The total length of the ants was significantly lower in the treatment with higher level of rugosity (Tukey, p <0.05. The results confirmed the hypothesis that environments with high levels of rugosity favours smaller ants.

  17. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

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    Debora R. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In the eucalyptus forests, the study examined both managed and unmanaged plantations. During five months, all undecomposed twigs between 10 and 30 cm in length containing ants found within a 16-m2 area on the surface of the leaf litter were collected. A total of 307 nests and 44 species were recorded. Pheidole, Solenopsis, and Camponotus were the most represented genera. Pheidole sp.13, Pheidole sp.43 and Linepithema neotropicum were the most populous species. The dense ombrophilous forest and a eucalyptus plantation unmanaged contained the highest number of colonized twigs; these communities were the most similar and the most species rich. Our results indicate that the twigs are important resources as they help to maintain the litter diversity of dense rain forest and abandoned eucalypt crops.

  18. Comparison between Winkler's extractor and pitfall traps to estimate leaf litter ants richness (Formicidae at a rainforest site in southest Brazil

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    G. Orsolon-Souza

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in the same site the efficiency of the two most used techniques for sampling ant diversity, Winkler's extractors and pitfalls. We studied communities of leaf litter ants from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, compared richness estimates for genera and species, and built species accumulation curves. These two methods resulted in a satisfactory sampling of richness; 21.3% of the genera and 47.6% of the species were collected exclusively with Winkler's extractors, whereas 6.4% of the genera and 9.5% of the species were collected exclusively with pitfalls. Winkler's extractor had proven to be the most efficient single sampling technique to estimate richness. However, pitfalls also recorded a significant portion of the total richness. Despite differences in efficiency, species accumulation curves for both techniques were similar, as well as the curve obtained with both methods combined. We noticed that Winkler's extractors were c. 74.0% more efficient than pitfalls in the Atlantic Forest. Therefore, sampling techniques must be used with a well-structured sampling design in order to advance knowledge on the ant fauna of Brazilian biomes, especially in the leaf litter, allowing more complete environmental analyses.

  19. Undecomposed Twigs in the Leaf Litter as Nest-Building Resources for Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern Region of Brazil

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    Tae Tanaami Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, the leaf-litter stratum exhibits one of the greatest abundances of ant species. This diversity is associated with the variety of available locations for nest building. Ant nests can be found in various microhabitats, including tree trunks and fallen twigs in different stages of decomposition. In this study, we aimed to investigate undecomposed twigs as nest-building resources in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forest areas in the southeastern region of Brazil. Demographic data concerning the ant colonies, the physical characteristics of the nests, and the population and structural of the forest were observed. Collections were performed manually over four months in closed canopy locations that did not have trails or flooded areas. A total of 294 nests were collected, and 34 ant species were recorded. Pheidole, Camponotus, and Hypoponera were the richest genera observed; these genera were also among the most populous and exhibited the greatest abundance of nests. We found no association between population size and nest diameter. Only tree cover influenced the nest abundance and species richness. Our data indicate that undecomposed twigs may be part of the life cycle of many species and are important for maintaining ant diversity in the leaf litter.

  20. Removal and Burial of Weed Seeds by Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From the Soil Surface of a Cropped Area in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkey, D M; Spafford, H

    2016-10-01

    Although granivorous ants are known to collect weed seeds from cropping areas in Australia, the fate of these seeds has not been adequately investigated. Seeds of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) were placed around the nests of five native ant species (Iridomyrmex greensladei Shattuck, Rhytidoponera metallica Smith, Melophorus turneri Forel, Monomorium rothsteini Forel, and Pheidole hartmeyeri Forel) and tracked continuously over a 24-h period. Removal rates and seed preference of the ant species were evaluated. Ant nests were then excavated to determine the placement of seeds that were taken into each nest. Seed preference, seed removal efficiencies, activity, and seed storage all varied between the ant species. Annual ryegrass seed was collected by three species of ants and was removed from the soil surface more efficiently than wild radish seed. Most ant species stored seed below ground at a depth that is inhibitory to emergence, thereby potentially removing that portion of seed from the seed bank, but some seed was placed at germinable depths. Pheidole hartmeyeri was identified as a likely biological control agent for annual ryegrass seeds and wild radish, while Me. turneri and Mo. rothsteini have potential as biocontrol agents for annual ryegrass, but further research is needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. X-Ray microtomography for ant taxonomy: An exploration and case study with two new Terataner (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae species from Madagascar.

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    Francisco Hita Garcia

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT for the field of ant taxonomy by using it to enhance the descriptions of two remarkable new species of the ant genus Terataner: T. balrog sp. n. and T. nymeria sp. n.. We provide an illustrated worker-based species identification key for all species found on Madagascar, as well as detailed taxonomic descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, measurements, natural history data, high-quality montage images and distribution maps for both new species. In addition to conventional morphological examination, we have used virtual reconstructions based on volumetric μCT scanning data for the species descriptions. We also include 3D PDFs, still images of virtual reconstructions, and 3D rotation videos for both holotype workers and one paratype queen. The complete μCT datasets have been made available online (Dryad, https://datadryad.org and represent the first cybertypes in ants (and insects. We discuss the potential of μCT scanning and critically assess the usefulness of cybertypes for ant taxonomy.

  2. Comparison Between Ground Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities Foraging in the Straw Mulch of Sugarcane Crops and in the Leaf Litter of Neighboring Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N S; Saad, L P; Souza-Campana, D R; Bueno, O C; Morini, M S C

    2017-02-01

    In many sugarcane plantations in Brazil, the straw is left on the soil after harvesting, and vinasse, a by-product of the production of sugar and ethanol, is used for fertigation. Our goal was to compare ant community composition and species richness in the straw mulch of sugarcane crops with the leaf litter of neighboring forests. We tested the hypothesis that ant communities in the straw mulch of vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops and in the forest leaf litter were similar, because the combination of straw mulching and vinasse irrigation has a positive effect on soil fauna. Straw mulch and leaf litter were collected from 21 sites and placed in Berlese funnels. In total, 61 species were found in the forest leaf litter, whereas 34 and 28 species were found in the straw mulch of sugarcane fields with and without vinasse, respectively. Ant communities differed between forest and crop fields, but the species in the sugarcane straw mulch were a subset of the species found in the forest leaf litter. Although vinasse is rich in organic matter, it did not increase ant diversity. Seven feeding and/or foraging types were identified and, among the different types, surface-foraging omnivorous ants were the most prevalent in all habitats. Vinasse-irrigated sugarcane straw mulch had more predatory species than mulch from vinasse-free fields, but fewer than forest leaf litter. However, this positive effect of vinasse irrigation should be carefully evaluated because vinasse has negative effects on the environment. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparative physical mapping of 18S rDNA in the karyotypes of six leafcutter ant species of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Gisele Amaro; Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; das Graças Pompolo, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Leafcutter ants of the Atta and Acromyrmex genera are important plagues in different cultures. Cytogenetic data on chromosome number, morphology, and chromosomal banding pattern are only available for 17 species of leafcutter ants. Molecular cytogenetic data for the detection of ribosomal genes by the FISH technique are scarce, and only 15 Neotropical ant species have been studied. This study aimed to physically map the 18S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) of six leafcutter ants belonging to the genera Atta and Acromyrmex using FISH. The results were compared with data on the fluorochrome CMA 3 currently available for these species. All analyzed species presented the 18S rDNA on one pair of chromosomes. In Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans and Ac. aspersus, FISH signals were observed in the terminal region of the short arm of the largest subtelocentric pair, while in Atta bisphaerica, A. laevigata, and A. sexdens, FISH signals were observed in the interstitial region of the long arm of the fourth metacentric pair. In Acromyrmex striatus, 18S rDNA was located in the interstitial region of the second metacentric pair. The karyotypic formula for Ac. aspersus was 2n = 38 (8m + 10sm + 16st + 4a), representing the first report in this species. The observed 18S rDNA regions in A. laevigata, A. sexdens, A. bisphaerica, Ac. aspersus, and Ac. subterraneus molestans corresponded to the CMA 3 + bands, while in Ac. striatus, several GC-rich bands and one pair of 18S rDNA bands were observed. No differential bands were visible using the DAPI fluorochrome. Karyotype uniformity with previously studied Atta spp. was also observed at the level of molecular cytogenetics using 18S rDNA FISH. A difference in the size of the chromosomal pair carrying the 18S rDNA gene was observed in Ac. striatus (2n = 22) and Atta spp. (2n = 22) highlighting the dissimilarity between these species. The results from the present study contribute to the description of 18S rDNA clusters in Neotropical ants.

  4. Redescripción de la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina

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    Estela M. QUIRÁN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado está compuesto por obreras y fue recolectado sobre Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae, dentro de las agallas de Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.

  5. Can temperate insects take the heat? A case study of the physiological and behavioural responses in a common ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus (Formicidae), with potential climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nigel R; Hart, Robert A; Jung, Myung-Pyo; Hemmings, Zac; Terblanche, John S

    2013-09-01

    Insects in temperate regions are predicted to be at low risk of climate change relative to tropical species. However, these assumptions have generally been poorly examined in all regions, and such forecasting fails to account for microclimatic variation and behavioural optimisation. Here, we test how a population of the dominant ant species, Iridomyrmex purpureus, from temperate Australia responds to thermal stress. We show that ants regularly forage for short periods (minutes) at soil temperatures well above their upper thermal limits (upper lethal temperature = 45.8 ± 1.3°C; CT(max) = 46.1°C) determined over slightly longer periods (hours) and do not show any signs of a classic thermal performance curve in voluntary locomotion across soil surface temperatures of 18.6-57°C (equating to a body temperature of 24.5-43.1°C). Although ants were present all year round, and dynamically altered several aspects of their thermal biology to cope with low temperatures and seasonal variation, temperature-dependence of running speed remained invariant and ants were unable to elevate high temperature tolerance using plastic responses. Measurements of microclimate temperature were higher than ant body temperatures during the hottest part of the day, but exhibited a stronger relationship with each other than air temperatures from the closest weather station. Generally close associations of ant activity and performance with microclimatic conditions, possibly to maximise foraging times, suggest I. purpureus displays highly opportunistic thermal responses and readily adjusts behaviour to cope with high trail temperatures. Increasing frequency or duration of high temperatures is therefore likely to result in an immediate reduction in foraging efficiency. In summary, these results suggest that (1) soil-dwelling temperate insect populations may be at higher risks of thermal stress with increased frequency or duration of high temperatures resulting from climate change than previously thought, however, behavioural cues may be able to compensate to some extent; and (2) indices of climate change-related thermal stress, warming tolerance and thermal safety margin, are strongly influenced by the scale of climate metrics employed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the slave-maker ant queen, Polyergus breviceps emery, after killing a Formica host queen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C A; Vander Meer, R K; Lavine, B

    2001-09-01

    Queens of the slave-maker ant, Polyergus breviceps, take over nests of their Formica host species by fatally attacking the resident queen. As workers only begin grooming the P. breviceps queen once she has ceased her attack, we investigated whether a change in parasite queen chemistry may account for the change in worker behavior. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of newly mated P. breviceps queens and of queens of their two Formica host species were found to be species-specific. Profiles of newly mated P. breviceps queens that had attacked a Formica queen, however, were virtually identical to the queen profile of the species killed. Mass spectral analysis revealed that the hydrocarbons on the cuticles of newly mated P. breviceps changed from primarily normal alkanes to methyl and di-methyl branched alkanes after attacks. The results suggest that cuticular compounds from the host queen were transferred to the parasite queen during their aggressive interaction.

  7. Significance of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (hymenoptera: formicidae) as part of the natural enemy complex responsible for successful biological control of many tropical irrigated rice pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, M J; Heong, K L

    2009-10-01

    The tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) often nests very abundantly in the earthen banks (bunds) around irrigated rice fields in the tropics. Where some farmers habitually drain fields to the mud for about 3-4 days, the ants can quickly spread up to about 20 m into the fields where they collect food, including pest prey such as the eggs and young of the apple snail Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck) and insects such as lepidopterous larvae and hoppers, notably Nilaparvata lugens (Stäl) the brown planthopper (Bph) and green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. Even in drained fields, the activity of S. geminata is restricted by rainfall in the wet season. The relatively few ant workers that forage characteristically into drained fields and on to the transplanted clumps of rice plants (hills) kill the normally few immigrant Bph adults but are initially slower acting than other species of the natural enemy complex. However, larger populations of Bph are fiercely attacked and effectively controlled by rapidly recruited ant workers; whereas, in the absence of the ant, the other natural enemies are inadequate. In normal circumstances, there is no ant recruitment in response to initially small populations of immigrant Bph and no evidence of incompatibility between ant foragers and other natural enemies such as spiders. However, when many ants are quickly and aggressively recruited to attack large populations of Bph, they temporarily displace some spiders from infested hills. It is concluded that, in suitable weather conditions and even when insecticides kill natural enemies within the rice field, periodic drainage that enables S. geminata to join the predator complex is valuable for ant-based control of pests such as snails and Lepidoptera, and especially against relatively large populations of Bph. Drainage practices to benefit ants are fully compatible with recent research, which shows that periodic drainage combats problems of 'yield decline' in intensively irrigated tropical rice and is also needed in South East Asia to make better use of seriously declining water supplies for irrigation.

  8. Colobopsis explodens sp. n., model species for studies on “exploding ants” (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with biological notes and first illustrations of males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laciny, Alice; Zettel, Herbert; Kopchinskiy, Alexey; Pretzer, Carina; Pal, Anna; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Hoenigsberger, Michaela; Lim, Linda; Jaitrong, Weeyawat; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on “exploding ants” in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY) group and falls into a species complex that has been repeatedly summarized under the name Colobopsis saundersi (Emery, 1889) (formerly Camponotus saundersi). The COCY species group is known under its vernacular name “exploding ants” for a unique behaviour: during territorial combat, workers of some species sacrifice themselves by rupturing their gaster and releasing sticky and irritant contents of their hypertrophied mandibular gland reservoirs to kill or repel rivals. This study includes first illustrations and morphometric characterizations of males of the COCY group: Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. and Colobopsis badia (Smith, 1857). Characters of male genitalia and external morphology are compared with other selected taxa of Camponotini. Preliminary notes on the biology of C. explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. are provided. To fix the species identity of the closely related C. badia, a lectotype from Singapore is designated. The following taxonomic changes within the C. saundersi complex are proposed: Colobopsis solenobia (Menozzi, 1926), syn. n. and Colobopsis trieterica (Menozzi, 1926), syn. n. are synonymized with Colobopsis corallina Roger, 1863, a common endemic species of the Philippines. Colobopsis saginata Stitz, 1925, stat. n., hitherto a subspecies of C. badia, is raised to species level. PMID:29706783

  9. Colobopsis explodens sp. n., model species for studies on “exploding ants” (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with biological notes and first illustrations of males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Laciny; Herbert Zettel; Alexey Kopchinskiy; Carina Pretzer; Anna Pal; Kamariah Abu Salim; Mohammad Javad Rahimi; Michaela Hoenigsberger; Linda Lim; Weeyawat Jaitrong; Irina S. Druzhinina

    2018-01-01

    A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on “exploding ants” in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY) group and falls into a species complex that has been repeatedly summarized under the name Colobopsis saundersi (Emery, 1889) (formerly Camponotus saundersi). The COCY species group is known under ...

  10. Colobopsis explodens sp. n., model species for studies on "exploding ants" (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with biological notes and first illustrations of males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group

    OpenAIRE

    Laciny, Alice; Zettel, Herbert; Kopchinskiy, Alexey; Pretzer, Carina; Pal, Anna; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Javad Rahimi, Mohammad; Hoenigsberger, Michaela; Lim, Linda; Jaitrong, Weeyawat; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2018-01-01

    A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on "exploding ants" in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY) group and falls into a species complex that has been repeatedly summarized under the name Colobopsis saundersi (Emery, 1889) (formerly Camponotus saundersi). The COCY species group is known under its vern...

  11. Colobopsis explodens sp. n., model species for studies on "exploding ants" (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with biological notes and first illustrations of males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laciny, Alice; Zettel, Herbert; Kopchinskiy, Alexey; Pretzer, Carina; Pal, Anna; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Hoenigsberger, Michaela; Lim, Linda; Jaitrong, Weeyawat; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2018-01-01

    A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on "exploding ants" in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY) group and falls into a species complex that has been repeatedly summarized under the name Colobopsis saundersi (Emery, 1889) (formerly Camponotus saundersi ). The COCY species group is known under its vernacular name "exploding ants" for a unique behaviour: during territorial combat, workers of some species sacrifice themselves by rupturing their gaster and releasing sticky and irritant contents of their hypertrophied mandibular gland reservoirs to kill or repel rivals. This study includes first illustrations and morphometric characterizations of males of the COCY group: Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. and Colobopsis badia (Smith, 1857). Characters of male genitalia and external morphology are compared with other selected taxa of Camponotini. Preliminary notes on the biology of C. explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. are provided. To fix the species identity of the closely related C. badia , a lectotype from Singapore is designated. The following taxonomic changes within the C. saundersi complex are proposed: Colobopsis solenobia (Menozzi, 1926), syn. n. and Colobopsis trieterica (Menozzi, 1926), syn. n. are synonymized with Colobopsis corallina Roger, 1863, a common endemic species of the Philippines. Colobopsis saginata Stitz, 1925, stat. n ., hitherto a subspecies of C. badia , is raised to species level.

  12. A Brazilian Population of the Asexual Fungus-Growing Ant Mycocepurus smithii (Formicidae, Myrmicinae, Attini) Cultivates Fungal Symbionts with Gongylidia-Like Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masiulionis, Virginia E.; Rabeling, Christian; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    2014-01-01

    gongylophorus. Higher agriculture fungal cultivars are characterized by specialized hyphal tip swellings, so-called gongylidia, which are considered a unique, derived morphological adaptation of higher attine fungi thought to be absent in lower attine fungi. Rare reports of gongylidia-like structures in fungus...... gardens of lower attines exist, but it was never tested whether these represent rare switches of lower attines to L. gonglyphorus cultivars or whether lower attine cultivars occasionally produce gongylidia. Here we describe the occurrence of gongylidia-like structures in fungus gardens of the asexual...

  13. Colobopsis explodens sp. n., model species for studies on “exploding ants” (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, with biological notes and first illustrations of males of the Colobopsis cylindrica group

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    Alice Laciny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on “exploding ants” in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY group and falls into a species complex that has been repeatedly summarized under the name Colobopsis saundersi (Emery, 1889 (formerly Camponotus saundersi. The COCY species group is known under its vernacular name “exploding ants” for a unique behaviour: during territorial combat, workers of some species sacrifice themselves by rupturing their gaster and releasing sticky and irritant contents of their hypertrophied mandibular gland reservoirs to kill or repel rivals. This study includes first illustrations and morphometric characterizations of males of the COCY group: Colobopsis explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. and Colobopsis badia (Smith, 1857. Characters of male genitalia and external morphology are compared with other selected taxa of Camponotini. Preliminary notes on the biology of C. explodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. are provided. To fix the species identity of the closely related C. badia, a lectotype from Singapore is designated. The following taxonomic changes within the C. saundersi complex are proposed: Colobopsis solenobia (Menozzi, 1926, syn. n. and Colobopsis trieterica (Menozzi, 1926, syn. n. are synonymized with Colobopsis corallina Roger, 1863, a common endemic species of the Philippines. Colobopsis saginata Stitz, 1925, stat. n., hitherto a subspecies of C. badia, is raised to species level.

  14. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  15. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  16. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  17. The first record of a fly of the family Milichiidae (Diptera interacting with an ant of the genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Kalsum Yusah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flies in the family Milichiidae are often myrmecophilic. We document the first record of a fly from this family interacting with an ant of the genus Polyrhachis. In lowland riparian rainforest in Sabah, Malaysia, we observed a female of the genus Milichia following an ant of the species of P. illaudata, and repeatedly attempting to make close contact. Our observation suggests that the dipteran may have been attempting to feed kleptoparasitically from the Polyrhachis worker, since members of this ant genus often feed on liquid carbohydrate-rich food resources. This is the first time an interaction has been observed between a fly of this family and an ant of this widespread old world tropical genus.

  18. Monomorium dryhimi sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the M. monomorium group from Saudi Arabia, with a key to the Arabian Monomorium monomorium-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Aldawood

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new ant species, Monomorium dryhimi, is described based on workers from a single colony collected in Al Bahah, Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. This is the fourth species of the Monomorium monomorium-group collected from Arabian Peninsula, and appears to be closely related to Monomorium holothir Bolton, 1987, from Kenya. It can be distinguished by the following characters: head in profile with a weakly convex dorsal surface and a clearly convex ventral surface; eyes of moderate size with maximum diameter EL 0.19–0.25 × HW and with 6 ommatidia in the longest row; body colour yellow to light brownish yellow. In some individuals, head and gaster slightly but conspicuously darker than rest of body. Second halves of first and second gastral tergites with two characteristic brownish transverse bands. An identification key to the workers of the Arabian species of the Monomorium monomorium-group is presented. Scanning electron micrographs are given to illustrate the new species.

  19. A revised and dated phylogeny of cobweb spiders (Araneae, Araneoidea, Theridiidae): A predatory Cretaceous lineage diversifying in the era of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; May-Collado, Laura J; Pekár, Stano; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Cobweb spiders (Theridiidae) are highly diverse from the perspective of species richness, morphological diversity, variety of web architecture, and behavioral repertoires. The family includes over 50% of social spiders, a behavioral rarity among the order, and members of the family are furthermore the subject of research on venom, silk biomechanics, kleptoparasitism and web building, among other traits. Theridiidae is one of the most abundant groups of spiders, and thus key insect predators in many different ecosystems and is among relatively few spider families that show high degree of myrmecophagy. Modern comparative studies on all these fronts are best buttressed on a phylogenetic foundation. Our goal here is to offer a revised, dated, phylogenetic hypothesis for the family by summarizing previously published data from multiple molecular and morphological studies through data-mining, and adding novel data from several genera. We also test the hypothesis that the origin and diversification of cobweb spiders coincides with that of ants on which many species specialize as prey. The new phylogeny is largely congruent with prior studies and current taxonomy and should provide a useful tool for theridiid classification and for comparative analyses. Nevertheless, we also highlight the limitations of currently available data-the state of the art in Theridiidae phylogenetics-offering weak support for most of the deeper nodes in the phylogeny. Thus the need is clear for modern phylogenomic approaches to obtain a more solid understanding, especially of relationships among subfamilies. We recover the monophyly of currently recognized theridiid subfamilies with the exception of some enigmatic 'pholcommatines' (Styposis, Phoroncidia) and putative 'hadrotarsines' (Audifia, Tekellina) whose placement is uncertain in our analyses. Theridiidae dates back some 100 mya to the Cretaceous, a period of diversification in flowering plants and many groups of insects, including ants. The origin of cobweb spiders, and hence the cobweb-a speciallized trap for pedestrian prey-coincides with a major diversification shift in ants. The family becomes abundant in fossil record 50-40 mya as ants also diversify and reach dominance and contemporary patterns of abundances of theridiids and ants show the same trends, with increasing relative abundance towards the equator and at lower altitudes. We find that among orbiculariae, lineages that specialize on ant prey are non-randomly clustered within Theridiidae. Given these findings we hypothesize that the origin of the gumfoot web was a stepping stone that facilitated the capture of ants and resulted in specialized myrmecophagy in a number of 'basal' theridiids. We also document a subsequent loss in myrmecophagy, and associated increase in speciation rates, as 'recent' theridiid groups evolve diverse web forms and many return to the capture of aerial prey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. First report of two species of scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae inside nests of Azteca cf. chartifex Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest

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    João Rafael Alves-Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report for the first time the occurrence of two species of scarab beetles, Phileurus carinatus declivis Prell, 1914 (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae and Cyclidius elongatus (Olivier, 1789 (Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini inside nests of Azteca cf. chartifex Forel, 1896, a neotropical arboreal ant species. This report indicates that these two beetle species are associated, at least as inquilines, to this ant species, although the nature of this relationship remains unclear.

  1. Impacts of the Invasive European Red Ant (Myrmica rubra (L.): Hymenoptera; Formicidae) on a Myrmecochorous System in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammans, Nicola; Drummond, Frank; Groden, Eleanor

    2018-05-16

    We investigated the impact of an invasive ant species from Europe, Myrmica rubra (L.), on a myrmecochorous system (seeds dispersed by ants) in its invaded range in North America. We assessed: 1) how M. rubra process the myrmecochorous diapsores (seeds and elaiosome as a single dispersal unit transported by ants) in comparison with native ants; 2) its preference for common native and invasive diaspore species relative to native ants; 3) how far they disperse diaspores in the field; and 4) the diaspore removal rate by invertebrates and vertebrates in infested areas compared to noninvaded sites. Field experiments demonstrated higher diaspore removal rates over a 10-min and 24-h period by M. rubra compared to native ants. M. rubra's diaspore dispersal distance was 40% greater compared to native ants. In two of three laboratory studies and one field study, there was no significant difference between the seed species which M. rubra and native ants selected. Our data suggest no long-term deleterious effects of M. rubra's invasion on diaspore dispersal in the Maine plant community that is comprised of both native and invasive species. This implies that M. rubra benefits from the myrmechorous plant species' diaspores by increasing their dispersal range away from the parent plant and potentially reducing seed predation. However, it is not known whether the fact that the native ant fauna and M. rubra are attracted to the same plant species' diaspores creates a high level of competition between the ants with deleterious effects on the native ant community.

  2. Branch Width and Height Influence the Incorporation of Branches into Foraging Trails and Travel Speed in Leafcutter Ants Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B M; Chaves-Campos, J

    2016-06-01

    Fallen branches are often incorporated into Atta cephalotes (L.) foraging trails to optimize leaf tissue transport rates and economize trail maintenance. Recent studies in lowlands show laden A. cephalotes travel faster across fallen branches than on ground, but more slowly ascending or descending a branch. The latter is likely because (1) it is difficult to travel up or downhill and (2) bottlenecks occur when branches are narrower than preceding trail. Hence, both branch height and width should determine whether branches decrease net travel times, but no study has evaluated it yet. Laden A. cephalotes were timed in relation to branch width and height across segments preceding, accessing, across, and departing a fallen branch in the highlands of Costa Rica. Ants traveled faster on branches than on cleared segments of trunk-trail, but accelerated when ascending or descending the branch-likely because of the absence of bottlenecks during the day in the highlands. Branch size did not affect ant speed in observed branches; the majority of which (22/24) varied from 11 to 120 mm in both height and width (average 66 mm in both cases). To determine whether ants exclude branches outside this range, ants were offered the choice between branches within this range and branches that were taller/wider than 120 mm. Ants strongly preferred the former. Our results indicate that A. cephalotes can adjust their speed to compensate for the difficulty of traveling on branch slopes. More generally, branch size should be considered when studying ant foraging efficiency.

  3. Salwa Mohamed', Samy Zalatz, Hassan Fadl', Sohair Gadalla' &

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt ... of family Formicidae using pitfall traps in two regions: Sinai (represented by three ecologically different sites) and Delta region ...... University Press, New York. 663pp. Wheeler WM & Mann WM (1914) The ants ...

  4. 2600-IJBCS-Article-Abdoulaye Ndiaye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Les fourmis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), de par leur biomasse, et leur diversité spécifique, jouent un rôle fondamental dans les ... Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), by their biomass and species diversity, play a fundamental role in the terrestrial ecosystems of .... glutinosum, Acacia senegal, Balanites aegyptiaca et Boscia ...

  5. Density and distribution of nests of Mycetophylax simplex (Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in areas with mobile dunes on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Densidade e distribuição de ninhos de Mycetophylax simplex (Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em área de dunas móveis no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Z. de Albuquerque

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on lower attines are scarce, especially on nesting and foraging ecology and behavior. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge of an Attini in dunes ecosystems through the description of density and spatial distribution of Mycetophylax simplex (Emery, 1887 nests in a strip of mobile dunes in the Praia Grande beach, Torres, northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The density and spatial distribution of nests were estimated in four plots of 2,500 m² each, in which were found 20, 209, 284 and 324 nests, with average densities of 0.01 nests/m², 0.09, 0.11 and 0.13 nests/m², respectively. The nests were found near to the vegetation and showed clumped distribution. The density and distribution pattern of the nests seem to be related to the availability of nesting places and foraging resources.Estudos sobre as atinis inferiores são escassos, principalmente em relação ao comportamento e ecologia da nidificação e do forrageamento. Este estudo objetivou contribuir ao conhecimento da tribo Attini em ecossistemas de dunas, através da descrição da densidade e da distribuição espacial dos ninhos de Mycetophylax simplex (Emery, 1887 em uma faixa de dunas móveis na praia Grande, município de Torres, litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. A densidade e distribuição espacial dos ninhos foram estimadas em quatro parcelas de 2.500 m² cada, nas quais foram encontrados 20, 209, 284 e 324 ninhos, com densidades médias, de 0,01 ninhos/m², 0,09, 0,11 e 0,13 ninhos/m², respectivamente. Os ninhos encontravam-se próximos à vegetação e com distribuição agregada. É sugerido que a densidade e o padrão de distribuição dos ninhos estariam relacionados à disponibilidade de locais de nidificação e à presença de recursos para forrageamento.

  6. Recursos vegetais usados por Acromyrmex striatus (Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em restinga da Praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Vegetable resources used by Acromyrmex striatus (Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dunes at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Benedito C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Acromyrmex striatus entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material vegetal trazido para o ninho. Estas formigas usam partes de 50 espécies de plantas dispostas em 22 famílias, sendo as principais, representantes de Compositae, Gramineae e Leguminosae. Nesta última família, Stylosanthes viscosa foi a espécie mais utilizada nos dois anos de amostragem. Acromyrmex striatus corta matéria vegetal fresca, bem como se utiliza de material vegetal já caído, podendo, então se comportar como cortadeira ou como uma espécie oportunista.A total of 400 nests of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, in order to determine the vegetable substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use some parts of 50 plant species in 22 botanical families, being Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae the principal ones. In this last family, Stylosanthes viscosa Swartz was the most herbivored species in the two years samplings. Acromyrmex striatus cut fresh vegetables, as well as use decayed materials, being then a true leaf-cutter ant or a opportunistic ant.

  7. A new species of the fungus-farming ant genus Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini Uma nova espécie de formiga cultivadora de fungo, do gênero Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ferreira Brandão

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus-farming ant genus Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes was proposed based on three species from the Brazilian "Cerrado": M. cerradensis, M. triangularis and M. urbanus. Here we describe a new species of Attini ant of the genus Mycetagroicus, M. inflatus n. sp., based on two workers collected in eastern Pará State, Brazil. A new key for species identification, comments on differences among species and new geographical distribution data are furnished.O gênero de formigas cultivadoras de fungos, Mycetagroicus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes, foi proposto com base em três espécies do Cerrado: M. cerradensis, M. triangularis e M. urbanus. Neste trabalho descrevemos uma nova espécie de Attini do gênero Mycetagroicus, M. inflatus n. sp., baseada em duas operárias coletadas no leste do Pará, Brasil. Apresentamos uma nova chave para a identificação das espécies, comentários sobre as diferenças entre as espécies e novos dados sobre a distribuição geográfica.

  8. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae urbanas em um hospital no município de Luz, Estado de Minas Gerais - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5805 Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in a hospital in the city of Luz, Minas Gerais, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bernardes Faria Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As formigas urbanas, quando presentes em ambientes hospitalares, tornam-se um perigo potencial à saúde pública, pelo fato de terem a capacidade de transportar organismos patogênicos, podendo essas estar diretamente associadas ao problema de infecção hospitalar. Durante o período de um ano, foram realizadas coletas de formigas em um hospital do município de Luz, Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando-se iscas não-tóxicas. As mesmas foram distribuídas em 16 pontos de coleta, sendo três localizados na área externa e os demais na área interna do hospital. Foram encontradas formigas em 15 dos 16 pontos amostrados. Os gêneros mais abundantes foram Brachymyrmex e Tapinoma, sendo sua presença registrada tanto na parte externa, quanto na interna. Salienta-se, ainda, a presença do gênero Camponotus, observada, geralmente, onde há disponibilidade de alimento (como cozinha, quarto, refeitório e local de acondicionamento de lixo e falhas estruturais nas paredes. Também foram coletados, no hospital, Wasmannia, Pheidole, Linepithema, Monomorium, Dorymyrmex, Solenopsis e Paratrechina, totalizando-se dez gêneros. Nossos resultados indicam possíveis implicações da precariedade em estruturas de construção em hospitais e a importância da limpeza nesses ambientes.Urban ants, when present in hospital environments, can be a potential danger to public health, because they can carry pathogenic organisms and are possibly directly associated with the hospital cross infection problem. During a one-year period, collections were carried out, using non-toxic baits in a hospital of Luz, Minas Gerais State. The samples were distributed in 16 sites, being three outside and the others inside the hospital. Ants were found in 15 of the 16 sampled points. The most abundant genera were Brachymyrmex e Tapinoma, recorded inside and outside the hospital. The Camponotus genus was present as well, and generally collected where food was available (such as kitchen, rooms, refectory and garbage packing places and structural failings on walls. Wasmannia, Pheidole, Linepithema, Monomorium, Dorymyrmex, Solenopsis and Paratrechina were also collected, totaling ten genera. Our results indicate a possible implication of the precarious condition in the hospital structure and the importance of cleaning in these environments.

  9. Influências de Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo em floresta de transição amazônica Influences of leafcutter ant Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on vegetation recovery after fire in Amazonian transitional forest

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    Karine Santana Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel das saúvas na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo. Foi hipotetizado que a perturbação do fogo aumenta a abundância de ninhos de saúva (1 e as atividades de remoção de sementes (2 e desfolha (3, especialmente no ambiente de borda. Os ninhos de saúva foram inventariados e mapeados e após 17 meses, checados para o registro de sua atividade e de novas colônias emergindo na área. Realizou-se experimentos comparativos de remoção de sementes e desfolha de plântulas em duas parcelas de 50 ha, uma submetida a fogo anual (tratamento e outra sem fogo (controle. A abundância de ninhos de saúva foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle, especialmente na borda da floresta. As espécies encontradas foram: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata e A. sexdens , sendo esta última a espécie mais abundante e que mostrou aumento em número de colônias ativas após 17 meses. O aumento na abundância de ninhos na parcela tratamento foi acompanhado por um aumento na atividade dessas formigas. Enquanto mais de duas folhas foram arrancadas por plântula nessa parcela, menos de uma foi registrada na parcela controle. Também a abundância média de galhos desfolhados e de sementes removidas por saúvas foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle. As saúvas tanto podem diminuir ou retardar o processo de regeneração florestal pós-fogo, quanto acelerá-lo, devido à elevada predação seletiva que favorece as espécies menos palatáveis. Desta forma, suas atividades podem modificador apenas a composição da vegetação recuperando-se do fogo.In this study we investigated the role of leaf-cutting ants in the post-fire vegetation recovery. We hypothesized that a forest plot submitted to annual fire presents: (1 higher abundance of leaf-cutting ant nests; (2 higher removal of seeds; and (3 higher herbivory rates of leaf-cutting ants, when compared to the forest plots without fire (control. The leaf-cutting ant nests were sampled, mapped, and checked up (after 17 months to register their activity and new colonies emerging from the plot. We made comparative experiments of seeds removal and seedlings herbivory in two 50 ha plots, one submitted to annual fire and another without fire. The abundance of leaf-cutting nests was higher in the plot submitted to fire than in the control plot. The species found were: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata, and A. sexdens, being the latter the most abundant and the one that showed an increase of active colonies after 17 months. The plot submitted to fire showed a higher abundance of seeds removed by leaf-cutting ants than the control. While more than two leaves were ripped per seedling in the plot under fire, less than one was registered in the control plot. It was also observed that the average abundance of seedlings attacked by leaf-cutting ant in the fire plot was higher than in the plot without fire. This study shows that the leaf-cutting ants may reduce seed germination and seedling recruitment, affecting the reproductive success and the composition of vegetation recovering from fire. Alternatively, the leaf-cutting ants may also speed up the regeneration process of unpalatable plant species. In this sense, we may conclude that the presence of leaf-cutting may interfere in the species composition of post fire forest.

  10. Análise faunística das formigas epígeas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em campo nativo no Planalto das Araucárias, Rio Grande do Sul Faunal analysis of epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in native fields of the Planalto das Araucárias, State of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Emília Zoppas de Albuquerque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a riqueza, a composição e o padrão de ocorrência de formigas epígeas em ambiente de campo nativo. As coletas foram realizadas em oito parcelas de campo, nas quais foram traçados dois transectos de 100 m, espaçados entre si cerca de 50 m. Ao longo dos transectos, a cada dez metros, foram instaladas armadilhas de solo e iscas de sardinha, a intervalos de dois metros, totalizando 20 iscas e 20 armadilhas por parcela. Coletas adicionais foram realizadas por captura manual das formigas encontradas no solo. No total foram coletadas 32 espécies de formigas epígeas, distribuídas em 16 gêneros, 12 tribos e cinco subfamílias. Comparando-se as riquezas observadas com os valores da riqueza estimada, tanto para as armadilhas como para as iscas, os números de espécies coletadas representaram, respectivamente, 79,4% e 69,4% da comunidade total estimada. Uma espécie da subfamília Formicinae, Acropyga goeldii foi registrada pela primeira vez para o Rio Grande do Sul.This paper describes the richness, composition and occurrence patterns of the epigaeic ants in native field areas. Eight field plots were sampled, in which two 100 m transects, distanced 50 m from each other, were traced. Along those transects, at every 10 m, pitfalls and sardine baits at intervals of two meters, were installed totalizing 20 pitfalls and 20 baits per plot. Additional collecting was performed by manual ant capture on the ground. In total 32 species of epigaeic ants were collected, distributed in 16 genera, 12 tribes and five subfamilies. By comparing the observed richness with the estimated richness for pitfalls as well as for baits, the numbers of collected species represented, respectively, 79.4% and 69.4% of the total estimated community. One species of the Formicinae subfamily, Acropyga goeldii, has been recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul.

  11. Chemically based interactions and nutritional ecology of Labidus praedator (Formicidae: Ecitoninae in an agroecosystem adjacent to a gallery forest Interações de origem química e ecologia nutricional de Labidus praedator (Formicidae: Ecitoninae em um agroecossistema adjacente a uma mata de galeria

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    André F. M. Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available New World army ants species have an important role in structuring invertebrate communities. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858 is a generalist top predator that can reduce pest densities in agroecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral attributes, diet composition and interspecific interactions of the ant L. praedator. We searched for army ant raids using standardized trail-walk surveys and plotted army ants raids positions on an aerial image. We photographed events at swarm raids of L. praedator and recorded its diet items in basal columns near bivouacs. Six species from four Ecitoninae genera - Labidus (Jurine, 1807, Nomamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1936, Neivamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1940 and Eciton (Latreille, 1804 - were recorded. Caterpillars dominated the composition of the diet of L. praedator. Flowers and diaspores of weeds and aril and flesh of fruits were also transported to bivouacs. One colony stopped foraging after intense rainfall and discrete groups of hundreds of L. praedator ants were separated under patches covered by shrubs. Groups of Crotophaginae birds, Sarcophaginae flies and Polistinae wasps followed L. praedator swarm raids. We discuss the importance of landscape structure for agroecosystem colonization by Ecitoninae and the existence of chemical opportunism between army ants species through the reuse of unoccupied trails.Algumas formigas neotropicais de correição têm um importante papel na estruturação da comunidade de invertebrados. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858 como predador generalista de topo pode reduzir as densidades de pragas em agroecossistemas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever atributos comportamentais, composição de dieta e interações interespecíficas da formiga Labidus praedator. Nós buscamos as colunas das formigas de correição por meio de amostragens por caminhamento em trilhas padronizadas. Nós plotamos as posições das colunas sobre uma imagem aérea. Nós fotografamos eventos nas frentes de caça de L. praedator e registramos os itens alimentares transportados para os bivaques. Seis espécies de quatro gêneros de Ecitoninae - Labidus (Jurine, 1807, Nomamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1936, Neivamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1940 e Eciton (Latreille, 1804 - foram registradas. Lagartas dominaram a composição de dieta de L. praedator. Diásporos e flores de ervas daninhas e arilo e polpa de frutos também foram transportados para os bivaques. Uma colônia parou de forragear após chuva intensa e grupos discretos de centenas de L. praedator se formaram sob áreas cobertas por arbustos. Grupos de aves da subfamília Crotophaginae e vespas e moscas dos táxons Sarcophaginae e Polistinae seguiram as frentes de caça de L. praedator. Discutimos a importância da estrutura da paisagem para colonização de agroecossistemas por Ecitoninae e a existência de oportunismo químico entre formigas de correição no mínimo por meio do reuso de trilhas desocupadas.

  12. Nest structure and occurrence of three species of Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae in non-floodable and floodable pantanal areas Arquitetura de ninho e ocorrência de três espécies de Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae em ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal

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    Alexsandro S. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Cecropia pachystachya trees were examined in non-floodable and floodable areas to investigate the association between C. pachystachya and Azteca ants in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The species Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica, and Azteca alfari were found nesting inside domatia of C. pachystachya. A. ovaticeps was the most frequent species in the trees in the floodable area, while A. isthmica and A. alfari, in the non-floodable area. A. ovaticeps and A. isthmica maintained more entrance/exit holes in comparison to A. alfari. All Azteca species maintained entrance/exit holes in the closest domatia to the apical area of the branch, due to proximity to Müllerian and pearl bodies, suggesting that these species of Azteca were influenced by their environment during evolution and became specialized. All internodal septa of each examined branch were perforated by ants, indicating the branches were inhabited by a single colony.Foram analisadas 30 plantas de Cecropia pachystachya em cada ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar a associação entre formigas Azteca e C. pachystachya. Foram encontradas as espécies Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica e Azteca alfari nidificando nas domáceas da planta. A. ovaticeps foi mais frequente em plantas de área alagável, enquanto A. isthmica e A. alfari em plantas em área não alagável. A. ovaticeps e A. isthmica apresentaram maior quantidade de orifícios de entrada/saída em relação à A. alfari e todas as espécies mantêm próximo da região apical do ramo, orifícios de entrada/saída nas domáceas, devido à proximidade com os corpúsculos müellerianos e pérola. Isto é, essas espécies de Azteca especializaram-se ao longo da evolução influenciadas pelo ambientes. Todos os septos internodais de cada ramo analisados apresentaram-se perfurados pelas formigas, sugerindo que os mesmos são habitados por uma única colônia.

  13. Exposure to creosote bush phenolic resin causes avoidance in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini La exposición a la resina fenólica de jarilla causa deterrencia en la hormiga cortadora de hojas Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini

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    ANA I MEDINA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We focused our study on the effects of Larrea cuneifolia phenolic resin on leaf-cutting ants from two populations (Sierra de las Quijadas National Park and San Roque of Acromyrmex lobicornis in San Luis, Argentina. We conducted two bioassays of food choice (field and laboratory to compare the effects of phenolic resin on ant workers from these two populations. Results of the field experiment indicated that there were no differences in preference for either leaves treated with resin or untreated leaves among colonies from both localities. However, results of the laboratory experiments with individual ants indicated a significant effect of population and treatment on the time spent in different treatments. While leaf-cutting individual workers from Quijadas preferred the phenolic resin, workers from San Roque avoided it. These results evidence that ants respond according to time of exposure to chemicals from plants (presence or absence and that the effects of resin among a population can be observed and measured on individual ant workers, even in the absence of fungus garden influences in the nest.Este estudio se ha centrado en los efectos que produce la resina fenólica de Larrea cuneifolia sobre dos poblaciones distintas (Parque Nacional de Sierra de las Quijadas y la localidad de San Roque de Acromyrmex lobicornis en San Luis, Argentina. Se disenaron dos tipos de bioensayos (a campo y en laboratorio para comparar los efectos de la resina fenólica sobre las hormigas obreras de estas dos poblaciones. Los resultados de los experimentos de elección de la oferta alimentaria en el campo, indicaron que no hubo ninguna diferencia de preferencia entre las colonias, ni por las hojas tratadas con resina ni por las hojas sin tratar para ambas localidades. Sin embargo, los resultados de los experimentos de laboratorio con las hormigas obreras individualmente indicaron efectos significativos entre las poblaciones y entre los tratamientos. Mientras que las hormigas obreras de Quijadas prefirieron la resina fenólica, las obreras de San Roque la rechazaron. Estos resultados evidencian que las hormigas responden de acuerdo al tiempo de exposición a los productos naturales de las plantas (presencia y ausencia y que los efectos de la resina entre poblaciones, puede ser observada y medida en las hormigas obreras aun en ausencia de la influencia del jardín de hongos de la colonia.

  14. Tamaño y composición de la colonia de tres especies de hormigas del género Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la porción central del desierto del Monte, Argentina Colony size and composition in three Pogonomyrmex ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the central Monte desert, Argentina

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    Beatriz E. Nobua Behrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El tamaño de la colonia es un atributo fundamental en la biología de las hormigas ya que está asociado a características ecológicamente relevantes, como sus estrategias de alimentación. Mientras que el tamaño de la colonia de varias especies de hormigas granívoras del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Norte se ha estudiado en detalle, no existe tal información para las especies de América del Sur. En este trabajo, se determinó el tamaño y la composición de la colonia y se describió la estructura del nido de tres especies de Pogonomyrmex que habitan la porción central del desierto del Monte en Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel y P. rastratus Mayr. Para ello, se excavaron dos nidos de cada especie y se recolectaron todos los individuos encontrados. Las tres especies tienen colonias pequeñas, compuestas por 300-1.100 individuos, de los cuales aproximadamente el 70% son obreras adultas. La estructura de sus nidos es relativamente simple, similar a la de la mayoría de las especies norteamericanas estudiadas, pero con un menor desarrollo en profundidad y un número menor de cámaras; probablemente se deba al menor número de obreras que poseen. Estas características (colonias pequeñas y nidos poco desarrollados son consideradas típicas para las especies del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Sur, lo que las diferencia de la mayoría de sus congéneres estudiados en América del Norte.Colony size in ants is associated with important ecological characteristics such as foraging strategy. Though colony size has been studied with some detail for several North American species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants, it remains unknown for South American species. We studied colony size, composition, and nest structure of three species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants inhabiting the central Monte desert in Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel and P. rastratus Mayr. We excavated two nests of each species, and collected all individuals in each nest. All three species have small colonies of 300-1100 individuals, with approximately 70% adult workers. The structure of their nests is relatively simple, resembling that of the most studied species in North America, though less developed in depth and total number of chambers, probably due to the smaller number of workers per colony. These characteristics (small colony size and relatively simple nests are considered typical of the South American Pogonomyrmex ants, which distinguish them from most of the studied North American species in the genus.

  15. Impacto das capinas mecânica e química do sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis sobre a comunidade de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Impact of mechanical and chemical weedings of Eucalyptus grandis undergrowth on an ant community (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Lucimeire de Souza Ramos

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito das capinas mecânica e química do sub-bosque em plantações de eucaliptos e as conseqüências desses tratamentos sobre a comunidade de formigas foram avaliados no município de Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais, Brasil. As formigas foram coletadas com o extrator de Winkler. Coletou-se um total de 86 espécies, pertencentes a seis subfamílias. Oito dias após as capinas, o número de espécies reduziu-se de um quarto para os dois tipos de capina. Sessenta dias após, o número de espécies tendeu a retornar ao estágio inicial, verificando-se que a eliminação do sub-bosque causa efeito deletério imediato, de igual intensidade e de pouca duração sobre a comunidade de formigas. As razões das variações observadas serão discutidas.The effect of mechanical and chemical undergrowth weedings on an ant community was tested in eucalypts plantations and the consequences of such treatments were evaluated at Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The ants were collected by applying the Winkler trap method. Eighty-six species of six sub-families were found. Eight days after the clearings, the number of species dropped to 1/4 in both weedings systems. Sixty days later, the number of species tended to return to the initial level, showing that undergrowth elimination caused an immediate depressive effect on the ant community of similar intensity and over a short time. The reasons of the variations observed are discussed.

  16. Composition and functional groups of epiedaphic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in irrigated agroecosystem and in nonagricultural areas Composição e grupos funcionais de formigas epiedáficas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em agroecossistema irrigado e em áreas não agrícolas

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    Patricia Hernández-Ruiz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the species composition and functional groups of ants in nonagricultural (NA and in irrigated areas (S, seasonal irrigation; P, irrigation with well water; W, irrigation with wastewater in an arid agricultural region in central Mexico, throughout 2005 and 2006. A total of 52,358 ants belonging to 6 subfamilies, 21 genera and 39 species was collected using pitfall traps. The species best represented in all plots were: Forelius pruinosus, Pheidole obtusospinosa, Monomorium minimum and Dorymyrmex spp. NA plots recorded the highest density of ants. The highest values for diversity (H' and equitativity (J' were recorded in NA and P plots, while the lowest were recorded in W plots. Cluster analysis showed two different groups regarding species composition: NA-S and W-P. Functional groups recorded were: dominant Dolichoderinae, three species; subordinate Camponotini, five species; hot climate specialists, three species; tropical climate specialists, seven species; cold climate specialists, five species; cryptic species, one species; opportunists, six species; generalized Myrmicinae, nine species. Agricultural activity affects the structure of the ant community with epiedaphic forage, and the constant use of irrigation wastewater in conjunction with intense agricultural practices has negative effect upon species richness of epiedaphic ants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de espécies e os grupos funcionais de formigas em áreas não agrícolas (NA e em áreas irrigadas (S, irrigação sazonal; P, irrigação com águas de poço; W, irrigação com água residuária em uma região agrícola de clima árido da região Central do México durante 2005 e 2006. Um total de 52.358 formigas pertencentes a 6 subfamílias, 21 gêneros e 39 espécies foi coletado por meio de armadilhas Pitfall. As espécies mais bem representadas em todas as parcelas foram: Forelius pruinosus, Pheidole obtusospinosa, Monomorium minimum e Dorymyrmex spp. As parcelas NA registraram a maior densidade de formigas. Os maiores valores de diversidade (H' e equitatividade (J' foram observados nas parcelas NA e P, e os menores, nas parcelas W. A análise de cluster mostrou grupos diferentes quanto à composição de espécies: NA-S e W-P. Os grupos funcionais registrados foram: Dolichoderinae dominantes, três espécies; Camponotini subordinadas, cinco espécies; especialistas de clima quente, três espécies; especialistas de clima tropical, sete espécies; especialistas de clima frio, cinco espécies; espécies crípticas, uma espécie; oportunistas, seis espécies; Myrmicinae generalizados, nove espécies. A atividade de agricultura afeta a estrutura das comunidades das formigas epiedáficas e a utilização constante de irrigação com água residuária, em conjunto com práticas agrícolas intensas tem um efeito negativo na riqueza de espécies de formigas epiedáficas.

  17. Riqueza de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae epigéicas em povoamentos de Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae de diferentes idades no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Richness of epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus spp. plantations with different ages in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ricardo Carvalho Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve as comunidades de formigas de solo em povoamentos de eucalipto implantados em ecossistema de restinga no Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas de formigas foram feitas em seis povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e de Eucalyptus saligna Smith com idades de 31, 19, sete e cinco anos. Para as coletas de formigas, foram selecionados ao acaso 24 talhões, quatro por povoamento. Em cada talhão, foram traçados três transectos com 100 m de comprimento, afastados entre si 12 m. Ao longo dos transectos, foram enterradas 30 armadilhas, tipo pitfall, com iscas de sardinha, afastadas entre si 10 m e mantidas por 24 horas. Foi coletado um total de 21.033 formigas pertencentes a cinco subfamílias, 12 tribos, 19 gêneros e 49 espécies. De acordo com o estimador de riqueza jackknife de primeira ordem, não houve diferenças significativas entre as riquezas das comunidades de formigas considerando as espécies de eucalipto (U = 81,500; g.l.=1; P=0,582 e as idades dos povoamentos (U=2,504; g.l.=3; P=0,547. Os resultados indicam que a riqueza de espécies de formigas não está relacionada à espécie de eucalipto e/ou à idade do povoamento implantado na restinga.The present study describes the epigaeic ant communities in eucalyptus plantations in sandbank in Rio Grande do Sul State. Ant collections were performed in six plantations of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus saligna Smith with ages varying between five to 31 years old. A total of 24 areas (four/area were randomly selected for ant collections. In each one, three transects of 100 m were designed at intervals of 12 m. Along each transect, ten pitfall traps with sardine baits were placed, at intervals of 10 m for a 24-hour-period. A total of 21,033 ants were collected, belonging to five subfamilies, 12 tribes, 19 genera and 49 species. According to the jackknife estimator of first order, there was no significant difference between the ant communities richness considering the eucalyptus species (U = 81.500; g.l. = 1; P = 0.582 and the ages of the plantations (U = 2.504; g.l. = 3; P = 0.547. Results indicate that richness of ant species are not related to the species of eucalyptus and/or to the age of the forests planted in sandbanks.

  18. Caracterização de ninhos e tamanho de colônia de Acromyrmex rugosus (F. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini em restingas de Ilhéus, BA, Brasil Characterization of nest and colony size of Acromyrmex rugosus (F. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini in sandbanks at Ilhéus, BA, Brazil

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    Ilka Maria Fernandes Soares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oito ninhos de Acromyrmex rugosus foram escavados para estudar sua estrutura e estimar sua população. Esses ninhos eram sempre encontrados escondidos por plantas; apresentaram pequena quantidade de solo e tinham 1 ou 2 entradas; uma delas tinham a forma de um "U" invertido. Internamente, o número de câmaras foi variável e o volume de fungo foi pequeno(X=196 ml. O total da população do ninho foi aproximadamente, 895 indivíduos.Eight nests of Acromyrmex rugosus were excavated aiming to study their structure and to estimate their population. These nests were always found hidden by plants; presented a small heap of sandy soil and had 1 or 2 nest entrances; one of this had the shape of an inverted "U". Internally, the number of chambers was variable and the volume of fungus small (X=196 ml. The total nest population amounted, on the average, to 895 individuals.

  19. African Zoology - Vol 25, No 1 (1990)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: Formicidae) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... A Lycaenid Butterfly (Anthene amarah Guerin) selects unseasonal young Acacia shoots for oviposition · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Differential response of communities of plants, snails, ants and spiders to long-term mowing in a small-scale experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Dolanský, J.; Hrdlička, R.; Lepš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 115-124 ISSN 1585-8553 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Araneae * biodiversity * Formicidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2015

  1. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    J Ipinza-Regla; D González; G Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B). La metodolo...

  2. Taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler (Formicidae, Myrmicinae in the Afrotropical region, with a review of current species groups and description of a new species of the N. angulatus group from Mozambique

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    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 in the Afrotropical region. Previous revisionary studies are discussed and four species groups are proposed on the basis of external morphology. The N. angulatus group contains seven species that are widely distributed throughout the whole Afrotropical region, with one species also occurring in the Palaearctic and Malagasy regions. The N. cataulacoides group is monotypic, with one morphologically bizarre species found in Equatorial rain forests. The N. humerosus group is also monotypic and occurs in East Africa. The last and by far most species-rich group is the N. simoni group that contains 17 species, all of which are endemic to South Africa. The four groups are defined for the first time for the region, and an illustrated identification key is provided. Furthermore, the N. angulatus group is more thoroughly reviewed. One new species from Mozambique is described, N. inhaca sp. nov., and species accounts for the other six are provided. Also, an illustrated identification key to the species of the N. angulatus group is presented.

  3. Representación odotópica de la organización glomerular del lóbulo antenal en los cuerpos fungiformes de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Comparaciones entre dos especies

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    Germán Octavio López-Riquelme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha comparado la organización de los lóbulos antenales (LAs y su representación topográfica en los cuerpos fungiformes (CFs en soldados de dos especies de hormigas, Atta mexicana y Camponotus ocreatus. La comparación morfológica sugiere que los LAs de A. mexicana podrían ser más especializados que los de C. ocreatus a expensas de capacidades más generales. En ambas especies, el LA está organizado en seis grupos de glomérulos, cada uno inervado por su propio tracto. La inervación de las neuronas de proyección (NP, las cuales conectan los LAs con los CFs a través de los tractos antenoprotocerebrales (TAP, divide el LA en dos regiones, anterior y posterior. Los cálices de los CFs tienen varias capas que reciben información olfativa segregada: NP que inervan los grupos anteriores de glomérulos envían axones a través del TAP-lateral hacia el cuerno lateral (CL y después hacia la capa interna del cáliz, mientras que las NP que inervan los grupos posteriores de glomérulos envían axones a través del TAP-medial a la capa externa del cáliz y después al CL. Estos resultados muestran que la organización del LA está representada topográficamente en los CFs formando un mapa odotópico. Las dos vías que conectan los LAs con los CFs podrían representar dos canales para el procesamiento de diferentes clases de olores o diferentes propiedades de los estímulos olfativos. Los resultados neuroanatómicos sugieren una organización funcional conservada en los himenópteros sociales.

  4. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Itanna O; de Souza, Jorge L P

    2018-01-01

    Biodiversity loss is accelerating rapidly in response to increasing human influence on the Earth's natural ecosystems. One way to overcome this problem is by focusing on places of human interest and monitoring the changes and impacts on the biodiversity. This study was conducted at six sites within the influence area of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Power Plant in the margins of the Madeira River in Rondônia State. The sites cover a latitudinal gradient of approximately 100 km in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. The sampling design included six sampling modules with six plots (transects) each, totaling 30 sampling plots. The transects were distributed with 0 km, 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km, 3 km and 4 km, measured perpendicularly from the river margin towards the interior of the forest. For sampling the ground-dwelling ants, the study used the ALL (ants of the leaf litter) protocol, which is standardized globally in the inventories of ant fauna. For the purpose of impact indicators, the first two campaigns (September 2011 to November 2011) were carried out in the pre-filling period, while campaigns 3 to 10 (February 2012 to November 2014) were carried out during and after the filling of the hydroelectric reservoir. A total of 253 events with a total of 9,165 occurrences were accounted during the monitoring. The ants were distributed in 10 subfamilies, 68 genera and 324 species/morphospecies. The impact on ant biodiversity during the periods before and after filling was measured by ecological indicators and by the presence and absence of some species/morphospecies. This is the first study, as far as we know, including taxonomic and ecological treatment to monitor the impact of a hydroelectric power plant on ant fauna. Until recently, most studies conducted on hydroelectric plants, located in the Amazon Basin, were carried out after the implementation of dams in order to assess their impacts on the environment and biodiversity (Benchimol and Peres 2015, Latrubesse et al. 2017, Sá-Oliveira et al. 2015). Recent studies on dam impacts have begun to be conducted prior to dam implementation (e.g. Bobrowiec and Tavares 2017, Fraga et al. 2014, Moser et al. 2014), thus providing a better overview of the impact and a better assessment of its magnitude.

  5. Identificação de Staphylococcus epidermidis em formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) coletadas em uma área de alimentação no município de Guarulhos, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Carrecelli, Carolyn Barbosa; Barcelos, Denise

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO: Com o processo de urbanização, ocorreu aumento da disseminação de doenças veiculadas por artrópodes, sendo os mais comuns as formigas. A presença delas é mais frequente pelo seu tamanho, por sua facilidade de locomoção e por sua forma de vida social. Assim, podem atuar como vetores mecânicos de bactérias endossimbiontes e patogênicas, ocasionando contaminação em alimentos e no ambiente hospitalar. Os objetivos deste artigo foram isolar e identificar bactérias contaminantes dos gêneros...

  6. Increased Risk Proneness or Social Withdrawal? The Effects of Shortened Life Expectancy on the Expression of Rescue Behavior in Workers of the ant Formica cinerea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Krzysztof; Symonowicz, Beata; Godzińska, Ewa J

    2017-01-01

    In social insects behavioral consequences of shortened life expectancy include, among others, increased risk proneness and social withdrawal. We investigated the impact of experimental shortening of life expectancy of foragers of the ant Formica cinerea achieved by their exposure to carbon dioxide on the expression of rescue behavior, risky pro-social behavior, tested by means of two bioassays during which a single worker (rescuer) was confronted with a nestmate (victim) attacked by a predator (antlion larva capture bioassay) or immobilized by an artificial snare (entrapment bioassay). Efficacy of carbon dioxide poisoning in shortening life expectancy was confirmed by the analysis of ant mortality. Rescue behavior observed during behavioral tests involved digging around the victim, transport of the sand covering the victim, pulling the limbs/antennae/mandibles of the victim, direct attack on the antlion (in antlion larva capture tests), and snare biting (in entrapment tests). The rate of occurrence of rescue behavior was lower in ants with shortened life expectancy, but that effect was significant only in the case of the entrapment bioassay. Similarly, only in the case of the entrapment bioassay ants with shortened life expectancy displayed rescue behavior after a longer latency and devoted less time to that behavior than ants from the control groups. Our results demonstrated that in ant workers shortened life expectancy may lead to reduced propensity for rescue behavior, most probably as an element of the social withdrawal syndrome that had already been described in several studies on behavior of moribund ants and honeybees.

  7. Next-generation morphological character discovery and evaluation: an X-ray micro-CT enhanced revision of the ant genus Zasphinctus Wheeler (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Dorylinae) in the Afrotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Francisco Hita; Fischer, Georg; Liu, Cong; Audisio, Tracy L; Economo, Evan P

    2017-01-01

    New technologies for imaging and analysis of morphological characters offer opportunities to enhance revisionary taxonomy and better integrate it with the rest of biology. In this study, we revise the Afrotropical fauna of the ant genus Zasphinctus Wheeler, and use high-resolution X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) to analyse a number of morphological characters of taxonomic and biological interest. We recognise and describe three new species: Z. obamai sp. n. , Z. sarowiwai sp. n. , and Z. wilsoni sp. n. The species delimitations are based on the morphological examination of all physical specimens in combination with 3D scans and volume reconstructions. Based on this approach, we present a new taxonomic discrimination system for the regional fauna that consists of a combination of easily observable morphological characters visible at magnifications of around 80-100 ×, less observable characters that require higher magnifications, as well as characters made visible through virtual dissections that would otherwise require destructive treatment. Zasphinctus are rarely collected ants and the material available to us is comparatively scarce. Consequently, we explore the use of micro-CT as a non-invasive tool for the virtual examination, manipulation, and dissection of such rare material. Furthermore, we delineate the treated species by providing a diagnostic character matrix illustrated by numerous images and supplement that with additional evidence in the form of stacked montage images, 3D PDFs and 3D rotation videos of scans of major body parts and full body (in total we provide 16 stacked montage photographs, 116 images of 3D reconstructions, 15 3D rotation videos, and 13 3D PDFs). In addition to the comparative morphology analyses used for species delimitations, we also apply micro-CT data to examine certain traits, such as mouthparts, cuticle thickness, and thoracic and abdominal muscles in order to assess their taxonomic usefulness or gain insights into the natural history of the genus. The complete datasets comprising the raw micro-CT data, 3D PDFs, 3D rotation videos, still images of 3D models, and coloured montage photos have been made available online as cybertypes (Dryad, http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.4s3v1).

  8. Potencial de Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae como Agentes Anti-herbívoros em Cultivo de Café (Coffea canephora Pierre e Feijão Guandu [Cajanus cajans (L. Millsp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chevalier

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. This study analyzed the role of ants as anti-herbivore agents in Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre and Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajans (L. Millsp] plants in agroecosystem under organic management. In these plants we used artificial eggs and sugar solution in experiments that simulated the presence of herbivore insects. Coffee plants did not possess any natural attractive that could intensify foraging activity of ants, but pigeon pea plants were infested by treehoppers which attracted ants. Activity of ants was surveyed after sugar solution application and artificial eggs removal was measured 24 and 48 h after start of the experiments. Sugar solution sprinkled on plants foliage increased significantly the activity of ants on coffee and pigeon pea plants. The removal of artificial eggs was significantly greater in branch with ants than without ants for pigeon pea plants. The sugar solution addiction resulted in greater artificial eggs removal in pigeon pea plants, but not in coffee plants. The treatment with sugar solution and presence of treehoppers had similar effects on the activity of ants on the plants. This study showed that the application of sugar solution can be used to increase activity of ants on plants as well as the potential of ants as anti-herbivore agents can be evaluated in experiments that simulate the presence of insects on the plants.

  9. Distribution of 32P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of 32 P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of 32 P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed

  10. Tamaño y composición de la colonia de tres especies de hormigas del género Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la porción central del desierto del Monte, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. NOBUA BEHRMANN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El tamaño de la colonia es un atributo fundamental de la biología de las hormigas ya que está asociado a características ecológicamente relevantes, como sus estrategias de alimentación. Mientras que el tamaño de la colonia de varias especies de hormigas granívoras del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Norte se ha estudiado en detalle, no existe tal información para las especies de América del Sur. En este trabajo, se determinó el tamaño y la composición de la colonia y se describió la estructura del nido de tres especies de Pogonomyrmex que habitan la porción central del desierto del Monte en Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel y P. rastratus Mayr. Para ello, se excavaron dos nidos de cada especie y se recolectaron todos los individuos encontrados. Las tres especies tienen colonias pequeñas, compuestas por 300-1.100 individuos, de los cuales aproximadamente el 70% son obreras adultas. La estructura de sus nidos es relativamente simple, similar a la de la mayoría de las especies norteamericanas estudiadas, pero con un menor desarrollo en profundidad y un número menor de cámaras; probablemente se deba al menor número de obreras que poseen. Estas características (colonias pequeñas y nidos poco desarrollados son consideradas típicas para las especies del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Sur, lo que las diferencia de la mayoría de sus congéneres estudiados en América del Norte.

  11. Preferência de corte de Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel, 1909) e Acromyrmex ambiguus (Emery, 1887) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) por diferentes espécies de eucaliptos em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, João Luis Osório; Loeck, Alci Enimar; Freitas, Deise Farias; Gonçalves, Michel Gonçalves de; Dröse, William; Cunha, Uemerson Silva da; Finkenauer, Elder

    2014-01-01

    A busca por novos métodos de manejo e controle de formigas-cortadeiras vem sendo enfoque de inúmeros estudos pelo país, impulsionada por aspectos econômicos e ambientais. O estabelecimento de espécies resistentes ou menos preferidas ao corte pode contribuir substancialmente neste sentido. Logo, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a preferência de corte entre as espécies Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus benthamii, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus e híbrido de Euc...

  12. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  13. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Filho Peres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the cutting ant preference of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, to native and exotic forest tree species, in laboratory conditions. The most preferred species were: gmelina ( Gmelina arborea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, caesalpinia (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizzia (Albizia lebbeck and enterolobium (Enterolobium contortisiliquum and the less preferred ones were: eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitiba (Cariniana strellensis and guazuma (Guazuma tomentosa .

  14. PREFERÊNCIA DE SAÚVA LIMÃO, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE A DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa .

  15. Mirmecofauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae de Duas Marismas do Estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS: Diversidade, Flutuação de Abundância e Similaridade como Indicadores de Conservação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Bolico

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to assess the myrmecofauna of two distinct salt marshes and to estimate the diversity, similarity, as well as to estimate the effects of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the fluctuation patterns of these insects. Additionally, the species that act as environmental indicators were recognized. The study was conducted in two salt marshes located in the Patos Lagoon Estuary: Torotama’s Island and West Breakwater. A total of 853 ants were sampled, distributed in 19 genera. Both marshes showed similar diversity and abundance, Ds = 0.958 and I = 0.042 in Torotama’s Island and Ds = 0.8889 and I = 0.111 in West Break Water. Trends in ant composition coincided in both areas, with a peak during the warmer months. Areas showed no similarity, due to anthropogenic factors and species’ biology. Groups considered as biomarkers were recorded in the samples, providing parameters for environmental conservation.

  16. Avaliação comparativa de iscas atrativas a partir da riqueza de espécies de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae numa floresta de Eucalyptus grandis, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar diferentes iscas atrativas, buscando eficiência quanto à riqueza de espécies de formigas epigéicas, potenciais bioindicadores da qualidade ambiental, em uma área antropizada, com Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae, com 16 anos, e aproximadamente cinco hectares, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram realizadas utilizando-se cinco tipos de iscas: sardinha com óleo (SO, sardinha com tomate (ST, patê de frango (FR, patê de fígado de frango (FG e atum sólido (AT distribuídas aleatoriamente na área, em intervalos de cinco metros, com cinco repetições, totalizando 25 unidades experimentais, amostradas a cada estação do ano, de novembro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Após 60 minutos de exposição, todo o material presente sobre a armadilha foi recolhido e acondicionado em recipientes com álcool 70 % e em seguida, encaminhado ao laboratório de entomologia para separação em morfo-espécies para posterior identificação. Coletaram-se 3072 indivíduos, distribuídos em 14 espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros e quatro subfamílias. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as riquezas médias observadas de espécies nas iscas (DMS = 2,3252 ; g.l. = 19, p > 0,05. A isca constituída de sardinha com óleo apresentou maior riqueza média observada de espécies (SM = 5,75, porém a isca a base de patê de fígado de frango apresentou maior riqueza de espécies (S = 13, sendo que, Pseudomyrmex termitarius ocorreu somente nestas duas. Das espécies amostradas, nenhuma apresentou preferência por uma única isca atrativa específica, espécies de Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, Pheidole, Wasmannia e Solenopsis foram comuns nas cinco iscas. Portanto, no momento da escolha de uma das iscas avaliadas para a realização da amostragem de formigas epigéicas, sugere-se ponderar, além da riqueza específica, a não- presença e a presença das espécies de formigas nas iscas.

  17. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Meranoplus Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species and notes on the zoogeography of southwestern Kingdom of [corrected] Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R Sharaf

    Full Text Available The ant genus Meranoplus is reported for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by the new species M. pulcher sp. n., based on the worker caste. Specimens were collected from Al Sarawat and Asir Mountains of southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using pitfall traps. Meranoplus pulcher sp. n. is included in the Afrotropical M. magretii-group, with greatest similarity to M. magrettii André from Sudan. A key to the Afrotropical species of the M. magretii-group is presented. A brief review of the ant taxa with Afrotropical affinities in southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is given.

  18. Distribució i grau d’invasió de la formiga argentina (Linepithema humile Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) al Parc Natural de s’Albufera des Grau, Menorca (Illes Balears)

    OpenAIRE

    Abril, Silvia; Gómez, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine ant is an exotic invasive species present in all the Mediterranean and subtropical ecosystems of the world. It is closely associated to urban and human-disturbed areas, even though it can also invade natural areas causing a strong negative effect in the biodiversity of the invaded area. In Menorca, the fist record of its presence was in 1976. In 2004 it was detected for the first time invading a natural area in the island, the s’Albufera des Grau Natural Park. ...

  19. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS UTILIZADOS NO CONTROLE DA Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 NOS INIMIGOS NATURAIS EPIGÉICOS NA CULTURA DO MILHETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO ROGÉRIO BELTRAMIN DA FONSECA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the selectivity of insecticides used to control the fall armyworm to epigeic occurring on the soil of a crop of millet. The research was conducted in field in the town of Dourados. The experiment consists of randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. Sampling of natural enemies in observable by traps "pitfall modified." The Belt 480 SC insecticide, was not selective family Tachinidae, but was slightly toxic to Formicidae and selective Araneidae and Calossoma granulatum. The insecticide Gallaxy 100 CE, the mortality rate obtained with 63% in the first (DAA for Araneidae and Tachinidae families, and was selective to a DAA for C. granulatum predator. The insecticide Tracer 480 SC, was not selective to the spiders, Formicidae and Tachinidae. The insecticide Match 50 EC was the most toxic C. granulatum predator and the Spiders in the assessment a DAA, which obtained a mortality rate of 100% and 67% respectively. The effect of the insecticide Karate SC 250, had a mortality rate of families Araneidae and Formicidae, 89 and 60% mortality. The Lannate 215 S to a DAA, its mortality rate for C. granulatum and families Araneidae, Formicidae and Tachinidae 100, 78, 60 and 50%, and selectivity to Tachinidae. The insecticide Talstar 100 EC, was toxic to the Family Formicidae, Araneidae and Tachinidae in the assessment a DAA, which obtained a mortality rate of 80%, 78% and 75% and preserved population of C. granulatum predator.

  20. Riqueza de formigas de solo na praia da Pedreira, Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS, Brasil Richness of ground-dwelling ants in the Praia da Pedreira, Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diehl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são listadas as espécies de formigas de solo encontradas em três ambientes (mata nativa, barreira pedregosa e areias da orla na praia da Pedreira, localizada na Zona de Uso Intensivo do Parque Estadual de Itapuã, município de Viamão, RS. No total, foram identificadas 60 espécies representantes de 24 gêneros, 18 tribos e oito subfamílias (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Ectatomminae, Formicinae, Heteroponerinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae e Pseudomyrmecinae. Dos três ambientes amostrados, de acordo com o estimador de riqueza jackknife de primeira ordem, a mata nativa apresentou a maior riqueza (Sest= 37,5, seguindo-se a barreira pedregosa (Sest= 8,9 e as areias da orla (Sest= 5,9. Apenas Acromyrmex laticeps, Crematogaster sp. e Solenopsis invicta foram comuns aos três ambientes. Neste trabalho é feito o primeiro registro de ocorrência de Pachycondyla crenata e Pachycondyla laevigata (Ponerinae para o Rio Grande do Sul.Aiming to improve the knowledge on the Brazilian biodiversity, especially the ant fauna of Rio Grande do Sul State (Southern Brazil, this survey was conducted in the Praia da Pedreira, a site of Intensive Use of the Parque Estadual de Itapuã. Ground-dwelling ant species were surveyed for three environments in the beach (native forest, rock bar and sand bar, during 12 months (April/2000 - March/2001. Collections resulted in 60 species belonging to 24 genera, 18 tribes and eight subfamilies (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Ectatomminae, Formicinae, Heteroponerinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. According to the first order jackknife estimator, the native forest area presented the greatest richness (Sest= 37.5, followed by rock bar (Sest= 8.9 and sand bar (Sest= 5.9. Only Acromyrmex laticeps, Crematogaster sp. and Solenopsis invicta were common to all three environments. This paper presents the first record of Pachycondyla crenata and Pachycondyla laevigata (Ponerinae occurrence in the Rio Grande do Sul

  1. Diversidade de espécies dos gêneros de Crematogaster, Gnamptogenys e Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae e complementaridade dos métodos de coleta durante a estação seca numa estação ecológica no estado do Pará, Brasil Diversity of species of the genera Crematogaster,Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla, (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and complementarity of sampling methods during the dry season in an ecological station in the Brazilian state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Pereira Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As formigas são muito usadas em programas de inventários e monitoramentos, resultando em grande quantidade de material coletado com vários métodos, limitações financeiras e na falta de taxonomos para vários táxons. Para contribuir na elaboração de protocolos alternativos, analisamos a complementaridade de dois métodos de amostragem na detecção da riqueza de espécies. Em seis parcelas de 1 km² distribuídas em 33.000 ha de floresta primária, investigamos a diversidade e a freqüência das espécies de Crematogaster,Gnamptogenys e Pachycondyla, como parte do protocolo de formigas de serapilheira do Projeto TEAM. Em cada parcela, quatro transectos de 100 m foram instalados. Dez sub-amostras foram efetuadas por transecto, usando extrator de Winkler e armadilha de fosso. Registramos 36 espécies, sendo 15 novos registros para o Pará e 29 para a área de estudo. Dezessete espécies foram comuns aos dois métodos, onze foram capturadas com armadilhas de fosso e oito com Winkler. As proporções de espécies representadas por um indivíduo ("singletons" foram altas para ambos os métodos (> 0,4. Dezenove espécies foram coletadas por apenas um método e três foram representadas por apenas um indivíduo em cada método. A análise de ordenação (escalonamento multidimensional semi-híbrido revelou diferenças na estrutura das comunidades de formigas obtidas pelos dois métodos de amostragem. Houve um efeito de complementaridade entre os dois métodos para a obtenção de um levantamento mais completo da riqueza de espécies, significando que ambos devem ser usados no protocolo. Outros recursos, como a rarefação e/ou diluição das amostras são recursos a serem avaliados em futuras investigações.Ants are largely used for monitoring and inventory programs, resulting in great amounts of material sampled with several methodologies, financial limitations and lack of experts to do the taxonomy of many taxa. To contribute for the elaboration of alternative protocols, we analyzed the complementarity of two sampling methods in the detection of species richness. In 6 plots of 1 km² distributed in an area of 33,000 ha of continuous primary forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, the diversity and the frequency of species of genera Crematogaster,Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla were investigated, as part of the "Ant methodology Protocol" of the Project TEAM. Using the Winkler extractor and pitfall traps, 10 sub-samples were collected per transect. In each plot, 4 transects of 100 m were installed. We registered 36 species, and 15 are new records for the state, and 29 for the study site. Seventeen species were common to both sampling methods, 11 were captured with pitfall and 8 with Winkler. The proportions of singletons were high for both methods (>0,4. Nineteen species were captured by only one method and three were represented by only one individual in both methods. Ordination analysis (SSH, Semi-Strong Hybrid Multi-Dimensional Scaling indicated differences in community structure between both sampling methods. There was a complementarity's effect between these two methods in order to obtain a more complete inventory of the species richness, indicating that both must be used in the protocol. Other resources like rarefaction and/or sample dilution must be evaluated in future investigations.

  2. Forage potential, micro-spatial and temporal distribution of ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agelenidae (house spiders), Formicidae (ants) and Gryllidae (True crickets) respectively constituting 52.68%, 36.58% and 5.85% of the total arthropod abundance, dominated the 23 families of arthropods. On the basis of percentage biomass and per capita biomass compositions, Gryllidae and Agelenidae were of the most ...

  3. Prospects of semi-cultivating the edible weaver and Oecophylla smaragdina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: entomophagy, edible insects, Formicidae, global food security, agricultural revolution, Lao PDR

    An increased use of edible insects as human food and animal feed is a viable means to feed the growing human population and to tackle sustainability issues of the food production

  4. Diet of the ant-eating chat Myrmecocichla lormicivora in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-11-15

    Nov 15, 1987 ... year Hymenoptera (ants) were the most abundant arthropods in the pitfall traps wit~ Isoptera common in winter. Although a wide variety of ... occasional Acacia karroo tree. (For more detail of the physical .... Isoptera and Formicidae occurred in the diet during most months of the year, they 'rere only common ...

  5. A Comparative Study of the Soil Fauna in forests and cultivated land on sandy soils in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der J.

    1963-01-01

    1. In the coastal area of Suriname the soil and surface fauna were studied in various types of agricultural land, and compared with the fauna in the adjacent forests. 2. In primeval forest the soil macroarthropods are less numerous than in secondary forest (Formicidae excluded). They range generally

  6. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were successfully separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily...

  7. Novel Phialophora species from leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of

  8. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 98, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Kakamega Forest (Kenya). EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FH Garcia, G Fischer, MK Peters, RR Snelling, JW Wägele. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.098.0201 ...

  9. Influence of the wood ant, .i.Formica polyctena./i., on soil nutrient and the spruce tree growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Rybníček, M.; Cudlín, Pavel; Chmelíková, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 4 (2008), s. 281-284 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Formicidae * Hymenoptera * Picea abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.111, year: 2008

  10. Do ant mimics imitate cuticular hydrocarbons of their models?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Jiroš, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2011), s. 1193-1199 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Araneae * betesian mimicry * defence * Formicidae Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.493, year: 2011

  11. Light, earthworms, and soil resources as predictors of diversity of 10 soil invertebrate groups across monocultures of 14 tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, KE; Eisenhauer, N; Reich, PB; Hobbie, SE; Chadwick, OA; Chorover, J; Dobies, T; Hale, CM; Jagodziński, AM; Kałucka, I; Kasprowicz, M; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B; Modrzyński, J; Roz en, A; Skorupski, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2015. Management of biodiversity and ecosystem services requires a better understanding of the factors that influence soil biodiversity. We characterized the species (or genera) richness of 10 taxonomic groups of invertebrate soil animals in replicated monocultures of 14 temperate tree species. The focal invertebrate groups ranged from microfauna to macrofauna: Lumbricidae, Nematoda, Oribatida, Gamasida, Opilionida, Araneida, Collembola, Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae. Measurement...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the environmental implications of ants (Hymenoptera: formicidae) associated with two synanthropic environments in Awka, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 5, No 3 (2008) - Articles The effect of land use on the community structure distribution and abundance of ground beetles (insecta: coleoptera) in a guinea savanna in ...

  13. Preliminary assessment of biogeographic affinities of selected insect taxa of the state of Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Jones; Alejandro Obregon-Zuniga; Sandra Guzman-Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The biogeographic affinites of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperidae), damsel and dragonflies (Odonata), and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reported from the State of Sonora, Mexico were analyzed using published species lists. The combined distribution of these taxa was proportionally greater (47.4%) for those species within the Mega-Mexico3...

  14. Aves hormigueras en bosque seco del Pacífico de Nicaragua: uso de hábitat y comportamiento parasítico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin A. Tórrez; Wayne Arendt; Pomares Salmeron

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen species of ant-following birds belonging to eight taxonomic families were observed parasitizing army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) in dry forest on the Pacifi c slope of Nicaragua. The birds used all three habitats previously selected as part of a broader biodiversity study: secondary forest, forest fallow, and coffee plantation. Species known to follow army...

  15. Predator pressure, herbivore abundance and plant damage along a subtropical altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bito, D.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Burwell, C. J.; Nakamura, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Ødegaard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 451-461 ISSN 0079-8835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : elevation * Formicidae * Coleoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/About+Us/Publications/Memoirs+of+the+ Queensland +Museum/MQM+Vol-55

  16. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  17. Co-occurrence of mated workers and a mated queen in a colony of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arnoldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Martin Villet *. Department of Zoology, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O.. Wits, 2050 Republic of South Africa. Received 23 March 1992; accepted 8 June 1992. A colony of Platythyrea arnold; was found to contain a functional queen and laying workers, both virgin and mated. This form ...

  18. Patterns of diversity and abundance of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini in areas of the Brazilian Cerrado Padrões de diversidade e abundância de formigas cultivadoras de fungo (Formicidade: Attini em áreas do Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini are characteristic elements of the New World fauna. However, there is little information on the patterns of diversity, abundance, and distribution of attine species in their native ecosystems, especially for the so-called "lower" genera of the tribe. A survey of attine ant nests (excluding Atta Fabricus, 1804 and Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 was conducted in a variety of savanna and forest habitats of the Cerrado biome near Uberlândia, Brazil. In total, 314 nests from 21 species of nine genera were found. Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893 was the most diverse genus with 10 species. Eighteen species were found in the savannas, including Mycetagroicus cerradensis Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes, 2001, a species from a recently-described genus of Attini, whereas in the forests only 12 species were found. Forest and savannas support relatively distinct faunas, each with a number of unique species; the species present in the forest habitats did not represent a nested subset of the species found in the savannas. Furthermore, although many species were common to both types of vegetation, their abundances were quite different. The density of attine nests is relatively high at some sites, exceeding an estimated 4,000 nests per hectare. In this sense, attine ants can be regarded as prevalent invertebrate taxa in the Brazilian Cerrado.As formigas cultivadoras de fungos (tribo Attini são exclusivas da fauna do Novo Mundo. Entretanto, existem poucas informações sobre os padrões de diversidade, abundância e distribuição das espécies de Attini em seus ecossistemas nativos, em especial para os gêneros menos derivados desta tribo. Um levantamento de ninhos de Attini (excluindo Atta Fabricius, 1804 e Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 foi realizado em diversos ambientes savânicos e de floresta do bioma Cerrado próximos à Uberlândia, Brasil. Encontramos 314 ninhos de 21 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros da tribo. Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893 foi o gênero mais diverso, com 10 espécies. Encontramos 18 espécies na savana, incluindo Mycetagroicus cerradensis Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes, 2001, uma espécie de um gênero de Attini recentemente descrito, enquanto que nas áreas de floresta registramos somente 12 espécies. As savanas e florestas apresentaram faunas relativamente distintas, com espécies exclusivas de cada tipo de vegetação; as espécies presentes nas florestas não representaram um subconjunto das espécies encontradas nas savanas. Além disso, apesar de muitas espécies terem sido comuns a ambos os tipos de vegetação, suas abundâncias foram muito diferentes. A densidade estimada de ninhos de Attini foi relativamente alta em alguns locais, ultrapassando 4.000 ninhos por hectare. Neste sentido, as formigas da tribo Attini podem ser consideradas como invertebrados predominantes no Cerrado brasileiro.

  19. Padrões de distribuição e diversidade de espécies da mirmecofauna (hymenoptera, formicidae) de uma savana estépica (chaco) no município de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Paulo Robson de

    2014-01-01

    O Gran Chaco é o único bosque seco subtropical do mundo. Considerado a segunda floresta mais extensa da América do Sul, ocorre preponderantemente na Argentina, Paraguai e Bolívia, sendo que apenas sete centésimos da sua área localizam-se no Brasil, no extremo sul da planície pantaneira, onde apresenta quatro fitofisionomias mais marcantes e diversas espécies vegetais endêmicas. Apesar de sua reconhecida importância ecológica no contexto continental, a fração brasileira do Chaco passa por séri...

  20. Determinação do território de forrageamento e avaliação do uso de micro porta-iscas para as saúvas Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 e Atta laevigata Fr. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vânia Maria [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em área de reflorestamento de Eucalyptus spp., localizada na Fazenda Santa Catarina, município de Botucatu, SP, com a finalidade de conhecer o território de forrageamento das saúvas Atta sexdens rubropilosa e Atta laevigata, e investigar a eficiência do método de controle dessas formigas através da aplicação de micro porta-iscas (mipis), distribuídos de forma regular em florestas implantadas com Eucalyptus spp. Utilizando-se a técnica de identificação de olhe...

  1. Ants at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary, Songkhla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate diversity of ant at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary, Hat Yai, Songkhla. Three line transects (100 m each were randomly set up in 2 types of forest area, disturbed and undisturbed. Hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sampling (LL were applied for ant collection within a time limit of 30 minutes for each method. This study was carried out every month during Febuary 2002- Febuary 2003. The results showed that 206 species were placed under 8 subfamilies: Aenictinae, Cerapachyinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Leptanillinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Study sites and collection methods could divide ant species into 2 groups, whereas seasonal change could not distinguish the groups by DCA of multivariate analysis.

  2. Ants visit nectaries of Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae in a Brazilian rainforest: effects on herbivory and pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.

  3. Ants visit nectaries of Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae in a Brazilian rainforest: effects on herbivory and pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Almeida

    Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.

  4. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae) in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Leonardo B.; Freire,Eliza M. X.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825), as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items) in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation...

  5. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    includes fever, headache, abdominal pain, cough and vomiting. Ingestion of organisms in contaminated food or water may produce a painful pharyngitis...Tick paralysis is a potentially fatal but easily cured affliction of man and animals. It is almost exclusively associated with hard (ixodid) ticks and...humans are the Vespidae (wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets), the Apidae ( honey bees and bumble bees), and the Formicidae (ants). Wasps and ants can

  6. Identification of microsatellite markers for a worldwide distibuted, highly invasive ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidiae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Jan; Lebrasseur, O.; Borovanská, Michaela; Janda, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, JUNE 03 (2016), s. 409-414 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma melanocephalum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/53.pdf

  7. Effect and fate of lindane in maize plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Klaa, K.

    1992-10-01

    The fate and effect of lindane in maize plant, soil and predators were studied following insecticide application under field conditions. Respectively 84,2% and 93,3% of lindane residues were lost after 2 and 4 months in soil after treatment. About 90% of the insecticide was lost after one month in maize plant. Lindane residues were present in maize grains (0,205ppm). Lindane decreases the density of many predators in soils such as species of collembola, coccinellidae, formicidae, coleoptera

  8. Factors affecting invertebrate assemblages in bryophytes of the Litovelské Luhy National Nature Reserve, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Božanić, B.; Hradílek, Z.; Machač, O.; Pižl, Václav; Šťáhlavský, F.; Tufová, J.; Véle, A.; Tuf, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-206 ISSN 0324-0770 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/155/08; GA MŽP(CZ) IGA PrF/2010/001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chilopoda * Diplopoda * Oniscidea * Araneae * Pseudoscorpiones * Opiliones * Formicidae * Lumbricidae * Litovelské Pomoraví Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2013

  9. Feeding resource partitioning between two understorey insectivorous birds in a fragment of Neotropical cloud forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Abstract The food habits and niche overlap based on diet composition and prey size of two species of understorey insectivorous birds were investigated in an area of montane rain forest in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. A total of 43 birds were captured: 33 individuals of Conopophaga lineata (Conopophagidae with 13 recaptures, and 10 individuals of Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Parulidae with 12 recaptures, from which were obtained respectively 33 and 10 fecal samples. Fragments of 16 groups of arthropods, plus insect eggs, were identified in these samples. Conopophaga lineata predominantly consumed Formicidae (32% and Isoptera (23.6%. However, the index of alimentary importance (AI of Isoptera (3.53 was lower than other groups such as Formicidae (AI = 61.88, Coleoptera (AI = 16.17, insect larvae (AI = 6.95 and Araneae (AI = 6.6. Myiothlypis leucoblephara predominantly consumed Formicidae (28.2% and Coleoptera (24.4%, although Coleoptera and Hymenoptera non-Formicidae had the highest values of AI (38.71 and 22.98 respectively. Differences in the proportions of the types of arthropods consumed by birds were not enough to reveal their separation into feeding niches (overlap = 0.618, p observed ≤ expected = 0.934, whereas differences in the use of resources was mainly due to the size of the prey (p<0.001, where C lineata, the species with the highest body mass (p<0.001 consumed larger prey. It is plausible that prey size is an axis of niche dimension that allows the coexistence of these species.

  10. Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Piou, Cyril; Tadu, Zéphirin; Babin, Régis

    2018-06-06

    The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.

  11. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which the glossa works either as a passive duct-like structure (sucking), or as an up- and downwards moving shovel (licking). The technique employed for collecting fluids at ad libitum food sources was observed to be species-specific and to correlate with the presence or absence of a well-developed crop in the species under scrutiny. Workers of ponerine ants licked fluid food during foraging and transported it as a droplet between their mandibles, whereas workers of species belonging to phylogenetically more advanced subfamilies, with a crop capable of storing liquids, sucked the fluid food, such as formicine ants of the genus Camponotus. In order to evaluate the performance of fluid collection during foraging, intake rates for sucrose solutions of different concentrations were measured in four ant species that differ in their foraging ecology. Scaling functions between fluid intake rates and ant size were first established for the polymorphic species, so as to compare ants of different size across species. Results showed that fluid intake rate depended, as expected and previously reported in the literature, on sugar concentration and the associated fluid viscosity. It also depended on both the species-specific feeding technique and the extent of specialization on foraging on liquid food. For similarly-sized ants, workers of two nectar-feeding ant species, Camponotus rufipes (Formicinae) and Pachycondyla villosa (Ponerinae), collected fluids with the highest intake rates, while workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Myrmicinae) and a predatory ant from the Rhytidoponera impressa-complex (Ponerinae) did so with the lowest rate. Calculating the

  12. Keragaman Semut pada Ekosistem Tanaman Kakao di Desa Banjaroya Kecamatan Kalibawang Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ikbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the diversity of ants in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. ecosystems in six hamlets in the village of Banjaroya, District Kalibawang Yogyakarta. The sampling was carried out by the method of feeding ants using tuna and sugar solution, which is placed on the cacao tree and the ground surface; pit-fall traps; and direct picking by hand. Six sub-family of ants, namely Cerapachynae, Dolichoderinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, and Pseudomyrmicinae were found. Six of the most abundant genera found in each catchment were Dolichoderus sp., Anoplolepis sp., Paratrechina sp., Crematogaster sp., Pheidole sp., and Pheidologeton sp., which is known to be aggressive and invasive. The analysis showed that the diversity of ant communities in the Village Banjaroya categorized as medium (H ‘> 1-3, meaning that the overall state of the ecosystem of the cocoa crop was classified as stable or steady. Meanwhile, the results of the analysis of the dominance index (C shows that the community of ants in each village tends was tended to be dominated by a single species (C close to 0. The relationship between habitat condition and the diversity of ant was discussed in this article.   Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman semut pada ekosistem kakao (Theobroma cacao L. di 6 dusun di Desa Banjaroya, Kecamatan Kalibawang Yogyakarta. Pengambilan sampel semut dilakukan dengan metode pengumpanan menggunakan ikan tuna dan larutan gula yang diletakkan pada pohon kakao dan permukaan tanah; lubang perangkap; dan pemungutan dengan tangan. Enam subfamili semut, yaitu Cerapachynae, Dolichoderinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, dan Pseudomyrmicinae telah ditemukan di lokasi pengambilan sampel. Enam genus yaitu Dolichoderus sp., Anoplolepis sp., Paratrechina sp., Crematogaster sp., Pheidole sp. dan Pheidologeton sp. yang dikenal agresif dan invasif, ditemukan paling melimpah di setiap dusun. Hasil analisis keragaman komunitas semut di Desa

  13. Specialized Fungal Parasites and Opportunistic Fungi in Gardens of Attine Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Pagnocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae comprise about 230 described species that share the same characteristic: all coevolved in an ancient mutualism with basidiomycetous fungi cultivated for food. In this paper we focused on fungi other than the mutualistic cultivar and their roles in the attine ant symbiosis. Specialized fungal parasites in the genus Escovopsis negatively impact the fungus gardens. Many fungal parasites may have small impacts on the ants' fungal colony when the colony is balanced, but then may opportunistically shift to having large impacts if the ants' colony becomes unbalanced.

  14. Influence of moisture conditions and mineralization of soil solution on structure of litter macrofauna of the deciduous forests of Ukraine steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of litter mesofauna was carried out in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev,Donetsk regions of Ukrainein the natural forest ecosystems in 2001–2014. 339 forest ecosystems were surveyed; xeromesophilic conditions of moistening were characteristic for 47 trial sites, mesophilic conditions – for 99 sites, hygro-mesophilic conditions – for 50 sites, meso-hygrophilic conditions – for 89 sites, hygrophilic conditions – for 54 sites; trophotope C was represented by 35 trial sites, Dc – by 44, Dac – by 76, Dn – by 128, De – by 37, E – by 19 forest ecosystems, accordingly. The relative number of saprophages reaches maximum values in hygro-mesophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions, and minimum values – in mesophilic conditions of moistening. The share of rare species is maximum in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening. The minimum quantity of mass species is also observed in conditions of hygro-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic deciduous forests. With the growth of moistening of the soil, quantity of species of Carabidae, Formicidae and other dominant families remains without significant changes. The relative number of Formicidae is maximum in xeromesophilic and mesophilic conditions of soil moistening. In these hygrotopes, as well as in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening the Julidae numbers are maximum. The Isopoda percent in mesofauna significantly grows in meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions of moistening. The share of other dominant taxonomical groups in the structure of litter mesofauna remains without significant changes in numbers. In the majority of the analysed hygrotopes 7–8 families are withing the structure of dominants. In the conditions of salinization (trophotopes De and E, and also on light sandy loam soils, the numbers of litter mesofauna decrease. Share of saprophages is minimum in trophotopes Dc and E, while it increases in trophotopes C, Dac, Dn

  15. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  16. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  17. Komunitas serangga pada tanaman orok-Orok (Crotalaria striata di berbagai habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmiandy Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To study insect community at orok-orok plantation (Crotalaria striata from different habitat, we observed insects that interacted with Crotalaria plantation. There were four habitat type that used in this research, habitat open area and others were agroforestry habitat. We counted about nine ordo from insect that interacted with Crotalaria plant. More than 70% member of ordo, include to Hymenoptera, specially Formicidae. Not all function member of the ordo that known, but some of them are pollinator, parasitoid, predator and herbivore.

  18. Diversidad de tres gremios de hormigas en cafetales de sombra, de sol y bosques de Risaralda

    OpenAIRE

    RIVERA, LEONARDO; ARMBRECHT, INGE

    2005-01-01

    Durante 2001-2002 se realizó un estudio de la mirmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) en cafetales del municipio de Apía (Risaralda), para evaluar el impacto que las técnicas modernas de cultivo de café tienen sobre la biodiversidad asociada. Se seleccionaron 12 fincas clasificadas en tres sistemas de manejo de sombra de café (tratamientos) y un control compuesto por parches de bosque. Se ubicaron 20 parcelas de 1 m² por finca en las cuales se realizó colecta manual de hormigas en hojarasca y ...

  19. An ant-plant by-product mutualism is robust to selective logging of rain forest and conservasion to oil palm plantation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fayle, Tom Maurice; Edwards, D. P.; Foster, W. A.; Yusah, K. M.; Turner, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 178, č. 2 (2015), s. 441-450 ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0006; Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bird’s nest fern * Formicidae * Malaysian Borneo Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.902, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-014-3208-z

  20. Persistence and effect of lindane (gamma HCH) in a maize field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Meguenni, H.; Hamadache, A.; Coste, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of lindane on the arthropod fauna and its persistence in soil and maize plants under field conditions were studied. Lindane significantly reduced the densities of collembola and spiders but had less significant effects on carabidae and formicidae. It decreased the damage caused by pest insects in maize plants but had no effect on the yield. Lindane dissipated rapidly from both plants and soil. The residues in harvested grains were 0.2 mg.kg -1 (year 1), 0.23 mg.kg -1 (year 2) and 0.05 mg.kg -1 (year 3) and below the recommended acceptable limit for grains. (author). 7 refs, 6 tabs

  1. Canopy and litter ant assemblages share similar climate-species density relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, M. D.; Sanders, N. J.; Agosti, D.; Andersen, A. N.; Ellison, A. M.; Fisher, B. L.; Gibb, H.; Gotelli, N. J.; Gove, A. D.; Gross, K.; Guénard, B.; Janda, Milan; Kaspari, M.; Lessard, J.-P.; Longino, J. T.; Majer, J. D.; Menke, S. B.; McGlynn, T. P.; Parr, C. L.; Philpott, S. M.; Retana, J.; Suarez, A. V.; Vasconcelos, H.L.; Yanoviak, P.; Dunn, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2010), s. 769-772 ISSN 1744-9561 Grant - others: NASA Biodiversity Grant(US) ROSES-NNX09AK22G; National Science Foundation(US) NSF-OISE-0749047; National Science Foundation(US) NSF-DEB-0640015; National Science Foundation(US) NSF-0716966; National Science Foundation(US) NSF-DEB0842395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Formicidae * species richness * global diversity gradients Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.651, year: 2010

  2. Maculinea alcon exploits Myrmica aloba in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaldo, P.S.; Wynhoff, I.; Soares, P.

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of the obligate myrmecophilous social parasite Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found exclusively using Myrmica aloba (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ant hosts in NE-Portugal. This is the first record of the host ant usage of any Maculinea species in Portugal, and of any Maculinea ...... using M. aloba nests. These results on such peripheral European populations confirm that knowledge of the local host ant species is crucial for the successful protection of these endangered butterflies, and vital for examining the evolution of such interactions...

  3. Diet of Rhinella scitula (Anura, Bufonidae in the Cerrado, Brazil: the importance of seasons and body size Dieta de Rhinella scitula (Anura, Bufonidae: la importancia de la variación estacional y la talla corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciéle P. Maragno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to analyze the diet of Rhinella scitula in different seasons (dry and rainy, and (2 to examine resource partitioning among sexes and body-size categories. Individuals were collected during active searches along a riverbank in the Serra da Bodoquena National Park, Brazil. Formicidae, followed by Coleoptera and Isoptera, had the highest importance index values for males, females, and all individuals combined. Diet composition was similar between males and females. Larger individuals consumed larger prey, although they fed on small prey as well. Similar-sized individuals had high dietary overlap. Smaller individuals had a diet as broad as larger individuals, although composed of different items. Formicidae was the most common prey item for animals collected in both the dry and rainy seasons, but was more important in the rainy season. During the dry season, R. scitula remained closer to the edge of the water bodies and showed the widest dietary niche, represented by similar importance index values.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (1, analizar la dieta de Rhinella scitula en 2 estaciones del año y (2, examinar el reparto de recursos entre sexos y entre diferentes categorías de tamaño corporal. Los ejemplares fueron capturados mediante búsqueda visual a lo largo de las orillas de un riachuelo del Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena. Los individuos pertenecientes a los grupos Formicidae, seguidos por Coleoptera e Isoptera fueron las presas con mayores valores de importancia para machos, hembras y para todos los individuos de ambos sexos combinados. No se registraron diferencias entre sexos en la composición de la dieta. Los individuos de mayor tamaño, consumieron presas de mayor volumen, si bien no dejaron de consumir presas pequeñas. La superposición de dieta fue mayor entre individuos pertenecientes a clases de talla próximas. Los sapos de menor tamaño presentaron una dieta tan amplia como los m

  4. Functional structure of ant and termite assemblages in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luke, S. H.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Eggleton, P.; Turner, E. C.; Davies, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 11 (2014), s. 2817-2832 ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; Australïan Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : feeding groups * formicidae * functional groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10531-014-0750-2

  5. Degeneration of sperm reservoir and the loss of mating ability in worker ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Bruno; Ito, Fuminori; Billen, Johan; Peeters, Christian

    2008-11-01

    Workers never mate in the large majority of ants, and they have usually lost the spermatheca, an organ specialized for long-term storage of sperm. Such ‘non-sexual’ workers are restricted to laying unfertilized eggs that give rise to males, and they cannot compete with the queens for the production of female offspring. In sharp contrast, workers in 200 300 species from phylogenetically basal subfamilies can reproduce sexually (‘gamergates’) because they retain a functional spermatheca like the queens. Importantly, ‘non-sexual’ workers in closely related species have a vestigial spermatheca. In this study, we compared the reservoir epithelium of ‘sexual’ workers to that of congeneric queens and ‘non-sexual’ workers using 21 species of Amblyoponinae, Ponerinae and Ectatomminae. We show that a pronounced thickening of the epithelium near the opening of the sperm duct is strictly associated with sexual reproduction in both castes. This is unlike ‘non-sexual’ workers in which this epithelium is always very thin, with few organelles; but all other structures remain intact. We discuss this evolutionary degeneration of the spermatheca and how it relates to behavioural or physiological modifications linked to mating. Our results help understand the loss of sexual reproduction by ant workers, a critical step in the extreme specialization of their phenotype.

  6. [Effects of environmental factors on the ant fauna of restinga community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, André B; Mayhé-Nunes, Antônio J; Queiroz, Jarbas M; Souza, Guilherme O; Ramos, Elaine F

    2007-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the richness, diversity and abundance of ants were studied in the Restinga da Marambaia, south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The samples were taken using pitfall traps in August/2004 (winter) and March/2005 (summer) in three different vegetation types: (1) herbaceous ridge palmoid (homogeneous habitat); (2) shrub dune thicket and (3) ridge forest (heterogeneous habitats). At each habitat a range of environmental attributes was recorded: soil temperature and humidity, percentage of soil covering by litter and litter depth. Ninety-two ant species belonging to 36 genera and eight subfamilies were recorded. Density of ant species and abundance varied significantly between habitats and seasons; ant diversity varied only between habitats. Homogeneous habitat had lower ant species density, abundance and diversity than heterogeneous habitats. The two first variables were positively correlated with litter depth and both were higher in summer than in winter samples. There were more species of Ponerinae and Ectatomminae in heterogeneous than in the homogeneous habitat, whereas the Formicinae species were more abundant in the later.

  7. The leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in the Cantareira State Park – São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Soliva Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two species of 25 genera in eight ant subfamilies were collected. Myrmicinae was the richest with 39 species, followed by Ponerinae (14, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae and Formicinae (two species each, Amblyoponinae, Proceratiinae and Dolichoderinae (one species each. The richest genera were Solenopsis and Hypoponera (12 morph-species each, and Pheidole (eight. Richness estimators indicated that the total number of species in the area should be between 68 and 85, in a confidence interval of 95%. In comparison, other locations of the evergreen Atlantic Forest have shown a significantly higher richness. Our hypothesis is that the proximity of regions of great urban concentration, allied to the factors that act on a local scale, modifies the structure of the local community of leaf litter ants.

  8. Preliminary survey of ants at a reserve area of Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranee Binnima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prince of Songkla University is the first university established in the southern part of Thailand. A reserve area is planned at Ko Hong Hill near the university. The flora of this area has been previously explored but a few fauna species have been studied. Although ants are one of dominant groups in this forest, there is no record of their diversity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the ant diversity in terms of species composition. Three sampling methods, pitfall trap (PF, hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sifting (LL were applied to collection of ants along 3 line transects each of 90 meter in length and 500 meter apart during April 2001. Six subfamilies (Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Dorylinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and Pseudomyrmecinae of ants, comprising 44 species, were found. The results also showed that HC was the most sufficient method resulting in the highest number of ant species, while the combination of two methods (HC and LL yielded the highest number of ant species.

  9. The role of fusion in ant chromosome evolution: insights from cytogenetic analysis using a molecular phylogenetic approach in the genus mycetophylax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Danon Clemes; das Graças Pompolo, Silvia; Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Among insect taxa, ants exhibit one of the most variable chromosome numbers ranging from n = 1 to n = 60. This high karyotype diversity is suggested to be correlated to ants diversification. The karyotype evolution of ants is usually understood in terms of Robertsonian rearrangements towards an increase in chromosome numbers. The ant genus Mycetophylax is a small monogynous basal Attini ant (Formicidae: Myrmicinae), endemic to sand dunes along the Brazilian coastlines. A recent taxonomic revision validates three species, Mycetophylax morschi, M. conformis and M. simplex. In this paper, we cytogenetically characterized all species that belongs to the genus and analyzed the karyotypic evolution of Mycetophylax in the context of a molecular phylogeny and ancestral character state reconstruction. M. morschi showed a polymorphic number of chromosomes, with colonies showing 2n = 26 and 2n = 30 chromosomes. M. conformis presented a diploid chromosome number of 30 chromosomes, while M. simplex showed 36 chromosomes. The probabilistic models suggest that the ancestral haploid chromosome number of Mycetophylax was 17 (Likelihood framework) or 18 (Bayesian framework). The analysis also suggested that fusions were responsible for the evolutionary reduction in chromosome numbers of M. conformis and M. morschi karyotypes whereas fission may determines the M. simplex karyotype. These results obtained show the importance of fusions in chromosome changes towards a chromosome number reduction in Formicidae and how a phylogenetic background can be used to reconstruct hypotheses about chromosomes evolution.

  10. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  11. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.

  12. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  13. Parachuting behavior and predation by ants in the nettle caterpillar, Scopelodes contracta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the bizarre descending behavior from the tree crown to the ground of the larvae of the moth, Scopelodes contracta Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and the interaction of the larva with predatory ants. S. contracta larvae infest leaves of many tree species in urban areas and orchards in Japan. Mature larvae and leaves without basal leaf parts were found under trees of four species infested with S. contracta larvae in Osaka, Japan. Individual larvae riding on leaves were observed falling from tree crowns to the ground. Many S. contracta cocoons were found in the soil below the trees two weeks after the observed parachuting. These observations indicate that S. contracta larvae parachuted to the ground where they spin their cocoons in the soil. When a larva that had just parachuted down was returned to an arboreal twig, the larva repeated the parachuting behavior. This parachuting behavior appears to be adaptive, because larvae can descend to the ground safely and with low energy cost. Worker ants of Tetramorium tsushimae Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) occasionally attacked larvae on the ground before they had a chance to burrow in the soil.

  14. North American Invasion of the Tawny Crazy Ant (Nylanderia fulva) Is Enabled by Pheromonal Synergism from Two Separate Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; McDonald, Danny L; Hoover, Doreen R; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Schneidmiller, Rodney G

    2015-09-01

    A new invader, the "tawny crazy ant", Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Formicinae), is displacing the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Formicidae: Myrmicinae), in the southern U.S., likely through its superior chemical arsenal and communication. Alone, formic acid is unattractive, but this venom (= poison) acid powerfully synergizes attraction of tawny crazy ants to volatiles from the Dufour's gland secretion of N. fulva workers, including the two major components, undecane and 2-tridecanone. The unexpected pheromonal synergism between the Dufour's gland and the venom gland appears to be another key factor, in addition to previously known defensive and detoxification semiochemical features, for the successful invasion and domination of N. fulva in the southern U.S. This synergism is an efficient mechanism enabling N. fulva workers to outcompete Solenopsis and other ant species for food and territory. From a practical standpoint, judicious point-source release formulation of tawny crazy ant volatiles may be pivotal for enhanced attract-and-kill management of this pest.

  15. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    of P.  javanus attacked 75-88% and 38-53% of banana weevil larvae and pupae, respectively. Predatory ants, including species of Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, Formicinae, and Dolichoderinae, were found to be associated with banana plants and residues. Adults of Myopopone castanea Smith (Ponerinae were directly observed attacking banana weevil larvae in crop residues. The adult banana weevil mortalities caused by the entomopathogen fungi of Beauveria bassiana from Baso, Sungaitarab, Sei Sariek, and Sikabau at highest density (3.2 x 108 spores ml-1 after two weeks were 96.67%, 90.00%, 60.00% and 83.33%, respectively. The high diversity of habitat conditions in which crop-pest-natural enemies systems exist, support the idea that banana weevil population and damage intensity in the study area is low due to active role of natural enemies.

  16. Hormigas cazadoras en sistemas productivos del piedemonte amazónico colombiano: diversidad y especies indicadoras Hunter ants in productive systems of Colombian amazon foothills: diversity and indicator species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catalina Sanabria-Blandón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la abundancia, riqueza y composición de hormigas cazadoras y su variación en los sistemas productivos del departamento de Caquetá, se seleccionaron 27 fincas representativas de tres ventanas (agroforestal, silvopastoril y tradicional, en las cuales se identificaron hasta nueve clases de usos del suelo. Las proporciones dedicadas a pastos limpios, agroforestales y rastrojos viejos, fueron las que más contribuyeron a diferenciar las ventanas. Se muestrearon cinco puntos por finca mediante cuatro métodos para captura de hormigas (TSBF, lavado de suelo con formol, escrutinio de hojarasca y búsqueda directa. De un total de 280 individuos se determinaron nueve géneros y 35 especies de las subfamilias Ectatomminae, Paraponerinae y Ponerinae; el género más diverso fue Pachycondyla con 13 especies. La abundancia de hormigas se correlacionó directamente con la riqueza de especies y con el número de especies exclusivas. La riqueza fue mayor en la ventana agroforestal (24 especies, seguida de la silvopastoril (19 y de la tradicional (8. Cinco especies fueron comunes a las tres ventanas y siete especies (Ectatomma ruidum, Hypoponera sp.1 y sp.4, Odontomachus haematodus, O. brunneus y Pachycondyla constricta marcaron las diferencias en composición. Odontomachus brunneus resultó indicadora para la ventana tradicional y Paraponera clavata para la ventana silvopastoril. La búsqueda directa fue el método más eficiente para muestrear hormigas cazadoras en el piedemonte amazónico.We studied the abundance, richness and composition of hunting ants and their variation in production systems in department of Caquetá-Colombia, 27 farms were selected in three productive systems (agroforestry, silvopastoral and traditional, in this nine kinds of soil uses were identified. The proportions of clean pasture, agroforestry and old stubble contributed most to differentiating the systems. Five points were sampled per farm using four different

  17. Especies de hormigas del suelo en el Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, Pacífico Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany Valdés-Rodríguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo compila registros publicados (1991 y no publicados (2006 sobre las especies de hormigas del PNN Gorgona y aporta nuevos registros de especies recolectadas en 2010. Se recopiló información de 15 diferentes sitios de isla Gorgona (13.82km², incluyendo la pequeña isla de Gorgonilla (0.4899km². Los métodos de recolecta incluyeron trampas de caída, cebos de atún, sacos Winkler, trampas Malaise, red entomológica y captura directa. El inventario de hormigas de suelo y sotobosque resultó en 107 especies y morfoespecies, 46 géneros y 12 subfamilias. Myrmicinae reunió la mayor riqueza (37 especies seguida de Ponerinae (27 y Formicinae (12. Los géneros más ricos fueron Pachycondyla (15 especies, Camponotus (nueve y Pheidole (ocho, mientras que 30 géneros solo presentaron una especie. Doce especies fueron muy comunes: Azteca sp., Atta cephalotes, Camponotus sericeiventris, Eciton vagans, Ectatomma goninion, Gnamptogenys annulata, Odontomachus bauri, Pachycondyla bugabensis, P. harpax, P. verenae, Paraponera clavata y Wasmannia auropunctata. En comparación con otras islas neotropicales, Gorgona tiene un número sorprendentemente elevado de especies de hormigas, ninguna de ellas invasivas. Por tanto, estos resultados sugieren que, mecanismos ecológicos y procesos de recuperación natural en el ecosistema han generado disponibilidad de microhábitats permitiendo la coexistencia una gran riqueza de especies.

  18. El pez Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae como herramienta de muestreo de la entomofauna en un embalse tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue hacer un levantamiento entomofaunístico, en un embalse Tropical, utilizando como organismo indicador al pez Trachelyopterus striatulus. Fue analizada la dieta de 383 T. striatulus, muestreados desde abril de 1999 hasta marzo de 2000. La Frecuencia de presencia y el porcentaje de similitud de Schoener fueron aplicados para analizar la dieta. Para identificar variaciones de la entomofauna entre las estaciones del año y las zonas del embalse fueron aplicadas estadísticas univariadas y multivariadas. La dieta estuvo compuesta principalmente por insectos (92.14% siendo los más frecuentes (%FO: Hymenoptera (57.90%, Odonata (39.76%, Trichoptera (27.41%, Ephemeroptera (26.25% y Coleoptera (28.96%. Formicidae fue dominante en todas las estaciones del año, en especial en la primavera, mientras, Trichoptera y Ephemeroptera fueron más consumidos en las demás estaciones del año. En la zona alta, predominaron Trichoptera y Ephemeroptera, mientras en las zonas baja e intermedia predominaron Formicidae y Belostomatidae. T. striatulus presenta potencial como muestreador de la entomofauna contribuyendo para el conocimiento de la biología y ecología de los insectos y la ecología trófica de los organismos acuáticos.The fish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriforms: Auchenipteridae used to sample insects in a tropical reservoir. The study of aquatic environments is sometimes difficult to do with normal sampling methods that use gears. Insectivorous fishes represent good users of these ecosystems and analyzing the aquatic organisms present in fish stomachs, is an alternative way to determine resource abundance and utilization. In this paper, the potential of Trachelyopterus striatulus as an insect sampler was examined through dietary analyses of 383 individuals caught between April 1999 and March 2000 in Lajes Reservoir, a 30 km² oligotrophic impoundment in Southeast Brazil. We estimated frequency of occurrence and

  19. Insetos em presépios e as "formigas vestidas" de Jules Martin (1832-1906: uma curiosa manufatura paulistana do final do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Martins Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present in Brazil since the beginning of Portuguese colonization, crèche nativity scenes were soon adapted to local reality, a propitious circumstance for the appearance of heterodox conceptions and the use of exotic elements of the fauna and flora peculiar to each region. As records about insects are very uncommon, it is noteworthy that females of leaf-cutting ants, Atta sp. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, were used to compose crèche nativity scenes in São Paulo State. Having subsisted at least up to the decade of 1960, the "ant crèches" of cities such as Embu das Artes could be related to the then famous "dressed ants" created by Jules Martin, a curious manufacture of the city of São Paulo in the last quarter of the 19th century.

  20. Fate and effects of lindane in a chickpea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguenni, H.; Bennaceur, M.; Sennaqui, Z.; Ghezal, F.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of lindane on non-target organisms and the concentrations of its residues in soil and the chickpea crop were investigated over three years. Lindane had adverse effects on some elements of the ecosystem. Ants (Formicidae), spiders (Aranae) and beetles (Carabidae), to a lesser extent, were more affected than Collembola. Organic matter, buried in non-degradable open-mesh bags in the plots, was slightly more degraded in the control plots than in the sprayed plots suggesting that the soil microflora and microfauna had been inhibited by the lindane. However, it was shown by chemical analyses that lindane was degraded in both soils and plants to one tenth of the original concentrations after application in 2 months and 1 month, respectively. Some concentrations (0.2-1.2 mg kg -1 ) of lindane were found in the harvested grain of the chickpea plants. (author). 1 ref., 6 tabs

  1. Parasitoids of boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and resident predators in kaolin-treated cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leme Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous use of control methods is essential to reach success in managing arthropod pests. The current study investigated the effect of kaolin application on resident predators in the cotton plant canopy and parasitism of boll weevil on abscised squares in the field, and parasitism of boll weevil in the laboratory. Predators Araneae, Formicidae, Chrysopidae, and Coccinellidae showed similar seasonal densities for kaolin-treated and untreated cotton fields as well as the emergence rate of the parasitoids Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Catolaccus grandis Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae from abscised field-collected structures. Under laboratory conditions, the parasitism of boll weevil larvae infesting squares was similar when treated and untreated squares with kaolin were offered to the parasitoid under free choice test. Therefore, the results show that spraying cotton fields with kaolin does not affect the natural biological control by parasitoids of boll weevil and pink bollworm and resident predators naturally occurring in cotton fields.

  2. The genomic impact of 100 million years of social evolution in seven ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadau, Jürgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants...... between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general....... makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization...

  3. Visitation patterns of principal species of the insect-complex at carcasses in the Kruger National Park

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    L.E.O Braack

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Two full-grown impala rams Aepyceros melampus were shot on 1978.01.07 in the Pafuri area of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. The carcasses were placed in enclosures 2,7 km apart and used to monitor the visitation patterns of insects. Collections of insects were made at four-hourly intervals for the first six days after placement of the carcasses, and thereafter every six hours up to the eleventh and final day. A figure is given to describe changes in the physical attributes of the carcasses through time. Twelve figures depict the patterns of arrival of insects at the carrion habitat. Species from the following families are represented: Cleridae, Dermestidae, Histeridae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae, Trogidae (Coleoptera; Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae (Diptera; Diapriidae and Formicidae (Hymenoptera. The results indicate that species have distinctive periods of abundance and presents an overall picture of insect succession at carrion.

  4. Ecological Diversity of Soil Fauna as Ecosystem Engineers in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

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    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Taxa diversity within soil fauna functional groups can affected ecosystem functioning such as ecosystem engineers,which influence decomposition and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study is to describe ecological diversityvariation within soil fauna as ecosystem engineers in soil ecosystem of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. plantation.Sampling was conducted during one year period from five different ages of plantation. Soil fauna removed from soilcore using hand sorting methods. A total of 39 genera of soil fauna as ecosystem engineers were found during thesestudies. Thirty five genera belong to the group of Formicidae (ants, three genera of Isoptera (termites, and onegenera of Oligochaeta (earthworms. Ecological diversity variation within ecosystem engineers was detected withSimpson indices for dominance and evenness. The highest diversity of ecosystem engineers was in the young ageof plantation. This study reinforces the importance biotic interaction which contributed to the distribution andabundance within soil fauna community as ecosystem engineers in small-holder cocoa plantation.

  5. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

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    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  6. Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Monroy, Carlota; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2004-05-01

    For the first time, the reduviid bug Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) was recorded to inhabit the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala. These bromeliads grow mainly in drought-resistant trees with rough bark such as Pereskia lychnidiflora (Cactaceae). In our study site, we investigated 30 T. xerographica, and 53 specimens of T. ryckmani were found. Most T. ryckmani (68.5%) were unfed. Ants (Formicidae) were the predominant (92.2%) insect taxon in T. xerographica. Other insects such as Blattidae (3.0%), Reduviidae (T. ryckmani: 2.5%), Blaberidae (2.2%), Gryllidae (0.1%), and Acrididae (0.1%) were recorded in the bromeliads. T. xerographica is illegally commercialized without previous inspection. This may cause accidental introduction of T. ryckmani to houses and to other countries.

  7. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummelin, Matti; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Hirvonen, Heikki; Alanko, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators

  8. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

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    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  9. Soil Fauna Communities and Soil Attributes in the Agroforests of Paraty

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    Miguel Seabra Corrêa da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We conducted the present study in Paraty, southeastern Brazil, in areas under different management regimes and plant cover. The study comprised two different agroforestry systems (AFS-1 and AFS-2, a secondary forest, and a cassava monoculture. We aimed at assessing the effects of land use on the soil fauna and its relationship with soil chemical (pH, Al, Ca, Mg, P, K, carbon, and organic matter and microbiological attributes (soil microbial biomass carbon - SMB-C, soil respiration – SR, metabolic quotient - qCO2, microbial biomass carbon - C-mic. During winter, AFS-2 showed higher abundance of microphagous, saprophagous, and total individuals than the other areas. AFS-1 and the forest showed an increased abundance of Formicidae and phytophagous groups from winter to summer. The soil fauna and community structure showed that the studied agroforests are under regeneration, becoming more similar to the native forest, where ecological processes are considered efficient.

  10. BIOLOGI REPRODUKSI BUNGA Cassine koordersii Kostermans (Celastraceae KOLEKSI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

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    D. Ardhianto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on flower biology of Cassine koordersii Kostermans was carried out in the Bogor Botanic Garden on April — November 2002. The plant produces flowers in umbel inflorescences that open sequentially, starting from the lowest branch of the inflorescence. There is no spatial separation between the anther and the stigma, and the dispersal of highly viable pollen takes place within the period of stigma receptivity. The flowers also show some characters of entomophily. Visitor insects are flies (ordo Diptera, family Syrphidae and Tachinidae and ants (ordo Hymenoptera, family Formicidae. In general, the morphological and phenological characteristics of the flower allow self pollination to occur successfully. Floral assessment using Cruden's Outcrossing Index showed that the flower is self-compatible.

  11. Jubogaster towai, a new Neotropical genus and species of Trogastrini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) exhibiting myrmecophily and extreme body enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Jubogaster towai gen. et sp. nov. is described from a colony of Pheidole xanthogaster Wilson (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Peruvian Amazon. The new taxon is amongst the largest pselaphine species known. Its transverse head implies an affinity with Trogastrini (Pselaphinae: Euplectitae), but J. towai lacks typical characters diagnostic for trogastrines and possesses others, such as a Jubini-like pronotum and equally-sized tarsal claws, that obscure its systematic relationships. To place J. towai phylogenetically, we sequenced a fragment of 28s rDNA for the new species and a range of other pselaphines, including members of Trogastrini and other tribes of Euplectitae. The topology produced by this analysis supports the inclusion of Jubogaster in Trogastrini, thereby indicating that morphology within this tribe can be more malleable than previously thought. Many of the largest pselaphine taxa are guests of social insect colonies. We discuss whether an evolutionary correlation (or causal relationship) exists between body enlargement and an inquilinous lifestyle in Pselaphinae.

  12. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  13. Estruturas secretoras em cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: ocorrência e morfologia Secretory structures in cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: occurrence and morphology

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    Raimunda Conceição Vilhena-Potiguara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Mansoa são denominadas de "cipó-d'alho", por exalarem odor de alho das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Contudo, dados sobre morfologia e distribuição das estruturas secretoras presentes em Mansoa são escassos e ausentes para M. standleyi. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a ocorrência e morfologia das estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi. Para tanto, amostras da lâmina foliolar e de regiões nodais foram fixadas e submetidas às técnicas histológicas e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Testes histoquímicos, com os respectivos controles foram aplicados nas estruturas secretoras em fase secretora. Indivíduos de formigas e moscas, que visitavam a espécie foram amostrados, preservados e identificados por entomólogo. As estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi estão representadas por tricomas glandulares dos tipos pateliformes e peltados. Todos com desenvolvimento assincrônico e presentes nas regiões nodais e lâmina foliolar, principalmente nas partes mais jovens. Nas regiões nodais, os tricomas formam um complexo secretor e, na lâmina foliolar, estão dispersos. As análises histoquímicas revelaram que os tricomas pateliformes são de fato nectários extraflorais e que os tricomas peltados, apresentam uma fração de alcaloides. Os visitantes das glândulas nodais correspondem a formigas Crematogaster (Formicidae e Ectatomma brunea (Vespoidea, Formicidae e moscas Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae, subfamília Utitidae (Ulidiidae. Mansoa standleyi possui as estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo semelhantes às citadas pela literatura para Bignoniaceae, sendo esta a primeira vez, que um nectário extrafloral é descrito para a espécie.Species of Mansoa are called "cipó-d'alho" because of the smell of garlic that wafts from their vegetative and reproductive parts. Since data on the morphology and occurrence of their secretory structures are

  14. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera were the most frequent visitors (88.23%, followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%, Formicidae ants (2.35%, Vespidae wasps (1.56%, and Chrysomelidae beetles (1.56%. Trochilidae hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0.79% also visited the flowers. Trigona spinipes was observed at throughout the daytime and behaved as a probable pollinator, along with A. mellifera and C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli is autocompatible, producing fruits and seeds after manual pollination and under natural conditions.

  15. The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zai-Fu; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (GenBank accession no. KR703583) was sequenced in the study. It represents the first mitochondrial genome from the genus Vespula. There are totally 163 42 bp in the currently sequenced portion of the genome, containing 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 18 tRNA genes and a partial A + T-rich region. Four tRNA genes of trnI, trnQ, trnM and trnY located at the downstream of the A + T-rich region were failed to sequence. At least two rearrangement events occurred in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects, corresponding to the translocation or remote inversion of tnnY from trnW-trnC-trnY cluster to the region of trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster and translocation of trnL1 from the downstream to the upstream of nad1 gene. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Twelve and one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Vespidae and Formicidae. Within the Formicidae, the Myrmicinae and Formicinae form a sister group and then sister to the Dolichoderinae, while within the Vespidae, the Eumeninae sister to the lineage of Vespinae + Polistinae.

  16. Composição da fauna edáfica em duas áreas de floresta em Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brasil

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    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho, estrutura e diversidade vegetal dos fragmentos têm influência direta na taxa de decomposição da serrapilheira, por induzir uma comunidade específica da biota do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização da fauna edáfica em áreas de floresta atlântica em diferentes estádios sucessionais em duas estações distintas do ano (verão e inverno no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES. Utilizaram-se duas áreas com formações vegetais distintas em relação ao estádio sucessional, definidas como: floresta secundária ‘antiga’ (FSA e floresta secundária (FS. Para a coleta da fauna edáfica foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo ‘pitfall’, onde em cada uma das áreas foi delimitado um talhão de aproximadamente 1 ha, e nestes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 10 armadilhas. No total foram coletados 5009 indivíduos, separados em 29 grupos taxonômicos. O grupo taxonômico Díptera e o grupo funcional Holometábolos foram os mais representativos para a FSA no inverno e verão, e FS no inverno, diferindo deste comportamento, na FS no verão houve predomínio do grupo Formicidae e Sociais: Formicidae. Na área de FS, verifi cou-se maior número de indivíduos coletados, riqueza total e riqueza média em comparação com a FSA. Os melhores índices de diversidade e uniformidade foram verificados na estação inverno em ambas as áreas.

  17. Composição da fauna edáfica em duas áreas de floresta em Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brasil

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    Lopes Machado Deivid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho, estrutura e diversidade vegetal dos fragmentos têm influência direta na taxa de decomposição da serrapilheira, por induzir uma comunidade específica da biota do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização da fauna edáfica em áreas de floresta atlântica em diferentes estádios sucessionais em duas estações distintas do ano (verão e inverno no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES. Utilizaram-se duas áreas com formações vegetais distintas em relação ao estádio sucessional, definidas como: floresta secundária ‘antiga’ (FSA e floresta secundária (FS. Para a coleta da fauna edáfica foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo ‘pitfall’, onde em cada uma das áreas foi delimitado um talhão de aproximadamente 1 ha, e nestes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 10 armadilhas. No total foram coletados 5009 indivíduos, separados em 29 grupos taxonômicos. O grupo taxonômico Díptera e o grupo funcional Holometábolos foram os mais representativos para a FSA no inverno e verão, e FS no inverno, diferindo deste comportamento, na FS no verão houve predomínio do grupo Formicidae e Sociais: Formicidae. Na área de FS, verifi cou-se maior número de indivíduos coletados, riqueza total e riqueza média em comparação com a FSA. Os melhores índices de diversidade e uniformidade foram verificados na estação inverno em ambas as áreas.

  18. Insects associated with edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae cultivation in Brazil Insetos associados ao cultivo do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae no Brasil

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    Luzia Paccola Meirelles

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes has adapted itself well to the Brazilian climate and its cultivation techniques are accessible to small and large producers. As with any other crop, the shiitake faces insect and pest attack problems, both during the mycelia colonization period in the substrate and during the basidiocarp formation. There is no report up to now of the pests that may attack in the crop in Brazil. Consequently, this study was carried out as a preliminary survey of the insects associated with shiitake cultivation both in the growing substrate and in the fruiting bodies. The samples were taken from properties situated in Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR Nova Friburgo (RJ Sorocaba (SP and Viçosa (MG. As a result, insects from the orders Coleoptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae and Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae and Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae, were found. O cultivo de Lentinula edodes apresenta-se em crescente expansão no Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados pelos produtores é o ataque de insetos, tanto no substrato de crescimento do micélio, como durante o processo de formação do basidiocarpo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo fazer um levantamento preliminar dos insetos associados ao cultivo do shiitake. Deste modo, foram realizadas coletas de insetos invasores de culturas, por meio do uso de puçá e sugadores, em Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR, Nova Friburgo (RJ, Sorocaba (SP e Viçosa (MG. Como resultado, foram encontrados insetos das ordens Coleóptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae e Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae e Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae.  

  19. Spatial Distribution of Soil Fauna In Long Term No Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, J. Z. F.; Vieira, S. R.; Siqueira, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil is a complex system constituted by living beings, organic and mineral particles, whose components define their physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil fauna plays an important role in soil and may reflect and interfere in its functionality. These organisms' populations may be influenced by management practices, fertilization, liming and porosity, among others. Such changes may reduce the composition and distribution of soil fauna community. Thus, this study aimed to determine the spatial variability of soil fauna in consolidated no-tillage system. The experimental area is located at Instituto Agronômico in Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil). The sampling was conducted in a Rhodic Eutrudox, under no tillage system and 302 points distributed in a 3.2 hectare area in a regular grid of 10.00 m x 10.00 m were sampled. The soil fauna was sampled with "Pitfall Traps" method and traps remained in the area for seven days. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the main statistical moments (mean variance, coefficient of variation, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis). Geostatistical tools were used to determine the spatial variability of the attributes using the experimental semivariogram. For the biodiversity analysis, Shannon and Pielou indexes and richness were calculated for each sample. Geostatistics has proven to be a great tool for mapping the spatial variability of groups from the soil epigeal fauna. The family Formicidae proved to be the most abundant and dominant in the study area. The parameters of descriptive statistics showed that all attributes studied showed lognormal frequency distribution for groups from the epigeal soil fauna. The exponential model was the most suited for the obtained data, for both groups of epigeal soil fauna (Acari, Araneae, Coleoptera, Formicidae and Coleoptera larva), and the other biodiversity indexes. The sampling scheme (10.00 m x 10.00 m) was not sufficient to detect the spatial

  20. Composição da fauna edáfica em duas áreas de floresta em Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brasil Edaphic fauna composition in two forest areas in Santa Maria do Jetibá-ES, Brazil

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    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho, estrutura e diversidade vegetal dos fragmentos têm influência direta na taxa de decomposição da serrapilheira, por induzir uma comunidade específica da biota do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização da fauna edáfica em áreas de floresta atlântica em diferentes estádios sucessionais em duas estações distintas do ano (verão e inverno no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES. Utilizaram-se duas áreas com formações vegetais distintas em relação ao estádio sucessional, definidas como: floresta secundária ‘antiga’ (FSA e floresta secundária (FS. Para a coleta da fauna edáfica foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo ‘pitfall’, onde em cada uma das áreas foi delimitado um talhão de aproximadamente 1 ha, e nestes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 10 armadilhas. No total foram coletados 5009 indivíduos, separados em 29 grupos taxonômicos. O grupo taxonômico Díptera e o grupo funcional Holometábolos foram os mais representativos para a FSA no inverno e verão, e FS no inverno, diferindo deste comportamento, na FS no verão houve predomínio do grupo Formicidae e Sociais: Formicidae. Na área de FS, verifi cou-se maior número de indivíduos coletados, riqueza total e riqueza média em comparação com a FSA. Os melhores índices de diversidade e uniformidade foram verificados na estação inverno em ambas as áreas.The vegetal fragments size, structure and diversity have direct influence on the litter decomposition rate of decomposition, by inducing a soil biota specific community. This study was carried out to characterize the soil fauna in forest Atlantic areas with different successional stages in two different seasons (summer and winter in Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES, Brazil. Were used two areas with different vegetation types in relation to successional stage, defi ned as: Secondary Forest "Old" (SFO and Secondary Forest (FS. To edaphic fauna collect, were used "pit fall" traps where in

  1. Ecological aspects of a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae population in São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR./ Aspectos ecológicos da população de Cosmopolites sordidus, (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR

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    Cristiane Rohde

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar was studied in banana crops (cultivar Nanicão at São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, using roof-tile-like baits, between June/2003 and May/2004. Adults infected by entomopathogenic fungi were recorded, and predators were also found on the baits. A comparative bioassay was carried out between the Beauveria bassiana isolate obtained from the experiment area and from other regions in Brazil against C. sordidus adults. The population peaks of C. sordidus adults occurred in June and July, a period with mild temperatures and low precipitation. The population of C. sordidus larvae, however, was concentrated in December. The insect predators found in the area were insects of the following orders: Coleoptera (Carabidae, Dermaptera (Forficulidae, Hemiptera (Reduviidae, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and spiders of the families Ctenidae, Clubionidae, and Lycosidae, with a population peak two months after the pest population peak. A low number of C. sordidus adults infected by B. bassiana was found, with an annual mean of 0.44%. In the laboratory, the B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic to the insects.Estudou-se a dinâmica populacional de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em cultivo de banana(cultivar Nanicão, em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, através de iscas do tipo telha, entre junho/2003 a maio/2004. Atribuiu-se conceito ao estado de conservação da isca, visando observar sua durabilidade e atratividade. Registraram-se adultos infectados por fungos entomopatogênicos, sendo também encontrados predadores nas iscas. Realizou-se um bioensaio com isolados de Beauveria bassiana da área experimental e de Centros de Pesquisa do Brasil, para avaliar a patogenicidade em C. sordidus. Verificou-se que os picos populacionais de adultos de C. sordidus ocorreram em junho e julho, período de temperaturas amenas e baixas precipitações, enquanto que as larvas foram mais abundantes em dezembro. Os insetos predadores

  2. Uso do alimento por duas espécies simpátricas de Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae em um riacho da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Food used by two sympatric species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes, Characidae, in a stream of center-western Brazil

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    Raffael M Tófoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avaliou sazonalmente a dieta de Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 e M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, coletadas em simpatria no riacho Cancela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Independente do período hidrológico, alimentos de origem alóctone predominaram na dieta de ambas as espécies (>50% do total de itens consumidos, sendo insetos terrestres o recurso principal, embora, para M. dichroura insetos aquáticos tenham contribuído na dieta também. Hymenoptera (Formicidae foi o alimento mais consumido, sendo ambas as espécies caracterizadas como insetívoras terrestres. A dieta restrita dessas espécies é confirmada pelos baixos valores de amplitude de nicho trófico: Ba=0,26 para M. dichroura em ambos os períodos e Ba=0,41 no período de seca e 0,38 no período de chuva, para M. sanctaefilomenae. A sobreposição alimentar foi elevada no período de chuva (Ojk=0,75 e apresentou valor intermediário no período de seca (Ojk=0,41, evidenciando maior partilha do alimento entre as espécies neste período.This study evaluated the seasonality in the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858 and M. sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907, sympatric species of the Cancela stream, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Regardless of the seasonal period, allochthonous food source predominated in the diet of both species (>50% of all items consumed and among these terrestrial insects were the dominant resource. However, aquatic insects were important in the diet of M. dichroura as well. Hymenoptera (Formicidae was the dominant item to both species, thus they were characterized as terrestrial insectivorous. The restricted diet of these species is confirmed by the trophic niche breadth, whose values were in general low: Ba=0.26 to M. dichroura in both periods and Ba=0.41 and 0.38 in the dry and rainy period, respectively, to M. sanctaefilomenae. The feeding overlap was high in the rainy period (Ojk=0.75 and intermediate in the dry period (Ojk=0.41, showing

  3. Giant ants and their shape: revealing relationships in the genus Titanomyrma with geometric morphometrics

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    Julian Katzke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a natural phenomenon inherent to many different lifeforms. A modern technique to analyse shape is geometric morphometrics (GM, which offers a whole range of methods concerning the pure shape of an object. The results from these methods have provided new insights into biological problems and have become especially useful in the fields of entomology and palaeontology. Despite the conspicuous successes in other hymenopteran groups, GM analysis of wings and fossil wings of Formicidae has been neglected. Here we tested if landmarks defining the wing shape of fossil ants that belong to the genus Titanomyrma are reliable and if this technique is able to expose relationships among different groups of the largest Hymenoptera that ever lived. This study comprises 402 wings from 362 ants that were analysed and assigned with the GM methods linear discriminant function analysis, principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, and regression. The giant ant genus Titanomyrma and the parataxon Formicium have different representatives that are all very similar but these modern methods were able to distinguish giant ant types even to the level of the sex. Thirty-five giant ant specimens from the Eckfeld Maar were significantly differentiable from a collection of Messel specimens that consisted of 187 Titanomyrma gigantea females and 42 T. gigantea males, and from 74 Titanomyrma simillima females and 21 T. simillima males. Out of the 324 Messel ants, 127 are newly assigned to a species and 223 giant ants are newly assigned to sex with GM analysis. All specimens from Messel fit to the two species. Moreover, shape affinities of these groups and the species Formicium brodiei, Formicium mirabile, and Formicium berryi, which are known only from wings, were investigated. T. gigantea stands out with a possible female relative in one of the Eckfeld specimens whereas the other groups show similar shape patterns that are possibly plesiomorphic. Formicidae

  4. Giant ants and their shape: revealing relationships in the genus Titanomyrma with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzke, Julian; Barden, Phillip; Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Wappler, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Shape is a natural phenomenon inherent to many different lifeforms. A modern technique to analyse shape is geometric morphometrics (GM), which offers a whole range of methods concerning the pure shape of an object. The results from these methods have provided new insights into biological problems and have become especially useful in the fields of entomology and palaeontology. Despite the conspicuous successes in other hymenopteran groups, GM analysis of wings and fossil wings of Formicidae has been neglected. Here we tested if landmarks defining the wing shape of fossil ants that belong to the genus Titanomyrma are reliable and if this technique is able to expose relationships among different groups of the largest Hymenoptera that ever lived. This study comprises 402 wings from 362 ants that were analysed and assigned with the GM methods linear discriminant function analysis, principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, and regression. The giant ant genus Titanomyrma and the parataxon Formicium have different representatives that are all very similar but these modern methods were able to distinguish giant ant types even to the level of the sex. Thirty-five giant ant specimens from the Eckfeld Maar were significantly differentiable from a collection of Messel specimens that consisted of 187 Titanomyrma gigantea females and 42 T. gigantea males, and from 74 Titanomyrma simillima females and 21 T. simillima males. Out of the 324 Messel ants, 127 are newly assigned to a species and 223 giant ants are newly assigned to sex with GM analysis. All specimens from Messel fit to the two species. Moreover, shape affinities of these groups and the species Formicium brodiei , Formicium mirabile , and Formicium berryi , which are known only from wings, were investigated. T. gigantea stands out with a possible female relative in one of the Eckfeld specimens whereas the other groups show similar shape patterns that are possibly plesiomorphic. Formicidae are one of the

  5. Methodology to evaluate the insecticide potential of forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocidal effects to control pests and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts and test with Artemia salina Leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm) Determination of active compounds. The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: guarea guidonia (L) Sleumer and trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), Machaerium Moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill (rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hym: Formicidae) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  6. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  7. Effect of mating stage on water balance, cuticular hydrocarbons and metabolism in the desert harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A; Gibbs, Allen G

    2004-10-01

    Water-loss rates increase after mating in queens of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae), then increase again after the mated queens excavate an incipient nest. We determined the mechanistic basis for these increased water-loss rates by examining cuticular permeability, respiratory water loss, metabolic rates, and cuticular hydrocarbons for queens at three stages in the mating sequence: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens, and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest. Both total water loss and cuticular transpiration increased significantly following mating, with cuticular transpiration accounting for 97% of the increased water loss. In contrast, metabolic rate and respiratory water loss were unaffected by mating stage. The total quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons did not vary by mating stage. However, relative amounts of four of the most abundant cuticular hydrocarbons did vary by mating stage, as did quantities of n-alkanes and methylalkanes. The general pattern was that percent composition of n-alkanes decreased through the mating sequence, while percent composition of methylalkanes increased over the same sequence. We discuss three mechanisms that might cause these post-mating increases in cuticular permeability. Our data support the hypothesis that part of this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during the process of nest excavation.

  8. Effects of decomposition on carcass attendance in a guild of carrion-breeding flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A

    2003-09-01

    Many forensically important calliphorids, sarcophagids and muscids (Diptera) oviposit or larviposit on corpses only during the early stages of decomposition, yet individuals may attend bodies throughout decay. A field study was conducted to investigate how patterns of carcass use and attendance by some fly species are affected by decomposition. Five fly traps were placed in the forest and baited with whole, fresh piglet carcasses. Piglets decomposed in traps throughout the experiment, and all were skeletonized within 6 days. Flies were trapped at both early and late decomposition stages, and the species and population structures of trap catches were compared. More flies attended carcasses early rather than late in decay. For all species, flies attending early were mainly gravid females, but few gravid females attended late in decay. No females ovi- or larviposited late in decay, whereas females of all fly species deposited offspring early in decay. The number of males trapped of each species correlated positively with the number of females with eggs at early development stages. Observations were made of fly predation by European wasps Vespula germanica Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and jumper ants Myrmecia pilosula Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) throughout the experiment. There was a higher risk for smaller fly species of being killed following predator attack. Ants and wasps attacked smaller fly species, whereas only wasps attacked larger fly species.

  9. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  10. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

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    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  11. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

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    Axel Touchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants (Formicidae represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  12. The diet of the black widow spider Latrodectus mirabilis (Theridiidae in two cereal crops of central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pompozzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spider Latrodectus mirabilis (Holmberg, 1876 is commonly found in cereals crops of central Argentina. We studied its diet composition at the field and capture rate on leaf-cutting ants based on laboratory experiments. This study comprises the first approach that documents the diet of L. mirabilis in wheat and oat fields of central Argentina. We identified 1,004 prey items collected from its webs during the last phenological stages of both cereal crops. The prey composition was variable but the spiders prey mainly on ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera, who represented more than 86% of the total. Meanwhile, in the capture rate experiences we registered a high proportion of ants captured by spiders at the beginning of experiences, capturing the half of the ants from total in the first four hours. Summarizing, we reported a polyphagous diet of this spider species in wheat and oat fields. Ants were the most important prey item of this spider, as found in other Latrodectus spiders around the world.

  13. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

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    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  14. CONTROL OF THE BLACK LEAF CUTTING ANT, Acromyrmex crassispinus, WITH POWDERED FORMICIDES

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    Henrique Moreira Link

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments  were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of some powdered formicides on the control of the black leaf cutting ant, Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel, 1909 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, in Santa Maria county, from 1996 until 1998. Powdered formicides containing  Fenthion at 50g a. i./kg, Imidacloprid at  4g a. i./kg, Betacyfluthrin at 2g a. i./kg, Chlorpyrifos at 20g a. i./kg and at 50g a. i./kg, Deltamethrin at  2g a. i./kg, Acephate at 750g a. i./kg and Diazinon at 10g a. i./kg were evaluated on big nests (>80cm of diameter. The big nests of this ant were efficiently controlled with 30g/nest of the commercial formulations of Fenthion, Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos (20g a. i./kg and  50g a. i./kg; with 3g/nest of the formulation of Acephate; with 5g/nest in dry season and 30g/nest in wet season of the powdered formulation of Deltamethrin.

  15. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

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    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  16. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Axel; Aili, Samira R.; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Escoubas, Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Nicholson, Graham M.; Dejean, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ants (Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents. PMID:26805882

  17. Feeding habits of the frog Pleurodema diplolistris (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil

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    José Wellington Alves dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the feeding habits of Pleurodema diplolistris, the most abundant anuran species of the São Francisco sand dunes, during a period of slightly over one year. The fieldwork was undertaken during four excursions to a sand dune in the semiarid Caatinga, Brazil, and the analyses were based on stomach contents. Pleurodema diplolistris were not active during the dry season. The important food categories in diet were Isoptera (winged forms, Coleoptera, and Formicidae. Small and large animals had different food comsumption patterns: small frogs showed positive electivity for termites and large frogs, for ants. The pattern was strongly influenced by large male food electivity. High levels of termite comsumption ocurred during the days of greater capture success. The pattern of high comsumption of termites detected here is different from that described in another study on lizards from the same locality and sampled in the same periods. We discuss alternative hypotheses that could explain the observed patterns.

  18. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

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    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  19. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

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    Qun-Hui eShi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae encompasses ant species commonly called fire ants because of their painful sting. The many physiological effects of the venom are caused by 2-methyl-6-alkyl and/or alkenylpiperidine alkaloids. The variation in piperidine alkaloid structures has useful taxonomic characters. The most well studied Solenopsis species is S. invicta, which was accidentally imported into the USA in the 1930s from South America. It quickly spread throughout the southern USA and is now a major invasive pest ant in the USA and in other parts of the world. Interestingly, the invasive S. invicta has largely displaced a native USA fire ant, S. geminata, from the southern USA. We explore the possibility that differences in venom chemistry could be correlated with this displacement. The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of S. geminata were separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecyl-piperidines, as well as other minor alkaloid components. Imported fire ant, S. invicta, alate queens produce the same alkaloids as S. geminata alate queens, but in contrast S. invicta workers produce piperidine alkaloids with longer side chains, which are purported to be physiologically more effective. These results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary progression of fire ant venom alkaloids and displacement of S. geminata by S. invicta in the USA.

  20. A Non-lethal water-based removal-reapplication technique for behavioral analysis of cuticular compounds of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Olivier; Martin, Jean-Michel; Ghomsi, Nathan Tene; Dejean, Alain

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific relationships among insects are often mediated by chemical cues, including non-volatile cuticular compounds. Most of these compounds are hydrocarbons that necessitate the use of solvents for their extraction, identification, and manipulation during behavioral assays. The toxicity of these solvents often precludes the removal and reapplication of hydrocarbons from and to live insects. As a consequence, dummies often are used in behavioral assays, but their passivity can bias the behavior of the responding insects. To overcome these limitations, we propose a method where cuticular compounds are extracted from live ants by placing them into glass vials half-filled with tepid water (ca. 34 degrees C) and vigorously shaking the vials to form an emulsion whose supernatant can be analyzed and/or reapplied to other ants. We demonstrate that cuticular compounds can be extracted from workers of the red fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima, and reapplied to the cuticle of workers from a sympatric species, Camponotus blandus (both Hymenoptera: Formicidae), while keeping the ants alive. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis and behavioral assays were used to confirm the successful transfer of the behaviorally active compounds.

  1. Tracing the rise of ants - out of the ground.

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    Andrea Lucky

    Full Text Available The evolution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is increasingly well-understood due to recent phylogenetic analyses, along with estimates of divergence times and diversification rates. Yet, leading hypotheses regarding the ancestral habitat of ants conflict with new findings that early ant lineages are cryptic and subterranean. Where the ants evolved, in respect to habitat, and how habitat shifts took place over time have not been formally tested. Here, we reconstruct the habitat transitions of crown-group ants through time, focusing on where they nest and forage (in the canopy, litter, or soil. Based on ancestral character reconstructions, we show that in contrast to the current consensus based on verbal arguments that ants evolved in tropical leaf litter, the soil is supported as the ancestral stratum of all ants. We also find subsequent movements up into the litter and, in some cases, into the canopy. Given the global importance of ants, because of their diversity, ecological influence and status as the most successful eusocial lineage on Earth, understanding the early evolution of this lineage provides insight into the factors that made this group so successful today.

  2. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

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    Christian W Gruber

    Full Text Available Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant, Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus. Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp, and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee, another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value.

  3. Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Susanne K

    2010-06-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes.

  4. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  5. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  6. The interactions of ants with their biotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2017-03-15

    This s pecial feature results from the symposium 'Ants 2016: ant interactions with their biotic environments' held in Munich in May 2016 and deals with the interactions between ants and other insects, plants, microbes and fungi, studied at micro- and macroevolutionary levels with a wide range of approaches, from field ecology to next-generation sequencing, chemical ecology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we review key aspects of these biotic interactions to provide background information for the papers of this s pecial feature After listing the major types of biotic interactions that ants engage in, we present a brief overview of ant/ant communication, ant/plant interactions, ant/fungus symbioses, and recent insights about ants and their endosymbionts. Using a large molecular clock-dated Formicidae phylogeny, we map the evolutionary origins of different ant clades' interactions with plants, fungi and hemiptera. Ants' biotic interactions provide ideal systems to address fundamental ecological and evolutionary questions about mutualism, coevolution, adaptation and animal communication. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  8. An ant genus-group (Prenolepis) illuminates the biogeography and drivers of insect diversification in the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Maraví, Pável; Clouse, Ronald M; Sarnat, Eli M; Economo, Evan P; LaPolla, John S; Borovanska, Michaela; Rabeling, Christian; Czekanski-Moir, Jesse; Latumahina, Fransina; Wilson, Edward O; Janda, Milan

    2018-06-01

    The Malay Archipelago and the tropical South Pacific (hereafter the Indo-Pacific region) are considered biodiversity hotspots, yet a general understanding of the origins and diversification of species-rich groups in the region remains elusive. We aimed to test hypotheses for the evolutionary processes driving insect species diversity in the Indo-Pacific using a higher-level and comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for an ant clade consisting of seven genera. We estimated divergence times and reconstructed the biogeographical history of ant species in the Prenolepis genus-group (Formicidae: Formicinae: Lasiini). We used a fossil-calibrated phylogeny to infer ancestral geographical ranges utilizing a biogeographic model that includes founder-event speciation. Ancestral state reconstructions of the ants' ecological preferences, and diversification rates were estimated for selected Indo-Pacific clades. Overall, we report that faunal interchange between Asia and Australia has occurred since at least 20-25 Ma, and early dispersal to the Fijian Basin happened during the early and mid-Miocene (ca. 10-20 Ma). Differences in diversification rates across Indo-Pacific clades may be related to ecological preference breadth, which in turn may have facilitated geographical range expansions. Ancient dispersal routes suggested by our results agree with the palaeogeography of the region. For this particular group of ants, the rapid orogenesis in New Guinea and possibly subsequent ecological shifts may have promoted their rapid diversification and widespread distribution across the Indo-Pacific. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding niche characteristics of a Bombina bombina population from Livada Plain (Satu-Mare County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina SZEPLAKI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Along our study we analyzed the food of 87 individuals of Bombina bombina. The reduced number of empty stomachs indicates that there were optimal feeding conditions. In the obtained stomach contents we identified vegetal remains (χ23=0.97, p=0.002, shad-skins fragments (χ2=11.21, p=0.1 and animal type food. We identified a total number of 1498 preys belonging to 37 categories. Most of the identified preys proceed from terrestrial environment (Amean=72.97 %, DSA=45.46. The most important preys items from the diet of the studied fire-bellied toads are: Collembola (Amean=28.98%; Fmean=31.59%, χ23=23.35, p=0.13, Coleoptera’s adults (Amean=34.25%; Fmean=67.74%, χ23=1.53, p=0.004 and Hymenopera Formicidae (Amean=15.02%; Fmean=33.93%, χ23=23.35, p=0.09. There was noticed an important seasonal variation at the consumed preys’ level. Diet diversity presents seasonal changes (Hmean=1.7, SDH=0.62. The trophic niche overlap, according to Pianka’s index, presents the highest values between May and June (Q=0.87 and April-June (Q=0.967.

  10. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M; Malow, Tara L F; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32-211 morphospecies, and 24-128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications.

  11. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: Potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottonetti, L.; Tucci, L.; Santini, G. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages were sampled with pitfall traps in three different habitats associated with a rehabilitated mine district and in undisturbed forests in Tuscany, Italy. The four habitats were (1) open fields (3-4 years old); (2) a middle-age mixed plantation (10 years); (3) an old-age mixed plantation (20 years); and (4) an oak woodland (40 years) not directly affected by mining activities. The aim of the study was to analyze ant recolonization patterns in order to provide insights on the use of Mediterranean ant fauna as indicators of restoration processes. Species richness and diversity were not significantly different among the four habitats. However, multivariate analyses showed that the assemblages in the different habitats were clearly differentiated, with similarity relationships reflecting a successional gradient among rehabilitated sites. The observed patterns of functional group changes along the gradient broadly accord with those of previous studies in other biogeographic regions. These were (1) a decrease of dominant Dolichoderinae and opportunists; (2) an increase in the proportion of cold-climate specialists; and (3) the appearance of the Cryptic species in the oldest plantations, with a maximum of abundance in the woodland. In conclusion, the results of our study supported the use of Mediterranean ants as a suitable tool for biomonitoring of restoration processes, and in particular, the functional group approach proved a valuable framework to better interpret local trends in terms of global ecological patterns. Further research is, however, needed in order to obtain a reliable classification of Mediterranean ant functional groups.

  12. Discovering hidden biodiversity: the use of complementary monitoring of fish diet based on DNA barcoding in freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyunbin; Ventura, Marc; Vidal, Nicolas; Gim, Jeong-Soo; Buchaca, Teresa; Barmuta, Leon A; Jeppesen, Erik; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Ecological monitoring contributes to the understanding of complex ecosystem functions. The diets of fish reflect the surrounding environment and habitats and may, therefore, act as useful integrating indicators of environmental status. It is, however, often difficult to visually identify items in gut contents to species level due to digestion of soft-bodied prey beyond visual recognition, but new tools rendering this possible are now becoming available. We used a molecular approach to determine the species identities of consumed diet items of an introduced generalist feeder, brown trout (Salmo trutta), in 10 Tasmanian lakes and compared the results with those obtained from visual quantification of stomach contents. We obtained 44 unique taxa (OTUs) belonging to five phyla, including seven classes, using the barcode of life approach from cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Compared with visual quantification, DNA analysis showed greater accuracy, yielding a 1.4-fold higher number of OTUs. Rarefaction curve analysis showed saturation of visually inspected taxa, while the curves from the DNA barcode did not saturate. The OTUs with the highest proportions of haplotypes were the families of terrestrial insects Formicidae, Chrysomelidae, and Torbidae and the freshwater Chironomidae. Haplotype occurrence per lake was negatively correlated with lake depth and transparency. Nearly all haplotypes were only found in one fish gut from a single lake. Our results indicate that DNA barcoding of fish diets is a useful and complementary method for discovering hidden biodiversity.

  13. Evaluation of the effects, on canopy arthropods, of two agricultural management systems to control pests in olive groves from north-east of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sónia A P; Pereira, José A; Torres, Laura M; Nogueira, António J A

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of management regime on canopy arthropod community of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2002 and 2003, in two olive groves, one under organic farming and the other under integrated protection. The integrated protection grove was sprayed once a year in June, with dimethoate, to control the anthophagous generation of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.). From April to November of each year, the canopy arthropods were sampled weekly. PRC method was used to analyse the effect of management regime at the community level and results showed that taxa responded differently to insecticide application suggesting that the organic grove was a more suitable habitat for the arthropods than the integrated protection grove. Abundance of arthropods peaked in May and June for both years but, after spraying with dimethoate, decreased significantly in integrated protection grove, recovering very slowly thereafter. Psocoptera, Miridae, Formicidae and Coccinellidae were the most sensitive taxa to insecticide application. Their decreasing in abundance was more evident in the second year of the trial. On the other hand chrysopids showed some tolerance to insecticide applications. These results suggest that the timing of spray is of utmost importance in reducing the side effects of spraying on beneficial arthropods. Moreover, differences in population susceptibility as well as in life cycle patterns must be considered.

  14. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berberich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012, two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group, located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany, have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants’ behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological, which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis.

  15. Combined Venom Gland Transcriptomic and Venom Peptidomic Analysis of the Predatory Ant Odontomachus monticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kazuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae have adapted to many different environments and have become some of the most prolific and successful insects. To date, 13,258 ant species have been reported. They have been classified into 333 genera and 17 subfamilies. Except for a few Formicinae, Dolichoderinae, and members of other subfamilies, most ant species have a sting with venom. The venoms are composed of formic acid, alkaloids, hydrocarbons, amines, peptides, and proteins. Unlike the venoms of other animals such as snakes and spiders, ant venoms have seldom been analyzed comprehensively, and their compositions are not yet completely known. In this study, we used both transcriptomic and peptidomic analyses to study the composition of the venom produced by the predatory ant species Odontomachus monticola. The transcriptome analysis yielded 49,639 contigs, of which 92 encoded toxin-like peptides and proteins with 18,106,338 mapped reads. We identified six pilosulin-like peptides by transcriptomic analysis in the venom gland. Further, we found intact pilosulin-like peptide 1 and truncated pilosulin-like peptides 2 and 3 by peptidomic analysis in the venom. Our findings related to ant venom peptides and proteins may lead the way towards development and application of novel pharmaceutical and biopesticidal resources.

  16. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M.; Malow, Tara L.F.; Dunn, Robert R.; Trautwein, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32–211 morphospecies, and 24–128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications. PMID:26819844

  17. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  18. Edafic fauna under different straw levels in sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossiana Ribeiro Lino de Abreu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The organisms that constitute the soil fauna are highly relevant to the litter-soil compartments, because they act in important processes, such as fragmentation of the plant material, decomposition and nutrients cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the invertebrate fauna community in soil cultivated with sugarcane harvested without burning, considering the maintenance of different straw levels on the soil surface. Treatments consisted of different amounts of sugarcane straw: T0% (0 Mg ha-1; T25% (2.2 Mg ha-1; T50% (5.1 Mg ha-1; T75% (7.8 Mg ha-1; and T100% (12.0 Mg ha-1. Samples were collected in the dry season and late wet season, with "Pitfall" traps. The number of individuals per trap per day during the dry period ranged from 11.1 (T0% to 14.7 (T25% and, in the rainy season, from 15.11 (T0% to 33.15 (T75%. The highest Shannon values were observed during the rainy season, and the lowest values for diversity and equitability resulted in a higher incidence of Araneae and Formicidae groups. The amount of straw on soil showed no significant influence on ecological indices and total and average wealth. The harvest time affected the number of individuals, species wealth and Shannon and Pielou's indices. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface benefitted the soil fauna, concerning the conventional crop management.

  19. Impacts of harvesting methods of sugar cane on the soil macrofauna in production area in Espírito Santo – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa dos Santos Benazzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of harvesting methods on the macrofauna, a known indicator of soil quality that detects changes in the system and indicates management alternatives. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications, with each block consisting of four parcels that corresponded to treatments green cane (CC, burnt cane (CQ, green cane – burnt cane (CC-Q and burnt cane – green cane (CQ-C. Samples were collected in February and July 2010. The animals were divided into major taxonomic groups and accounted. Were evaluated ecological indexes (Shannon, Pielou and richness and average total density of individuals and groups. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric statistical tools by Friedman or Signal test at 5%. To check relationships between soil fauna and environmental variables, was used a multivariate conditional ordination method, the redundancy analysis (RDA. The index richness was more efficient than the total average density to evaluate the influence of cane harvesting systems, with the highest values related to areas harvested without burning. Further, the occurrence of key groups in the areas harvested without burning configures the establishment of a trophic web. There was dominance of the social group Formicidae in all treatments

  20. Mortality of nontarget arthropods from an aerial application of pyrethrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jonathan A; Novak, Mark G; Hyles, Timothy S; Niemela, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Mortality of nontarget organisms from an ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of pyrethrins (Evergreen EC 60-6) was monitored by collecting arthropods from ground tarps placed at the interface of open and canopy areas. A larger number and greater diversity of arthropods were recovered from tarps in the ULV spray area. The observed mortality was approximately 10-fold greater than in the control area. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed a significant difference in the abundance and diversity of arthropods collected at treatment and control sites at 1 and 12 h postspray. Arthropods, primarily insects, from the treatment area included representatives from 12 orders and > or = 34 families, as compared to 7 orders and 12 families in the control area. Chironomidae (midges) and Formicidae (ants) were the most commonly represented families, accounting for 61% of the arthropods collected from the treatment area; no large-bodied insects (>8 mm) were recovered. Mortality of sentinel mosquitoes in the treatment and control areas averaged 96% and arthropods.

  1. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera); 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity. PMID:26359665

  2. Insects associated with tropical foliage produced in the coffee growing region of Colombia

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    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of insects and pest management practices on 34 farms growing ornamental tropical foliage plants in the central coffee region of Colombia over two years. Tropical foliage provided habitat for a diverse range of insects. In total, phytophagous or detritivorous insects from six orders, 40 families and 62 genera were collected. The most common were Hemiptera (29 genera from 16 families, followed by Coleoptera (17 genera from 4 families, Diptera (5 genera from 5 families, Lepidoptera (5 genera from 4 families, Hymenoptera (3 genera from 2 families and Orthoptera (2 genera from 2 families. The most common phytophagous species were leaf cutting ants (Atta and Acromyrmex spp., leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, leafhoppers (Cicadellidae, stinkbugs (Pentatomidae, squash bugs (Coreidae, tree hoppers (Membracidae and plant hoppers (Fulgoridae. Beneficial insects identified from tropical foliage included predators and parasitoids amongst 5 orders, 12 families and 22 genera. The most abundant were predators among the Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Reduviidae, Lycidae and Formicidae but only low numbers of parasitoids (Ichneumonidae, Braconidae and Tachinidae were collected. A pest management questionnaire given to growers revealed a preponderance of reliance on broad spectrum insecticides with a smaller number of growers (approximately one third also using some biological control methods. Our survey contributes basic information regarding diversity of Neotropical insects associated with ornamental foliage plants.

  3. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees.

  4. Estimation of the transfer of vascular epiphytes, as a conservation strategy in the municipality of Aguazul, Casanare, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Orozco Ávila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are plants that grow mainly attached to trunks, branches of trees and shrubs.  This research was conducted in the municipality of Aguazul, Casanare, Colombia, in order to evaluate conservation strategies through the transfer and recovery of vascular epiphytes. The selected population was 119 individuals. The variables were number of leaves, number of flowers, number of fruits, mortality rate, herbivory and associated entomofauna. The information collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. As a result, it was found that the Bromeliaceae Family had the highest leaf development in the three monitorings. Bromeliaceae and Cactaceae Families did not present flowering and Orchidaceae presented low flowering. Fruiting had a similar behavior for these three families. Cactaceae Family did not present mortality, Orchidaceae recorded 2.02% and Bromeliaceae Family recorded 5.56% of mortality. As for herbivory, the orchid family filed a percentage of 0.06%; the Bromeliaceae  Family reported 0.11%, while the cactus family did not record any kind. The entomofauna was  found mainly in the Formicidae group for the three families, being the Cactaceae Family the one with a greater association, with 100%. According to the results, it is possible to move the vascular epiphytic species to new habitats, which makes it a viable alternative for revegetation of the affected area with conservation purposes.

  5. Hormigas arbóreas del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacífico de Colombia

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    Patricia Chacón de Ulloa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se enfocó en el conocimiento de la mirmecofauna arbórea de Gorgona, ecosistema insular de la zona de vida de bosque lluvioso tropical (27ºC, 6 000mm de precipitación promedio anual. En noviembre de 2007 se muestrearon 16 árboles mediante la técnica de nebulización usando un insecticida piretroide biodegradable, aplicado en dirección al dosel, desde cuatro alturas diferentes, entre 1 y 15m por encima de la vegetación del sotobosque. Se encontraron 53 especies de Formicidae pertenecientes a 24 géneros y seis subfamilias, sobresaliendo por su riqueza las Formicinae (20 especies y Myrmicinae (17. Por su abundancia, se destacaron especies arbóreas de los géneros Azteca, Dolichoderus (D. bispinosus y D. lutosus, Camponotus (C. atriceps, C. claviscapus, C. championi, C. excisus y Crematogaster (C. brasiliensis, C. carinata, C. curvispinosa. Algunas especies que son muy comunes a nivel del suelo (Wasmannia auropunctata y Camponotus sericeiventris, fueron colectadas a más de 15m de altura. Se resalta la captura de Nesomyrmex pittieri, Crematogaster stolli, Cephalotes basalis, Anochetus bispinosus y Stigmatomma mystriops que usualmente no se detectan en muestreos comunes.

  6. POPULASI DAN HABITAT Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. DI CAGAR ALAM MANDOR, KALIMANTAN BARAT

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    Maysarah .

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. is a species which adapted on the nutrient-poor areas in Mandor nature reserve.  Its could be increasing the quality of Mandor nature reserve as protected area. This research aims to study the population and habitat of N. ampullaria in the Mandor nature reserve. This study was conducted at two habitats, heath forest and peat swamp forest. Observations were made on, population abundance and habitat factors of  N. ampullaria. The results showed that the highest population density of N. ampullaria was in heath forest. Their are growth in groups. Vegetation analysis showed that constituent species habitat of N. ampullaria consist of 69 species from 39 familly. Result of identification to insects showed Formicidae is dominant family that trapped in pitcher of N. ampullaria. Temperature and humidity in N. ampullaria’s habitat has been switable for requirements growth of pitcher plant. Rainfall during the study was normally. Ratio of sand and soil on both affected the improvement of individual N. ampullaria in Mandor nature reserve. Keywords: habitat, Mandor nature reserve, Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, population

  7. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods.

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    Sascha Buchholz

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia, which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera; 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity.

  8. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sascha; Tietze, Hedwig; Kowarik, Ingo; Schirmel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera); 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity.

  9. Composição da macrofauna do solo sob diferentes usos da terra (cana-de-açúcar, eucalipto e mata nativa em Jacutinga (MG

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    Lizandra de Fátima Martins

    2017-04-01

    com posterior triagem manual dos indivíduos. A identificação de cada grupo taxonômico foi baseada em características morfológicas. O solo para análise química foi coletado nos mesmos pontos de coleta da fauna. A menor riqueza de grupos foi encontrada na cana-de-açúcar, em comparação com o eucalipto e área de mata nativa. A Ordem Hymenoptera foi a mais abundante nas três áreas de estudo, representada principalmente por insetos da Família Formicidae. O resultado da Análise de Componentes Principais mostrou que Enchytraeidae e Oligochaeta associaram-se ao atributo umidade do solo na área de cana-de-açúcar. A Análise de Agrupamento mostrou que há uma separação espacial entre as áreas de estudos em que a mata nativa isolou-se das áreas de cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho demonstram que o uso da terra, principalmente o monocultivo como cana-de-açúcar, provoca uma diminuição na diversidade de invertebrados edáficos. Palavras-chave: Distância euclidiana. Ecologia do solo. Densidade de invertebrados. Alterações de ecossistemas.

  10. Fenologia e visitantes florais de Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p51 Erythrina crista-galli é uma espécie característica do bioma Pampa, também usada com fins ornamentais em arborização urbana. E. crista-galli  floresce mais intensamente de novembro a dezembro. A antese inicia entre 7h-11h, e as flores têm duração de cinco dias. Um total de 1.275 visitas florais foi registrado em 57h de observações. Abelhas da família Apidae (Trigona spinipes e Apis mellifera foram os visitantes fl orais mais freqüentes (88,23%, seguidos de moscas (Muscidae – 5,50%, formigas (Formicidae – 2,35%, vespas (Vespidae –  1,56% e besouros (Chrysomelidae – 1,56%. As flores também foram visitadas por beija-flores da família Trochilidae (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0,79%. A abelha T. spinipes foi observada em todos os horários e apresentou comportamento de possível polinizadora, juntamente com A. mellifera e o beija-fl or C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli é autocompatível, apresentando produção de frutos e sementes após a polinização manual e sob condições naturais.

  11. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

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    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched the parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia flavocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterflies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and flowers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identification of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterflies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited flowers, offered an indication that these species may exert an influence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  12. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest doi: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p29

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    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the fl oral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional fl oral visits in which they touched the reproductive parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia fl avocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterfl ies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and fl owers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identifi cation of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterfl ies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited fl owers, offered an indication that these species may exert an infl uence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  13. Adverse effects on flora and fauna from the use of organochlorine pesticides on the African continent: The Nigerian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeh, E.D.N.; Egwuatu, R.I.; Nwakeze, E.N.; Amulu, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    Lindane was found to reduce stem borer damage significantly in both rice and maize plots in most years. However, a significant difference in yield was recorded only for maize in 1993 and 1995. There was a slight but steady decrease in the yield of maize over the years in the lindane treated plots although yields in these plots remained higher than in the control plots. Significant differences in the mean dry weight of retrieved leaf discs were recorded in the maize plots in 1994 and 1995. Neither insects nor spiders, were caught from plants in the treatment plots 1 day after lindane application, although almost equal numbers of insects and spiders were recovered from D-vac groun samples of treatment and control plots on the same day. Data from pitfall traps showed that lindane significantly affected the population of Aranae, Formicidae, Collembola and Acarina for up to 6 weeks after application. Its effect on Carabidae was inconsistent. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  14. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

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    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  15. Why are there more arboreal ant species in primary than in secondary tropical forests?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Idigel, C.; Rimandai, M.; Fayle, T. M.; Janda, Milan; Weiblen, G. D.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2012), s. 1103-1112 ISSN 0021-8790 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0673; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA AV ČR IAA600960712; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008; GA MŠk ME09082; GA ČR GPP505/12/P875 Grant - others:Grant Agency of University of South Bohemia(CZ) 052/2010/P; Grant Agency of University of South Bohemia(CZ) 136/2010/P; U. S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; U. S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0816749; Marie Curie Fellowships(CZ) PIOF-GA-2009-254448; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : diveristy partitioning * Formicidae * habitat disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.841, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2012.02002.x/pdf

  16. A Comparison of the Pitfall Trap, Winkler Extractor and Berlese Funnel for Sampling Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.; Vinod, KV.; Nithya, S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF). Due to unique habitat conditions in TMCFs with continuously wet substrates and a waterlogged forest floor along with the innate biases of the pitfall trap, Berlese funnel and Winkler extractor are certain to make it difficult to choose the most appropriate method to sample the ground-dwelling arthropods in TMCFs. Among the three methods, the Winkler extractor was the most efficient method for quantitative data and pitfall trapping for qualitative data for most groups. Inclusion of floatation method as a complementary method along with the Winkler extractor would enable a comprehensive quantitative survey of ground-dwelling arthropods. Pitfall trapping is essential for both quantitative and qualitative sampling of Diplopoda, Opiliones, Orthoptera, and Diptera. The Winkler extractor was the best quantitative method for Psocoptera, Araneae, Isopoda, and Formicidae; and the Berlese funnel was best for Collembola and Chilopoda. For larval forms of different insect orders and the Acari, all the three methods were equally effective. PMID:21529148

  17. THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL MESOFAUNA AND MACROFAUNA IN GRODA CAVE, GUNUNGKIDUL

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    Andri Prasetyo

    2016-10-01

      The number of soil macrofauna and mesofauna in Groda Cave can be used as an indicator of bats abundance since bat droppings are food for macrofauna and mesofauna soils. The purpose of this study are to determine the community structure of Groda Cave soil macrofauna and mesofauna  and its correlation with the content of N, P, K. The method used is the observation, taking of macrofauna and mesofauna soils using pit fall traps and tool green technique. Testing the N, P, K of the soil was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP Yogyakarta. The analysis technique used Shannon diversity index-Wienner, Margaleff wealth index, frequency of attendance of  macrofauna and mesofauna soils and its correlation with N, P, K of the land in Groda Cave. The results obtained are that six families mesofauna and 20 families macrofauna soils with moderate diversity index, the highest wealth index was in the Margaleff lit zone, the frequency of the highest attendance in the light zone is Formicidae (0.12, ie dim zones Isotomidae and Diptera (a brown (0.04 and the dark zone is Gryllacididae (0.05. The correlation showed the more the content of N, P, K, the fewer mesofauna and macrofauna soils were found. The uniqueness found in this study is the discovery of one species of Isotomidae in Groda Cave, which has been considered spreading only in Sulawesi, Sumatera, Bali, Lombok, Ternate and Papua.   Keywords: community structure, mesofauna soil, macrofauna soil, Groda Cave

  18. Eurajoki Olkiluoto study on species of ground beetles and ants 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaharju, J.; Helminen, S.-L.; Yrjoelae, R.

    2009-02-01

    The species of ants and Ground beetles at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki were studied in the summer of 2008 during two trapping periods: in June and August. The research goal was to clarify the species on Olkiluoto island of the earlier mentioned groups, at least at the family level, and to collect samples for further examination by Posiva. The trapping areas were selected at Olkiluoto in Posiva test monitoring sectors, a part of the trapping areas was the same as the earlier study. Species of ants, depending on their particular species, are a very dominating group of insects. The ants are the most important predators, scavengers and soil movers in Finnish forests. It looks as if the biomass of ants may be more than 10% of the biomass of all animals in certain areas of Finnish forests. In Finland there are about 60 species of ants that have been observed. They have been divided into four sub-groups, which are Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae. In Finland there are close to 300 species of ground beetles (Carabidae), which are divided into dozens of different families. The species, to a great extent, consist mostly of predatory insects that prey on microbes in field layers, but a part of them are specialized in feeding on flora. Ground beetles are usually divided into three groups according to their choice of habitat: Species that favour open biotopes, species that favour forests, and generalist species that can thrive in a variety of environments. Ground beetles also reflect changes in their living environment, and possibly they can be significant as socalled bio-indicators. Pitfall traps were used as the method of research. The preservative fluid used was ethanol (50%) with dishwashing liquid to remove surface tension. The points were located in various different biotopes in fields, meadows and forests. The data collected was defined as a minimum for the family level of Ground beetles and for ants to the species or species pairs. The species of Ground

  19. Eurajoki Olkiluoto study on species of ground beetles and ants 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaharju, J.; Helminen, S.-L.; Yrjoelae, R. (Environmental Research Yrjoelae Ltd, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The species of ants and Ground beetles at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki were studied in the summer of 2008 during two trapping periods: in June and August. The research goal was to clarify the species on Olkiluoto island of the earlier mentioned groups, at least at the family level, and to collect samples for further examination by Posiva. The trapping areas were selected at Olkiluoto in Posiva test monitoring sectors, a part of the trapping areas was the same as the earlier study. Species of ants, depending on their particular species, are a very dominating group of insects. The ants are the most important predators, scavengers and soil movers in Finnish forests. It looks as if the biomass of ants may be more than 10% of the biomass of all animals in certain areas of Finnish forests. In Finland there are about 60 species of ants that have been observed. They have been divided into four sub-groups, which are Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae. In Finland there are close to 300 species of ground beetles (Carabidae), which are divided into dozens of different families. The species, to a great extent, consist mostly of predatory insects that prey on microbes in field layers, but a part of them are specialized in feeding on flora. Ground beetles are usually divided into three groups according to their choice of habitat: Species that favour open biotopes, species that favour forests, and generalist species that can thrive in a variety of environments. Ground beetles also reflect changes in their living environment, and possibly they can be significant as socalled bio-indicators. Pitfall traps were used as the method of research. The preservative fluid used was ethanol (50%) with dishwashing liquid to remove surface tension. The points were located in various different biotopes in fields, meadows and forests. The data collected was defined as a minimum for the family level of Ground beetles and for ants to the species or species pairs. The species of Ground

  20. EFFECT OF LEGUME TREES ON SOIL MACROFAUNA OF A Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU PASTURE EFEITO DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS SOBRE A MACROFAUNA DO SOLO EM PASTAGEM DE Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU

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    Avílio Antonio Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four legume tree species in a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture on soil macrofauna density and diversity, in a low natural fertility soil. The tree leguminous species introduced in the pasture were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora, and Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The macrofauna sampling consisted in collecting six soil monoliths with 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm under tree canopies or in a transect in the single Brachiaria pasture. The densities varied from 602 individuals.m-2 under the canopy of E. contortisiliquum to two individuals.m-2 in the single pasture. The largest group richness was found under M. tenuiflora canopy (ten groups, followed by P. guachapele (nine groups, E. contortisiliquum (seven groups and M. artemisiana (six groups. The leguminous species influence was related to N content and to C:N ratio of leaf material. M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora favored the occurrence of Oligochaeta and Coleoptera larvae, while under the P. guachapele and E. contortisiliquum canopies Formicidae activity was more intense.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil macrofauna; sivipastoral systems; soil quality.

    O objetivou deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de quatro espécies leguminosas arbóreas, em uma pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, com dois anos de estabelecimento, sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna de um planossolo de baixa fertilidade natural. As espécies arbóreas introduzidas na pastagem foram: Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. A amostragem da macrofauna consistiu na retirada de seis monolitos de solo com 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm sob a copa das árvores ou em um transecto na pastagem solteira. As densidades variaram de 602

  1. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhus littoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para

  2. Colémbolos (Hexapoda como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, riqueza, índice de Shannon (H', dominancia (λ, equidad(J' e índice de similitud (S. Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos del suelo: hidrocarburos totales del petróleo (HTP e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP, porosidad, pH, CE, MO, N, P, K, CIC y textura. Los HTP, en las zonas contaminadas, sobrepasan los límites de las normas mexicanas ambientales. En todas las zonas de estudio se observaron colémbolos, ácaros y larvas de dípteros, por lo que su abundancia y diversidad pueden ser utilizadas como bioindicadores del grado de contaminación y calidad del suelo. En las zonas contaminadas se registraron abundancias muy bajas de Crustacea, Formicidae, Araneae, Diptera, Pseudoscorpionida, y Diplopoda. Las familias de los colémbolos más ampliamente distribuidas fueron Sminthurididae e Isotomidae. De acuerdo con el análisis de correlación, su diversidad de colémbolos es afectada por la presencia de HAP (flouranteno, naftaleno, pireno, criseno y fenantrenoWe evaluated invertebrates, with an emphasis on Collembola, as bioindicators of soil quality in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in southeastern Mexico. We carried out 2 sampling periods in summer-fall of 2004 in 4 parcels of 2 hectares each. From each parcel we processed 8 samples using the Berlese-Tullgren funnel technique and 4 using the flotation method. For Collembola we calculated the following ecological indices: abundance, richness, the Shannon index (H', dominance (

  3. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

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    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  4. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

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    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  5. HUBUNGAN KEDEKATAN EKOLOGIS ANTARA FAUNA TANAH DENGAN KARAKTERISTIK TANAH GAMBUT YANG DIDRAINASE UNTUK HTI Acacia crassicarpa (Ecological Proximity Relationship Between Soil Fauna and The Characteristics of Drained Peatland for Industrial Plantation

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    Yunita Lisnawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pengelolaan lahan gambut untuk pengembangan HTI Acacia crassicarpa diawali dengan pembuatan saluran drainase dan pembukaan lahan (land clearing yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyiapan lahan untuk penanaman, sedangkan kegiatan pemeliharaan meliputi pemberantasan gulma dengan menggunakan herbisida dan pemupukan. Kegiatan pengelolaan dan pemeliharaan tentunya mempunyai dampak bagi kondisi ekologis lahan gambut. Perubahan kondisi ekologis terjadi karena perubahan lahan yang selanjutnya berpengaruh terhadap kelimpahan dan keragaman fauna tanah.Kelimpahan dan keragaman fauna tanah serta fungsi ekosistem menunjukkan hubungan yang sangat kompleks dan belum banyak diketahui dengan pasti. Kecenderungan fauna tanah untuk memilih suatu habitat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor lingkungan baik biotik maupun abiotik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kedekatan ekologis antara karakteristik tanah gambut yang didrainase untuk HTI A. crassicarpa dengan kelimpahan fauna tanahnya. Penelitian dilakukan di HTI lahan gambut  PT. Arara Abadi, Distrik Rasau Kuning, Kabupaten Siak, Riau.  Pengambilan sampel fauna tanah dengan metode pencuplikan contoh tanah yang berukuran 25 x 25 x 25 cm3, pemisahan fauna tanah dengan tanah dilakukan dengan menggunakan modifikasi corong barlese.  Parameter yang diamati adalah kelimpahan dan keragaman fauna tanah, kematangan gambut (C/N, kadar air gambut, dan kedalaman muka air tanah gambut. Untuk menilai kedekatan ekologis digunakan analisis hirarki.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan fauna tanah tertinggi terdapat pada tegakan A. crassicarpa umur 2 tahun. Keragaman jenis fauna tanah di lokasi penelitian termasuk melimpah sedang dengan nilai H’ 1,2. Formicidae berpotensi sebagai bioindikator kelembaban tanah gambut yang rendah yang dicirikan dengan kandungan kadar air yang rendah dan mempunyai tingkat kematangan gambut yang lebih tinggi. Entomobryidae berpotensi sebagai bioindikator kadar air

  6. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

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    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  7. Dimorphism, habitat use and diet for Anolis maculiventris (Lacertilia: Dactyloidae, in tropical rainforest in Chocó, Colombia

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    Jhon Tailor RENGIFO-MOSQUERA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied some aspects of the population biology of A. maculiventris, in areas of tropical rainforest in the natural region of Choco. The males and females brown coloration with a small mole on the back of the head, the proportions and gender in the captured individuals showed significant statistical differences (X2: 4.81, gl: 1, p: 0.028. The degree of sexual dimorphism (GDS and sexual dimorphism index was 1.08, mm and 8.5 mm respectively. Females differ significantly from males in all the parts of the body measures. 30 Individuals have spread, which was determined to their reproductive status and failed to register a size minimum of maturity (LHA in females is 30.7 mm, with a maximum of 39.9 mm and an average of 36.5 mm. In the male the minimum maturity sexual 30.4 mm, and a maximum of 36.7 mm, with an average of 33.8 mm; which indicates that females were more large than males. Assessed habitat use, showing significant statistical differences between the used substrate (X2 = 16.89, gl: 3, p: 0.001; and for vertical positions, showed the same behavior (X2 = 3.77, gl: 3, p: 0.207. For analyzing dietary species spread 30 stomach, of which 15 belonged to males and 15 females, will register a total 46 gastrointestinal dams that compose its diet showing the orders Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae as the of greater relative importance in the diet. DIMORFISMO, USO DE HÁBITAT Y DIETA DE Anolis maculiventris (LACERTILIA: DACTYLOIDAE, EN BOSQUE PLUVIAL TROPICAL DEL CHOCÓ, COLOMBIA Se estudiaron algunos aspectos de la biología poblacional de Anolis maculiventris, en zonas de bosque pluvial tropical de la región natural chocoana. Los machos y hembras presentaron una coloración café claro con un pequeño lunar en la parte posterior de la cabeza, las proporciones de sexo en los individuos capturados mostraron diferencias estadísticas significativas (X2: 4,81, gl: 1, p: 0,028. El grado de dimorfismo sexual (GDS e índice de dimorfismo sexual

  8. Soil organisms associated to the weed suppressant Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae and its importance as a refuge for natural enemies Organismos de solo associados à supressora de plantas daninhas Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae e sua importância como refúgio para inimigos naturais

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    W.S Tavares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organisms play an important role in organic crops of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae and are associated with the natural conservation of the environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the population of soil organisms in the organic culture of C. juncea, as well as its importance as a refuge for natural enemies. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera: Lagriidae, Melanotus sp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae, Nephila clavipes (Araneae: Nephilidae, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Myrmicidae, Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae, Procornitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae were identified in C. juncea. The organisms that were found during a 3-month period in 144 trenches in C. juncea were pest species (84.47% and natural enemies (15.53% as well. Natural enemies had an average of 11.89 individuals per 1.08 m³ of soil cultivated with C. juncea. The abundance of organisms in the pod stage (5.49% of C. juncea was lower than that in the vegetative (83.50% and flowering (11.01% stages. Crotalaria juncea plants can be used as part of a crop system for Integrated Pest Management.Organismos de solo desempenham um importante papel em cultivos orgânicos de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae e estão associados com a conservação natural do ambiente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a população de organismos de solo no cultivo orgânico de C. juncea, bem como sua importância como um refúgio para inimigos naturais. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera

  9. Combate sistemático de formigas-cortadeiras com iscas granuladas, em eucaliptais com cultivo mínimo Systematic control of leaf-cutting ants in areas with eucalyptus stands under minimum cultivation system

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    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência do combate sistemático de formigas-cortadeiras em áreas de reforma de eucalipto com cultivo mínimo, na Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A., em Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais, de setembro a dezembro de 1996. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de uma isca granulada com sulfluramida (0,3% de forma sistemática, a granel ou com microporta-iscas, na dosagem de 5 g a cada 6 m² e 10 g a cada 12 m², respectivamente. A mortalidade das colônias de formigas-cortadeiras foi avaliada 30 dias após a aplicação da isca. Foram encontradas até 396,3, 285,2, 59,3, 55,6, 29,6 e 14,8 colônias de Mycocepurus goeldii, Sericomyrmex sp., Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans, Atta spp., Acromyrmex balzani e Acromyrmex niger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae por hectare, respectivamente. A eficiência da isca granulada no combate sistemático variou com o método empregado e com a espécie de formiga-cortadeira. A maior eficiência foi obtida para A. subterraneus molestans, com 69,2% de suas colônias mortas com a isca aplicada a granel e 62,5% com microporta-iscas, o que indica que a distribuição entre dois pontos com isca nos plantios de eucalipto foi maior que a área de forrageamento das formigas-cortadeiras encontradas e, ou, que a dosagem aplicada por ponto foi insuficiente.The efficiency of a systematic application of baits against leaf-cutting ants was evaluated in a eucalypus plantation under a minimum cultivation system, in areas owned by Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A. (CENIBRA, in Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from September to December 1996. Treatments consisted of applying a granulated bait with sulfluramide (0.3% in a systematic manner in bulk and plastic bags at a dose of five grams every 6 m² (T1 and 10 grams at each 12 m² (T2. Mortality of colonies of leaf-cutting ants was evaluated 30 days after bait application. A. maximum of 396.3; 285.2; 59.3; 55.6; 29.6 and 14.8 colonies of Mycocepurus goeldii, Sericomyrmex sp

  10. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

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    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  11. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

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    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  12. Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas

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    Diego S. Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas. Hosts of parasitoids in urban areas may suffer from a double threat of habitat destruction by urbanization and parasitism pressure. Moreover, the parasitoids themselves might be at risk if they are specialists. Here, we studied whether Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, which is on the red list of Brazilian threatened species, suffers from higher parasitism pressure in an urban area compared to a natural one. In addition, we determined whether their specialist parasitoids, Eibesfeldtphora breviloba and Myrmosicarius exrobusta (Diptera, Phoridae, are in risk and evaluated whether they are influenced by habitat structure, temperature, humidity, ant traffic, and time of the day. The study was carried out in an urban park and in a natural protected area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In each site we chose an open area and a closed area (forest and sampled nine nests in each area. We found that parasitism pressure was similar in urban and natural areas, with the same two parasitoid species present in both areas. The main difference was related to habitat structure, since M. exrobusta was mainly present in open areas while E. breviloba was almost exclusively found in closed areas. Myrmosicarius exrobusta was not present during the hottest midday times, and its abundance was negatively correlated to vapor pressure deficit. These results suggest that green areas can be an important component in efforts to conserve diversity in urban areas. However, the complexity of the habitats in those areas is a fundamental issue in designing urban parks.

  13. The Postpharyngeal Gland: Specialized Organ for Lipid Nutrition in Leaf-Cutting Ants.

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    Decio, Pâmela; Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Dias, Nathalia Baptista; Palma, Mario Sergio; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2016-01-01

    There are several hypotheses about the possible functions of the postpharyngeal gland (PPG) in ants. The proposed functions include roles as cephalic or gastric caeca and diverticulum of the digestive tract, mixing of hydrocarbons, nestmate recognition, feeding larvae, and the accumulation of lipids inside this gland, whose origin is contradictory. The current study aimed to investigate the functions of these glands by examining the protein expression profile of the PPGs of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Mated females received lipid supplementation and their glands were extracted and analyzed using a proteomic approach. The protocol used combined two-dimensional electrophoresis and shotgun strategies, followed by mass spectrometry. We also detected lipid β-oxidation by immunofluorescent marking of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Supplying ants with lipids elicited responses in the glandular cells of the PPG; these included increased expression of proteins related to defense mechanisms and signal transduction and reorganization of the cytoskeleton due to cell expansion. In addition, some proteins in PPG were overexpressed, especially those involved in lipid and energy metabolism. Part of the lipids may be reduced, used for the synthesis of fatty alcohol, transported to the hemolymph, or may be used as substrate for the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized to form molecules that drive oxidative phosphorylation and produce energy for cellular metabolic processes. These findings suggest that this organ is specialized for lipid nutrition of adult leaf-cutting ants and characterized like a of diverticulum foregut, with the ability to absorb, store, metabolize, and mobilize lipids to the hemolymph. However, we do not rule out that the PPG may have other functions in other species of ants.

  14. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

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    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    Full Text Available Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico, we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae, to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order

  15. Seasonal Distribution and Diversity of Ground Arthropods in Microhabitats Following a Shrub Plantation Age Sequence in Desertified Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  16. Temporal Dynamics of Arthropods on Six Tree Species in Dry Woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L. , Bucida buceras L. , Pithecellobium dulce , and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora , (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce , Leucaena leucocephala , and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  17. Influence of crop management practices on bean foliage arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Picanço, M C; Pereira, E J G; Silva, A A; Jakelaitis, A; Pereira, R R; Xavier, V M

    2010-12-01

    Crop management practices can affect the population of phytophagous pest species and beneficial arthropods with consequences for integrated pest management. In this study, we determined the effect of no-tillage and crop residue management on the arthropod community associated with the canopy of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Abundance and species composition of herbivorous, detritivorous, predaceous and parasitoid arthropods were recorded during the growing seasons of 2003 and 2004 in Coimbra County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Arthropod diversity and guild composition were similar among crop management systems, but their abundance was higher under no-tillage relative to conventional cultivation and where residues from the preceding crop were maintained in the field. Thirty-four arthropod species were recorded, and those most representative of the impact of the crop management practices were Hypogastrura springtails, Empoasca kraemeri and Circulifer leafhoppers, and Solenopsis ants. The infestation levels of major insect-pests, especially leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), was on average seven-fold lower under no-tillage with retention of crop residues relative to the conventional system with removal of residues, whereas the abundance of predatory ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and springtails (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) were, respectively, about seven- and 15-fold higher in that treatment. Importantly, a significant trophic interaction among crop residues, detritivores, predators and herbivores was observed. Plots managed with no-tillage and retention of crop residues had the highest bean yield, while those with conventional cultivation and removal of the crop residues yielded significantly less beans. This research shows that cropping systems that include zero tillage and crop residue retention can reduce infestation by foliar insect-pests and increase abundance of predators and detritivores, thus having direct consequences for insect pest management.

  18. [Soil mesofauna in differents systems of land use soil in Upper River Solimões, AM, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, José W De; Oliveira, Viviane Dos S; Dambros, Cristian De S; Tapia-Coral, Sandra C; Acioli, Agno N S

    2010-01-01

    The mesofauna has an important function in the soil and it is represented mainly by Acari Oribatida and Collembola. We report the first data on the density and diversity of the soil mesofauna in Benjamin Constant, Amazonas State, Brazil. The following systems were evaluated: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry system, cultivated areas and pastures. A total of 101 samples were collected 100 m apart from each other and specimens were collected by using Berlese-Tullgren method. The highest density was registered in secondary forest (29,776 specimens.m-2). Acari Oribatida was the dominant group (7.072 specimens.m-2) in the pasture, suggesting that mites show higher capacity of adaptation to disturbed environments and/or due to the presence of gregarious species. The density of Collembola (5,632 specimens.m-2) was higher in secondary forest. Formicidae was the dominant group (27,824 specimens.m-2) and its highest density occurred in the secondary forest (12,336 specimens.m-2). Seven species and ten morphospecies of Isoptera and three species of Symphyla were identified. The highest density and diversity were found in secondary forest. One supposes that the low density of mesofauna found in all of the studied systems is being influenced by soil structure and composition as well as litter volume. For SUT, the composition of taxonomic groups in the cultivated areas is similar to the one found in primary forest, while the groups found in the agroforestry system are similar to those in the pasture, which may help to decide on land use strategies.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy and organization of nanoparticles in heads and antennae of neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Odivaldo C; Srygley, Robert B; Riveros, Andre J; Barbosa, Marcia A; Esquivel, Darci M S; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    Oriented magnetic nanoparticles have been suggested as a good candidate for a magnetic sensor in ants. Behavioural evidence for a magnetic compass in neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Formicidae: Attini), motivated a study of the arrangement of magnetic particles in the ants’ four major body parts by measuring the angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra at room temperature. Spectra of the thoraces and those of the abdomens showed no significant angular dependence, while those of the antennae and those of the heads exhibited a periodic dependence relative to the magnetic field. Fitting of the angular dependence of the resonant field resulted in an unexpected magnetic anisotropy with uniaxial symmetry. High values of the first order anisotropy constant were observed for the magnetic material in antennae (−2.9  ×  10 5  erg cm −3 ) and heads (−1  ×  10 6  erg   cm −3 ) as compared to body parts of other social insects. In addition, the magnitude of the anisotropy in the heads was comparable to that observed in magnetite nanoparticles of 4–5 nm diameter. For the antennae, the mean angle of the particles’ easy magnetization axis (EA) was estimated to be 41° relative to the straightened antenna’s long axis. For the heads, EA was approximately 60° relative to the head’s axis running from midway between the spines to the clypeus. These physical characteristics indicate organized magnetic nanoparticles with a potential for directional sensitivity, which is an important feature of magnetic compasses. (paper)

  20. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico), we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico) in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae), to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae) of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order to carry out