Yusof, Zamros Y M; Hassan, Wan Nurazreena Wan; Razak, Ishak A; Hashim, Siti Marini N; Tahir, Mohd Khairul A M; Keng, Siong Beng
This study aimed to evaluate the association between dental students’ personality traits and stress levels in relation to dental education programs among senior dental students in University Malaya (UM) in Malaysia and National University of Singapore (NUS). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on UM and NUS senior dental students. The questionnaire comprised items on demographic background, the Big Five Inventory Personality Traits (BFIPT) test and a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) scale. Rasch analysis was used to convert raw data to interval scores. Analyses were done by t-test, Pearson correlation, and Hierarchical regression statistics. The response rate was 100% (UM=132, NUS=76). Personality trait Agreeableness (mean=0.30) was significantly more prevalent among UM than NUS students (mean=0.15, p=0.016). In NUS, Neuroticism (mean=0.36) was significantly more prevalent than in UM (mean=0.14, p=0.002). The DES mean score was higher among NUS (mean=0.23) than UM students (mean=0.07). In UM, Neuroticism was significantly correlated with stress levels (r=0.338, ppersonality traits. The correlation was strongest for personality trait Neuroticism in both schools. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender and Neuroticism were significant predictors for students’ stress levels (ppersonality trait were significant predictors for stress levels among selected groups of dental students in Southeast Asia. Information on students’ personality may be useful in new students’ intake, stress management counseling and future program reviews.
Stewart, F M J; Drummond, J R; Carson, L; Theaker, E D
To gather information from senior dental students about their future career plans, with particular emphasis on work-life balance issues, their attitudes towards the NHS and retirement plans. Senior dental students at the Universities of Dundee and Manchester were asked to complete a voluntary anonymous questionnaire. In all 141 questionnaires were completed, 42 by students in Manchester and 114 in Dundee. On qualification nearly all surveyed intend to work full time but after five years one quarter (26%) of females intend to work part time. This is significantly (p work full time. Although the majority (65%) intend to work in general practice significant numbers (19%) wish to have a career in hospital dentistry and very few (3%) in community dentistry. Senior students seem to show no more commitment to the NHS than those in our previous study of dental school applicants. Only 3% intend to work exclusively for the NHS and 18% intend to work exclusively in the private sector. Surprising numbers had plans to retire or go part time before 60 years of age. Only 20% of the sample intended to continue working full time after the age of 60 years. The mode age that those surveyed intended to start a family was 30 years and a large majority of both sexes thought this would interrupt their professional life. More than half of the sample intend to take time out of dentistry until their children attended primary school (female 63%, male 38%) and 6% (female 6%, male 8%) until secondary school. Many of our findings suggest that future generations of dentists may have a pattern of professional life that will have the effect of reducing their clinical commitment, although it is not possible to determine how significant an effect this will have on the workforce. It may, however, be appropriate to take career intention into account when workforce planning.
Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.
The American Dental Education Association's annual survey of dental school graduating seniors provides data on students' financing of dental education, graduating indebtedness, practice and postdoctoral education plans, decision factors that influenced post-graduation plans, and impressions of the adequacy of time directed to various areas of…
Wanchek, Tanya; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W
This report examines the results of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Survey of Dental School Seniors graduating in 2016. Data were collected from 4,558 respondents at all 59 U.S. dental schools with graduating classes that year. This annual survey asks graduating students about a variety of topics in order to understand their motivation for attending dental school, educational experiences while in school, debt incurred, and plans following graduation. Motivations for choosing to attend dental school typically involved family or friends who were dentists or students' personal experiences. The timing of the decision to enter dentistry has been getting earlier over time. Similar to previous years, the average graduating student had above $200,000 in student debt. However, for the first time in two decades, inflation-adjusted debt decreased slightly. The reduction in debt was due to students from private schools reducing their average debt by $23,401. Immediately after graduation, most seniors planned to enter private practice (50.5%) or advanced dental education (33.8%). Approximately half of the respondents planned to work in underserved areas at some point in their careers. These findings underscore the continued value of the senior survey to offer a unique view of the diverse characteristics and career paths of the future dental workforce.
Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.
Hashemikamangar, Sedighe Sadat; Yazdanpanah, Farnoosh; Mirzaii, Mansoore; Yazdani, Reza; Karazifard, Mohammad Javad; Yasini, Esmaeil
The efficacy of methods like e-learning as a supplement to traditional face-to-face instruction needs to be evaluated in dental courses. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of posting case presentations on one of the educational websites of the virtual school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences called "SARMAD" to enhance the ability of senior dental students to diagnose tooth discolorations and offer treatment plans. This experimental study had a pre-test/post-test control group design and was conducted on 63 senior dental students. After filling out the primary questionnaire and obtaining a written informed consent, students participated in a pre-test and were then randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Fifteen case presentations were posted on the university website (SARMAD) during 6 weeks and discussed. Then, students participated in a post-test. Students' perspectives and their satisfaction with the website were assessed by a questionnaire. For ethical purposes, the same program was also offered to the controls. The post-test score was significantly higher than the pre-test score in the intervention group (P<0.001); but in the control group, the post-test score was only slightly higher than the pre-test score (P=0.128). In the intervention group, 70% stated that they would suggest this method as an efficient educational modality; 93.3% stated that this method would be beneficial as a supplement to conventional education; 16.7% ranked the SARMAD website excellent, 30% ranked it good, 33.3% acceptable, 16.7% moderate and 3.3 poor. It appears that this instructional modality may be efficiently used as a supplement to traditional instruction in undergraduate dental curricula.
Sedighe Sadat Hashemikamangar
Full Text Available The efficacy of methods like e-learning as a supplement to traditional face-to-face instruction needs to be evaluated in dental courses. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of posting case presentations on one of the educational websites of the virtual school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences called “SARMAD” to enhance the ability of senior dental students to diagnose tooth discolorations and offer treatment plans. This experimental study had a pre-test/post-test control group design and was conducted on 63 senior dental students. After filling out the primary questionnaire and obtaining a written informed consent, students participated in a pre-test and were then randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Fifteen case presentations were posted on the university website (SARMAD during 6 weeks and discussed. Then, students participated in a post-test. Students’ perspectives and their satisfaction with the website were assessed by a questionnaire. For ethical purposes, the same program was also offered to the controls. The post-test score was significantly higher than the pre-test score in the intervention group (P<0.001; but in the control group, the post-test score was only slightly higher than the pre-test score (P=0.128. In the intervention group, 70% stated that they would suggest this method as an efficient educational modality; 93.3% stated that this method would be beneficial as a supplement to conventional education; 16.7% ranked the SARMAD website excellent, 30% ranked it good, 33.3% acceptable, 16.7% moderate and 3.3 poor. It appears that this instructional modality may be efficiently used as a supplement to traditional instruction in undergraduate dental curricula.
Full Text Available Introduction: In the education system in the country, thesis works as a way to solve research problems and thesis presentation is based as part of the research. To improve the quality of dissertations, it is essential to have an accurate evaluation of the objectives, practical process, process and efficiency of the course by supervisors, graduates and students. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the view point of senior and graduated students and supervisor teachers of Mashhad dental school about thesis.Materials & Methods: Forty eight supervisors, 40 students and 50 graduates from Mashhad dental school participated in this cross sectional descriptive study in the year 2010. Three questionnaires, which proved to be valid and reliable, were used for data collection. Results were analyzed according to the frequency distribution of variable and average of description. Common questions were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 95%.Results: The data indicated that the effect of thesis presentation on the activities leading to production and basic science and increase in professional knowledge and skills were average while it was very effective in teaching research methods. Students, graduates and supervisors together agreed on the completion of a joint research project in the early years of school and covering an education subject about thesis goals. Supervisors estimated the effect of thesis result in community to be more than that of the graduates (P=0.03. In addition, supervisors had less agreement on thesis as a voluntary course compared to students and graduates (P=0.01.Conclusion: Based on findings of this study, because of the great amount of budget and time spent on thesis, it is better to optimize the presented results and recommendations in this regard. It also seems that the greatest impact on improving the process would be created through revising the rules, creating supportive organizations actively and
Alsharif, Ala'a; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Over the past twenty-five years, there has been a substantial increase in work-based demands, thought to be due to an intensifying, competitive work environment. However, more recently, the question of work-life balance is increasingly attracting attention. The purpose of this study was to discover the attitudes of the next generation of dentists in Australia to parenting responsibility and work-life balance perceptions. Questionnaires on work-life balance were distributed to all fourth-year students at three dental schools in Australia. A total of 137 (76 percent) surveys were completed and returned. Most respondents indicated that they would take time off to focus on childcare, and just over half thought childcare should be shared by both parents. Thirty-seven percent felt that a child would have a considerable effect on their careers. Differences were seen in responses when compared by gender. The application of sensitivity analysis to workforce calculations based around changing societal work-life expectations can have substantial effects on predicting workforce data a decade into the future. It is not just the demographic change to a more feminized workforce in Australia that can have substantial effect, but also the change in social expectations of males in regards to parenting.
Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future.
Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.
An annual survey of graduating seniors by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) obtained data about their financing of dental education, graduating indebtedness, practice and postdoctoral education plans following graduation, and impressions of the adequacy of time directed to various areas of predoctoral instruction. Also related…
A.M. Alzahem (Abdullah)
markdownabstractAbstract Dental students are facing many stressors in dental education, causing many negative outcomes. The most common are the exams and the clinical requirements. We suggest exposing the dental students to patient care as early as possible in their curriculum. This can help to
Golightly, Melissa; Kennett, Natalie; Stout, Jacqueline A
Traditional senior practicum experiences (SPEs) are microsystem based-they allow senior nursing students the opportunity to build professional nursing competencies as they transition into practice. As health care transformation continues unabated, there is a need to work toward closing the gap between nursing academia and nursing practice. A cardiovascular service line created an innovative SPE to better prepare senior nursing students for working as professional nurses in a service line model. The Senior Practicum Immersion Experience (SPIE) proved to be beneficial to senior practicum students and offered firsthand experience of the role professional nurses play in a service line model. This model increased the number of senior practicum students accepted into the cardiac service line by 50%. The SPIE creates an innovative solution to increasing the number of senior practicum students while allowing students the ability to learn and practice in a service line model. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):745-747.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Jones, Vickie E; Karydis, Anastasios; Hottel, Timothy L
Interprofessional and intraprofessional education (when students from two or more professions or within the same profession, respectively, learn about, from, and/or with each other) is crucial for effective interdisciplinary collaboration. The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of a clinical intraprofessional education program for dental and dental hygiene students, based on students' expectations and satisfaction with the program and patients' satisfaction with the team-based care. The pilot program was developed at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry, where dental hygiene students were paired randomly with dental students scheduled for prophylaxis, scaling and root planing, or periodontal maintenance. Surveys with questions about the students' expectations and satisfaction were distributed to 89 senior dental students and 27 senior dental hygiene students before and after team-based procedures. Another survey was distributed to 17 patients asking about their satisfaction with the team-based care. All 27 dental hygiene students (100% response rate), 51 dental students (57.3% response rate), and all 17 patients (100% response rate) participated in the surveys. The results showed that both the dental and dental hygiene students had high expectations and were overall satisfied with the intraprofessional education. The students' expectations and perceived educational gap (difference between expectations and satisfaction) differed for the dental and dental hygiene students (ppatients were overwhelmingly satisfied with the team-based care. These results suggest that this intraprofessional practice model provided an effective educational experience for both dental and dental hygiene students and patients. The differences between the dental hygiene and dental students' expectations will help in the design of more effective training that promotes intraprofessional and interprofessional teamwork.
Young, Lynda J.; Fellows, Avis L.
A study to determine differences between graduating and withdrawing students in the University of Minnesota Dental Hygiene program is discussed. The identification of differences may prove useful in the selection process for future classes through identification of students likely to complete their education. (MLW)
Wood, M R; Palm, L J
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered on Weeks 8, 12, and 15 of a semester to 16 students enrolled in a senior thesis course. State anxiety scores were elevated when oral presentations began and declined following the presentations. Trait anxiety scores remained constant across test administrations. The influence of situational variables on students' anxiety was discussed.
Students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior secondary schools in ... that students in Senior Secondary School Two (SSII) have difficulties in learning, the ... However, teaching strategies, students' attitude, inadequate learning ...
Gunjal, Shilpa; Pateel, Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa; Parkar, Sujal
Aim . To assess the dental anxiety level among dental, medical, and pharmacy students of MAHSA University, Malaysia. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1500 undergraduate students of MAHSA University. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. The responses were assessed by 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The level of anxiety was categorized into lowly anxious (5-11), moderately anxious (12-18), and severely anxious ≥19. Out of 1500 students enrolled, 1024 students (342 males and 682 females) completed and returned the questionnaire having response rate of 68.26%. Results . There was a statistically significant difference ( P students had lowest mean score (11.95 ± 4.21). The fifth year (senior) dental students scored significantly ( P = 0.02) lower mean anxiety score as compared to the first dental students (junior). The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Conclusions . Dental students have a significantly low level of dental anxiety as compared with medical and pharmacy students. Incorporation of dental health education in preuniversity and other nondental university curriculums may reduce dental anxiety among the students.
Udin, Richard D.; Kuster, Curtis G.
A study to determine the usefulness of a board game in training and sensitizing senior dental students toward handicapped children showed that neither the board game nor a standard small-group lecture affected student attitudes or confidence. (MSE)
Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi
In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…
Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene
This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to portray career orientation of Senior High School (SMA and Vocational High School (SMK students and the role that school counselors should play in providing vocational guidance. This study used a survey method involving 278 students from both SMA and SMK di Jakarta. Career Orientation Inventory (COI and Counselor Role in Career Guidance Inventory were used as an instrument of data collection. Descriptive statistics and t-test were conducted to analyze the data. The findings of the study reveal that majority of SMA and SMK students wanted to further their study to university and only small number of them wanted to find out jobs or run their own business. The findings also show that school counselors play a very important role in providing vocational guidance services for senior secondary students. Therefore, in order for students to have a bright career in future, school counselors should improve the quality of vocational guidance services and plan comprehensive vocational guidance programs.
Heegaard, Karen M; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Jensen, Allan Bardow
Gerodontology 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00383.x The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health Background: In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established. Objectives: To describe...
The purpose of the study was to compare chemistry teachers' answers in a question related to evaporation with that of their senior secondary students. Two hundred and seventy six senior secondary students and their seven teachers participated in the study. The main data collecting instrument was the pictorial and verbal ...
In the present study, the internet addiction status of high school senior students in Yesilyurt county of Malatya was analyzed and examined in terms of gender variable. The study population consisted of 3442 senior students who were studying at 37 high schools in state schools in Yesilyurt County of the city of Malatya in 2016-2017 academic year.…
Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students' ... The study adopted a quasi-experimental non equivalent pretest-posttest research design. ... Key words: process approach, product approach, essay, writing, achievement.
Alejandrino, Mara Philia R; Catipay, Jerico D; Concepcion, Prince Vincent Ace T; Flores, Sally Mae C; Palicte, Cherry Mae D; Seguiro, Arlene C
This research was conducted to determine the significant influence of social media addiction on the study habits of the senior high students in selected school of Agusan del Sur. The researchers used a descriptive correlation method of research which involved the survey of a total of 150 senior high students. Questionnaires were the research instrument used in the gathering of data and was presented to the research adviser for approval and content validity. Mean, Pearson Product Moment Correl...
Allaire, Joanna L
Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.
Reinders, Jan J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P.
Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether
Reinders, Jan J; Krijnen, Wim P; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P
Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether
Salgado de Souza, Ricardo; Gallego Arias Pecorari, Vanessa; Lauria Dib, Luciano
The present study assessed the level of dentists' knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians' knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer. PMID:29666649
Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R
In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.
A binary logit model is used to investigate the determinants of students' performance in the final high school examination. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year students (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were requested ...
Background. Dental students are seen as role-models for promoting good oral health behaviour, yet there is little published evidence in South Africa (SA) that describes student knowledge and attitudes towards their own oral healthcare. Objective. To investigate undergraduate dental therapy and oral hygiene students' ...
study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology. Enugu, Nigeria ... HIV-infected individuals is also known to be achieved through the provision of ... to care for HIV-infected patients among this group of dental professionals ..... Table 7: Willingness to care versus training needs on care.
Leadership opportunities for dental students have opened dramatically in recent decades because of the humanistic approach to education that shares responsibility for learning between students and faculty and that values mutual respect. Technology has also had an effect because it creates instant access and global communities. This new student leadership is most apparent in the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), which recently developed a White Paper on ethics, assisted in the establishment of Student Professionalism and Ethics Clubs at schools, and is developing a policy on unsupervised dental care. Students are also demonstrating leadership in research; in dual degrees that enhance teaching and policy; and in community service and outreach.
Mandrusiak, Allison M; Isles, Rosemary; Chang, Angela T; Choy, Nancy L Low; Toppenberg, Rowena; McCook, Donna; Smith, Michelle D; O'Leary, Karina; Brauer, Sandra G
Standardised patients are used in medical education to expose students to clinical contexts and facilitate transition to clinical practice, and this approach is gaining momentum in physiotherapy programs. Expense and availability of trained standardised patients are factors limiting widespread adoption, and accessing clinical visits with real patients can be challenging. This study addressed these issues by engaging senior students as standardised patients for junior students. It evaluated how this approach impacted self-reported constructs of both the junior and senior students. Learning activities for undergraduate physiotherapy students were developed in five courses (Neurology, Cardiorespiratory and three Musculoskeletal courses) so that junior students (Year 2 and 3) could develop skills and confidence in patient interview, physical examination and patient management through their interaction with standardised patients played by senior students (Year 4). Surveys were administered before and after the interactions to record junior students' self-reported confidence, communication, preparedness for clinic, and insight into their abilities; and senior students' confidence and insight into what it is like to be a patient. Satisfaction regarding this learning approach was surveyed in both the junior and senior students. A total of 253 students completed the surveys (mean 92.5% response rate). Across all courses, junior students reported a significant (all P Senior students demonstrated a significant improvement in their confidence in providing feedback and insight into their own learning (P senior students as standardised patients resulted in positive experiences for both junior and senior students across a variety of physiotherapy areas, activities, and stages within a physiotherapy program. These findings support the engagement of senior students as standardised patients to enhance learning within physiotherapy programs, and may have application across other
not being able to recall information from memory, use of wrong units, ... Handy and Johnstone  working with white children examined students' ..... mathematical algorithms that make demands on the memory capacity of the students.
Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.
A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…
The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...
The author draws upon over four decades of experience in student affairs administration to investigate how senior student affairs officers can incorporate intersectionality into comprehensive and targeted decision-making processes, strategic planning, and organizational considerations.
Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko
The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Dr. Dexter R. Buted
Full Text Available The study generally intended to reckon the previous and present condition of senior tourism students with regards on their foreign language class. Specifically, it described the profile of the professors teaching foreign language; determined the senior tourism student’s performances on their foreign language class; assessed the teaching strategies used by the professors; tested the significant relationship between the performances of the students to the teaching strategies used; and lastly, proposed an action plan to help tourism students in the study of foreign language. The researchers used the descriptive method of research, with one hundred seventy-eight (178 respondents composed of all senior tourism students who are enrolled in foreign language class. The result of the study revealed that the professors who are teaching foreign language are 61 years old and above, masters degree holder, 10 years and above, with a unit of 21 and can speak Spanish. Also, the students are able to speak and comprehend Mandarin, French and Spanish. The teaching techniques used by the professors in teaching the language was giving and evaluating student’s performance more often. Moreover, the performances of the students in foreign language are affected by the teaching strategies used by the professors. And a proposed plan was formulated to improve foreign language subject of the study
Shearston, Jenni A; Shah, Krina; Cheng, Eric; Moosvi, Rizvan; Park, Su Hyun; Patel, Naiya; Spielman, Andrew I; Weitzman, Michael L
Using cigarettes and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is associated with negative oral health outcomes, and dental health professionals are poised to help patients quit. The aim of this study was to determine dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students' use, knowledge, and beliefs about cigarettes and ATPs, including perceptions about their education in tobacco dependence treatment and counseling experience. All 1,783 students enrolled in the dental, dental hygiene, and postdoctoral dental programs at the New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate in the survey in 2016. A total of 708 students at least partially completed the survey, for a response rate of 39.7%. In the results, 146 of the students (20.1%) reported ever using cigarettes, while 253 (35.7%) reported ever using any ATP. Regarding tobacco use intervention, the students reported they had not received enough training on ATPs, were neutral about cigarettes, and were somewhat confident and not so confident counseling a cigarette smoker or ATP user, respectively. By their fourth year, 77.8% of the dental students reported they had counseled someone to stop smoking cigarettes, but only 40.7% had counseled someone to stop using ATPs. Overall, all groups of students reported feeling more confident and had received more education on interventions for cigarettes than for ATPs (ptobacco and did not perceive they had received enough training on intervening with patients on use of cigarettes and ATPs. These findings call for a revised tobacco education curriculum for dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students, focused on building knowledge and confidence for promoting tobacco dependence treatment.
Jarosz, Krystian F; Ziccardi, Vincent B; Aziz, Shahid R; Sue-Jiang, Shuying
The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) encompasses the diagnosis and surgical management of a variety of pathologic, functional, and esthetic conditions of the oral and maxillofacial region. Despite the specialty's prominent role in the field of dentistry, a lack of complete understanding still remains among dental and medical health professionals as to the exact scope and expertise of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The present study aimed to analyze a population of dental students' perceptions of OMS as a specialty with respect to treatment rendered, referral patterns, and a general opinion of the specialty as a whole. A survey consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions was compiled and distributed to dental students through an on-line polling service (SurveyMonkey). A total of 5 dental student classes at a single dental school were polled using school-based electronic mail, including the graduating seniors. All answers were kept confidential, and no individual students were identified. The students were not able to retake the survey once completed. The final tallies of the survey results were compiled and submitted for statistical analysis. Statistically significant associations between the year of dental education and student perceptions of OMS were determined. As dental students progress through their undergraduate studies, their perceptions change with regard to the referral of dental implants. Periodontists were found to have statistically significantly greater rates of referral than oral and maxillofacial surgeons from dental students in the fourth year and recent graduates compared with younger dental students from the first, second, and third years for placement of dental implants. Statistically insignificant in terms of a changing dental student perception was the finding that third molar removal was within the domain of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon, as well as the management of cleft lip and palate deformities and mandibular
Luana Kelle Batista Moura
Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.
Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and ...
Further Mathematics is frequently perceived as a subject set aside for some exceptional individuals. It often induces feelings of worry; nervousness and panic among students. This study employed the survey research design aimed at investigating difficult concepts in senior secondary school further mathematics curriculum as perceived by students in Archbishop Porter Girls’ Senior High School in Ghana. The study was guided by two research questions and the sample for the study was 100, all of w...
Role ambiguity is a lack of clarity or uncertainty related to one's position or role. Role ambiguity has been documented in the literature in relationship to athletics, industry, business, education, and nursing. However, a concept analysis has not been performed. Therefore, the process of concept analysis outlined by Walker and Avant is now used to look at the concept of role ambiguity and its relevance to senior nursing students' socialization and education into the profession of nursing. Attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empiric referents are discussed and theories commonly associated with role ambiguity are presented. At the end of the analysis, an operational definition is provided for use in exploring the concept of role ambiguity as it relates to senior nursing students' articulation of the role of the professional nurse. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel
Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that includ...
Wilkinson, Denise M; Smallidge, Dianne; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori
Health care education requires students to connect classroom learning with patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions of teaching tools, activities and teaching methods useful in closing the gap between theory and practice as students transition from classroom learning into the clinical phase of their training. This was an exploratory qualitative study design examining retrospective data from journal postings of a convenience sample of dental hygiene students (n=85). Open-ended questions related to patient care were given to junior and senior students to respond in a reflective journaling activity. A systematic approach was used to establish themes. Junior students predicted hands-on experiences (51%), critical thinking exercises (42%) and visual aids (27%) would be the most supportive in helping them connect theory to practice. Senior students identified critical thinking exercises (44%) and visual aids (44%) as the most beneficial in connecting classroom learning to patient care. Seniors also identified barriers preventing them from connecting theory to patient care. Barriers most often cited were not being able to see firsthand what is in the text (56%) and being unsure that what was seen during clinical practice was the same as what was taught (28%). Students recognized the benefits of critical thinking and problem solving skills after having experienced patient care and were most concerned with performance abilities prior to patient care experiences. This information will be useful in developing curricula to enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between physical appearance and perception of an esthetic deviation, and the impact of such deviation on self-esteem and body image are important issues in determining the benefits of orthodontic treatment. Aim: To assess dental students′ perception of orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 undergraduate dental students of Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka formed the study group. Each classroom of the participants was visited, and self-administered questionnaire was given. An analysis of variance was done between the groups to test for statistical difference. Categorical variables were evaluated using a Chi-square test with the level of significance of P < 0.001. Results: About 75% of the students were aware of their dental esthetics. About 75% of females were satisfied with the attractiveness of their teeth when compared to 69% in males. House surgeons had more positive attitude compared to the 1 st year students. Conclusion: The dental students had good knowledge about the orthodontic treatment and had a positive attitude toward it. Females had very good knowledge, satisfaction and positive attitude compared to the males regarding dental esthetics and treatment. House surgeons were much more aware, very much satisfied and had a more positive attitude than 1 st year students.
Sonneveld, R E; Brands, W G; Bronkhorst, E M; Welie, J V M; Truin, G J
In view of transparency in health care, the widespread desire for more patient-centred care, and in an attempt to facilitate educational programmes that effectively respond to these changes, two research questions are formulated: (i) How do dental students rate the importance of various organisational aspects of dental practices compared with dental patients and general dental practitioners (GDPs), and what prescripts, defined as specific operational responsibilities of GDPs in these matters, do dental students propose? and (ii) In doing so, do students resemble patients or GDPs? In two survey studies, dental students (n = 198), patients (n = 3127) and GDPs (n = 303) were asked to rate by questionnaire the importance of 41 organisational aspects of a general dental practice and proposed specific operational responsibilities ('prescripts'). Seven of 41 aspects were rated as important by the majority of the students. Although in a different rank order, three aspects were predominantly selected by all three groups: continuing education, accessibility by telephone and Dutch-speaking GDP. For most aspects, significant differences were found between the prescripts proposed by students and those proposed by patients, and few differences were found between students and GDPs. The findings do not permit the general conclusion that the views of dental students resemble those of patients or GPDs. Looking at the overall rank order, the three respondent groups showed a great resemblance although significant differences were found for specific aspects. With regard to the proposed prescripts, students showed realistic views and the majority wants to participate in continuing education and work with protocols and guidelines. In this, they tend to resemble GDPs more than they resemble patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Khatoon, B; Hill, K B; Walmsley, A D
The aim of this study was to understand how new mobile technologies, such as smartphones and laptops, are used by dental students. A questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate dental students from years 1 to 4, at the University of Birmingham Dental School. Questionnaires were completed between February and April 2013. Two hundred and seventy questionnaires were completed. Laptops 55% (145) and smartphones 34% (88) were the most popular choice of device for connecting to the net and searching information. Laptops were preferred in first and second year. Students in year 3 preferred mobile phones, and by year 4 the use of mobile phones and laptops was similar. The top two application ideas chosen by students as the most useful on their smart phones were a dictionary for dental education (56%) and multiple choice questions (50%). Students who chose smartphones as their first choice or second choice of device strongly agreed that having the Internet on their smartphones had a positive impact on their dental education (55%). With laptops (48%), students preferred to be at home when using them while for smartphones (31%) they used them anywhere with a connection. E-mail (47%) and social networks (44%) were the top two Internet communication tools used most on laptops. Instant messaging was popular on smartphones (17%). Depending on the year in the course, laptops and smartphones are the most popular choice of device and desktop computers are the least popular. Applications on smartphones are very popular and instant messaging is an upcoming form of communication for students.
Haghparast, H; Ghorbani, A; Rohlin, M
To compare dental students' perceptions of their learning approaches between different years of a problem-based learning (PBL) programme. The hypothesis was that in a comparison between senior and junior students, the senior students would perceive themselves as having a higher level of deep learning approach and a lower level of surface learning approach than junior students would. This hypothesis was based on the fact that senior students have longer experience of a student-centred educational context, which is supposed to underpin student learning. Students of three cohorts (first year, third year and fifth year) of a PBL-based dental programme were asked to respond to a questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) developed to analyse students' learning approaches, that is deep approach and surface approach, using four subscales including deep strategy, surface strategy, deep motive and surface motive. The results of the three cohorts were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P-value was set at approach than the first-year students (P = 0.020). There was a significant decrease in surface strategy from the first to the fifth year (P = 0.003). No differences were found concerning deep approach or its subscales (deep strategy and deep motive) between the mean scores of the three cohorts. The results did not show the expected increased depth in learning approaches over the programme years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muirhead, Vanessa; Locker, David
In this paper, we report the results of a survey on dental student stress carried out in April 2005. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 171 students (62% response rate). Identified stressors were academic, clinic-related, social and financial. "Examination and grades" produced the most academic stress, and inconsistent feedback from instructors created the most clinic-related stress. Students found that having a dual role--wife or husband and dental student--was the most burdensome social stressor. Approximately 60% of students reported marital problems and stress associated with "relations with members of the opposite sex." Survey results showed that students who expected a high graduating debt had higher total and academic stress scores. Total stress was not related to age, gender or marital status. Students living with parents during term time had significantly higher total stress scores than students living in other arrangements. Students residing with parents also had significantly higher debts on entry to dental school. Students with more predental education had (non-significantly) lower stress scores but also had higher student debts. Undergraduate subject major (biological science or non-science) had no bearing on reported stress. This study highlights the negative effects of student debt, the necessity for staff training and the need for further studies exploring relations among stress, psychological well-being and academic performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia. Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24% were female and 57 (76% were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%, 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3% and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%. Most participants (n = 48, 64% were staff specialists and 27 (36% were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%, 12 (16% were surgeons, and 24 (32% were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce.
Information literacy—i.e. obtaining, evaluating and using information—is a key element of scientific literacy. However, students are frequently equipped with poor information literacy skills—even at university level—as information literacy is often not explicitly taught in schools. Little is known about students' information skills in science at junior and senior class level, and about teachers' competences in dealing with information literacy in science class. This study examines the information literacy of Austrian 8th, 10th and 12th grade students. Information literacy is important for science education in Austria, because it is listed as a basic competence in Austria's science standards. Two different aspects of information literacy are examined: obtaining information and extracting information from texts. An additional research focus of this study is teachers' competences in diagnosing information skills. The results reveal that students mostly rely on online sources for obtaining information. However, they also use books and consult with people they trust. The younger the students, the more they rely on personal sources. Students' abilities to evaluate sources are poor, especially among younger students. Although teachers claim to use information research in class, their ability to assess their students' information competences is limited.
McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R
The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (ppeer teaching (ppeer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.
Walmsley, A D; White, D A; Hobson, R; Ensor, S
In the current climate in dental education, many schools are re-evaluating the role of the student elective in the curriculum, with two schools no longer running elective programmes. In order to discuss the future of student electives in the dental curriculum, the Dental Academic Staff Group (DASG) of the British Dental Association organised a Student Elective Workshop, which attracted 42 delegates including nine student representatives. The following article is an account of the Workshop and its conclusions.
Daugherty, Heather N; Kearney, Rachel C
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the change in levels of knowledge of providing culturally competent care and self-assessed cultural competence of senior level dental hygiene students after the implementation of an online cultural competence training module. Methods: Twenty-eight members of the senior class of 31 dental hygiene students (N=28) volunteered to participate in this IRB approved study at the Ohio State University School of Dentistry. The students took the online Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence- Student Version (IAPCC-SV), to assess their self-perceived cultural competence. Upon completion of the pre-test, students then completed the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Minority Health (OMH) Cultural Competency Program for Oral Health Professionals; a three-module online training program designed to measure increased knowledge of cultural competence. Three weeks following the initial pre-test and upon completion of the Cultural Competency Program for Oral Health Professionals online learning modules, students re-took the IAPCC-SV. Results: Twenty-eight senior dental hygiene students completed the IAPCC-SV pre-test, the OMH e-learning modules and the IAPCC-SV post-test. The average score on the pre-test was 55.14±7.54 and the average score on the post-test was 61.33±7.86. There was a significant difference in pre-test and post-test scores (pdental hygiene students' levels of knowledge of cultural competence. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Poorterman, J H G; Dikkes, B T; Brand, H S
In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental students, amongst other non-qualified individuals, to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental students have part-time employment in dental practice and which professional tasks they carry out. We also asked the dental students their opinion about the IHCP Act. All the enrolled dental students at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA) in the Netherlands received a questionnaire by e-mail. Within 1 month, two reminders were sent. The response was 44% (427 students). Of the responding students, 71% had paid employment in addition to their study. Twenty-five per cent of all students worked in a dental practice, usually 8 h a week. Study year and age were positively related to working part-time in dental practice. Activities frequently performed were providing chair side assistance, giving oral hygiene instruction, fluoride applications, scaling and root planning. The self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was positively related to study year and working in a dental practice. Hardly any information about the requirements of the IHCP Act with regard to delegation of tasks was provided by the employer. Many Dutch dental students work in a dental practice, taking over a variety of tasks. Although the self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was relatively high, many dental students expressed the need for more detailed information about the legal aspects of their tasks.
Data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed by Mann–Whitney U‑test and Kruskal–Wallis test using SPSS software version 16 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: In this study, 235 dental students participated in the study. The average awareness and knowledge score was 7.27 (1.92). Based on the ...
Poorterman, J H G; Dikkes, B T; Brand, H S
Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have part-time job employment in dental practice and which professional tasks they carry out. We also asked the dental hygiene students their opinion of the IHCP Act. All the enrolled dental hygiene students (n = 341) at a School of Health in the Netherlands received a questionnaire by email. The response was 52% (176 students). Of the responding students, 75% had paid employment in addition to their study. A proportion of the students (35%) worked in a dental practice. The median number of hours worked per week was eight. Study year, age and prior education were positively related to working part-time in dental practice. Activities frequently performed were giving oral hygiene instruction, fluoride applications, scaling and root planning, providing chair side assistance and giving local anaesthesia. Although the self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was high, almost half of the students expressed the need for more detailed legal information. Many dental hygiene students work in a dental practice, taking over a number of tasks usually performed by the dentist. More information in the dental hygiene curriculum about the requirements of the IHCP Act seems desirable.
Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.
Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…
Hamluk, Brian Frederick
In comparison to other backgrounds of college and university presidents (e.g., chief academic officers, finance, institutional advancement, etc.) few presidents in American higher education achieve the presidency from a senior-level position within student affairs, and mentoring of senior student affairs officers may play a role in assisting them…
Kristensen, Bettina Tjagvad; Netterstrom, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars
This qualitative study shows dental students' motives for choosing the dental education and how the motives influence their motivation at the first semester of study. Further the study demonstrates the relevance of the context of learning. This issue is of importance when planning a curriculum...... for the dental education. The material consists of interviews with eight dental students. The results show that dental students were focused on their future professional role, its practical dimensions and their future working conditions. Their motivation for choosing the dental education was found to influence...... their motivation for studying and their experience of the relevance of the first semester. The dental students who had co-education with the medical students at the first year of study missed a dental context and courses with clinically relevant contents. In conclusion, our data signify the importance...
Azizi-Fini, Ismail; Hajibagheri, Ali; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen
Critical thinking is one of the most important concepts in the field of education. Despite studies published on nursing students' critical thinking skills (CTS), some suggest that there is not enough evidence supporting the relationship between content of nursing education programs and nursing students' CTS. Given the existing discrepancies, this study aimed to compare the critical thinking skills of freshmen and senior nursing students. This comparative study was conducted on 150 undergraduate freshmen and senior nursing students in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, during 2012. The students in the first and the last semesters of their study in nursing were entered in the study using the census method. Data were collected using a questionnaire including questions on demographic data and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, form B. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS v.13 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Moreover, independent sample t-test and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used in the data analysis. Both the freshmen and senior nursing students had low CTS. The mean critical thinking scores were 11.79 ± 4.80 and 11.21 ± 3.17 for the freshmen and the senior students, respectively (P = 0.511). Moreover, no significant correlation was found between the students' score in CTS and their age, gender, high school grade point average (GPA), rank in university entrance examination (RUEE) and interest in the nursing profession. The students were low skilled in critical thinking and their CTS did not significantly change during their nursing degree. Thus it may be concluded that the nursing education program did not affect the CTS of its students. Longitudinal studies are suggested for assessing nursing students' critical thinking over time. Moreover, revising the curriculum and preparing nursing educators for implementing innovative and active teaching strategies are suggested.
Manipal, Sunayana; Mohan, C. S. Anand; Kumar, D. Lokesh; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Ahmed, Adil; Adusumilli, Preethi
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the dental esthetics awareness among dental students in a private university in Chennai as none is available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The dental esthetics awareness questionnaire consisting of a battery of 19 questions under five aspects that is, physical, functional, social, knowledge, and psychological aspects was administered to a sample of 100 dental college students aged between 18 and 27 years in a private college in Ch...
Background. The creating, maintenance and storage of patients' medical records is an important competence for the professional training of a dental student. Objective. Owing to the unsatisfactory state of dental records at the students' clinic, the objective of this study was to obtain information from undergraduate dental ...
Victoroff, Kristin Z; Schneider, Keith; Perry, Crystal
Effective leaders are needed to move the dental profession forward, building on past accomplishments, meeting new challenges, and leading innovation and change. There is a lack of research findings regarding students' perceptions of the importance of leadership abilities and/or their interest in developing leadership skills during their dental school experience. The purpose of this study was to explore dental students' perceptions related to leadership development. A forty-seven-question, self-administered, paper and pencil survey was administered to all students enrolled in the D.M.D. program at one Midwestern dental school. The response rate was 83 percent (225/272). The majority of students agreed that it is important for dentists to have leadership skills and that leadership skills can be learned. Most reported that they expect to assume a leadership role in their dental practices (97 percent), to participate in volunteerism in dentistry (85 percent), and to participate in non-dentistry-related leadership roles in the community (72 percent). Over one-third (37 percent) anticipate participating in leadership roles in dental associations, 28 percent in academic dentistry, and 14 percent in military dentistry. Approximately two-thirds of respondents agreed (42 percent) or strongly agreed (24 percent) that they would be interested in participating in a leadership development program if one were offered at their school. Students reported interest in improving their confidence, assertiveness, ability to communicate effectively (including public speaking), ability to listen to others, organizational skills, and ability to influence others. The results of this study suggest that many dental students are interested in developing leadership skills. Insights from this study can inform the design of leadership development programs.
Manski, Richard J.
One dental school implemented in its fourth-year curriculum an intensive simulation exercise to teach students the application of fundamental economic concepts such as capital costs, leasehold improvements, operating expenses, working capital, and financial risk in dental practice. (MSE)
[1,2] Dental students are to learn how to plan for, manage and handle ... knowledge of guidelines on medical emergency formulated by any dental authority, opinion on ... in place to strengthen their identified areas of weakness. Keywords: ...
Taichman, Russell S; Green, Thomas G; Polverini, Peter J
There is a great need for leaders in the dental profession. As technological advances make our world smaller and our lives faster and more complex, we as a profession face challenges and opportunities that are evolving. Many of the changes in the scope and mode of practice will require new and different approaches. Meeting these challenges will require changes in how we as dental professionals do business; interact with our patients, other stakeholders, and health care providers; and educate our future colleagues. The purposeful incorporation of leadership education into dental and dental hygiene curricula represents an important departure from existing paradigms-but will help prepare our students to address these challenges. This article provides an overview of the development of a Scholars Program in Dental Leadership (SPDL) at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Our aim for the program is to create a learning environment that fosters leadership development, so that students are prepared and motivated to assume leadership positions in the profession and their communities.
Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Jordani, Paula Cristina; Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo; Bonafé, Fernanda Salloume Sampaio; Maroco, João
The burnout syndrome is characterized by professional exhaustion and has been reported in college students. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among dentistry students from a public university, and its relationship to socio-demographic characteristics. All students (n = 300) were invited to participate. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SS). We carried out an analysis of the MBI-SS' psychometric properties. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was performed, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc tests to compare the mean scores of burnout dimensions. Of the 235 participants, 72.8% were women and the mean age was 21.0 ± 1.8 years. The MBI-SS was reliable and valid. Of the students, 17.0% had Burnout Syndrome. There was a significant relation between Burnout Syndrome and a student's performance during the course (F = 4.433, p students most affected were those with poor performance, those who took medication because of studies, and those with thoughts of dropping the course. We concluded that the prevalence of the syndrome among dentistry students was high, with a significant relation between the syndrome and a student's academic performance, use of medication because of studies, and thoughts of dropping the course.
Corwin, Sara J; Frahm, Kathryn; Ochs, Leslie A; Rheaume, Carol E; Roberts, Ellen; Eleazer, G Paul
In 2000, the Senior Mentor Program was implemented as an innovative, instructional method in the University of South Carolina's medical school curriculum designed to enhance and strengthen student training in geriatrics. This study qualitatively analyzed second- year medical students' and senior participants' perceptions of and attitudes towards the Senior Mentor Program as an effective learning modality. A total of 36 second-year students from two consecutive classes (2002-2003) and 42 senior mentors at USC's School of Medicine participated in five and seven separate focus group interviews, respectively. The group discussions were transcribed and a content analysis performed using NVivo. The coding scheme and analyses were driven by the data collected and recurrent themes were examined across all focus groups. Overall, student and senior mentor participants viewed the program positively. Thematic comparisons by participant type indicate a shared view that the mentoring relationship has a far-reaching, educational, professional, and personal impact. Both students and seniors agreed that myths and stereotypes about aging were dispelled and students indicated that a close, caring relationship with an older person will change they way they practice. A longitudinal mentoring program that pairs students with community-dwelling seniors can be a valuable addition to traditional geriatric curricular activities designed to increase students' skills and compassion for caring for older adults.
Jacobs, Jesse C; Guralnick, Michael L; Sandlow, Jay I; Langenstroer, Peter; Begun, Frank P; See, William A; O'Connor, Robert Corey
Applicant interviews for urology residency positions are a stressful and costly process for students, faculty, and staff. We conducted a prospective survey to better determine what urology applicants perceive as an ideal interview process to gain sufficient knowledge about a training program. A questionnaire was anonymously completed by all urology residency applicants interviewing at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2007 to 2013. Questionnaire subject headings included "ideal interview format," "factors contributing to understanding the residency program," and "factors contributing to final rank list order." Questionnaires were distributed to and completed by 221 senior medical students applying for a urology residency position. Most respondents (>80%) reported they would prefer to partake in 5 to 7 faculty interviews in an office setting with the total interview process spanning half to three-fourths of the workday. Spending time with current residents was considered the most valuable tool to acquire knowledge about a residency program. The most important criteria when ranking a program were resident satisfaction, resident operative experience, and perceived strength of faculty. Academic urology programs may wish to consider applicant ideals when organizing residency interviews. Interaction with current residents appears to be the most valuable resource allowing applicants to garner knowledge about a urology training program. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deeb, George R; Braun, Sarah; Carrico, Caroline; Kinser, Patricia; Laskin, Daniel; Golob Deeb, Janina
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between burnout, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in dental and dental hygiene students and to evaluate the influence of gender, programme type and year of study. Third- and fourth-year dental (DS) and first- and second-year hygiene students (DHS) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory online as measures of depressive symptoms/suicidality and burnout, respectively. The statistical analyses included summary statistics and tests for intergroup comparisons (chi-square) to evaluate the influence of gender, programme type (DHS or DS) and year of study. Correlations between depression, suicidality and burnout were also conducted. A total of 32 dental hygiene and 119 dental students participated. 40% of the dental and 38% of the hygiene students met criteria for burnout. No differences were found between years or between programmes. Nine per cent of both dental and hygiene students were above the cut-off for moderate depressive symptoms, but there were no statistical differences between the third- and fourth-year dental and the first- and second-year hygiene students. Six per cent of the dental and 9% of the dental hygiene students were above the cut-off for clinically significant suicidal ideation, but there were no statistical differences between dental and hygiene students. There were no differences noted in the dental students based on gender for any of the measures. Depression was significantly associated with all three subscales of burnout. Suicidal ideation was only significantly related to the lack of personal accomplishment subscale of burnout. These findings suggest the need for introducing preventive measures for such affective states in dental and dental hygiene training programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar
The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.
Saffari, Shawheen S; Frederick Lambert, R; Dang, Lucy; Pagni, Sarah; Dragan, Irina F
The future of dental education is at crossroads. This study used the parameter of the 2016 Dental Curriculum Hack-a-Thon to assess intra- and inter-institutional agreement between student and faculty views regarding dental curriculums to determine if there is an impact in student perceptions towards dental education from before and after the event. This exploratory, cross-sectional study involved two surveys, with Survey 1 being distributed among four faculty-student pairs of the four participating dental schools answering 14 questions. Survey 2 assessed the views of 20 participating dental students through 26 questions in a pre- and post- event survey design. Descriptive statistics were used to explore differences in perceptions towards dental education across both instrument surveys. The results revealed valuable student insights regarding intra- and inter-institutional agreement relevant for the change in dental curriculum that needs to occur. Survey 2 revealed that mandatory attendance in didactic courses, electronic based examination preferences, and the preference of preclinical courses being held in the first and second years of a four-year dental curriculum were of particular importance to student participants. The results of this study indicate that exposure and participation in subjects pertaining to dental education can be influential on student preferences and opinions on how dental education should be delivered in a four-year curriculum.
Skoulas, Angelique; Kalenderian, Elsbeth
Harvard School of Dental Medicine launched a course on leadership for its postdoctoral dental students in 2010 in order to introduce them to the art of leadership and the latest theories and principles regarding becoming a leader. Nine four-hour modules over a period of six months took the students on a journey of leadership self-exploration by building awareness of their capacity in core leadership skills; providing them with tools and frameworks for developing effective leadership skills; encouraging the immediate practice of core skills; creating space for honest reflection; and providing inspiration with guest lectures. A constant toggle between the present and their future as leaders was built into the course. In the student evaluations, the course received an overall rating of 4.71 (5=excellent), and the students reported an enhanced interest in all topic areas. They reported that the ability to build trust with others was the most beneficial skill for a dentist, while viewing advocacy skills as the least beneficial. All the students indicated an intention to continue developing their leadership skills. Through the course, the students developed an understanding of their leadership strengths and limitations through case studies, role-play, and self-reflection, as well as gaining an understanding of team dynamics and cultural perceptions in the context of dentistry.
Asiry, Moshabab A
To identify the readiness of students for online learning, to investigate their preference and perception, and to measure the quality of online tutorials. A 14-statement questionnaire was administered to fourth year undergraduate dental students in male campus at King Saud University who completed preclinical orthodontic course. The students responded to each statement by using Likert scale. The results reveal a high agreement of students (27.8-31.5% agree and 38.9-50% strongly agree) on a possession of necessary computer skills and access to internet. 59.2% and 64.8% of the students replied that online flash lectures and procedural videos were helpful to their learning, respectively. With respect to students' learning preferences, few students preferred online flash lectures (31.5%) and procedural videos (17.1%). Most students (38.9% agree and 31.5% strongly agree) preferred a combination of traditional teaching methods and online learning. Overall, student attitudes were positive regarding online learning. The students viewed online learning helpful as a supplement to their learning rather than a replacement for traditional teaching methods.
AnbuSelvan, Gobichetti Palayam Jagatheeswaran; Gokulnathan, Subramaniam; PrabuRajan, Vilvanathan; RajaRaman, Gangadharan; Kumar, Singaravelu Suresh; Thagavelu, Arthie
Introduction: Career choice is a complex decision for students since it determines the kind of profession that they intend to pursue in life. As students try to make a career choice while in secondary school, they face the problem of matching their career choices with their abilities and school performance. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing career choice among dental college students in private dental collages in Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: The study was conducted using descriptive survey design with a population of 989 students. The data for this study was collected using a questionnaire and interview schedules. Materials and Methods: The data for this study was collected using questionnaire previously used by Swati Shah and Rajaraman and interview schedules. The analysis of the study was based on the factors: Outcome expectations, gender, personal interests, and other factors. Results and Conclusion: The most common reason for among the dental students to choose dental science as their career choice was self-interested followed by didn′t get medicine degree, prestige and gives respect. The least common reasons observed in the study population were inspired by dentists. The findings of this study indicate that availability the most influential factors affecting career choices among students. PMID:23946573
Rajani A. Dable
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the smoking prevalence among dental students and to assess the need for promoting tobacco education and intervention by exploring their knowledge about smoking related risk factors. The study also examined the attitudes and practices of the students toward tobacco consumption, and their responsibilities toward the community. Methods: In total, 53 male students participated in the study (21 juniors and 32 seniors. The training program was divided into three modules, and the questionnaire was administered before and after the counseling sessions, which provided the comparative data on the students’ views about smoking cessation. Results: The most commonly practiced mode of tobacco consumption was found to be cigarette smoking (90.6 %, while a few consumed Gutkha (9.4%. All the junior students (100% reported to have been benefitted by the counseling program, while 68.8% of the students from the senior group reported the same. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the Pearson’s chi-square test for testing the difference across the age groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Curbing tobacco influence on dental students in their initial days can ensure a smoke-free life for them, as well as prevents them from feeling embarrassed or experiencing a lack of confidence while seeing their patients. Thus, tobacco education and intervention programs can motivate the students and increase their potential to be credible advisors regarding smoking cessation.
Babar, Muneer G.; Hasan, Syed S.; Ooi, Yong J.; Ahmed, Syed I.; Wong, Pei S.; Ahmad, Siti F.; MNM-Rosdy, Nik M.; Malik, Normaliza A.
Objectives The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionn...
Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel
To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress. Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, prelationships (for depression b=-3.527, panxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.
The majority of dental students at the University of Ibadan preferred the oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) specialty above all other dental specialties, while prosthetic dentistry was least preferred. Of all the factors to take into consideration when choosing a dental specialty, personal interest was the only factor considered ...
Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A
In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Icel, Mustafa; Davis, Matthew
The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the high school-college partnership reflects on "senioritis" and students' STEM curiosity. The term "senioritis" described in this paper refers to high school senior students who have completed most of their graduation requirement courses in their third year of studies. During the…
Takemura, Takaubu; Funaki, Kensaku; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kawamoto, Kentaro; Tsutsui, Kou; Saito, Yasushi; Aizawa, Rika; Inomata, Shoko; Shimizu, Tetsuo
It is widely accepted that students in Japan sleep fewer hours than what they actually need. However, epidemiological data on sleep habits among students are scarce. The sleep habits and related problems among 1650 students in Akita prefecture were studied. The results revealed that schoolchildren attending elementary schools seemed to sleep for a sufficient number of hours, whereas students attending junior or senior high schools were not sleeping enough. In particular, approximately half of the students attending senior high schools answered that they slept 6 h or less on weekdays and nodded off during classes more than twice a week.
Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A
Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.
Sato, Manuel; Camino, Javier; Oyakawa, Harumi Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Lyly; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Bird, William F; Komabayashi, Takashi
This study evaluated the effect of dental education on oral health-related attitudes and behavior of students in a five-year dental program in Peru. A survey using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), which consists of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding oral health behavior and attitudes, was completed by Year 1 and Year 5 dental students at the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in Lima, Peru. A total of 153 Year 1 students and 120 Year 5 students responded to the Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the Year 1 students, the Year 5 dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58); "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36); and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69). Overall, the data showed that the curriculum in this dental school in Peru resulted in more positive oral health-related attitudes and behavior among Year 5 dental students compared to those of Year 1 dental students.
Reis, Clarice M R; Rodriguez, Charo; Macaulay, Ann C; Bedos, Christophe
This qualitative case study was conducted in a Canadian dental school using a participatory approach and was based on Paulo Freire's theoretical concept of conscientização, a form of critical consciousness that involves awareness of social reality and fosters action towards social justice. The aim of the study was to understand dental students' perceptions of and attitudes about poverty and dental care provided to people living in poverty. It also examined how these perceptions shape students' plans for their professional careers, as well as their opinions on educational strategies to prepare them to work with poor patients. The sources of data generation were semistructured interviews, participant observations, and document analysis. A deductive-inductive thematic strategy was used to analyze the data. Out of a class of thirty-five senior dental students, the authors interviewed a convenience sample of twelve: five male and seven female. The findings suggest that the students had incipient conscientização about poverty-related themes. They perceived poverty as a distant issue and as the responsibility of the government or of the poor individuals themselves. The students did not have plans to work with patients living in poverty in the future and struggled to envision ways to address these patients' needs other than volunteer work. This research supports the need for academic dental institutions to adopt strategies to increase students' critical consciousness about oral health inequities. Reducing oral health inequities is a matter of social justice, and dental care providers are key actors in this endeavor.
Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min
The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…
オオケ, ハナコ; クドウ, マサル; シンヤ, ノボル; Hanako, OHKE; Masaru, KUDO; Noboru, SHINYA
This reports the results of a questionnaire study of dental students on the awareness of "local anesthesia" and "use of patient monitoring systems" in dental clinics. Subjects participated in the present study included 96 sixth year dental students (D6) and 93 first year dental students (D1). The results indicate that the majority of respondents including both D6 and D1 support the notion that a "dentist" is the most suitable person to perform local anesthesia in dental treatment. With respec...
Vanderschmidt, Hannelore Falk
An adaptation of the standard American Heart Association training program was utilized to teach secondary school students cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Students, at both junior and senior high levels, were randomly assigned to practice and no-practice groups, of ten students each. All were taught CPR procedures didactically, but…
Kristensen, Bettina Tjagvad; Netterstrom, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars
This qualitative study shows dental students' motives for choosing the dental education and how the motives influence their motivation at the first semester of study. Further the study demonstrates the relevance of the context of learning. This issue is of importance when planning a curriculum for the dental education. The material consists of interviews with eight dental students. The results show that dental students were focused on their future professional role, its practical dimensions and their future working conditions. Their motivation for choosing the dental education was found to influence their motivation for studying and their experience of the relevance of the first semester. The dental students who had co-education with the medical students at the first year of study missed a dental context and courses with clinically relevant contents. In conclusion, our data signify the importance of the context of learning. It is recommended that a future curriculum for the dental school should be designed in a way where basic science subjects are taught with both theoretically as well as practically oriented subjects and in a context which is meaningful for the students.
ter Horst, G.; Leeds, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.
27 1st-yr dental students participated in a 3-day communication-skills training, and 39 nonparticipating 1st-yr dental students served as controls, to investigate the short-term effects of the training on participating Ss' communication skills. The general objective of the training was to advance
Kiyak, H. Asuman; Brudvik, James
A study of four classes of dental students (n=172) exposed to both didactic and clinical geriatric dental training found that the students perceived significant improvements in their abilities to manage geriatric patients in all areas assessed, notably treatment planning, preventive dentistry, referrals, and providing care in alternative settings.…
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine access to internet /e-mail and its usage among Nigerian clinical dental students in year 4 to year 6. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving clinical dental students in year 4 to year 6 of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos. Information obtained from the ...
Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude of clinical level dental students concerning Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Methods: Two hundred and fifteen clinical level dental students from three Nigerian universities were requested to complete a self- ...
Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Hoogstraten, J.; Emmerik, B.J. van
Dutch dental students were investigated for their attitudes, opinions and actual use of psychoactive substances such as tobacco, alcohol and drugs. A questionnaire from the United States (115 items) was translated and adapted to the Dutch situation and subsequently administered to dental students at
Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy L
Becoming a dental professional requires one to apply ethical decision making skills and demonstrate high standards of professionalism in practice, including the way professionals present themselves to the public. With social media as an evergrowing part of personal and professional communications, this study aimed to determine the accessibility, amount, and type of unprofessional content on Facebook profiles of dental hygiene and dental students in a college of dentistry. The authors evaluated the online profiles of all 499 dental and dental hygiene students at The Ohio State University using objective measures that included existence of a profile, current privacy settings, and access to personally identifiable information. A sample of profiles were evaluated for unprofessional content including photos, comments, and wall posts. The majority of these students were found to use Facebook, with 61 percent having Facebook profiles. Dental hygiene students were more likely to have a Facebook profile than were dental students: 72.6 percent and 59.1 percent, respectively (p=0.027). The majority of the students' profiles had some form of privacy setting enabled, with only 4 percent being entirely open to the public. Fewer than 2 percent of the students allowed non-friends access to personal information. Based on in-depth analysis of the profiles, fourteen (5.8 percent) instances of unprofessionalism were recorded; the most common unprofessional content involved substance abuse. This study found that these dental and dental hygiene students frequently possessed an identifiable Facebook account and nearly half had some kind of personal information on their profile that could potentially be shared with the public. In some instances, the students gave patients, faculty, and potential employers access to content that is not reflective of a dental professional. Academic institutions should consider implementing policies that bring awareness to and address the use of social media
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to provide information on the level of utilization and satisfaction of residential university students with the dental services provided by the dental clinic of a teaching hospital. Volunteers and Material: A stratified sampling technique was used to recruit volunteers from the outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information was collected by a self-administered questionnaire composed of questions that measure the level of utilization and satisfaction with the dental services provided. Questionnaires were provided to 650 randomly chosen students residing in the University hostels. There were 39 refusals, and 6 incomplete questionnaires were discarded. This left a sample size of 605 volunteers. Results: Forty seven students (7.8% indicated that they visited the dental hospital within the last 12 months. Males and females utilized the dental services equally, and utilization increased with age and the number of years spent on campus. Anticipation of painful dental treatment, high dental charges, long waiting times and being too busy for a dental visit were cited as the most important impediments to seeking dental treatment. Females expressed greater satisfaction with the services. Conclusion: Dental service utilization among the students was found to be low. Oral health awareness campaigns, improving the quality of the services, and shortening the waiting time are expected to increase service utilization and satisfaction.
Dhima, Matilda; Petropoulos, Vicki C; Han, Rita K; Kinnunen, Taru; Wright, Robert F
The goals of this study were to 1) evaluate dental students' perceptions of dental specialties, 2) identify factors that play an important role in students' decision to pursue specialty training or career choices, and 3) establish a baseline of students' perceptions of the dental fields with the best future in terms of salary, personal and patient quality of life, and overall impact on the dental profession. Surveys were distributed to 494 students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Data were collected from 380 traditional four-year students and thirty advanced standing students. Chi-square tests, multivariate analysis, and logistic regressions were used to determine associations and independent contributions of student demographics to their perceptions of dental specialties and factors influencing specialty training or career choices. Debt was a statistically significant factor (p<0.001) in choosing specialty training or career independent of gender, age, or class year. Enjoyment of providing care in a specialty or field was identified as the single most important factor in choosing a specialty career. Half of the respondents had decided not to specialize. Pursuing postdoctoral general dentistry training and private practice in general dentistry were the most commonly reported plans after completion of dental school. Suggestions are made for ways to inform students about specialty training.
McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E
Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.
Lacy, Ernestine S; McCann, Ann L; Miller, Barbara H; Solomon, Eric; Reuben, Jayne S
It is well known that there is a large disparity between the proportions of African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians in the general U.S. population and in the nation's dental profession. While these underrepresented minorities (URMs) together make up almost 30 percent of the population, they comprise only about 6 percent of U.S. dentists. For years, the American Dental Education Association has been diligently working with U.S. dental schools to reduce this disparity by increasing the diversity of their student bodies. However, with approximately 13 percent of first-year dental students coming from URM groups, the proportion of URM students entering dental school continues to remain significantly below that of the general population. Diversifying the dental profession is important for improving access to care for underrepresented groups, and student diversity provides better educational experiences for all students. Texas A&M Health Science Center Baylor College of Dentistry's strategy for increasing the number of URM dentists was to create a series of initiatives that together form a successful comprehensive program addressing students' awareness of and attraction to a dental career, academic enrichment, admissions, and graduation. The cumulative impact of this program is that the college enrolled greater numbers and proportions of URM students than any other non-minority U.S. dental school from 2006 to 2009. This article describes the program that led to these successes.
Amin, Wala Majid; Al-Ali, Muna H.; Duaibis, Ramzi B.; Oweis, Tamara; Badran, Darwish H.
Background The study aimed to evaluate the level of burnout among the clinical dental students in two Jordanian universities. Methods A total of 307 students from the two schools were surveyed using Maslach Burnout Inventory survey. Scores for the inventory’s subscales were calculated and the mean values for the students’ groups were computed separately. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were carried out and the results were compared at 95% confidence level. Results The results showed that the dental students in both Jordanian universities suffered high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization compared to reported levels for dental students in other countries. The dental students of the University of Jordan demonstrated a significantly higher (p < 0.05) level of emotional exhaustion than their counterparts in the Jordan University of Science and Technology. Conclusions The findings indicated that dental students in the Jordanian universities presented considerable degrees of burnout manifested by high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Studies targeting students health and psychology should be carried out to determine the causes of burnout among dental students. The curricula of the dental schools in the two universities should be accordingly improved to minimize burnout among the students. Keywords Burnout; Emotional exhaustion; Depersonalization; Personal accomplishment; Maslach Burnout Inventory PMID:22461870
Lapidos, Adrienne; Gwozdek, Anne
The University of Michigan (U-M) Dental Hygiene Program collaborated with the U-M School of Social Work in developing a course entitled "Skills for Patient- and Family-Centered Care with Diverse Populations." Drawing upon disciplines including dentistry, social work, psychology, and sociology, this course transformed mandatory outreach rotations in safety-net dental settings from a freestanding senior-year experience to an integrated part of the dental hygiene curriculum. The course provided a space in which to discuss the interpersonal aspects of patient care, particularly those related to the social determinants of health. Among the students, a broad range of emotions, frustrations, and hopes were evident, suggesting that there is a need for forums through which students can connect their affective experiences to their practice of patient-centered care. While the course was designed for bachelor's level dental hygiene students, the content and process presented in this paper may be of interest to faculty housed within any allied health professional program, because core themes such as social justice, service-learning, and self-reflection transcend all health professions.
Anders, Patrick L; Scherer, Yvonne Krall; Hatton, Michael; Antonson, Donald; Austin-Ketch, Tammy; Campbell-Heider, Nancy
The aims of this study were to develop, implement, and evaluate a novel interprofessional standardized patient exercise (ISPE) with oral-systemic and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) components. Dental students and doctor of nursing practice (DNP) students at one U.S. university participated in the simulation, which was primarily designed to test their teamwork skills. In spring 2014, DNP students worked in the dental clinics with dental students under the supervision of nursing and dental faculty members. To test the teamwork outcomes for both groups of students, a standardized patient (SP) scenario was designed to include multiple chronic medical diagnoses and an oral-systemic component. The exercise was filmed for later review. Outcomes measures included SP and student self-evaluations and faculty evaluation of student documentation. The primary outcome of interest from a dental standpoint was faculty evaluation of IPCP competencies derived from the Core Competencies of Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and were deemed to be observable by faculty when viewing the videotaped scenario. Eight teams of students participated with an SP trained in the scenario. Each team consisted of a DNP student, a fourth-year dental student, and a second-year dental student. All eligible students in the DNP class (n=20) and eight students from each dental class (approximately 110 each) participated. The results showed that the teams scored highest on the role/responsibilities subscale, indicating students were respectful of each other's roles and expertise and effectively engaged each other to develop strategies to meet the patient's needs. Scores on the three other subscales (values/ethics, interprofessional communication, and teams/teamwork) were also high. These findings appeared to support IPCP as a method to foster knowledge and respect for other roles and responsibilities, improve appreciation of teamwork, and encourage better communication among health
Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Townsend, Janice A; Ballard, Mary B; Armbruster, Paul C
Students and faculty members in the health professions classroom are expected to exhibit professional behaviors that are conducive to maintaining a positive learning environment, but there is little published research concerning incivility in the area of dental education. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in perceptions of incivility between dental faculty and students, between students in different courses of study, and between students in different years of dental study. The study utilized an anonymous electronic survey of all dental faculty and administrators and all dental, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology students at a single institution. The survey instrument contained questions concerning perceived uncivil behavior in the classroom and clinical settings. Response rates were 54% for faculty and administrators and ranged from 60% to 97% for students in various years and programs. The results were analyzed based on gender, course of study, year of study, and ethnicity. Significant differences were found regarding perceptions of civil behaviour between faculty and students, male and female students, the year of study, and the course of study. These differences point to the need for further research as well as administrative leadership and faculty development to define guidelines in this area in order to ensure a positive learning environment.
Avramova, Nadya; Yaneva, Krassimira; Bonev, Boyko
To determine first-year dental students' current motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Sofia, Bulgaria. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions about students' socio-demographic profile and their motivation for choosing dentistry, was administered to 119 first-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Medical University of Sofia. The study was conducted at the beginning of the 2012-2013 academic year. The data was processed and analyzed with the following software: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2; Microsoft SQL Server 2008; Internet Information Server 7.5.; Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. The majority of the students (73%) were self-motivated for choosing dentistry as a career; 61% of them did not have relatives in the medical profession; 43% chose dental medicine because it is a prestigious, humane and noble profession; 50% - for financial security; 59% - because of the independence that it provides. There were no significant differences in the motivation between males and females. Independence, financial security and 'prestige' were the predominant motivating factors in this group of first-year dental students. Determining the reasons for choosing dentistry has important implications for the selection and training of students as well as for their future job satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen
This study examines how the changes in weight status across the spectrum of a senior high school study are associated with academic performance measured by the university entrance exam scores. A unique dataset which compiles a national health examination profile and the General Scholastic Ability Test data bank in Taiwan was constructed. The final sample comprised 149,240 senior high school students of which 70,662 were males and 78,578 were female students. The school-level fixed effect models were estimated. Students who were either (a) not overweight in the first year but overweight in the third year of senior high school, (b) overweight in both the first and third year, or (c) overweight in the first year but not overweight in the third year, were more likely to score lower on the university entrance exam, compared with their never-overweight counterparts. The findings differ by gender and test subjects. The change in weight status during senior high school period is associated with subsequent university entrance exam outcome. Students who start senior high school being overweight should be paid attention. School-based programs and practices need to be implemented to reduce the prevalence of overweight among students.
Knevel, Rjm; Gussy, M G; Farmer, J; Karimi, L
This study investigates student and stakeholder perceptions of the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal. The impact of these perceptions on the professionalization of dental hygienists is described whilst exploring the consequences for oral health workforce planning. Dentistry and dental hygiene students from one dental college in Nepal were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire; 171 students returned the questionnaire containing a mix of forced response and open-ended items. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS ® 22. These data were complemented with qualitative information from survey open questions and from semi-structured interviews with key informants from several relevant organizations. Qualitative data were manually analysed and coded. Data were triangulated to contextualize quantitative data. A high level of positive regard for the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal was evident amongst dentistry and dental hygiene students in this college. Both groups believe that the dental hygienist can play a major role in raising oral health awareness in Nepal. The scope of practice of the dental hygienist was unclear with issues surrounding the scope of practice and reports of illegal practice by dental hygienists. Significant differences (P dental hygiene and dentistry students in relation to their opinion regarding independent practice and the need of supervision by a dentist. Supervision of the dental hygienist by dentists and issues surrounding the scope of practice are polarizing the relationship between dentists, dental hygienists and the relevant professional organizations. This could hinder cooperation between these oral health professionals and might lead to underutilization of the dental hygienist. To improve the understanding about the roles of each oral health professional, establishing functional relationships and intraprofessional education involving dentistry and dental hygiene students needs to be introduced. This will benefit the
The study investigated Senior Secondary (SS) Students' perception about the nature of the atom. Phenomenographic approach was adopted. Two thousand five hundred and twenty (2,520) SS3 Chemistry students from government owned schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, volunteered ...
Bullying is an aggressive behaviour which could affect students' psychological wellbeing and their academic performance. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to examine the impacts of bullying on students of senior high schools in Ghana. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study.
Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gregory, Gary; Barnett, Kerry
The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of culture and motivation in the occupational decisions of senior high school students attending private schools. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire was administered to 492 Grade 11 students attending a stratified random sample of six independent (private) schools…
Mitee, Telimoye Leesi; Obaitan, Georgina N.
The cognitive learning outcome of Senior Secondary School chemistry students has been poor over the years in Nigeria. Poor mathematical skills and inefficient teaching methods have been identified as some of the major reasons for this. Bloom's theory of school learning and philosophy of mastery learning assert that virtually all students are…
Bennett, Patricia C.
Technological standards appear to be needed in undergraduate nursing education, as existing research has yet to establish technological standards for undergraduate nursing students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of senior nursing students with respect to their perceptions regarding exposure to and…
Babar, Muneer G; Hasan, Syed S; Ooi, Yong J; Ahmed, Syed I; Wong, Pei S; Ahmad, Siti F; Mnm-Rosdy, Nik M; Malik, Normaliza A
The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students.
Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; pschools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; pschool administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.
Chu, Chun Hung; Ng, Alice; Chau, Alex Man Him; Lo, Edward Chin Man
To describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosion and caries experience of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. First-year Chinese students were invited to attend a dental clinic at a university campus in Hong Kong during their freshman orientation. A questionnaire was used to investigate the potential factors affecting their dental status, including sociodemographic factors, toothbrushing habits, dietary habits (consumption of sugary drinks), time elapsed since last dental check-up and self-perceived dental erosion status. Three calibrated dentists performed the clinical examinations. Dental erosion was evaluated using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) and dental caries experience was measured using the DMFT index. In total, 600 participants aged 18-21 were examined and 44% showed some signs of dental erosion (maximum BEWE > 0). Severe dental erosion (BEWE = 3) was found in 1% of the adults. Many (69%) had caries experience (DMFT > 0); their mean DMFT score was 2.5 ± 2.7 (± SD). The total BEWE scores were found to be associated with age and self-perception of tooth misalignment. No correlation was found between BEWE score and dietary habits, oral hygiene practices or self-perceived dental erosion status. Females, those whose last dental check-up was more than a year ago and those who perceived having dental decay or tooth wear had higher caries experience. Nearly half of the Chinese Hong Kong university students had signs of dental erosion, but very few showed signs of severe erosion. Caries experience was widespread but not high.
Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E
The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Butali, A; Adeyemo, W L; Akinshipo, A O; Fashina, A; Savage, K O
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of information technology amongst dental students, dental nursing students and resident doctors in training at the faculty of dental Surgery University of Lagos. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 58 clinical dental students in 4 th and 5 th years of training in the 2010/2011 academic year, 36 dental nursing students and 63 resident doctors undergoing specialist training. All participants have access to the computers, 2.5% within the University and 31% at home and internet cafes and about 50% have the basic skills required. A significant difference was observed between the resident doctors and clinical dental students (P = 0.003), between resident doctors and dental nursing students (P = 0.0001) when the use of computer for study was compared. Over 95% of participants have access to internet and about 50% of them use the internet for their studies. A significant difference (P = 0.005) was observed between clinical dental students and dental nursing students that use the internet and word processing. The resident doctors used the computers for multimedia and MedLine search tools more than clinical dental students (P = 0.004) and dental nursing students (0.0006). The findings of the study show that dental students and resident doctors in training have the requisite knowledge to operate the computer for use in their study and personal activities.
Talbott, Vanessa A; Marks, Joshua A; Bodzin, Adam S; Comeau, Jason A; Maxwell, Pinckney J; Isenberg, Gerald A; Martin, Niels D
To prepare students pursuing surgical careers, we devised a senior subinternship curriculum supplement that focused on the acquisition of technical skills required of surgical residents. We hypothesized that more assertive students, those that accomplished more of the curriculum, would perform better on a technical skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Senior medical students rotating on their first general surgery subinternship were administered a 6-station OSCE on the first day of their subinternship and again during the final week of the month-long rotation. A self-directed, 38-task "scavenger hunt" representing common intern level clinical skills, procedures, and patient care activities was provided to each student. The study was performed at Jefferson Medical College, a large, private medical school in Philadelphia, PA. Forty-nine senior students completed surgical subinternships between July 2009 and September 2010, and participated both in the pre-/post-OSCEs and the scavenger hunt. Students performed significantly better on the post-rotation OSCE than on the pre-rotation OSCE; 70.2% ± 8.1% vs. 60.4% ± 12.0%, p Assertiveness scores from the "scavenger hunt" did not correlate with final OSCE scores (r = -0.328, p = 0.25), and were negatively correlated with the change between pre- and post-OSCE scores (r = -0.573, p assertiveness scores were determined by the number of tasks completed over the course of the rotation. As surgical education becomes more streamlined with evolving work hour restrictions, medical school education is playing an increasingly pivotal role in preparing students for internship. In our study, individual assertiveness in completing structured self-directed learning tasks did not directly predict the acquisition of proficiency in technical skills. We feel assertiveness is overshadowed by other factors that may carry more weight in terms of technical skills acquisition. Further studies are required to delineate these
Tanalp, Jale; Güven, Esra Pamukçu; Oktay, Inci
The aim of this study was to obtain information about senior dental students' perceptions and self-confidence levels regarding endodontic practice. Anonymous survey forms were handed out to senior students at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry. The students were asked to score their level of confidence using a 5-point scale and comment about future practices. The response rate of the survey was 88%. 11.9% expressed endodontics as the first branch in terms of difficulty. The majority (90.5%) indicated they would perform root canal treatments within their expertise limit in the future but refer difficult cases to an endodontist. Bleaching of endodontically treated teeth, managing flare-ups, placement of a rubber dam were procedures in which students reported the lowest confidence (2.55 ± 1.17, 3.24 ± 0.96, 3.24 ± 1.19, respectively). On the other hand, students felt the lowest confidence in the treatment of maxillary molars followed by mandibular molars (3.43 ± 1.02 and 3.93 ± 0.97, respectively). Students also reported the lowest confidence in root resorptions, endo-perio lesions, traumas, retreatments and apexifications (2.93 ± 1.16, 3.07 ± 0.89, 3.24 ± 0.85, 3.33 ± 1.7 and 3.36 ± 1.1, respectively). The results showing students' lower confidence in more challenging aspects of dentistry may be related with the attitude of dental schools to refer these cases to post graduate students and instilling information about these cases on a theoretical basis only. Though there seems to be a tendency for students to refer challenging cases to a specialist in future, authorities should give priority to enhance the way information and experience is conveyed regarding various aspects of endodontic treatment.
Silva, M J; Alhowaish, L; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J
This was to investigate the perception of general dental practitioners (GDPs), specialist dentists and dental students regarding the prevalence, severity and aetiological factors of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). Questionnaires were distributed to 407 general and specialist dentists who were members of the Saudi Dental Association and 222 fourth and fifth year dental students at College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh. The questionnaires investigated the perception and knowledge of MIH, including clinical experience, treatment, views on aetiology and need for further training in management of MIH. A total of 230 (56.5 %) dental practitioners and 149 (67.1 %) dental students completed the questionnaire. The majority of GDPs (76.9 %) and specialists (86.3 %) had encountered MIH in their practice. The majority of specialist dentists (56.1 %) and GDPs (60.4 %) reported that MIH could come second to dental caries as a public health concern. A range of possible aetiological factors were identified by both students and dentists with genetics the most common. The majority of GDPs (90.5 %) and specialists (72.4 %) reported a need for further training in MIH, in particular, regarding treatment. The majority of dental students (64 %) had not heard of MIH and most were in favour of including MIH-associated cases in the undergraduate curriculum of paediatric dentistry. Students were more likely to request training in diagnosis than treatment. MIH is a condition encountered by Saudi dentists who advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Students have little exposure to MIH and are likely to have similar concerns upon commencement of dental practice.
Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda
A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)
Background. Dental students are extensively trained to provide dental treatment to their patients during the undergraduate programme. However, no or little time is spent on the training of basic communication skills. Embedding a communication course in the curriculum would require support of the teaching staff and clinical ...
Perceived stressors of oral hygiene students in the dental environment. ... with patients and communities, which may add to the stressors inherent to university life. ... (ii) perceived sources of stress, using a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire; and (iii) burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).
Redwood, Christopher J; Townsend, Grant C
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in dental students' perceptions of professionalism, knowledge, and emotion over the period of dissection in a human anatomy course. Whether human dissection needs to be a part of the modern dental curriculum is often called into question, particularly with the plethora of electronic and other aids available to support the learning of anatomy. The influence of the dissection process on development of professional attitudes and emotional maturity has been studied in medical students, but how dental students react to this part of their education is less well known. To investigate this question, a survey was administered before and after the dissection course to two sequential year groups of dental students. It was found that these students had high levels of understanding of professional values before commencing dissection and continued to value the role of teamwork in aiding their learning over the survey period. The majority of students coped well with the assimilation of knowledge and developed coping mechanisms to handle the emotional aspects of dissection. The students remained excited by and interested in dissection, and the majority valued it as the most positive aspect of their anatomy course. The students increasingly valued the use of prosected specimens as an aid to learning. This study confirmed that significant changes occur in dental students' attitudes during the period of dissection, which we believe contribute to the development of more empathetic and caring practitioners.
Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.
Conway, Susan E; Smith, Winter J; Truong, Teresa H; Shadid, Jill
Interprofessional learning is a key component of today's health sciences education. Within a two-course series in dental pharmacology and therapeutics, a dental curriculum was revised to provide an interprofessional activity to expose dental students to a community pharmacy setting. The objectives of this activity were to augment students' learning about drug laws and prescription writing, as well as to foster interprofessional relationships and collaboration between pharmacists and dentists. Dental students were scheduled for one-hour observations at community pharmacies on campus. Learning objectives to guide this activity focused on demonstrating community pharmacy operating procedures, identifying ways to minimize prescribing and dosing errors, and understanding how pharmacists can assist dentists in prescribing. Following the observation, students were required to submit a written assignment, which accounted for 14 percent of their course grade. All 119 dental students (100 percent) enrolled in the course for the summers of 2012 and 2013 completed the activity. The average grade on the written assignment was 96.2 out of 100. At the end of the course, students were asked to participate in an online course evaluation survey, for which response rates were 37 percent and 43 percent for 2012 and 2013, respectively. The students rated the pharmacy observation activity favorably on this course evaluation. The pharmacy observation activity provided a successful interprofessional component to the didactic pharmacy course and was well received by the dental students as well as the community pharmacists.
Shrestha, Ashish; Marla, Vinay; Shrestha, Sushmita; Agrawal, Diksha
Oral cancer is a common malignancy in Nepal and many other South East Asian countries, which is predisposed by a variety of potentially malignant oral diseases. Considering the importance of knowledge of health professionals and their role in early diagnosis and reduction of cancer statistics, this study aims to evaluate the awareness of undergraduate dental and medical students towards oral cancer. The study involved undergraduate dental and medical students of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. A self-administered questionnaire adapted from Carter to Ogden was distributed. One hundred forty-three dental and 311 medical students responded to the questionnaire. Significantly more dental (80.4 %) than medical students (36.0 %) were found to routinely examine the oral mucosa. Tobacco smoking and chewing were the most commonly recognized risk factors by both medical and dental students. Most of the students found ulcer as the common change associated with oral cancer. Only 30 out of the total students felt very well informed about oral cancer. This study has demonstrated a lack of awareness in some aspects of oral cancer among medical and dental students which highlights the need to frame new teaching methodologies. Similar studies from other health institutions would provide an insight regarding the same and could be a base for formulating a uniform curriculum in the implementation of knowledge regarding oral cancer.
Feng, Xiaoying; Mugayar, Leda; Perez, Edna; Nagasawa, Pamela R; Brown, David G; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S
Recently, there has been increased attention to including cultural diversity in the education of health professionals, including concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) inclusion and visibility. Studies regarding cultural exposure and acceptance of LGBT populations have been concentrated in medicine, with findings showing that medical providers often graduate having missed the preparation required to care for LGBT persons. A visible, comprehensive, culturally competent environment in dental schools would help ensure that all oral health professionals and students are aware of services available to address the particular needs of LGBT students. The aims of this survey-based study conducted in 2015-16 were to determine dental students' perceptions regarding LGBT students' needs and to assess dental students' knowledge of resources for LGBT persons at three U.S. dental schools, one each in the Midwest, West, and South. Of the 849 students invited to participate, 364 completed the survey (338 dental, 26 dental hygiene), for an overall response rate of 43%. The response rate at individual schools ranged from 30% to 55%. The results showed perceptions of insufficient LGBT information, resources, and support at these institutions, especially at the Western school. There were significant differences among the three schools, with students at the Western school more than the other two schools perceiving that their institution was less aware of whether it met the academic, social support, and spiritual needs of LGBT students. There were no significant differences between LGBT and non-LGBT students' perceptions. The authors urge dental school administrators to explore the degree to which their programs teach respectful and caring behavior towards LGBT students and, by extension, LGBT patient populations.
Humphris, Gerry; Blinkhorn, Andy; Freeman, Ruth; Gorter, Ronald; Hoad-Reddick, Gillian; Murtomaa, Heikki; O'Sullivan, Robin; Splieth, Christian
To determine the degree of psychological distress, the experience of emotional exhaustion, and the extent of stress associated with course work in dental students and to compare these measurements among seven European dental schools. Multi-centred survey. Dental Schools at Amsterdam, Belfast, Cork, Greifswald, Helsinki, Liverpool and Manchester. 333 undergraduate first-year dental students. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire (DES), demographic variables. Questionnaire administered to all students attending first year course. Completed questionnaires sent to central office for processing. Seventy-nine percent of the sampled students responded. Over a third of the students (36%) reported significant psychological distress (morbidity) at the recommended cut-off point (>3 on GHQ). These scores were similar to those reported for medical undergraduates. Twenty-two percent recorded comparatively high scores on emotional exhaustion. A wide variation in these 2 measurements was found across schools (p'sStress levels indicated by the DES were less variable (p>0.5). Some evidence showed that contact with patients and the level of support afforded by living at home may be protective. Higher than expected levels of emotional exhaustion were found in a large sample of first-year undergraduate dental students in Europe.
DeAngelis, Susan; Dean, Kim; Pace, Cherin
As the number of dental hygiene programs across the country continues to increase, educational opportunities for prospective students have flourished, resulting in increased competition among dental hygiene programs for qualified applicants. The purpose of this study was to provide a current description of dental hygiene students and applicants, assess the reasons for choosing the career, and evaluate the perceptions of both applicants and enrolled students with regard to specific aspects of the profession. A questionnaire was mailed to 142 prospective dental hygiene students who met the minimal requirements for admission to either of the two dental hygiene programs in Arkansas. The prospective students had been invited for an admissions interview. The questionnaire also was administered during class to 80 students currently enrolled in one of the two programs. An overall response rate of 71% (n = 157) was achieved. The average respondent was 22 years old, female, and Caucasian with a grade point average of 3.5 and a composite ACT score of 23. Dental hygiene was also the first career choice and most respondents had prior dental assisting experience. Dental hygienists and dentists were reported as providing the most career guidance, while high school and college guidance counselors were least influential. Respondents chose the profession in order to work with and help people, have flexible work schedules, and receive good salaries. Respondents typically viewed dental hygiene as offering a bright future in terms of job security, good salaries, flexible work schedules, diverse career opportunities, and personal responsibility. No significant difference in overall perceptions of the profession was found between applicants and those enrolled in dental hygiene programs, although the strength of individual perceptions of the profession differed between applicant and first-year students compared to second-year students. Dental hygiene programs can use the findings of this
Boyles, J D; Ahmed, B
Introduction Many studies have shown financial worries and debt to induce stress in individuals, this combined with the existing stress of being a dentist raises the question of how student debt affects students' and dentists' stress levels.Objectives Determine whether student debt has had any noticeable effect on student stress levels; investigate whether student debt has any effect on dentists' career choice; investigate whether the increase in tuition fees has influenced the number of applicants to study dentistry at the University of Birmingham.Method Anonymous questionnaires were completed by 70 4th year and 38 5th year BDS and 22 Dental Core Trainees (DCTs). Participants circled the response which best fitted their situation regarding statements on their level of stress and future career path. Ethical approval granted. Application figures to study dentistry obtained from head of admissions.Results Forty-two percent of males and 63% of females strongly agreed with the statement that having no debt would reduce their stress levels. Of those with debt >£40,000, 11% strongly agreed and 42% agreed that their total amount of student debt causes them stress. Whereas, those whose debt is stress. Seventy-seven percent of participants who had parental or family financial support reported this reduced their stress levels. Student debt was found to deter females from undertaking further study more than it deters males (P stressed about their total student loan(s) (P stress (P stress; students reporting a higher level of debt also report more stress and concern about paying off their student debt. Having no student debt would reduce stress levels, although to what extent is undetermined. Applications to study dentistry have fallen since the increase in tuition fees.
Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.
Clinical learning in medical and dental education provides students with ... clinical learning opportunities and environment, level of patient care experience and ... the stress of fulfilling procedural requirements were identified as weaknesses of ...
Conclusion: Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health.
Awareness, Knowledge, and Attitude of Dental Students toward Infection Control in ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... are crucial and important elements in clinical dentistry as there is an increase in the prevalence of ...
The purpose of this sequential mixed-methods study was to explore senior student affairs officers' reports of joint intra-institutional efforts within the past three years to achieve the common goal of supporting the academic and personal success of college students with mental illness. The 20 factors identified by Mattessich, Murray-Close, and…
McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W
This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.
Wu, Shenjiang; Wang, Na; Li, Dangjuan; Liu, Chanlao
With the increasing number of the graduate students, many of them have some troubles in job finding. This situation make a huge pressure on the senior students and loss them the interesting in study. This work investigate the reasons by questionnaire survey, panel discussion, interview, etc. to achieve the factors influence their learning interesting. The main reason of students do not have the motivation on study is that they do not understand the development and competition of photoelectric specialty, lack of innovation and entrepreneurship training, hysteresis of the learning knowledge and practical application. Finally, the paper gives some suggestions through teaching reform on how to improve students' learning enthusiasm. This work will contribute to the teaching and training of senior undergraduate students of optoelectronics specialty.
The findings indicated, among others, that (i) no significant differences existed between the study habits of male and female students; (ii) no significant differences existed between the study habits of SSS forms 1 and 3 students; (iii) no significant differences existed between the study habits of boarding and day students; and ...
This study investigated the poor performance of students in Chemistry. The widespread poor performance and the negative attitudes towards chemistry of secondary school students have been largely ascribed to teaching problems. A random sample of 109 students from St Pius X College Bodo City was used. The research ...
Quick, Karin K
A Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standard now requires that dental schools commit to establishing a "humanistic culture and learning environment" for all members of the academic environment. The aim of this study was to identify students' perceptions of factors that affect the dental school environment and to test differences in their experiences in terms of gender and year. This picture of the existing environment was meant to serve as a first step toward creating and supporting a more humanistic academic environment. A mixed-methods approach was used for data collection during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 academic years at one U.S. dental school. Four focus groups were first conducted to explore challenges and conflicts faced by students during their dental education. A written survey informed by the focus group results was then used to obtain quantitative data. The survey response rate was 47 percent (N=188). Faculty inconsistency, cheating, and belittlement/disrespect were experienced by many of the responding dental students during their education, similar to what has been documented in medicine. These students also reported experiencing both constructive communication (90 percent) and destructive communication (up to 32 percent). The female students reported more gender discrimination and sexual harassment than their male peers, and the clinical students reported more experience with belittlement and destructive communication than the preclinical students. The results suggest that greater effort should be directed toward creating a more humanistic environment in dental schools. Based on the issues identified, steps academic institutions can take to improve these environments and student skills are outlined.
Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others
Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)
Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo
Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…
Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…
Yang, Fang-Ying; Anderson, O. Roger
Examines senior high school students' cognitive orientation toward scientific or social information, designated as information preference, and associated preferential reasoning modes when presented with an environmental issue concerning nuclear energy usage. Investigates the association of information preference variable with academic and personal…
Nolan, Laurence J.; Jenkins, Steve M.
At Wagner College, students are required to participate in a series of three curriculum-based learning communities (C-BLCs) as the core of the undergraduate curriculum known as the Wagner Plan for the Practical Liberal Arts. This article describes the senior learning community (LC) in psychology at Wagner College, which is an example of a…
Babu M, Sameer
Background of the problem: Recently most of our senior secondary classes are notorious for theft, bullying, ragging, rapes, and even for murder. This is because of ill treatment of our students in their classroom, mal administration of educational institutions, and etc. Diminishing social norms is also an important matter here. India is also…
Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan
Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…
Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John
This exploratory study investigated the occupational decision-related processes of senior high school students, in terms of the extent to which they may be amotivated in choosing a future occupation. Data were gathered using a newly developed questionnaire, which was largely adapted from a number of psychometrically proven instruments, and…
Kropf, Nancy P.; Idler, Ellen; Flacker, Jonathan; Clevenger, Carolyn; Rothschild, Elizabeth
Effective health care with older adults requires that clinicians and practitioners are knowledgeable about aging issues and have the skills to work within an interdisciplinary team context. This article describes a Senior Mentoring Program that paired clinical students in medicine, nursing, and a physician assistant program with community-dwelling…
Wilkie, Karina J.
Senior secondary mathematics students who develop conceptual understanding that moves them beyond "rules without reasons" to connections between related concepts are in a strong place to tackle the more difficult mathematics application problems. Current research is examining how the use of challenging tasks at different levels of…
Brown, F. William; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka
The authors examine the dimensions and determinants of critical thinking skills, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, among graduating senior students enrolled in an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited undergraduate business program. Utilizing explanatory variables, a methodology for predicting…
V V Alekseyeva
Full Text Available The results of this research of age peculiarities of senior pupils' and students' initiativity based on multimeasureble-functional model of personal structure of their qualities, which gives an opportunity to study, the display of individual peculiarities of initiativity are considered in this article.
Lampiris, Lewis N; White, Alex; Sams, Lattice D; White, Tiffany; Weintraub, Jane A
Dental students should develop an understanding of the barriers to and frustrations with accessing dental care and maintaining optimal oral health experienced by persons with limited resources rather than blaming the patient or caregiver. Developing this understanding may be aided by helping students learn about the lives of underserved and vulnerable patients they will encounter not only in extramural rotations, but throughout their careers. The aim of this study was to determine if dental students' understanding of daily challenges faced by families with low income changed as a result of a poverty simulation. In 2015 and 2016, an experiential poverty simulation was used to prepare third-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for their upcoming required community-based rotations. In 2015, United Way staff conducted the simulation using the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS); in 2016, faculty members trained in CAPS conducted the simulation using a modified version of the tool. In the simulation, students were assigned to family units experiencing various types of hardship and were given specific identities for role-playing. A retrospective pretest and a posttest were used to assess change in levels of student understanding after the simulation. Students assessed their level of understanding in five domains: financial pressures, difficult choices, difficulties in improving one's situation, emotional stressors, and impact of community resources for those living in poverty. The survey response rates in 2015 and 2016 were 86% and 74%, respectively. For each of the five domains, students' understanding increased from 58% to 74% per domain. The majority reported that the exercise was very valuable or somewhat valuable (74% in 2015, 88% in 2016). This study found that a poverty simulation was effective in raising dental students' understanding of the challenges faced by low-income families. It also discovered that framing the issues in the
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
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Background and Objectives: Burnout is caused by high-stress jobs and could induce somatic, psychological disorders and negative attitude to professional actives so that this condition causes poor relationship with the patient. This study aimed at investigating burnout in senior medical students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study carried out on all senior medical students (N=56 in 2008. Data were obtained by two questionnaires including demographic questionnaire and Maslach burnout Inventory. They were then analyzed using SPSS software and Chi square Test. Results: The findings showed that the majority of medical students (91.1% had burnout and only 8.9% of them had not burnout. Severe burnout was in 16% of students. There was not any significant relationship between burnout and sex, age, smoking, duration of education, interest in medical course and marital status P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that burnout is common problem in senior medical students and need special consideration. Therefore medical students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities by holding workshops of life-skill training and coping with stress. However, burnout should be paid special attention in medical students by counseling centers of University for prevention of consequences.
Full Text Available Objective: In dental and medical education, information and communication technology (ICT has been playing an important role and its use is rapidly increasing. In developing countries, however, information technology is still only available to a minority of health professionals. The present study aimed to assess the level of computer use among dental undergraduate students pursuing their career at a private dental institution in India.Materials and Methods: The study population comprised dental undergraduate students from first to fourth year pursuing their career in a private dental institution of India. Informationtechnology practices were assessed using a questionnaire that consisted of 14 questions.Results: In total, 247 students with an overall response rate of 66% participated in the study. Only 58.3% of the study population mentioned that they had access to computers.Students from preclinical years reported to be competent in IT skills more frequently than the clinical year students (chi square test, P=0.007. Compared to women, men used computers more regularly both for academic activities (P=0.082 and personal use (P=0.006.Similarly, students of clinical years used computers more than preclinical students for both purposes (academic activities, P=0.045; personal use, P=0.124.Conclusion: The present study revealed that computer literacy of Indian dental undergraduate students was comparable with students of other countries whereas accessibility of IT sources was poor. Expansion of computer-assisted learning which requires careful strategic planning, resource sharing, staff incentives, active promotion of multidisciplinary working, and effective quality control should be implemented.
Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Ivanoff, Chris S
To probe dental students' perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. A cross-sectional survey (n=460) was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05). It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8%) think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward C M; Chu, Chun-Hung
Medical-dental collaboration is essential for improving resource efficiency and standards of care. However, few studies have been conducted on it. This study aimed to investigate the attitude and awareness of medical and dental students about collaboration between medical and dental practices in Hong Kong. All medical and dental students in Hong Kong were invited to complete a questionnaire survey at their universities, hospitals and residential halls. It contained 8 questions designed to elicit their attitudes about the collaboration between medical and dental practice. Students were also asked about their awareness of the collaboration between dentistry and medicine. The questionnaires were directly distributed to medical and dental students. The finished questionnaires were immediately collected by research assistants on site. A total of 1,857 questionnaires were distributed and 809 (44%) were returned. Their mean attitude score (SD) towards medical-dental collaboration was 6.37 (1.44). Most students (77%) were aware of the collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong. They considered that Ear, Nose & Throat, General Surgery and Family Medicine were the 3 most common medical disciplines which entailed collaboration between medical and dental practice. In this study, the medical and dental students in general demonstrated a good attitude and awareness of the collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong. This established an essential foundation for fostering medical-dental collaboration, which is vital to improving resource efficiency and standards of care.
Partido, Brian B
Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, p<0.05). In addition, the accuracy of self-assessment significantly improved for students in the training group (F(1,30)=8.29, p<0.01). In this study, dental hygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.
Khalil Ibraheem Zaidan
Full Text Available Infection control and knowledge of common "infectious diseases" is essential for safe dental practice. Conveyance of infectious diseases is likely "from one individual to another during dental procedures", thorough" blood-borne" viruses and bacteria "such as hepatitis" , human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thence in dental practice, the sterilization and particular protection is of most importance Process in dental procedures, and patient sponsor settings seek specific strategies guide to prevent the transmission of diseases among dental students , oral verdure care staffs and their patients. Aim: Current study highlight the methods and behavior to evaluate the benefits of awareness, stance and pursuit of infection control between dental students in training dental clinic at Babylon dental collage . Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional wipe using a rear ordered questionnaire was executed. The reconnaissance consisted of 38 closed-ended questions that included the key areas of infection control, including hand hygiene, personal preservation, sterilization and disinfection and ecological infection monitoring. There were also questions to elicit perceptions regarding the treatment of HBV and HIV/AIDS patients. Results: Survey study was done for dental students replied to the reconnaissance. Their situation and realization across infection control in college teaching clinic .The results were assorted between 100% were orderly using gloves and 96% mask with patient to 6% were orderly wore eye glasses. The type of sterilization of instrument was 90% autoclave and 10% oven and from analysis of data revealed most teaching clinics devoid of instruction post about control of infection control measures Conclusion: "Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists" and graduated dental students predestined in the existing project. Enduring instruction "programs and short
Park, Sang E; Price, Mirissa D; Karimbux, Nadeem Y
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the dental school admissions interview score as a noncognitive indicator of performance in predoctoral dental education, with specific attention to whether a correlation existed between the admissions interview scores and performance on the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The study population consisted of all 175 students in the Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) DMD Classes of 2012 through 2016. Data on students' gender and age on entering dental school were self-reported using their applications for admission to the HSDM DMD program. Data on students' OSCE scores for three examination sessions were collected from the Office of Dental Education. The results showed that the students' interview scores did not significantly correlate with OSCE performance on any of the three exams. Performance on the first and second OSCEs did, however, correlate with performance on the third OSCE (pinterview score. These results suggest that although the admissions interview scores can serve as an important resource in student selection, with the lack of association between interview and OSCE scores, it is possible that the communication skills required for the interview do not directly overlap with those required for OSCE success.
Manipal, Sunayana; Mohan, C S Anand; Kumar, D Lokesh; Cholan, Priyanka K; Ahmed, Adil; Adusumilli, Preethi
The aim of this study is to assess the dental esthetics awareness among dental students in a private university in Chennai as none is available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The dental esthetics awareness questionnaire consisting of a battery of 19 questions under five aspects that is, physical, functional, social, knowledge, and psychological aspects was administered to a sample of 100 dental college students aged between 18 and 27 years in a private college in Chennai, India. Gender variations on the responses of their effects and the impact on dental esthetics awareness had been analyzed using a Chi-square test. With respect to physical aspects, pigmentation shows more significance as students want to get treated for their pigmentation of lips and gums. With respect to functional aspects, eating shows more significance as students have difficulty while eating. In social aspects, habits show more significance as it affects their esthetics. With respect to psychological aspects, mental depression shows more significance as students feel more deprived due to their unesthetic appearance. This study shows a high level of self-consciousness and the findings of the studies prove that even the slightest of variations have a greater impact on the above-mentioned dimensions in particular to psychological, functional, and physical aspects.
STUDENTS' ANSWERS TO PICTORIAL AND VERBAL QUESTIONS IN. EVAPORATION ... chemical education have since changed focus along this direction. ... achievement on the conceptual understanding test in chemistry. Teachers feel ..... Nurrenbern, S. C. & Pickering, M. (1987) Two Kinds of Conceptual Problems in.
Huda A. Al-Shehri
Full Text Available Objectives: To probe dental students’ perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (n=460 was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05. Results: It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8% think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R
The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (ppostural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.
Galán, Fernando; Ríos-Santos, José-Vicente; Polo, Juan; Rios-Carrasco, Blanca; Bullón, Pedro
To investigate the prevalence, gender influence, and relationships between burnout, depression and suicidal ideation within the last year among second, fourth and fifth-year dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 dental students enrolled in the second, fourth and fifth years at the School of Dentistry of Seville using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey and the MBI-Human Services Survey, the "Patient Health Questionnaire-2", and the "Questions about Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide". The response rate among dental students was 80%. Burnout prevalence in dental students was higher in second and fourth years than in fifth year (p = 0.059 and p = 0.003, respectively). Depression prevalence in the fourth year approached significance (p = 0.051). Prevalence of suicidal ideation within the past year was higher, yet not reaching significance, in fourth year. No gender-related differences were found. A significant association was observed between burnout and depression, and between depression and suicidal ideation (p burnout and suicidal ideation. This study has brought our attention to the high prevalence of burnout and depression, and reported for the first time the prevalence of suicidal ideation among dental students in preclinical and clinical years.
V Siva Kalyan
Full Text Available Introduction: The understanding of patient's view is considered as an important component in doctor–patient relationship. The health-care provider with an empathetic understanding may perceive patient's need as more reasonable and thus therapeutic. Aim: To assess empathy among clinical dental students in a teaching dental institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical dental students during the period between June 2016 and July 2016 in a teaching dental institution in Khammam town. Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student version was used to assess empathy among the students in this study. Gender differences were analyzed using t-test, and one-way ANOVA was used for comparison of empathy scores across year of study. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 364 students participated in the study with a mean age of 22.76 ± 2.4 years. Males exhibited more empathy (86.54 ± 7 compared to females. The mean empathy level was found to be highest for the postgraduates (85.92 ± 6.5 followed by 3rd year students (P = 0.0943. Conclusion: There is a need to train these students not only from technical point of view but also in “life skills” such as communication, interpersonal relationship and empathy.
Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.
Hamissi, J; Bairami, P; Hamissi, Z
Objective: The purpose of the current research is to discover the causes for the dentistry selection as a profession by senior dental scholars in Iran. Materials & Methods: Surveys are distributed between the first-year to the sixth-year senior dental scholars at the Scholl of Dentistry in Medical Sciences Qazvin University in Iran. The survey presented in a lecture hall at the terminal of the secondary term in the 2011-2012 academic years. The survey included 30 parts, and the pupils asked to measure the significance of any part for choosing dentistry as a profession, on a 10-points scale. In addition, T-test and ANOVA utilized for the data analysis. Results: The answering ratio in the research is 55% (out of 100%) of the pupils delivered. Ninety-six students (93.2%) selected it as an initial selection. Dentistry as a job which is “insurer of financial independence” was gained a most rate via 82.5% of the pupils raised and a comparable amount of the students (75.7%), assigned a highest rate to the parameter “I love to enhance many money”. Dentistry as a “science-based job” was also given a score by 80.6% of the pupils. Conclusion: There are no variations in the motivation between men and women students. It obtained that “insurer of financial independence” and “I love to enhance many money” are critical action parameters in the dental pupils population. PMID:28316683
Evans, Lorraine; Hanes, Philip J
Teaching cultural competence is now an educational requirement for U.S. dental curricula to meet 2013 accreditation standards. The question now is, given time restrictions, limited resources, and budget constraints faced by the majority of dental schools, how can they provide effective cultural competency education to prepare future dental professionals? An additional concern regarding instruction is the recent focus on techniques to engage Millennial learners since this generation is characterized as technologically savvy with a preference for multimedia and general dislike of traditional lectures. With these issues in mind, Georgia Regents University developed Healthy Perspectives, an online, interactive course in cultural competence designed to engage Millennial students. Both before and after the course, the students were asked to complete a modified version of the Clinical Cultural Competency Questionnaire. Of the eighty-eight students in the course (eighty-one first-year dental students and seven entering radiology students), seventy-one completed the questionnaire both before and after the course, for an 81 percent response rate. Seventy-five students also completed the course evaluation. The pre and post questionnaires showed statistically significant gains for students across the four primary areas of self-awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Student evaluations of the course were generally positive, particularly regarding content, but somewhat surprisingly their assessment of the interactive components (which were designed to meet generational expectations) was ambivalent.
... practiced universal standard precaution items. Conclusion: The uptake rate of HBV vaccination and practice of standard precaution among the students are commendable. However, there is need for improvement considering the level of HBV infection in Nigeria. Key words: Medical and dental students, hepatitis B vaccine ...
Reports from the USA and Australia, however, show that it may be problematic because joint basic science curricula are mostly tailored around the needs of the medical students only, which may lead to prejudice and marginalisation of dental students. There are no local studies to inform decision-making in this regard.
that simulate different dental procedures performed while delivering treatment ... follow this include artificial plastic blocks or teeth on manikins and models. ..... face shield or surgical mask and protective eye wear should be worn if mucous ...
Urbanic, R. J.
In Canadian engineering institutions, a significant design experience must occur in the final year of study. In the Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems at the University of Windsor, unsolved, open ended projects sponsored by industrial partners from a variety of sectors are provided to the student teams in order for them to apply…
Oct 17, 2010 ... Lawal, B. O. - Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan. Abstract. The study ... perception of the subject perform better than those with negative attitude towards ... Religious Knowledge compared to science students. .... "The number of unskilled teachers of English in West Africa is still very.
Practical work facilitates the process of acquisition of basic knowledge and practical skills that prepare students for occupation in Agriculture. The West African Examination Council's policy with respect to Science Subjects stipulates that practical work should form the basis of teaching their syllabus (WAEC Syllabus, ...
This study investigated the effect of four teaching strategies; peer-tutoring, demonstration, project-based and lecture teaching strategies on students' achievement in pasture and forage crops which is an aspect of agricultural science. Lecture strategy served both as a teaching strategy as well as control since it is assumed to ...
Halawany, Hassan S
The purpose of this study was to determine the career motivations, perceptions of the future of dentistry and preferred postgraduate specialties of Saudi dental students. A pretested, self-administered, 16-item questionnaire was distributed to first- through fifth-year dental students at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 530 potential participants, 329 students (198 male and 131 female respondents) completed the questionnaire. High professional status (71.4%), a secure career (67.8%), a high income (78.1%), flexible working hours (54.4%), a wide range of career options after graduation (59.3%), opportunities for self-employment (69.3%) and good job opportunities abroad (65.3%) were endorsed to a great/considerable extent by the respondents. "It takes time to establish a practice" (62.3%), "Postgraduate education is a necessity" (72.4%) and "The increasing number of dental institutions is a threat to the profession" (59.3%) were endorsed to a great or considerable extent by the respondents. The most popular specialty among the male students was oral maxillofacial surgery (20.1%) and among female students was operative dentistry (23.4%). The career motivations of this group of dental students seemed to relate to socioeconomic aspects of dentistry and perceptions of the future of dentistry seemed to relate to the need for postgraduate education.
Halawany, Hassan S
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the career motivations, perceptions of the future of dentistry and preferred postgraduate specialties of Saudi dental students. Methods: A pretested, self-administered, 16-item questionnaire was distributed to first- through fifth-year dental students at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Of the 530 potential participants, 329 students (198 male and 131 female respondents) completed the questionnaire. High professional status (71.4%), a secure career (67.8%), a high income (78.1%), flexible working hours (54.4%), a wide range of career options after graduation (59.3%), opportunities for self-employment (69.3%) and good job opportunities abroad (65.3%) were endorsed to a great/considerable extent by the respondents. “It takes time to establish a practice” (62.3%), “Postgraduate education is a necessity” (72.4%) and “The increasing number of dental institutions is a threat to the profession” (59.3%) were endorsed to a great or considerable extent by the respondents. The most popular specialty among the male students was oral maxillofacial surgery (20.1%) and among female students was operative dentistry (23.4%). Conclusion: The career motivations of this group of dental students seemed to relate to socioeconomic aspects of dentistry and perceptions of the future of dentistry seemed to relate to the need for postgraduate education. PMID:25246989
Eskasasnanda, I Dewa Putu
Science and technology development causes a lot of changes in any fields including the form of popular games among the Junior and Senior High School students in Indonesia. The traditional games that are famous formerly have been replaced by the modern games like online video game. This article discusses the cause and effect of the online video game playing on the Junior and Senior High Schools students in Malang. This study reveal that students play video games online due to peers pressure; a...
Senior, Anthea; Winand, Curtis; Ganatra, Seema; Lai, Hollis; Alsulfyani, Noura; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila
A guiding principle of radiation safety is ensuring that radiation dosage is as low as possible while yielding the necessary diagnostic information. Intraoral images taken with conventional dental film have a higher re-exposure rate when taken by dental students compared to experienced staff. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and reasons for re-exposure of digital intraoral images taken by third- and fourth-year dental students in a dental school clinic. At one dental school in Canada, the total number of intraoral images taken by third- and fourth-year dental students, re-exposures, and error descriptions were extracted from patient clinical records for an eight-month period (September 2015 to April 2016). The data were categorized to distinguish between digital images taken with solid-state sensors or photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP). The results showed that 9,397 intraoral images were made, and 1,064 required re-exposure. The most common error requiring re-exposure for bitewing images was an error in placement of the receptor too far mesially or distally (29% for sensors and 18% for PSP). The most common error requiring re-exposure for periapical images was inadequate capture of the periapical area (37% for sensors and 6% for PSP). A retake rate of 11% was calculated, and the common technique errors causing image deficiencies were identified. Educational intervention can now be specifically designed to reduce the retake rate and radiation dose for future patients.
Divaris, Kimon; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sánchez-Molina, Marisol; Gallego-Gómez, Clara Liliana; Vélez-Jaramillo, Luis Fernando; Tamayo-Cardona, Julián Andrés; Pérez-Cepeda, David; Vergara-Mercado, Martha Ligia; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Ángel; Polychronopoulou, Argy
Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students' personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. The Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants' socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school's characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Levels of psychological distress correlated with students' socio-economic and study-level characteristics. Above and beyond the influence of person
Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda
Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.
Taichman, Russell S.; Parkinson, Joseph W.; Nelson, Bonnie A.; Nordquist, Barbara; Ferguson-Young, Daphne C.; Thompson, Joseph F.
Since leadership is an essential part of the oral health professions, oral health educators can play an essential role in establishing a culture of leadership and in mentoring students to prepare them for future leadership roles within the profession. However, leadership training for oral health professionals is a relatively new concept and is frequently not found within dental and dental hygiene curricula. The purpose of this article is to propose several models for leadership training that are specific to the oral health professions. The authors hope that providing an overview of leadership programs in academic dental institutions will encourage all U.S. and Canadian dental schools to begin developing a culture that promotes leadership development. PMID:22319084
Suprapto, Edy; Fahrizal; Priyono; Basri, K.
This research is to apply and develop a strategy of problem-based learning to increase the ability of higher order thinking skills of senior vocational schools students. The research was done due to a fact that the quality of outputs of the senior vocational schools has not met the competency needed by the stakeholders in the field, that has made…
Awofala, Adeneye O. A.
The study investigated mathematical proficiency as related to gender and performance in mathematics among 400 Nigerian senior secondary school students from 10 elitist senior secondary schools in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive…
Kirdök, Oguzhan; Bölükbasi, Ayten
The aim of this study is to examine whether career adaptability and career adaptability subscales of senior undergraduates could predict subjective well-being. The research was a descriptive correlational study which was conducted on 310 senior students (173 women, 137 men) in a state-funded university on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey and…
Niemchick, Audrey L; Delgado, Jessica; Taichman, Russell S; Inglehart, Marita R
In 2006, the Scholars Program in Dental Leadership (SPDL) was created at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry with the aim of preparing dental students to take on leadership roles in their profession and communities. The aims of this quantitative study were to investigate how SPDL alumni and current participants evaluated this program; to assess whether SPDL alumni evaluated their leadership-related educational experiences, leadership perceptions, and attitudes towards leadership activities in dentistry more positively than did non-SPDL dental students and general dentists; and to explore if leadership-related educational/clinical experiences were correlated with these constructs. Participants were 218 of 431 dental students across all four years (response rate 51%), 32 of whom were participants in the SPDL; 32 of 53 SPDL alumni (response rate 60%); and 595 of 3,000 general dentists invited to participate (response rate 20%). Both current and past SPDL participants evaluated the program on average positively (3.75 and 3.92, respectively, on a five-point scale). Non-SPDL students and alumni evaluated leadership-related educational experiences more positively than did the dentists (3.65/3.61 vs. 2.49; pleadership differed as well. Students and alumni evaluated being recognized (4.40/4.60 vs. 4.20; ppractice efficiency (4.61/4.53 vs. 4.36; pleadership-related constructs. These results showed that the SPDL positively affected alumni perceptions of leadership indicators and attitudes.
Leisnert, L; Karlsson, M; Franklin, I; Lindh, L; Wretlind, K
In Sweden, the National Board of Health and Welfare forecasts a decrease in dentists with 26% and an increase in dental hygienists with 47% until the year of 2023. This, together with changes in both epidemiology, especially of dental caries, and political priorities, calls for an effective and well-developed cooperation between dentists and dental hygienists in future dentistry. Hence, the aim of this project was to investigate whether highlighting teamwork during the undergraduate studies of dental students and dental hygiene students could improve the students' holistic view on patients as well as their knowledge of and insight into each other's future professions. Thirty-four dental students and 24 dental hygiene students participated in the study. At the beginning of their final year in undergraduate education, a questionnaire testing the level of knowledge of the dental hygienists' clinical competences was completed by both groups of students. In addition, activities intending to improve teamwork quality included the following: (i) a seminar with a dentist representing the Public Dental Health Services in Sweden, (ii) dental students as supervisors for dental hygiene students, (iii) planning and treatment for shared patients and (iv) students' presentations of the treatments and their outcomes at a final seminar. The project was ended by the students answering the above-mentioned questionnaire for the second time, followed by an evaluation of the different activities included in the study. The knowledge of dental hygienists' competences showed higher scores in almost all questions. Both groups of students considered the following aspects important: seminars with external participants, dental students acting as supervisors and planning and treating shared patients. By initiating and encouraging teamwork between dental students and dental hygiene students, it is possible to increase knowledge on dental hygienists' competence and also to develop and strengthen a
Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda
While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.
Achmad Samjunanto; Lucky Saputra; RA. Retno Ekowati
Background: Both substance use and anxiety-depression spectrum are the problem that currently faced by adolescents especially among Senior High School students. Moreover, there is a high comorbidity between both problems. This study was conducted to discover the substance use’s prevalence and to find out anxiety-depression spectrum proportion among adolescent, and more importantly to determine whether there is correlation between both variables. Methods: During October–November 2013, four...
Kristian, P. L. Y.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.
This study purposes to describe and analyse the students' concept understanding of dynamic fluid. The subjects of this research are 10 students of senior high school. The data collected finished the essay test that consists of 5 questions have been adapted to the indicators of learning. The data of this research is analysed using descriptive-qualitative approach by referring of the student's argumentations about their answer from the questions that given. The results showed that students still have incorrect understanding the concept of dynamic fluids, especially on the Bernoulli’s principle and its application. Based on the results of this research, the teachers should emphasize the concept understanding of the students therefore the students don not only understand the physics concept in mathematical form.
Mitchell, Ann M; Riccelli, Angelina; Boucek, Lynn; Puskar, Kathryn R; Hagle, Holly; Lindsay, Dawn
Dental professionals have an opportunity to screen for substance use, provide targeted feedback based on patients' oral health, provide patient education, and refer for further assessment as needed. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on dental hygiene students of an interprofessional Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) educational intervention with standardized patients as a tool for initiating discussions on alcohol and drug use with patients. Starting in 2015, dental hygiene students in two classes at the University of Pittsburgh participated with nursing students in one and a half hours of didactic instruction followed within a ten-week period by SBIRT simulation scenarios utilizing standardized patients, with subsequent debriefing of students by faculty. Students' attitudes were assessed before and after the didactic session and immediately after the SBIRT simulation, using the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perceptions Questionnaire and the Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire. All 67 dental hygiene students in the program at the time participated in the educational intervention and surveys. The results showed significant positive changes in role security, defined as the acceptance of SBIRT delivery as part of their role identity as dental hygienists, following the intervention. This study found that the IPE intervention with dental hygiene and nursing students improved the dental hygiene students' attitudes through using SBIRT.
Pau, A K; Collinson, S; Croucher, R
To evaluate dental students' perception of 2 problem-based learning (PBL) modules in Dental Public Health implemented within the context of a traditional formal curriculum. 2 dental community modules were implemented with an 8-month interval between them on the same group of dental undergraduates; the first in Term 2 and the second in Term 4 of a 5-year 15-term dental course. At the end of each module, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to evaluate the introductory lecture, the fieldwork activity and the organisation of the modules. In both modules, students reported gaining insight into the subject matter, skills in teamwork, making presentations and collecting data. Some students in the 1st module needed more time to fulfil their learning objectives and had difficulty in collecting data. In the 2nd module, students reported that they lacked motivation because of the place of the module within their timetable. Opinions differed about groupwork. The content of and interest generated by fieldwork activity was rated more positively in the 2nd module than the 1st. Less positively rated in the 2nd module was the introductory lecture and module organisation. Implementing PBL within a traditional curriculum does not offer uniform outcomes for students. Optimum group size and adequate time are necessary if students are to benefit from PBL. A consistent and continuous PBL approach should be adopted rather than a sporadic one. Further research should establish the optimum balance between PBL and traditional approaches that would allow students to maximise the benefits of both and to identify those students best equipped to benefit from a 'mixed economy' of learning.
Dable, Rajani A; Pawar, Babita R; Gade, Jaykumar R; Anandan, Prasanth M; Nazirkar, Girish S; Karani, Jyoti T
In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy), which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90%) and students (93.25%) feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%). P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.
Dable Rajani A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy, which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. Methods It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. Results As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90% and students (93.25% feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%. P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. Conclusions In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.
Hendricson, William; Eisenberg, Elise; Guest, Gary; Jones, Pamela; Johnson, Lynn; Panagakos, Fotinos; McDonald, James; Cintron, Laura
In spite of efforts by many dental schools to provide information technology resources for students, only a handful of studies have been conducted to determine what dental students think about these initiatives. There are no reports in the literature describing students' perceptions of mandatory laptop programs, which are now being implemented by at least 25 percent of North American dental schools. In schools that have implemented laptop programs, students are required either to enroll with their own laptops that meet specifications or to purchase a laptop from the school at matriculation. In some schools, students are also required to purchase curriculum support software that is bundled with the laptop. This study was conducted to determine students' opinions at U.S. dental schools with mandatory laptop programs about these aspects of this information technology initiative: frequency of use, perceived necessity of use, note-typing during lectures, effectiveness of training, influence on study habits, benefits, implementation problems, added value in relation to added tuition costs, impact on quality of dental education, overall rating of the laptop experience, and impact of the laptop on use of other electronic curriculum resources. Responses of students at schools that purchased packaged curriculum support software from a commercial vendor were compared with students' responses at schools where faculty provided their own educational software. Responses were also compared among freshmen, sophomores, and upperclassmen in a cross-sectional sample. In 2004, approximately 800 dental students at fourteen dental schools responded to eleven questions that requested their impressions and evaluation of mandatory laptop programs and associated educational software. These questions comprised one section of the IREC Students' Questionnaire (IREC=Institutional Readiness for Electronic Curriculum) that assessed students' perceptions of various aspects of information technology
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying
Failure to receive proper oral health care including both prevention and maintenance is influenced by myriad and complex social, economic, and dental factors, including access to care. Reducing oral health disparities requires changes in the preparation of future dentists as well as measuring and influencing the attitudes and knowledge of practicing dentists. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that future dentists (students and residents) and faculty members at one U.S. dental school would treat Medicaid participants. Attitudes were measured using the Deamonte Driver scenario survey, which assesses factors affecting dentists' participation in Medicaid. In October 2012, all 113 full-time faculty members were invited to participate, and 60 completed the survey, for a response rate of 53.1%. In January and February 2013, all 18 residents in the dental clinics and university hospital were invited to participate, and 16 completed the survey, for a response rate of 88.9%. From 2013 to 2015, all 267 students in three classes were invited to participate: first-year students in the Classes of 2017 and 2018 and fourth-year students in the Class of 2015. A total of 255 students completed the survey, for an overall student response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the students were more likely to participate in caring for Medicaid patients than the faculty and residents. The white and male students had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the females and underrepresented minority students, while residents had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the students and faculty. Overall, the cultural competency skills, beliefs, and attitudes of these faculty members and residents were less developed than those of their students, signaling a need for broad educational and faculty development programs to fully prepare the future dental workforce to care for these patients.
Hassan Suliman Halawany
Conclusion: The results of this study show the top preferred specialties and career choices which can be a baseline for establishing national policies and for the improvement of graduate programs. There seems to be a need to promote mentoring activities and provide guidance and encouragement to pre-doctoral dental students in selecting the most appropriate specialty within their capability domain.
Park, Sang E.; Kim, Junhyck; Anderson, Nina
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the team-based learning environment facilitated the competency of third year dental students in caries detection and activity assessment. Corresponding data were achieved using digital radiographs to determine the carious lesions in three clinical cases. The distribution of the caries evaluations…
Al-Omari, Wael Mousa; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud Khalid
This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. Six hundred subjects were recruited into the study from Jordanian undergraduate students from the faculties of Medicine, Engineering, and Dentistry. Five hundred and thirty five complete questionnaires were returned, which accounts for a response rate of 89.2%. The totals of the mean anxiety scores were the following: Medical students, 13.58%; Engineering students, 13.27% and dental students, 11.22%. About 32% of the study population has scored 15 or more. Dental students had the lowest percentage of those who scored 15 or more. Surprisingly, the medical students were responsible for the highest percentage of those who scored 15 or above. Although women demonstrated statistically higher total dental anxiety scores than men (p= 0.03), the difference between both genders was small and could be clinically insignificant. The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a high level of dental anxiety among non-dental university students in Jordan. Further studies are required to identify the correlates of dental anxiety among university students.
Munk, Lyle Kris
The primary emphasis in dental education is on developing students' cognitive intelligence (thinking) and technical intelligence (doing), while emotional intelligence (being) receives less emphasis. The aim of this study was to explore a potential consequence of the paucity of emotional intelligence education by determining the level of emotional intelligence-related (EI-R) infractions in state dental board disciplinary actions and characterizing the types of those infractions. For this study, 1,100 disciplinary action reports from 21 state dental boards were reviewed, and disciplinary infractions were classified as cognitive intelligence-related (CI-R) infractions, technical intelligence-related (TI-R) infractions, and EI-R infractions. EI-R infractions were then subcategorized into emotional intelligence clusters and competencies using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). The results showed that 56.6% of the infractions were EI-R. When the EI-R infractions were subcategorized, the four competencies most frequently violated involved transparency, teamwork and collaboration, organizational awareness, and accurate self-assessment. Understanding the frequency and nature of EI-R infractions may promote awareness of the need for increased attention to principles of emotional intelligence in dental education and may encourage integration of those principles across dental curricula to help students understand the impact of emotional intelligence on their future well-being and livelihood.
Singh, Preet Bano; Young, Alix; Lind, Synnøve; Leegaard, Marie Cathinka; Capuozzo, Alessandra; Parma, Valentina
Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone. The intensity and pleasantness ratings showed that the test subjects could not report perceptual differences between the odor conditions. When exposed to masked anxiety body odors the test subject's dental performance was significantly worse than when they were exposed to masked rest body odors and masker alone, indicating that their performance was modulated by exposure to the emotional tone of the odor. These findings call for a careful evaluation of the anxiety-inducing effects of body odors in performance-related tasks and provide the first ecological evaluation of human anxiety chemosignal communication.
Lallier, Thomas E
The expansion of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is essential to the continued growth and development of the dental profession. Expanding EBD requires increased emphasis on critical thinking skills during dental education, as noted in the American Dental Education Association's Competencies for the New General Dentist. In order to achieve this goal, educational exercises must be introduced to increase the use of critical thinking skills early in the dental curriculum, with continued reinforcement as students progress through subsequent years. Described in this article is one approach to increasing student exposure to critical thinking during the early basic science curriculum-specifically, within the confines of a traditional histology course. A method of utilizing the medical and dental research literature to reinforce and enliven the concepts taught in histology is described, along with an approach for using peer-to-peer presentations to demonstrate the tools needed to critically evaluate research studies and their presentation in published articles. This approach, which could be applied to any basic science course, will result in a stronger foundation on which students can build their EBD and critical thinking skills.
Silva, Erica Tatiane da; Nunes, Maria de Fátima; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Cláudio R
Comprehensive assessment of students' academic performance plays an important role in educational planning. The aim of this study was to investigate variables that influence student's performance in a retrospective sample including all undergraduate students who entered in a Brazilian dental school, in a 20-year period between 1984 and 2003 (n=1182). Demographic and educational variables were used to predict performance in the overall curriculum and course groups. Cluster analysis (K-means algorithm) categorized students into groups of higher, moderate or lower performance. Clusters of overall performance showed external validity, demonstrated by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Lower performance groups had the smallest number of students in overall performance and course groups clusters, ranging from 11.8% (clinical courses) to 19.2% (basic courses). Students' performance was more satisfactory in dental and clinical courses, rather than basic and non-clinical courses (pstudent's performance was predicted by lower time elapsed between completion of high school and dental school admission, female gender, better rank in admission test, class attendance rate and student workload hours in teaching, research and extension (R(2)=0.491). Findings give evidence about predictors of undergraduate students' performance and reinforce the need for curricular reformulation focused on with improvement of integration among courses.
Adams, David Francis
Prior research has suggested that dental students experience high rates of stress, anxiety, and mood concerns, which have been linked to poor academic performance, health concerns, and substance abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an embedded counseling office at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry & Dental Clinics in its first three academic semesters. Data were gathered from students attending appointments, and two inventories were used to monitor students' counseling progress and gather psychological outcomes data: the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34 (CCAPS-34) and the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS). In the three semesters, 55 students attended 251 counseling appointments, with an average of 4.5 appointments per student. Their presenting psychological concerns included academic concerns, time management, test anxiety, study skills, low self-esteem, self-care, interpersonal conflicts, anxiety, depression, stress management, sexual concerns, substance abuse, eating/body image concerns, work-life balance, and financial issues. The CCAPS-34 data showed that, at initial clinical assessment, students experienced moderate levels of depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, academic distress, and overall psychological distress; 45 (82%) showed clinically significant symptoms on at least one CCAPS-34 subscale. The ORS data further showed that the students entered counseling experiencing high levels of psychological distress. A positive relationship was found between number of counseling appointments and increased overall functioning. These results suggest that an embedded counseling office can help dental schools meet the needs of their students.
Schulz, Peter; Sagheb, Keyvan; Affeldt, Harald; Klumpp, Hannah; Taylor, Kathy; Walter, Christian; Al-Nawas, Bilal
E-Learning programs and their corresponding devices are increasingly employed to educate dental students during their clinical training. Recent progress made in the development of e-learning software as well as in hardware (computers, tablet PCs, smartphones) caused us to more closely investigate into the habits of dental students in dealing with these learning techniques. Dental students during their clinical training attended a survey compiled in cooperation with biostatisticians. The questionnaire probands were asked to complete based on previous surveys of similar subjects, allowing single as well as multiple answers. The data, which were obtained with respect to the learning devices students commonly employ, were compared with their internet learning activities. The e-learning devices utilized are of heterogeneous brands. Each student has access to at least one hardware type suitable for e-learning. All students held mobile devices, about 90 percent employed laptops, and about 60 percent possess smartphones. Unexceptional all participants of the survey acknowledged an unlimited internet access. In contrast, only 16 percent of students utilized tablet PCs. A detailed analysis of the survey outcome reveals that an increasing use of mobile devices (tablet PC, smartphone) facilitates internet learning activities while at the same time utilization of computers (desktop, laptop) declines. Dental students overwhelmingly accept e-learning during their clinical training. Students report outstanding preconditions to conduct e-learning as both their access to hardware and to the internet is excellent. Less satisfying is the outcome of our survey regarding the utilization of e-learning programs. Depending of the hardware employed only one-third to barely one-half of students comprise learning programs.
Andre, Amanda; Pierre, Gaelle C; McAndrew, Maureen
Quality of life is a complex construct that affects the overall life satisfaction, emotional well-being, and functioning of individuals. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of dental students at one U.S. dental school, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF, a multi-dimensional, cross-cultural, validated, and reliable survey instrument. Of the 1,437 students invited to participate, 401 students responded, but 17 were excluded because of missing data. The final sample consisted of 384 students for an overall response rate of 27%: response rates by year were first year 32.6%, second year 16.9%, third year 26.6%, and fourth year 24.0%. The results showed that the responding students rated their overall quality of life as good. The Physical Health domain had the highest mean score, while the Psychological domain had the lowest. Females reported higher quality of life than males in the Social Relationships domain. Single students were found to have a lower perceived quality of life than married students. Older students were found to have lower perceived quality of life in the Physical Health and Environment domains. Physical Health domain scores were significantly higher for fourth-year than first-year respondents, while Psychological domain scores were significantly lower for third-year than first-year respondents. Further research is needed to explore the effect of dental school on the quality of life of dental students. Targeted programs to impact students' quality of life at various points in the curriculum may be beneficial.
Che Musa, Muhd Firdaus; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E
It is important to understand career expectations of emerging dental graduates if human resources are to be harnessed in support of oral health. The aims of this study were to explore students' career expectations and their perceived influences, and to examine variation according to student and school characteristics. All final-year students registered for 2013/2014 across 11 dental schools in Malaysia were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire (n = 530). The instrument explored short- and long-term career expectations, influences and students' background using a mix of open- and closed-ended questions. The chi-square test was used for comparison according to student and school characteristics. Three-hundred and fifty-six (83%) students, across eight schools, completed the questionnaire. In the short term, undertaking specialist training (46%) was the most commonly cited career goal, and achieving financial stability (79%) was the greatest influence. In the long term, 59% planned to specialise (with a significant difference found according to ethnic group), and 67% considered working full-time, with men significantly more likely to do so than women (P = 0.036). More Malay students (90%) ranked childcare commitments as an important influence on the number of sessions they planned to work per week compared with Chinese students (75%) and Others (74%; P = 0.001). Work-life balance (95%) and high income/financial security (95%) were the main influences on respondents' long-term goals. There was a high level of interest in specialisation and a desire to achieve financial stability and work-life balance in the group of dental students who responded to the survey. Long-term career expectations varied according to student but not according to school characteristics. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Kaplan, Barbara; Ura, Darla
The student clinical experience is rich, yet challenges arise in providing experiences where leadership skills can be developed and used in nursing practice. To increase student confidence and enhance student ability to safely and effectively prioritize, delegate, and implement care for numerous patients, a simulation-based learning (SBL) experience was developed. The SBL experience involves multiple patient simulators, case study analysis, and a debriefing session. Ninety-seven senior nursing students participated in this program. Students reported through Likert surveys to either "agree" or "strongly agree" that the SBL was well organized (87%, n = 84), prompted realistic expectations (59%, n = 57), the scenarios were believable (73%, n = 71), case studies increased understanding (66%, n = 64), and that the SBL experience increased understanding of prioritizing and delegating care (69%, n = 67). Seventy-eight percent (n = 76) reported "more confidence in ability to work as a team" and 55% (n = 52) reported "more confidence in prioritizing and delegating care." Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Rubin, Richard W
Dental student development of cultural competence and social responsibility is recognized by educators as an important element in the overall shaping of minds and attitudes of modem dental practitioners. Yet training modalities to achieve these competencies are not clearly defined, and outcome measurements are elusive. This article shows an effective method to meet these desired outcomes. Sixty-one freshmen (class of 2005) participated in forty hours of nondental community service, and reflective journals were completed by the end of second year. Competency outcomes were measured by selecting key words and phrases found in the individual journals. Key phrases were related to compassion, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom. Also, phrases had to be accompanied by written indications of direct program causation. The combination of active-learning (based upon service learning models) in public health settings outside of the dental realm, accompanied by reflective journaling, enhanced cultural understanding and community spirit in the majority of students.
Riaz, Fatima; Yasmin, Shahina; Yasmin, Raheela
To evaluate the effectiveness of Formative Assessment in enhancing learning among dental students, and to interpret the assessment from students' perspective in this regard. The experimental non-randomised controlled study was conducted from January to June 2013 at Islamic International Dental College, Islamabad, and comprised first year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students attending regular physiology lectures and tutorials. Summative assessments conducted at the end of each unit were included as pre-intervention tests. After one month's planning, central nervous system unit was delivered in a month's trial with four formative assessment and feedback sessions (one per week). Likert scale-based student feedback questionnaire was administered. Post-intervention summative assessment was done by Multiple Choice and Short Essay Questions. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Out of 68 students, 64(94.1%) agreed that a conducive environment was maintained and 62(90%) agreed that such sessions should be continued throughout the year; 59(87%) reflected that the feedback provided by the teacher was timely and positive and ensured equitable participation; 56(82%)agreed that it enhanced their interest in the subject; 56(68%) agreed that they were now more focussed; and43(63%)were of the opinion that they have progressed in the subject through these sessions. There was highly significant improvement in the monthly post-intervention test scores compared to pre-intervention test (p=0.000). Formative assessment sessions enhanced motivation and learning in first year dental students. Organised regular sessions with students' feedback may contribute to the development of pedagogic practice.
Chen, Vivian; Foster Page, Lyndie; McMillan, John; Lyons, Karl; Gibson, Barry
The term social accountability has gained increased interest in medical education, but is relatively unexplored in dentistry. The aim of this study is to explore dental students' attitudes towards social accountability. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups with University of Otago final year (5th year) Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students was carried out. A questionnaire designed to measure medical students' attitudes towards social responsibility was used as a guide. Following data collection, framework analysis was used to analyze each of the three focus groups, and repeating themes were noted. Analysis of the focus groups discovered recurring themes, such that participants believed that dentists should be accountable to society in a professional context and that they are responsible for patients who present at their clinic but that there is no professional obligation to help reduce oral health inequalities by working with populations facing inequalities. There was strong agreement that there needs to be change to the dental health care system from a structural and political level to address oral health inequalities, rather than individual dentists assuming greater responsibility. Our findings show that dental education may not be accountable to society in the sense that it is not producing graduates who believe that they have an obligation to address the priority oral health concerns of society.
Full Text Available Yazan Aljohani,1 Mohammed Almutadares,1 Khalid Alfaifi,1 Mona El Madhoun,1 Maysoon H Albahiti,2 Nadia Al-Hazmi3 1Internship Program, Faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Department of Endodontics, King Abdulaziz University, 3Department of Oral Biology, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim: To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method: A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results: There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion: Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. Keywords: cross-contamination, infection control, dental students, uniforms
Elkalmi, Ramadan M.; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Srikanth, Akshaya B.; Abdurhaman, Norny Syafinase; Jamshed, Shazia Q.; Awad, Ammar Ihsan; Binti Ab Hadi, Hazrina
Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students of a public sector university in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among senior pharmacy students. The pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants over the period of 1-month. The questionnaire was divided into four sections, for gathering the information about students’ demographic data, and their knowledge, attitudes, and perception toward contraception. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20. Findings: The response rate was 68.6%. The results showed that the contraceptive knowledge was comparatively higher in year four students (P < 0.001), married respondents (P < 0.001) and those taking elective courses (P = 0.022) as compared to their respective counterparts. Majority of the students were well aware and had a positive perception about contraception. Conclusion: Overall findings reflect that the majority of the students had good knowledge, perception, and awareness about contraception. The study recommends future studies to be conducted covering different pharmacy schools across the country to further establish the results. PMID:25984548
Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.
The dental radiology student and instructor guides provide instruction in the following units: (1) x-ray physics; (2) x-ray production; (3) radiation health and safety; (4) radiographic anatomy and pathology; (5) darkroom setup and chemistry; (6) bisecting angle technique; (7) paralleling technique; (8) full mouth survey technique--composition and…
Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.
At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…
Johari, A. H.; Muslim
Experiential learning model using simple physics kit has been implemented to get a picture of improving attitude toward physics senior high school students on Fluid. This study aims to obtain a description of the increase attitudes toward physics senior high school students. The research method used was quasi experiment with non-equivalent pretest -posttest control group design. Two class of tenth grade were involved in this research 28, 26 students respectively experiment class and control class. Increased Attitude toward physics of senior high school students is calculated using an attitude scale consisting of 18 questions. Based on the experimental class test average of 86.5% with the criteria of almost all students there is an increase and in the control class of 53.75% with the criteria of half students. This result shows that the influence of experiential learning model using simple physics kit can improve attitude toward physics compared to experiential learning without using simple physics kit.
Full Text Available Background: The dental clinical setting, which is a significant learning environment for undergraduate dental students, may induce anxiety, which may adversely affect the clinical performance. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors provoking clinical anxiety in dental students from the trainers and students perspectives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 6 th (final year dental students of University of Benin and their clinical trainers between January and March 2012 using the 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire. Results: Of the 67 participants, 32 (47.8% were 6 th year dental students while 35 (52.2% were clinical trainers. According to the students, the top clinical anxiety provoking situations were inability to meet requirements before exams, inability to pass the final exams, dealing with psychiatric patients, coping with uncooperative children, getting infected by patients, fracturing a tooth during extraction, extracting the wrong tooth, discovering calculus by the supervisor after scaling, accidental pulp exposure, inadvertently hurting patients and using the high speed hand piece. There existed concordance on the top two clinical anxiety provoking situations reported by the students and their clinical trainers. However, measuring blood pressure, taking pulse, presenting in the clinic, handling a syncopal attack, and accidental pulp exposure were statistically significant contrasting clinical anxiety provoking situations from dental students and trainers perspectives. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that clinical trainers share largely the same perspectives with the dental students on the clinical anxiety provoking situations with slight variations. Fostering a supportive learning environment conducive to dental student learning by strengthen efforts to minimize clinical anxiety is a necessity.
Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J
A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (peducational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.
Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua
The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…
Fox, Garey A.; Weckler, Paul; Thomas, Dan
In Biosystems Engineering at Oklahoma State University, senior design is a two semester course in which students work on real-world projects provided by clients. First-year (freshmen and transfer) students enroll in an introductory engineering course. Historically, these students worked on a team-based analysis project, and the engineering design…
Abdullah M. Alzahem
Full Text Available The dental education stress effects and sources were explored thoroughly in the literature, but the effectiveness of stress management programs received less attention. This study introduced a new stress management program, named Dental Education Stress Management (DESM program. It showed its effectiveness in a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest-follow-up-control group design. The new program was based on the principle of psychoeducation and consisted of three 90-min sessions, to teach dental students how to better deal with their stress symptoms and to reduce their general stress level. Two instruments were used to assess the level of stress of the dental students, namely the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES, and the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM-9. Results show that the DESM program has the desired effect of decreasing the stress levels of its participants, and these effects lasted for at least two weeks. Because of several methodological limitations of the study more research is needed to draw more generalizable conclusions.
The aim of this qualitative study was to identify the conceptions of dentists and dental students (DSs) about pediatric dental patients (PDPs) using metaphor analysis. The study group (N = 259) consisted of dentists and DSs. Participants completed the sentence "A pediatric dental patient is like ... because …..." in order to reveal the metaphors they use about the concept of PDPs. The data were analyzed using the mixed-methods: qualitative (metaphor analysis) and quantitative (chi-square) data analysis techniques. The dentists and DSs produced 259 metaphors. These metaphors were gathered under six different conceptual categories that define a PDP as unpredictable, dangerous, uncontrollable, requiring care and sensitivity, valuable, and orientable. The most important factors leading to these conceptions were the uncooperativeness of some PDPs and the effectiveness of behavior management. The results of this study indicate that there was no significant difference among DSs, general dentists and specialist dentists with respect to six conceptual categories that identify the conceptions about PDPs.
Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo
The aim of this study was to identify the significance of spirituality in enhancing self-efficacy related to professional values in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy can predict job satisfaction and performance as professional nurses in clinical settings. Senior nursing students should have the level of self-efficacy that enables them to perform professional roles based on professional values, because they will enter clinical settings immediately after graduation. Spirituality may help senior nursing students during the transition to professional life to reflect on their skills, knowledge and situations to enhance self-efficacy based on professional values. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 194 senior nursing students in South Korea were recruited in 2014. They completed self-reported questionnaires consisting of demographic questions, Spiritual Assessment Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and Nursing Professional Values inventory. A Sobel test was done to determine the mediating effect of spirituality on the relationship between nursing professional values and self-efficacy. The findings showed a positive correlation between professional values, spirituality and self-efficacy in nursing students. According to the Sobel test, spirituality had a mediating effect on the relationship between professional values and self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Spirituality can be a foundation that provides senior nursing students with higher self-efficacy so that they are able to perform their professional roles based on their professional values. The findings can guide nursing educators to include spiritual development of nursing students to enhance the self-efficacy of senior nursing students, the future of the nursing profession. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laktić, Martina; Kuftinec, Krešimir; Čelebić, Asja; Kovačić, Ines; Alhajj, Mohamed Nasser; Kiršić, Sanja Peršić
To develop the Croatian version of the 41-item Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES) for stress assessment of dental students in both, preclinical and clinical years of study and to test its psychometric properties in Croatian dental student population. The English version of the 41-Item DES questionnaire was first translated into the Croatian language. Subsequently, it was set on the google drive and filled out by a total of 202 students from the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 30 additional students from other Faculties. Students also assessed their overall level of stress on the Likert scale (1=no stress, 5=highest level of stress). Internal consistency was tested on 202 dental students; test-retest reliability on 30 dental students who filled out the same questionnaire twice; convergent validity on 202 dental students; and divergent validity on 202 dental students and 30 students from faculties not belonging to the biomedicine group. Internal consistency showed high Cronbach alpha coefficient (0.9) and test-retest reliability showed no significant difference (P>0.05) within the period of 14 days when stress level had not changed (vacation). Convergent validity was confirmed by the significant association between the DES summary scores and the self- perceived level of stress (Spearman's rho=0.881; P <0.001). Divergent validity was confirmed by significantly lower DES summary scores in students not belonging to the Biomedicine group (t=7.5, P<0.001). Excellent psychometric properties of the Croatian version of the DES questionnaire enable its utilization for assessment of stress level in Croatian dental students.
Full Text Available Objective: To develop the Croatian version of the 41-item Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES for stress assessment of dental students in both, preclinical and clinical years of study and to test its psychometric properties in Croatian dental student population. Materials and Methods: The English version of the 41-Item DES questionnaire was first translated into the Croatian language. Subsequently, it was set on the google drive and filled out by a total of 202 students from the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 30 additional students from other Faculties. Students also assessed their overall level of stress on the Likert scale (1=no stress, 5=highest level of stress. Internal consistency was tested on 202 dental students; test-retest reliability on 30 dental students who filled out the same questionnaire twice; convergent validity on 202 dental students; and divergent validity on 202 dental students and 30 students from faculties not belonging to the biomedicine group. Results: Internal consistency showed high Cronbach alpha coefficient (0.9 and test-retest reliability showed no significant difference (P>0.05 within the period of 14 days when stress level had not changed (vacation. Convergent validity was confirmed by the significant association between the DES summary scores and the self- perceived level of stress (Spearman’s rho=0.881; P<0.001. Divergent validity was confirmed by significantly lower DES summary scores in students not belonging to the Biomedicine group (t=7.5, P<0.001. Conclusion: Excellent psychometric properties of the Croatian version of the DES questionnaire enable its utilization for assessment of stress level in Croatian dental students.
Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso; Wajngarten, Danielle; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
CONTEXT: The ergonomic posture protocol is extremely important for the maintenance of occupational health in dentistry. The lack of compliance with this protocol results in a high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. AIMS: This study developed a direct observation method for the evaluation of dental student compliance with ergonomic posture protocol. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The method is named compliance assessment of dental ergonomic posture requirements (CADEP). During the development of the method, 14 items were elaborated considering the theory of dental ergonomics. Each item should be classified as appropriate, partially appropriate, or inappropriate. After evaluation, all item values should be added, and the final score expressed as the percent of compliance with correct postures, with a score range of 0%–100%. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The reliability of CADEP was assessed through intra- and interobserver reproducibility. For the CADEP application, 73 senior year students from the undergraduate course in dentistry were evaluated. The intra- and interexaminer concordance was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: The reproducibility of evaluator 1 (ρ =0.90; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.83–0.94), evaluator 2 (ρ = 0.83; CI 95%: 0.70–0.90), the interexaminer in the first evaluation (ρ = 0.81; CI 95%:0.67–0.89), and in the second one (ρ = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.59–0.87) was classified as good. In the analysis of the compliance, it was verified that moderate compliance was the most prevalent among the evaluated students (65.6%, CI 95%: 60.3%–70.7%). CONCLUSIONS: CADEP was valid and reliable for the assessment of dentistry students’ compliance regarding ergonomic posture requirements. PMID:29693025
Varthis, S; Anderson, O R
"Flipped" instructional sequencing is a new instructional method where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking during the in-person class session; a novel approach studied in this research. The purpose of this study was to document dental students' perceptions of flipped-based blended learning and to apply a new method of displaying their perceptions based on Likert-scale data analysis using a network diagramming method known as an item correlation network diagram (ICND). In addition, this article aimed to encourage institutions or course directors to consider self-regulated learning and social constructivism as a theoretical framework when blended learning is incorporated in dental curricula. Twenty (second year) dental students at a Northeastern Regional Dental School in the United States participated in this study. A Likert scale was administered before and after the learning experience to obtain evidence of their perceptions of its quality and educational merits. Item correlation network diagrams, based on the intercorrelations amongst the responses to the Likert-scale items, were constructed to display students' changes in perceptions before and after the learning experience. Students reported positive perceptions of the blended learning, and the ICND analysis of their responses before and after the learning experience provided insights into their social (group-based) cognition about the learning experience. The ICNDs are considered evidence of social or group-based cognition, because they are constructed from evidence obtained using intercorrelations of the total group responses to the Likert-scale items. The students positively received blended learning in dental education, and the ICND analyses demonstrated marked changes in their social cognition of the learning experience based on the pre- and post-Likert survey data. Self-regulated learning and social constructivism
Blue, Christine M
Differences in learning and the cultural context of our students' life experiences are important variables that faculty members need to understand in order to be effective in the classroom. Faculty members are finding that millennial students' approaches to learning are often vastly different from their own and as a result feel frustrated in their ability to help these students with their learning needs. Cultivating awareness of how today's dental hygiene student learns as well as the millennial learner profile can help faculty members address this educational challenge. The purpose of this study was to identify the learning styles of three groups of dental hygiene students and determine if they fit the learning profile of the millennial student as measured by the Learning Type Measure. Given this new generation of learners, it was hypothesized that dental hygiene students' learning style preferences would fit the learning profile of the millennial student. The Learning Type Measure was administered to 101 dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota, University of Arizona, and Virginia Commonwealth University. The results from the study revealed that dental hygiene students do exhibit learning style preferences consistent with the millennial learner profile.
Mayang Dwinta Trisniarti
Full Text Available In this study an interactive simulation of Alternating Current circuit was developed by using Articulate Storyline 2 and Adobe Flash CS 6 programs. The aim of this study was providing a computer interactive simulation as essential learning support for Senior High School student. One of the most important features of AC circuit simulation is the easily and continuous material to attain learning objectivity and interest toward students. This AC circuit simulation is built to create real-time sine wave graphs so that student could compare the result if the variable were changed gradually. The validation is held through several experts and reviewers due to get obtained through questionnaires. The results of this research could be concluded that AC circuit simulation for Senior High School Physics have good criteria based on user interface, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 16.67% of respondents rated good, and 33.33% of respondents rated very good. Based on maintenance, i.e. 50% of respondents rated enough, 20% of respondents rated good, and 30% of respondents rated very good. Then based on usability, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated good and 93.33% rated very good. Furthermore, based on understanding, i.e. 6.67% of respondents rated enough, 30% of respondents rated good, and 73.33% of respondents rated very good. The use of AC circuit simulation could improve the senior high school students’ cognitive ability on the Physics’s course, i.e. with the average score increased from 68.67 to 80.5 based on 30 students.
Saputri, A. C.; Sajidan; Rinanto, Y.
Critical thinking is an important and necessary skill to confront the challenges of the 21st century. Critical thinking skills accommodate activities that can improve high-order thinking skills. This study aims to determine senior high school students' critical thinking skills in Biology learning. This research is descriptive research using instruments developed based on the core aspects of critical thinking skills according to Facione which include interpretation, analysis, evaluation, explanation, conclusion, and self-regulation. The subjects in this study were 297 students in grade 12 of a senior high school in Surakarta selected through purposive sampling technique. The results of this study showed that the students' critical thinking skills on evaluation and self-regulation are in good criterion with 78% and 66% acquisition while 52% interpretation, 56% analysis, 52% conclusion and 42% explanation indicate sufficient criteria. The conclusion from this research is that critical thinking skill of the students still was in enough category, so that needed a way to enhance it on some indicators.
Mendoza De La Garza, Maria; Tieu, Christina; Schroeder, Darrell; Lowe, Kathleen; Tung, Ericka
Medical schools throughout the country struggle with how best to train students to provide quality, patient-centered care to the burgeoning population of older adults. The Senior Sages Program (SSP) is a longitudinal Senior Mentor Program (SMP) that offers students the opportunity to learn about the aging process and core geriatric medicine concepts through the eyes of an aging expert: their Senior Sage. The SSP marries a robust electronic curriculum with an SMP and online discussion board. The aim of this program evaluation was to measure the impact on students' geriatric knowledge and attitudes toward older adults. This asynchronously facilitated course improved students' geriatric knowledge and facilitated stability of positive attitudes toward older adults. The majority of students felt that their SSP interactions were meaningful and valuable to their clinical development. The combination of SMP and electronic curricula offer a feasible, practical way to bridge the geriatric training chasm.
Abdullah S. AlSwuailem
Conclusion: Approximately one in every four male dental students at KSU is a smoker. Having friends who are smokers was the most important risk factor associated with smoking. There is a general belief among dental students that public tobacco use is not well addressed in the dental college curriculum.
Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E
Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional knowledge affects nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and society. It is important to know the current level of nutritional knowledge among health-care professionals for successful health promotion. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional knowledge among students of a dental college in Telangana state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among dental students. A standard questionnaire which consisted of questions on awareness of current dietary recommendations, knowledge of food sources and nutrients, and on diet-disease relationships was administered to the students during college hours. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Among 400 dental students, majority of them were female (59.75%. The mean age of the participants was 22.29 ± 2.64 years. The nutritional knowledge on dietary recommendations was similar in both females (88.58%, and males (87.63% which was not statistically significant (P = 0.5660 Postgraduates had more nutritional knowledge than undergraduates. Conclusion: It is learnt that males and females had similar nutritional knowledge; however, postgraduate students had more nutritional knowledge compared to undergraduates irrespective of the gender, and there is a need to improve the nutritional knowledge of undergraduate students.
Yaembut, Nanmanas; Ampornaramveth, Ruchanee S; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Subbalekha, Keskanya
To investigate the effectiveness, related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene (HH) among dental students with different levels of clinical experience. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Bacterial samples on the participants' hands were obtained using a swab technique before and after handwashing, for oral surgical procedures. After culturing, the colony-forming units were counted. Self-reported questionnaires reflecting the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HH were completed by the participants. This study was performed in a primary oral health care institution, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). Bacterial samples and self-reported questionnaires were collected in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Bacterial culture was performed in the Department of Microbiology. The 120 participants comprised first, second, third-year clinical training students (CTs), and postgraduate dental students (PGs) (32, 34, 30, and 24 participants, respectively). More than 99% of the bacteria were eliminated from the participants' hands after handwashing. Significantly higher numbers of bacteria were recovered from the hands of the PGs compared with those of the CTs, and the hands of the third-year CTs compared with those of the first-year CTs (p < 0.001), after HH. The first-year CTs had the highest attitude scores, whereas the PGs had the lowest practice scores. The knowledge scores were similar in all groups. HH effectiveness, attitudes, and practices of dental students decreased as students gained more clinical experience, whereas knowledge did not. Our results suggest that HH instruction should be given throughout the duration of dental students' education. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H
The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.
Full Text Available Helene Persen Storjord,1 Mari Mjønes Teodorsen,1 Jan Bergdahl,1 Rolf Wynn,2,3 Jan-Are Kolset Johnsen1 1Department of Clinical Dentistry, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 3Division of Addictions and Specialized Psychiatric Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway Introduction: Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students' own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods: A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results: The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001 and biology students (P<0.001. A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001. Discussion: The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion: Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to
Fatoye, F O; Morakinyo, O
The prevalence rate of psychopathology and the relationship between psychopathology and some socio-demographic variables and consolidated current drug use were studied in 600 randomly selected senior secondary school students in Ilesa, south-western Nigeria. The 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire and the WHO student drug use questionnaire were administered for the study. The findings revealed that the prevalence of psychopathology among the study population was 39.5%. There were significant positive associations between psychopathology and belonging to low socio-economic status, coming from a polygamous family and self-rated poor academic performance. The results also showed that although psychopathology was commoner amongst respondents who were engaged in current use of psychoactive substances than those who were not, the difference was not significant. The implications of these findings within the context of the limitations of the study and the importance of effective preventive and therapeutic student mental health services are discussed.
Full Text Available Syntactic structures are the base of English grammar. This study was aimed to analyze the syntactic errors in the casual conversation commited by two senior high students of MAN 2 Semarang. The researcher used qualitative approach to analyze and interpret the meaning of casual conversation. Furthermore, the data collection had been transcribed and analyzed based on the areas of syntactic errors analysis. The findings of the study showed that all areas of syntactic errors happened during the conversation, included auxiliaries, tenses, article, preposition, and conjunction. Both speakers also had a relatively weak vocabulary and their sentences which were sometimes incomprehensible by the interlocutor.
Faychuk Olena Leonidivna
Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretically grounded features of the business role-playing game determined to improve the learning process of senior students (specialization «Social work». The authors give the classification of business role-playing games, benefits and effective application of the rules of role-plays, and possibilities of using them in the learning process. Business role-playing games provide students’ initiative, emotional saturation of the learning process and help to assimilate the basic theoretical knowledge.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Yaneva, Krassimira; Luan, Diana; Andonov, Bogomil; Kumar, Reena R; Agnihotry, Anirudha; Ivanoff, Athena E; Emmanouil, Dimitrios; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Koneski, Filip; Muratovska, Ilijana; Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Daly, Michele
Training culturally competent graduates who can practice effectively in a multicultural environment is a goal of contemporary dental education. The Global Oral Health Initiative is a network of dental schools seeking to promote global dentistry as a component of cultural competency training. Before initiating international student exchanges, a survey was conducted to assess students' awareness of global dentistry and interest in cross-national clerkships. A 22-question, YES/NO survey was distributed to 3,487 dental students at eight schools in seven countries. The questions probed students about their school's commitment to enhance their education by promoting global dentistry, volunteerism and philanthropy. The data were analysed using Vassarstats statistical software. In total, 2,371 students (67.9%) completed the survey. Cultural diversity was seen as an important component of dental education by 72.8% of the students, with two-thirds (66.9%) acknowledging that their training provided preparation for understanding the oral health care needs of disparate peoples. A high proportion (87.9%) agreed that volunteerism and philanthropy are important qualities of a well-rounded dentist, but only about one-third felt that their school supported these behaviours (36.2%) or demonstrated a commitment to promote global dentistry (35.5%). In addition, 87.4% felt that dental schools are morally bound to improve oral health care in marginalised global communities and should provide students with international exchange missions (91%), which would enhance their cultural competency (88.9%) and encourage their participation in charitable missions after graduation (67.6%). The study suggests that dental students would value international exchanges, which may enhance students' knowledge and self-awareness related to cultural competence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Pang, Minhui; Yang, Jianwei; Zhang, Jiayi; Ye, Yunfeng; Chen, Xiongfei; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei
Cyberbullying research in China is in early stage. This study describes the cyberbullying experiences of junior and senior high school students in Guangzhou, China, and to examine the risk factors associated with cyberbullying perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims among students. We also investigated the frequency of cyberbullying and coping strategies of student victims. Participants were 2590 students in grades 7, 8, 9 and 10 from six junior and senior high schools in October 2015 in Guangzhou, in south China, who completed a questionnaire. Data on participants' experiences with cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation during the previous 6 months were collected. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse factors associated with being perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims. In this sample, 28.0% (725) of participants reported being a perpetrator and 44.5% (1150) reported being a victim in the previous 6 months. Specifically, 2.9% (74) reported being perpetrators only, 19.3% (499) reported being victims only and 25.2% (651) reported being perpetrator-victims (both perpetrator and victim). In addition, flaming was the most common form of cyberbullying in both perpetration and victimisation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that online game addiction in participants was associated with increased odds of being a perpetrator only; no democratic parenting style in the mother and physical discipline by parents were associated with increased odds of being a victim only; male students, students with low academic achievement, those spending over 2 hours a day online, experiencing physical discipline from parents and online game addiction were associated with increased odds of both perpetration and victimisation. Cyberbullying is a common experience among Chinese junior and senior high school students. These findings add to the empirical data on cyberbullying and reinforce the urgent need for cyberbullying prevention in China
Full Text Available Background: Both substance use and anxiety-depression spectrum are the problem that currently faced by adolescents especially among Senior High School students. Moreover, there is a high comorbidity between both problems. This study was conducted to discover the substance use’s prevalence and to find out anxiety-depression spectrum proportion among adolescent, and more importantly to determine whether there is correlation between both variables. Methods: During October–November 2013, four hundred and fifty two students from five Senior High Schools located in Karees Sub-District, Bandung were included in this cross-sectional analytic study. Among whom, only 425 students filled the questionnaire properly. Data were collected using Kessler-10 (K10 to explore anxiety-depression spectrum and addiction severity index lite version (ASI-Lite to identify substance use. The correlation between both variables was analyzed by Gamma correlation test. Results: The study revealed that there were 93 (21.9% students that used substance. In addition, there were 244 students (57.4% that screened as having anxiety-depression spectrum. Statistical analysis, according to Gamma correlation test, showed that there was a weak correlation between alcohol use and anxiety-depression spectrum (p=0.041; r=0.316. The remaining substances gave no statistically significant result (p>0.05. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence in substance use and psychological distress in anxiety-depression spectrum among high school student. In addition, alcohol is the only substances that correlated with anxiety-depression spectrum.
Lemaster, Margaret; Flores, Joyce M; Blacketer, Margaret S
This study explored the effectiveness of simulated mouth models to improve identification and recording of dental restorations when compared to using traditional didactic instruction combined with 2-dimensional images. Simulation has been adopted into medical and dental education curriculum to improve both student learning and patient safety outcomes. A 2-sample, independent t-test analysis of data was conducted to compare graded dental recordings of dental hygiene students using simulated mouth models and dental hygiene students using 2-dimensional photographs. Evaluations from graded dental charts were analyzed and compared between groups of students using the simulated mouth models containing random placement of custom preventive and restorative materials and traditional 2-dimensional representations of didactically described conditions. Results demonstrated a statistically significant (p≤0.0001) difference: for experimental group, students using the simulated mouth models to identify and record dental conditions had a mean of 86.73 and variance of 33.84. The control group students using traditional 2-dimensional images mean graded dental chart scores were 74.43 and variance was 14.25. Using modified simulation technology for dental charting identification may increase level of dental charting skill competency in first year dental hygiene students. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Holman, Shaina Devi; Wietecha, Mateusz S; Gullard, Angela; Peterson, Jon M B
This study aimed to provide a first nationwide assessment of dental students' attitudes toward the importance of research and its integration into the dental curriculum. For this purpose, the American Association for Dental Research National Student Research Group developed an online survey that was distributed to 89 percent of U.S. dental students in May 2012. The survey consisted of twenty-one Likert-type items divided into three groups: importance of research in dentistry, barriers to research involvement, and exposure to research in the dental curriculum. There were 733 responses (3.9 percent response rate), including students in all stages of education representing fifty-eight out of sixty-one dental schools. Age and race/ethnic distributions corresponded with U.S. dental school enrollees. Results showed that 63 percent of respondents had conducted research before matriculation, and of the 34 percent that participated in research during dental school, only 27 percent were newcomers. Respondents strongly agreed that scientific research enabled their progress in dentistry. Inadequate time in the curriculum was an obstacle they perceived to research involvement during dental school. Respondents agreed that dental curricula emphasize evidence-based practices but may be inadequately teaching biostatistics and research methodologies. Students with research experience tended to have stronger positive opinions about the importance of research in dental education. Efforts to foster research in schools have been well received by students, but several issues remain for enriching dental education through greater involvement of students in research.
Uribe, S; Mariño, R J
As part of a larger cross-country survey of dental students, students from the School of Dentistry, The University of Valparaiso, were invited to participate in a study to describe their use of information and communication technology (ICT). Information was derived from a 124-item questionnaire which included 14 socio-demographic items and 29 items asking about ICT use. ICT items were derived from a University of Birmingham, UK, battery. Data was collected in July and August 2004. A total of 162 of the 249 dental students participated in the study. The average age of students was 21.0 years (SD 2.4 years). The majority of participants (62.1%) were female. All participants had access to a computer, and 96.4% used the Internet. Most students had home Internet connections (73.4%). The most commonly used Internet sites on at least a weekly basis were: email (92.2%); and search engines (88.3%). However, a very few (21.1%) used the Internet to search for dental information for their studies on at least a weekly basis. Furthermore, although the majority (70.4%) found Internet use easy/very easy, 56.2% indicated that any search for information was easy/very easy. The majority (72.2%) indicated that the use of virtual education would not affect their class attendance. The final multivariate model explained 26% of the variance in ICT use, significant predictors for ICT use were gender, year of study, level of difficulty in using Internet, and place of Internet use. However, Internet use was mostly for non-dental purposes.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients’ demand for dentogingival aesthetics has increased significantly in recent years, and this is a complex concept due to numerous factors involved in obtaining patient/professional satisfaction. Some dentogingival features may alter smile harmony, such as excessive gingival display. Objective To evaluate whether the presence of gingival display has a negative influence on the perception of dentogingival aesthetics. Material and method 180 individuals (60 dentists, 60 dental students, and 60 patients evaluated images of volunteer smiles. These images were digitally altered by the Adobe Photoshop™ software, creating different situations of gingival display (4 mm, 2 mm, 0 mm, -2 mm, -4 mm, and graded by the evaluators with the following scores: (01 very pleasant smile, (02 pleasant smile, and 03 unpleasant smile. The scores assigned were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05. Result Gingival displays between 0 and 2 mm were considered aesthetically pleasing. Changes of -4 and +4 mm were defined as the most disharmonious smiles. The 0-mm female smile was considered the most harmonious for dentists (1.51 and dental students (1.77, by Student's t test (p<0.05. In the opinion of patients, the smile of +2 mm was considered the most aesthetic. In the image evaluations of men, the 0-mm smile was considered the most aesthetic (p <0.05 for dentists (1.85 and dental students (1.62. The patients considered +2 mm of gingival display the most harmonious smile. Conclusion The aesthetic perception of dental students and dentists was different when compared to the group of patients.
Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung
This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.
Dhima, Matilda; Petropoulos, Vicki C; Salinas, Thomas J; Wright, Robert F
The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the perceptions and experiences of predoctoral dental students and advanced standing students on mentorship, exposure to prosthodontics, and future need for the specialty, and (2) establish a baseline of students' perceptions of the impact of prosthodontics on salary, personal and patient quality of life, and the profession of dentistry. A survey was distributed to 494 predoctoral and advanced standing students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Questions focused on the perceptions and experiences with the specialty of prosthodontics. A total of 410 surveys were analyzed using Chi Square tests and univariate and multivariate analysis with statistical software. Response rate was 83%. A positive initial introduction to prosthodontics was reported by 57% of students. Most students had positive experiences with prosthodontic faculty and enjoyed laboratory work and challenging/complex dentistry. A greater need for prosthodontists in the future was perceived by 82% of respondents, with 63% reporting that the future of prosthodontics had been emphasized. Students reported (1) a preclinical course directed by prosthodontists and (2) working in the clinic with prosthodontic faculty (p salary (7(th) ), personal quality of life (5(th) ), patient quality of life (4(th) ), and strengthening of the dental field (7(th) ). Reasons few students are interested in prosthodontics as a career, despite a positive first introduction and high perceived future need for prosthodontists may be attributed to a number of factors. These include insufficient prosthodontically, trained faculty, lack of a mentorship program, lack of an advanced graduate program, a perception of feeling unprepared upon graduation, and misconception of potential income in prosthodontics. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Zafarmand, A Hamid; Sabour, Siamak
Positive social behavior of student is an important factor in the integrity of educational quality. Unbalanced behavior can disrupt the progress of students in learning. The present study evaluates the effect of social factors on education quality of dental and medical students. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 227 randomly selected students (109 dental and 118 medical). The questionnaire contained three domains of cultural collectivism, self-concept, and social adjustment adapted from California Test of Personality. It also included demographic questions like; field of study, gender and home city of residence. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version#19) software. Pearsons' correlation coefficient and independent t-test were used at the P-value of 0.05. Generally, girl students showed higher cultural collectivism (P=0.028) and social adjustment (P=0.04). On the contrary, boys were better in self-concept behavior (P=0.34). Home city of residence evidenced with no significant effect on any aspects of social attitudes of subjects. Pearsons' correlation coefficient test showed a weak correlation between cultural collectivism and self-concept (r=0.134, P=0.04) and between cultural collectivism and social adjustment, as well. (r=0.252, P=0.001) Independent t-test showed a significant difference between male and female students concerning cultural collectivism and social adjustment. Reliability of cultural collectivism, self-concept and social adjustment scales ranged from very good to moderate, α=0.83, α=0.63, and α=0.54 respectively. The results of this study indicated that female students show better cultural collectivism and social adjustment skills. It also proved that home city of residence has no significant effect upon social behavior of either medical or dental students.
Materials & Method: A total of 152 students participated in the study. Dental anxiety was assessed using the 5 item Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS and Locus of Control was assessed using the 18 item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC scale. Results: A Statistically significant positive correlation was found between the internal dimension of MHLC and dental anxiety. Conclusions: HLC was found to play an important role in predicting the dental anxiety among physiotherapy students.
Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J
Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors.
Åstrøm Anne N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems influence people's oral quality of life and thus their perceived need for dental care. So far there is scant information as to the psychosocial impacts of dental diseases and the perceived treatment need in child populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives Focusing on primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania, a district deprived of dental services and with low fluoride concentration in drinking water, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP, and to describe the distribution of OIDP by socio-demographics, dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems. The relationship of perceived need estimates with OIDP was also investigated. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 1745 students (mean age 13.8 yr, sd = 1.67 completed an extensive personal interview and under-went clinical examination. The impacts on daily performances were assessed using a Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP instrument and caries experience was recorded using WHO (1997 criteria. Results A total of 36.2% (41.3% urban and 31.4% rural, p Conclusion Substantial proportions of students suffered from untreated dental caries, oral impacts on daily performances and perceived need for dental care. Dental pain and reported oral problems varied systematically with OIDP across the eight impacts considered. Eating and tooth cleaning problems discriminated between subjects who perceived need for dental treatment and those who did not.
Owolabi, Olabode Thomas; Adedayo, Julius Olugbenga
The study examined the effect of teacher's qualification on the performance of Senior Secondary School students in Physics. The purpose was to determine whether the status of the teacher has any impact on the performance of the students in Physics. The survey type of descriptive research design was adopted. The sample for the study consisted of…
Adegoke, Benson Adesina
In this study, the author examines the extent to which an interactive engagement approach can reduce the gender gap in senior secondary school (SSS) (age 16-18 years) students' learning outcomes in quantum physics. One hundred and twenty one (male = 65; female = 56) SSS 3 students participated in this study. They were randomly selected from two…
The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation and predictive relationship between self-determination and quality of life of college students with disabilities. Subjects were 145 senior college students recruited from northern Taiwan. Subjects' age ranged from 22 to 25 years and their disabilities varied, including visual impairments (n =…
Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka
This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…
Achor, Emmanuel E.; Amadu, Samuel O.
This study examined the extent to which school outdoor activities could enhance senior secondary (SS) two students' achievement in ecology. Non randomized pre test post test control group Quasi-experimental design was adopted. A sample of 160 SS II students from 4 co-educational schools in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria was used. A 40…
Dauda, Bala; Jambo, Hyelni Emmanuel; Umar, Muhammad Amin
This study examined students' perception of factors influencing teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis of Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which students perceived: qualification, method of teaching, instructional materials and attitude of both…
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Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J
This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. PMID:24904226
Full Text Available The article presented at the conference is the study of the problems of upbringing and education of senior pupils from the Carpathian mountain area. Namely the author investigates the students’ readiness for choosing the teaching profession and willingness to work at rural mountain schools. Despite the big number of teachers in the labor market of Ukraine, now the system of education meets an acute issue dealing with the selection to the pedagogical specialties talented creative young people who actually choose teaching profession by nature and strong personal will. Today there are very few teachers whose level of commitment to perform professional duties in Ukrainian education is really high, and this is especially true about mountain school teachers. This phenomenon can be partially explained by the fact that teaching profession has low prestige in our society for the recent decades (Ukrainian teachers are not well-paid, their working conditions in rural Carpathian schools leave much to be desired. Therefore the problem of readiness of high school students to perform professional-pedagogical duties is of particular relevance. The author analyzes the psychological and pedagogical basis of the presented problem, defines the essence and structure of the notion “readiness for choosing the teaching profession”. In the context of solving this issue one of the important conditions the author considers the comprehensive development of senior school students, particularly the development of their creative abilities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma toward schizophrenia is a substantial barrier to accessing care and adhering to treatment. Provisions to combat stigma are important, but in Japan and other developed countries there are few such provisions in place that target parents of adolescents. The attitudes of parents are important to address as first schizophrenic episodes typically occur in adolescence. In overall efforts to develop an education program and provisions against stigma, here we examined the relationship between stigma toward schizophrenia and demographic characteristics of parents of junior and senior high school students in Japan. The specific hypothesis tested was that contact and communication with a person with schizophrenia would be important to reducing stigma. A questionnaire inquiring about respondent characteristics and which included a survey on stigma toward schizophrenia was completed by 2690 parents. Results The demographic characteristics significantly associated with the Devaluation- Discrimination Measure were family income, occupation, presence of a neighbor with schizophrenia, and participation in welfare activities for people with mental illness (p Conclusions Stigma toward schizophrenia among parents of junior and senior high school students was in fact significantly stronger among members of the general public who had had contact with individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, stigma was associated with family income.
Rindlisbacher, F; Davis, J M; Ramseier, C A
The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' self-perceived communication skills for patient motivation over the course of their training. Pre-clinical and clinical dental students at the University of Bern School of Dental Medicine were surveyed annually from 2008 to 2011 utilising a written questionnaire. Self-reported data were pooled from all classes per time-point in the curriculum. A total of 157 students were surveyed from five classes with an overall response rate of 94.8%. A total of 393 questionnaires were available for analysis. The self-perceived skill-sets for general patient care and patient communication were rated at the end of the first clinical year with mean Visual Analog Scale values of 75.0 ± 1.6 and 75.1 ± 1.5, respectively. During the second clinical year, the self-perceived skills increased in both patient care (82.5 ± 1.2, P = 0.0004) and patient communication (81.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.0034). The students rated their competence higher when providing oral hygiene instructions as opposed to motivating patients to quit tobacco use, modify their diet or employ stress-reduction strategies (P motivating patients to utilise oral hygiene instructions, they also expressed the desire for more motivational training early in their curriculum. Therefore, these results may indicate the need to enhance communications training in patient motivation on all behavioural aspects early in the dental curriculum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Çöplü, Mehtap; Tekinsoy Kartın, Pınar
This study was carried out in order to determine professional self-concept and professional values in the students, who were studying in the final year of the nursing department in schools providing undergraduate education in the Inner Anatolia Region. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 619 senior students of nursing departments in the Inner Anatolia Region. Data were collected using a Student Information Form, Professional Self-Concept Scale for the Student Nurses, and The Nurses' Professional Values Scale. Descriptive statistics, the Shapiro-Wilk test, the t-test, analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni tests were used for data analysis. Ethical Considerations: A written consent was obtained from Ethics Board of Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine and from nursing schools participating in the study. Prior to data collection, students were informed about the purpose of the study and gave written and verbal consents. Participation in the study was on voluntary basis. In the study, students' total and sub-dimension scores from the Professional Self-Concept Scale for the Student Nurses and total scores from the Nurses' Professional Values Scale were moderately high. It was detected that women received higher scores than men from the sub-dimension of professional attributes; the students who had positive perception of the nursing image and voluntarily selected their department received high scores from professional satisfaction, professional competence, and professional attributes sub-dimensions of the Professional Self-Concept Scale for the Student Nurses ( p concept and professional values, it is thought that students' awareness should be increased on these topics.
Full Text Available Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T Van der Molen,2 Arwa H Alaujan,3 Benjamin J De Boer4 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Dental Services, Central Region, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. Keywords: students, dentistry, education, management, stress
Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common female reproductive problem in women of active reproductive age which is characterized by menstrual pain or cramps in a women’s lower abdomen or back. Dysmenorrhea can be classified into primary and secondary. One of the associated risk factor of primary dysmenorrhoeais the family history, however the study on the family history of primary dysmenorrhea with recurrent menstrual pain is limited. This study was conducted to identify the correlation between family history and primary dysmenorrhea in high school girls. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at several senior high schools in Jatinangor from April−June 2013. One hundred and sixty two students were included in this study. The sample size was calculated based on the unpaired−dichotomous variable for the two−sided formula. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the senior high school girl students who were in their menarche age, menstrual cycle characteristics, presence or absence of dysmenorrhea, severity of pain and presence dysmenorrhea in mothers and in sisters were inquired. Data were analyzed using chi square test. Results: Overall, there were association between positive family history and primary dysmenorrhea among the students with (p<0.001. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 92.6% with 95% confidence interval which was 87.5−95.7%. The prevalence rate was 67.9% in mothers with 95% confidence interval which is 60.4−74.6% and 80.2% prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea in sisters with 95% confidence interval which is 73.4−85.6%. Conclusions: There is a significant association between positive family history and primary dysmenorrhea
George Lord Opoku-Antwi
Full Text Available Most policymakers and academics agree that entrepreneurship is critical to the development and well-being of society. Entrepreneurs create jobs. They drive and shape innovation, speeding up structural changes in the economy. By introducing new competition, they contribute indirectly to productivity. Entrepreneurship is thus a catalyst for economic growth and national competitiveness. While there has been significant research on the causes of entrepreneurial propensity, only a limited number of studies have focused on the entrepreneurial intent among students (especially Senior High School students. Currently, in Ghana graduate unemployment has become an albatross around the necks of the average school leaver in particular and the society in general. Graduate unemployment has increased the already high dependency syndrome and many believe entrepreneurship is the number one medicine to this unfortunate situation. 42-item questions were used to assess the entrepreneurial intention. Two mixed and two single-sex institutions in the Sunyani municipality were studied. The sample size for the study was 499 for the four (4 institutions. Data was analyzed via SPSS-17.0. The study seeks: to identify the impact of family business on entrepreneurial intention; to assess the students’ perception on the impact of education on entrepreneurial intention; to identify the risk-taking propensity of senior high school (SHS students in the Sunyani Municipality; to compare males’ entrepreneurial intentions with females; to examine SHS students’ orientation towards entrepreneurship. It is believed that the ideal stage to acquire basic knowledge about entrepreneurship and to foster a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship is during childhood and adolescence years. Generally, entrepreneurial intention among SHS students in the Sunyani municipality is high according to this study.
Full Text Available Background: The accurate knowledge of generic medicine issues among future prescribers will enhance the prescribing of cost-effective medicines. This study aimed to explore the knowledge and perception of senior medical students about the generic medicines. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 237 senior medical students (final year students and interns using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 for windows and comparison of difference was done using linear by linear association. A p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The average age (standard deviation of the respondents was 23.54 (1.39 years. Almost 5% of respondents correctly answered the question regarding the regulatory limits for bioequivalence. Almost two-thirds of respondents correctly agreed that generic medicine is bioequivalent to a brand-name medicine, and 79.3% and 72.5% of respondents correctly agreed that the medicine should be present in the same dosage form and same dose, respectively, as the brand-name medicines. However, almost half of the respondents had impression that brand-name medicines are required to meet higher safety standard than generic medicines. Almost 90% of respondents felt that advertisement by the drug companies would influence the use of brand-name medicine and they need more information about generic medicine. Conclusion: This study highlights the negative perception and knowledge deficit among the respondents. The students’ responses to almost all the statements were almost similar to the respondents’ academic year (final year students and interns, gender and nationality.
Juhl, Jacqueline A; Stedman, Lynn
Educational preparation of dental hygiene students for hospital-based practice, and advocacy efforts promote inclusion of dental hygienists within hospital-based interdisciplinary health care teams. Although the value of attending to the oral care needs of patients in critical care units has been recognized, the potential impact of optimal oral health care for the general hospital population is now gaining attention. This article describes a hospital-based educational experience for dental hygiene students and provides advocacy strategies for inclusion of dental hygienists within the hospital interdisciplinary team. The dental hygienist authors, both educators committed to evidence-based oral health care and the profession of dental hygiene, studied hospital health care and recognized a critical void in oral health care provision within that setting. They collaboratively developed and implemented a hospital-based rotation within the curriculum of a dental hygiene educational program and used advocacy skills to encourage hospital administrators to include a dental hygiene presence within hospital-based care teams. Hospital-based dental hygiene practice, as part of interprofessional health care delivery, has the potential to improve patient well-being, shorten hospital stays, and provide fiscal savings for patients, institutions, and third party payers. Advocacy efforts can promote dental hygienists as members of hospital-based health care teams. Further research is needed to document: (1) patient outcomes resulting from optimal oral care provision in hospitals; (2) best ways to prepare dental hygienists for career opportunities within hospitals and other similar health care settings; and (3) most effective advocacy strategies to promote inclusion of dental hygienists within care teams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Dental students constitute a stakeholder group that is able to provide unique information concerning the effectiveness of the dental curriculum. The purpose of this study was to determine students′ perceptions of the learning environment, intellectual climate and teacher student relationships in dental school. Methods : This study was conducted among 341 dental students of two dental college of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Response rate was 85%. In this study, the dental version of Medical Student Learning Environment Survey has been used. The questionnaires were divided in to 7 subscales like flexibility, student to student interaction, emotional climate, meaningful experience, organization, supportiveness, and breadth of interest. The students were divided in to two groups of preclinical and clinical for the purpose of comparison. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and t-test. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and differentiated in to preclinical and clinical phases. The preclinical and clinical students rated the student to student interaction as the most favorable whereas the lowest score was given to flexibility by both preclinical and clinical students. Preclinical students rated emotional climate as the lowest after flexibility whereas clinical students rated breadth of interest and meaningful experience as the lowest score after flexibility. Conclusion: This study emphasized the areas of improvement in dental school learning environment based on students′ perspective by making these required and much needed changes in the curriculum. Students′ satisfaction with their dental education can be increased.
Tano, R; Takaku, S; Ozaki, T
The objective of this study was to investigate whether having dental hygiene students monitor video recordings of their dental explorer skills is an effective means of proper self-evaluation in dental hygiene education. The study participants comprised students of a dental hygiene training school who had completed a module on explorer skills using models, and a dental hygiene instructor who was in charge of lessons. Questions regarding 'posture', 'grip', 'finger rest' and 'operation' were set to evaluate explorer skills. Participants rated each item on a two-point scale: 'competent (1)' or 'not competent (0)'. The total score was calculated for each evaluation item in evaluations by students with and without video monitoring, and in evaluations by the instructor with video monitoring. Mean scores for students with and without video monitoring were compared using a t-test, while intraclass correlation coefficients were found by reliability analysis of student and instructor evaluations. A total of 37 students and one instructor were subject to analysis. The mean score for evaluations with and without video monitoring differed significantly for posture (P Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley& Sons Ltd.
Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F
The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.
McKenzie, Carly T
This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement.
Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A
We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Schulte, A.G.; Buchalla, W.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Amaechi, B.T.; Sampaio, F.; Vougiouklakis, G.; Pitts, N.B.
The aim of the survey was to collect relevant information about education in cariology for dental undergraduate students in Europe. The ORCA/ADEE cariology curriculum group prepared a questionnaire that was mailed in 2009 to 179 European dental schools. One hundred and twenty-three dental schools
The American Student Dental Association has a substantial stake in the future of the dental profession. ASDA is taking a proactive role in addressing recently publicized cases of academic dishonesty and other ethical problems. Some of these initiatives and a sampling of the positive efforts in dental schools to build sound ethical climates are reviewed.
Furgeson, Danielle; George, Mary; Nesbit, Samuel; Peterson, Charlotte; Peterson, Diane; Wilder, Rebecca S
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the Student American Dental Hygienists' Association (SADHA) in mentoring/developing dental hygiene students for the future. This project also assessed attitudes and practices of SADHA advisors towards the utilization of SADHA as a mechanism for mentoring dental hygiene students' professional development to meet the oral health needs of the public, and the goals of the ADHA. These goals include promotion of education beyond the baccalaureate level to develop qualified faculty, encouraging dental hygiene research, and promoting leadership. The study also evaluated if geographic region and academic setting impacted the utilization of SADHA. After IRB exemption, a pilot-tested questionnaire was administered using Survey Monkey, an online survey website, to 277 individual contacts at Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) accredited dental hygiene programs. A response rate of 68% was achieved with 186 individual responses. Eighty percent of respondents indicated offering no mentoring opportunities outside of the curriculum, while incongruously, 58.3% felt they actively mentor through SADHA. When asked what the main focus of SADHA should be, SADHA advisors ranked community service/philanthropy as number one. SADHA chapters at institutions that offer a Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene (BSDH) degree completion program offer more mentoring opportunities (p= or conversion rate than other regions (p=.018). SADHA advisors do not agree on how SADHA should be utilized. The majority of SADHA chapters are not offering mentoring opportunities outside of the traditional curriculum for leadership and career development. What is clear is that both students and advisors desire more interaction with the local ADHA components and constituents. In order to address these issues, efforts should be made to provide networking support among SADHA advisors and increase faculty perception of the importance of the professional
Williams, Robert L; Romney, Crystal; Kano, Miria; Wright, Randy; Skipper, Betty; Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Zyzanski, Stephen J
Research suggests stereotyping by clinicians as one contributor to racial and gender-based health disparities. It is necessary to understand the origins of such biases before interventions can be developed to eliminate them. As a first step toward this understanding, we tested for the presence of bias in senior medical students. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bias based on race, gender, or socioeconomic status influenced clinical decision-making among medical students. We surveyed seniors at 84 medical schools, who were required to choose between two clinically equivalent management options for a set of cardiac patient vignettes. We examined variations in student recommendations based on patient race, gender, and socioeconomic status. The study included senior medical students. We investigated the percentage of students selecting cardiac procedural options for vignette patients, analyzed by patient race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Among 4,603 returned surveys, we found no evidence in the overall sample supporting racial or gender bias in student clinical decision-making. Students were slightly more likely to recommend cardiac procedural options for black (43.9 %) vs. white (42 %, p = .03) patients; there was no difference by patient gender. Patient socioeconomic status was the strongest predictor of student recommendations, with patients described as having the highest socioeconomic status most likely to receive procedural care recommendations (50.3 % vs. 43.2 % for those in the lowest socioeconomic status group, p socioeconomic status, geographic variations, and the influence of interactions between patient race and gender on student recommendations.
Omar, Hanan; Khan, Saad A; Toh, Chooi G
Student-generated videos provide an authentic learning experience for students, enhance motivation and engagement, improve communication skills, and improve collaborative learning skills. This article describes the development and implementation of a student-generated video activity as part of a knowledge, observation, simulation, and experience (KOSE) program at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It also reports the students' perceptions of an activity that introduced first-year dental students (n=44) to clinical scenarios involving patients and dental team aiming to improve professional behavior and communication skills. The learning activity was divided into three phases: preparatory phase, video production phase, and video-watching. Students were organized into five groups and were instructed to generate videos addressing given clinical scenarios. Following the activity, students' perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire. The results showed that 86 percent and 88 percent, respectively, of the students agreed that preparation of the activity enhanced their understanding of the role of dentists in provision of health care and the role of enhanced teamwork. In addition, 86 percent and 75 percent, respectively, agreed that the activity improved their communication and project management skills. Overall, the dental students perceived that the student-generated video activity was a positive experience and enabled them to play the major role in driving their learning process.
Full Text Available Objective: A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty.Results: The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%; inadequate communication style (21.9%; lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7% and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%.Conclusions: These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients.
Meador, Catherine B; Parang, Bobak; Musser, Melissa A; Haliyur, Rachana; Owens, David A; Dermody, Terence S
Leadership skills are essential for a successful career as a physician-scientist, yet many MD-PhD training programs do not offer formal training in leadership. The Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) previously established a 2-day leadership workshop that has been held biennially since 2006 for students in the first and second years of the graduate school portion of combined MD and PhD training (G1/G2 students). Workshop attendees have consistently rated this workshop as a highly effective experience. However, opportunities for structured training in leadership competencies during the subsequent 3-5 years of MD-PhD training are limited. Given the success of the G1/G2 leadership workshop and the need for continuity in this model of leadership training, we developed a half-day workshop for MSTP students in the clinical years of medical school (M3/M4 students) to foster continued training in leadership. Our workshop curriculum, based in part on original cases drafted by Vanderbilt MSTP students, provides concrete strategies to manage conflict and navigate leadership transitions in the physician-scientist career path. The curriculum emphasizes both short-term competencies, such as effective participation as a member of a clinical team, and long-term competencies, such as leadership of a research team, division, or department. Our inaugural senior leadership workshop, held in August, 2015, was judged by student participants to be well organized and highly relevant to leadership concepts and skills. It will be offered biennially in our training curriculum for M3 and M4 MSTP students.
Catherine B. Meador
Full Text Available Leadership skills are essential for a successful career as a physician-scientist, yet many MD–PhD training programs do not offer formal training in leadership. The Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP previously established a 2-day leadership workshop that has been held biennially since 2006 for students in the first and second years of the graduate school portion of combined MD and PhD training (G1/G2 students. Workshop attendees have consistently rated this workshop as a highly effective experience. However, opportunities for structured training in leadership competencies during the subsequent 3–5 years of MD–PhD training are limited. Given the success of the G1/G2 leadership workshop and the need for continuity in this model of leadership training, we developed a half-day workshop for MSTP students in the clinical years of medical school (M3/M4 students to foster continued training in leadership. Our workshop curriculum, based in part on original cases drafted by Vanderbilt MSTP students, provides concrete strategies to manage conflict and navigate leadership transitions in the physician-scientist career path. The curriculum emphasizes both short-term competencies, such as effective participation as a member of a clinical team, and long-term competencies, such as leadership of a research team, division, or department. Our inaugural senior leadership workshop, held in August, 2015, was judged by student participants to be well organized and highly relevant to leadership concepts and skills. It will be offered biennially in our training curriculum for M3 and M4 MSTP students.
Meador, Catherine B.; Parang, Bobak; Musser, Melissa A.; Haliyur, Rachana; Owens, David A.; Dermody, Terence S.
Leadership skills are essential for a successful career as a physician-scientist, yet many MD–PhD training programs do not offer formal training in leadership. The Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) previously established a 2-day leadership workshop that has been held biennially since 2006 for students in the first and second years of the graduate school portion of combined MD and PhD training (G1/G2 students). Workshop attendees have consistently rated this workshop as a highly effective experience. However, opportunities for structured training in leadership competencies during the subsequent 3–5 years of MD–PhD training are limited. Given the success of the G1/G2 leadership workshop and the need for continuity in this model of leadership training, we developed a half-day workshop for MSTP students in the clinical years of medical school (M3/M4 students) to foster continued training in leadership. Our workshop curriculum, based in part on original cases drafted by Vanderbilt MSTP students, provides concrete strategies to manage conflict and navigate leadership transitions in the physician-scientist career path. The curriculum emphasizes both short-term competencies, such as effective participation as a member of a clinical team, and long-term competencies, such as leadership of a research team, division, or department. Our inaugural senior leadership workshop, held in August, 2015, was judged by student participants to be well organized and highly relevant to leadership concepts and skills. It will be offered biennially in our training curriculum for M3 and M4 MSTP students. PMID:27499363
Scali, Elena; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kozoriz, Michael; Chang, Silvia
Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks. An anonymous multiple-choice cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students to assess knowledge of radiation from common diagnostic examinations and radiation-related risks following completion of the longitudinal radiology curriculum, carried out over the four years of medical training. Sixty-three of 192 eligible students participated (33% response rate). The majority felt that knowledge of radiation doses of common imaging examinations is somewhat or very important; however, only 12% (N = 8) routinely discuss radiation-related risks with patients. While all respondents recognized children as most sensitive to the effects of radiation, only 24% (N = 15) correctly identified gonads as the most radiation-sensitive tissue. Almost all respondents recognized ultrasound and MRI as radiation free modalities. Respondents who correctly identified the relative dose of common imaging examinations in chest x-ray equivalents varied from 3-77% (N = 2 - 49); the remaining responses were largely underestimates. Finally, 44% (N = 28) correctly identified the excess risk of a fatal cancer from an abdominal CT in an adult, while the remainder underestimated this risk. Medical students acknowledge the importance of radiation-related issues to patient care. While almost all students are familiar with radiation-free modalities, many are not familiar with, and commonly underestimate, the relative doses and risks of common imaging studies. This may expose patients to increasing imaging investigations and exposure to radiation hazards.
Fals Martínez, Juntzo; González Martínez, Farith; Orozco Páez, Jennifer; Correal Castillo, Sandra Patricia; Pernett Gómez, Cindy Vanessa
To describe the musculoskeletal disorders and association with physical and environmental in students of Dentistry. Cross sectional study. Simple random sampling was conducted obtaining a proportional sample of 182 students per semester. Collecting information from physical and environmental exposures related to different clinical practice and this was assessed by a structured survey questionnaire type. The valuation muscle was performed by visual analysis with Scan-test. To assess factors related to working position, the instrument was used RULA. For the analysis of the association were used odds ratios with confidence intervals of 95%. For the multivariate analysis using logistic regression. 58.2% of students had pain tenderness in upper trapezius and 45.6% in area cervical. Lateral movements in the cervical found pain in 35.7%, with the bending cervical 35.1% related to all these factors own dental practice and not to other factors external. The onset of muscle pain in this population is influenced by multiple variables, most of them, related to dental practice of students to interact with each other can trigger symptoms at neck and back.
Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Essel, Harry Barton
Senior High School (SHS) students in Ghana are required to pass all core and elective curricula subjects in the West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) to qualify for higher education. Unfortunately, many Visual Arts students perform poorly or fail in English, Mathematics, Integrated Science and Social Studies, which constitute…
Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Ulmer, Loreta H; Diawara, Norou
Mass fatality incidents can overwhelm local, state and national resources quickly. Dental hygienists are widely distributed and have the potential to increase response teams' capacity. However, appropriate training is required. The literature is void of addressing this type of training for dental hygienists and scant in dentistry. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess one facet of such training: Whether the use of multimedia is likely to enhance educational outcomes related to mass fatality training. A randomized, double-blind, pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of comparable educational modules for 2 groups: a control group (n=19) that received low media training and a treatment group (n=20) that received multimedia training. Participants were second-year, baccalaureate dental hygiene students. Study instruments included a multiple-choice examination, a clinical competency-based radiology lab scored via a standardized rubric, and an assessment of interest in mass fatality education as a specialty. ANOVA was used to analyze results. Participants' pre- and post-test scores and clinical competency-based radiology lab scores increased following both educational approaches. Interest in mass fatality training also increased significantly for all participants (p=0.45). There was no significant difference in pre- and post-test multiple choice scores (p=0.6455), interest (p=0.9133) or overall competency-based radiology lab scores (p=0.997) between groups. Various educational technique may be effective for mass fatality training. However, mass fatality training that incorporates multimedia is an appropriate avenue for training instruction. Continued research about multimedia's role in this specialty area is encouraged. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Springfield, Emily C; Smiler, Andrew P; Gwozdek, Anne E
Previous research has suggested that transformative learning can be fostered in higher education by creating active learning experiences that are directly related to content taught, are personally engaging, and can stimulate reflection. The aim of this qualitative study was to assess changes experienced by students in an e-learning dental hygiene degree completion program beyond attainment of competence-changes that may be described as transformative learning. The data used were transcripts of focus groups that had been conducted with each of the first five cohorts of students to graduate from the program; a total of 30 of the 42 students in the five cohorts (71%) participated. Using their previously developed Transformation Rubric for Engaged Learning, the authors categorized focus group data to identify changes in students' confidence, pride, skills, perceptions of the world, and personal identity at the transformative and nontransformative levels. Every participant reported at least one change; overall, the students averaged 8.3 changes. The vast majority (84%) of these changes were transformative. Middle-performing students showed a disproportionately higher rate of transformational changes in the areas of confidence and pride. The e-learning program appeared to have had a significant transformative impact on students, but additional research on the effect on middle-performing students is warranted.
Coskun Benlidayi, Ilke; Al-Bayati, Zainb; Guzel, Rengin; Sarpel, Tunay
It has been well established that musculoskeletal complaints are common among dentistry students. However, data regarding the comparison of overall musculoskeletal health between dental and medical students is scarce. The objective of the current study was to compare musculoskeletal health between medical and dental students. The population of the current study was comprised of fourth- and fifth-year students from medical and dental faculties of the same university who were at least three months in clinical training. Self-administered multi-item questionnaires regarding the musculoskeletal complaints were distributed to these students. A comparative analysis was carried out on the responses derived from the medical and dental students. A total of 219 students completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 81.1%. Almost four fifth (80.4%) of the students reported musculoskeletal pain, with frequencies of 85.9 and 75.8% in dental and medical students, respectively (p > 0.05). Total, upper extremity and neck VAS scores were significantly higher in dental students than those in medical students (p < 0.01, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The rate of mild-severe pain sufferers in the upper extremity was also higher among dental students (p < 0.001). Musculoskeletal pain is frequent in both medical and dental students. However, the intensity of pain - particularly for the upper extremity and neck - is higher among dental students. The findings of the current study might be attributed to the fact that dental education requires more physical burden during routine clinical training than medical education.
M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); G.J. Kok (Gerjo); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); O. de Zwart (Onno); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBackground: Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance
Ali, F. A. Farah; Aliyu, Umar Yanda
The present study examined the use of social networking among senior secondary school students in Abuja Municipal Area Council of FCT. The study employed quantitative method for data collection involving questionnaire administration. Fifteen questions with Likert model and ten yes/no responses in a questionnaire were personally administered to 400…
Ndem, Joseph; Ogba, Ernest; Egbe, Benjamin
This study was designed to assess the agricultural engineering knowledge and competencies acquired by the senior secondary students for farm mechanization in technical colleges in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the…
Wen, Wen-cheng; Lu, Shiau-yun
In recent years, rapid changes in the Earth's climate and environment have influenced our lives greatly. The ocean occupies 70% of the Earth's surface and is intimately related to the regulation of climate, fostering of life, and also to social economy, as well as sports and leisure. Students in the senior years of primary education are in a phase…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of technology-embedded scientific inquiry (TESI) on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 117 SSSTs (68 females and 49 males aged 21-23 years) enrolled in an Environmental Chemistry elective course. Within a quasi-experimental design, the…
Olufunke, Bello Theodora
The study determined the available Physics Laboratory Equipment (PLE) for the teaching and learning of physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria as well as the extent of utilizing the available equipment. The research design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. The sample consisted of nine hundred students who were randomly chosen…
Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.
The study investigated the relative effectiveness of framing and team assisted individualised (TAI) instructional strategies on the attitudes toward mathematics of 350 senior secondary school year two Nigerian students. The moderating effects of gender and style of categorisation were also examined. The study adopted pre-test and post-test control…
Astra, I Made; Nasbey, Hadi; Nugraha, Aditiya
The aim of this research is to create learning media for senior high school students through an android application in the form of a simulation lab. The method employed in the study is research and development. A simulation lab which has been made subsequently validated by concept and media experts, further empirical testing by teachers and…
Kim, Myung Ah; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Eun Jung
Senior nursing students are faced with various types of stressful events such as taking the national licensure exam or finding employment. Such stress can generate maladaptive behaviors as well as physical and psychological symptoms. There is evidence supporting the use of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) for reducing disruptive behaviors and negative emotions as well as improving self-efficacy and stress-coping strategies. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on stress coping strategies and self-efficacy for senior nursing students. Thirty-four senior nursing students in a nursing college were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n=18) and a control group (n=16). The REBT program consisted of 8 sessions, and it was implemented for a 4-week period. Outcome measures assessed stress-coping strategies and self-efficacy before and after intervention. After intervention with REBT, the mean difference scores for self-efficacy (p=.032) were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. However, the mean difference scores for seeking social support (p=.166), problem solving (p=.126), and avoidance (p=.154) in stress-coping strategies were not significantly different between the two groups. The results imply that group counseling based on REBT enhances the self-efficacy among senior nursing students before graduation. As regards stress coping strategies, a longer intervention period is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.
The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' academic achievement in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…
Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.
The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' retention in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…
Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.
Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning (PBL on senior secondary school students' beliefs about Further Mathematics in Nigeria within the blueprint of pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. Intact classes were used and in all, 96 students participated in the study (42 in the experimental group taught with the PBL and 54 in the control group taught using the Traditional Method (TM. One research instrument tagged Beliefs about Further Mathematics Questionnaire (BFMQ, Cronbach alpha (α=.86 was developed and used for the study and data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation which served as precursor to testing the null hypothesis for the study using an independent samples t-test and analysis of variance. Results showed that participants held strong beliefs about further mathematics and there was a statistically significant difference in the mean post-treatment scores on BFMQ (t=-6.22, p=.000 for t-test and (F(1,95=38.49; p<.001 for ANOVA between students exposed to the PBL and those exposed to the TM, in favour of the PBL group. Based on the results, the study recommended that PBL should be adopted as an instructional strategy for promoting meaningful learning in and enhancing beliefs about further mathematics and efforts should be made to integrate the philosophy of PBL into the preservice teachers' curriculum at the teacher-preparation institutions in Nigeria.
Thohirudin, M; Maryati, TK; Dwirahayu, G
Visualisation ability is an ability to process, inform, and transform object which suitable for geometry topic in math. This research aims to describe the influence of using software GeoGebra and transparent mica for student’s visualisation ability. GeoGebra is shortness of geometry and algebra. GeoGebra is an open source program that is created for math. Transparent mica is a tool that is created by the author to transform a geometry object. This research is a quantitative experiment model. The subject of this research were students in grade XII of science program in Annajah Senior High School Rumpin with two classes which one as an experiment class (science one) and another one as a control class (science two). Experiment class use GeoGebra and transparent mica in the study, and control class use powerpoint in the study. Data of student’s visualisation ability is collected from posttest with visual questions which are gifted at the end of the research to both classes with topic “transformation geometry”. This research resulted that studying with GeoGebra and transparent mica had a better influence than studying with powerpoint to student’s visualisation ability. The time of study in class and the habit of the students to use software and tool affected the result of research. Although, GeoGebra and transparent mica can give help to students in transformation geometry topic. (paper)
Margareta Aulia Rachman
Full Text Available The development of information technology affects students in searching and finding information, particularly information regarding the General Election. The explosion of information on mass media about the elections resulted impact (both positive and negative to the potential voters. Nowadays, media plays role as a tool for political parties to lead public opinion to support their parties. Based on the data provided by General Election Commission (KPU in 2014, 20% of voters were identified as students (teens. This is a qualitative research with case study method which aims to gain insight about interpretation, understanding, perceptions and feelings of teenage voters’ behavior in searching and finding information about general election in Indonesia year 2014. The data were collected by conducting interview and observation. Informants in this study were students, aged 17-18 years, who studying in government senior high school in Depok. The results of this study indicates that informants using social media to keep update about general election. Besides, they also gain information from their parents and close friends. Unfortunatelly, they were not able to identify which information which are correct or not, so they rely on people around them to make sure whether they did right decision. Therefore, this study also suggest that KPU needs to develop promotion strategy that suitable for teens about general election.
Margareta Aulia Rahman
Full Text Available The development of information technology affects students in searching and finding information, particularly information regarding the General Election. Theexplosion of information on mass media about the elections resulted impact (both positive and negative to the potential voters. Nowadays, media plays role as a tool for political parties to lead public opinion to support their parties. Based on the data provided by General Election Commission (KPU in 2014, 20% of voters were identified as students (teens. This is a qualitative research with case study methodwhich aims to gain insight about interpretation, understanding, perceptions and feelings of teenage voters’ behavior in searching and finding information about general election in Indonesia year 2014. The data were collected by conducting interview and observation. Informants (six persons in this study were students, aged 17-18 years, who studying in government senior high school in Depok. The results of this study indicates that informants using social media to keep update about general election. Besides, they also gain information from their parents and close friends. Unfortunatelly, they were not able to identify which information which are correct or not, so they rely on people around them to make sure whether they did right decision. Therefore, this study also suggest that KPU needs to develop promotion strategy that suitable for teens about general election.
Full Text Available Introduction: In a four-year undergraduate level , the nursing students have to get prepared in the patients education, designing care plans, applying nursing processes and exercise the clinical decisions, in addition to learning practical skills. Therefore, multiple clinical teaching strategies in nursing must be applied. In this study the sheets for the mentioned fields were designed and used. Methods: In this action research in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 64 nursing senior students and related instructors participated. Clinical written assignment included the patient’s health condition sheet, tables showing the used medicines and the precautions, the clinical and paraclinical tests and the results, identifying the patient problems, designing and implementing care plan and writing nursing reports with SOAPIE method. The instructors’ viewpoints were achieved through the group discussions and their notes taken. The perceived competency of the students was obtained through a questionnaire. The qualitative data was analyzed by the content analysis and quantitative using SPSS. Results: Both the students and the instructors agreed with the clinical written assignment. The desired care competency of the students before and after assignment was statistically significant (p<0.05. According to the instructors, intervention was useful for the senior students who have passed the courses needed for completing and using the different parts of these forms. Conclusion: Since a need is always felt in the trends of the nursing clinical teaching, the researchers recommend the clinical written assignment and their application along with other strategies for senior nursing students in clinical teaching.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Catalanotto, Frank A; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse
This study reports and compares dental student and dental faculty scores to national norms for the Defining Issues Test 2, a measure of ethical decision-making competency. The findings showed that dental students and faculty tend to make decisions that promote self-interest, paralleling the ethical orientation of business professionals. Differences associated with gender, language, and norms from previous studies were observed. The findings underscore the importance of raising dental faculty and student awareness of their own ethical decision-making approaches. More importantly, the findings highlight the need to ensure that dental faculty have both the knowledge and skills to train dental students about the central role that ethical decision-making must play in patient care.
Yustiana, I. A.; Paidi; Mercuriani, I. S.
This study aimed to determine the Biology factual knowledge at eleventh grade of senior high school students in Pacitan based on favorite schools. This research was a descriptive research by using survey method. The population in this study was all of senior high school students in Pacitan. The sampling technique used purposive sampling technique and obtained 3 favorite schools and 3 non-favorite schools. The technique of collecting data used test form which was as the instrument of the research. Data analysis technique used Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the test, it was obtained p = 0,000 (p <0,05) so there was a significant difference between the factual knowledge of the students in the favorite schools and non-favorite schools in Pacitan. The factual knowledge of students in favorite schools was higher with an average of 5.32 while non-favorite schools were obtained an average of 4.36.
Full Text Available Background: Considering the importance of anger, aggression, violence and other misbehaviours in schoolchildren education, the present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan province regarding violence, in order to figure out the required interventions for violence-reduction. Methods: In a survey during 2008-2009, 5500 junior and senior high school students of Isfahan province were assessed in a multistage sampling process to determine their level of knowledge about various types of violent behaviors, causes of violence, its consequences, and preventive behaviors. Validity and reliability of the data collection tool (questionnaire were assessed. Results: The study revealed that the mean scores of violent behaviors knowledge, knowledge of violent behavior outcomes, and knowledge of violence preventive behaviors, were 6.6 ± 2.1, 5.5 ± 1.9, and 4.7 ± 1.3, respectively. Sources of violent behaviors in 92% of urban students and 89% of rural students were personal reasons and family behaviors, and 85% of urban and 88% of rural students considered mass media and computer games blameworthy, and the differences were statistically significant in all cases (P < 0.0001. In terms of practice, overall, 69.7% of girls and 84.2% of boys had violent behaviors. Physical and verbal violence were 31.3% and 40.7%in girls, and 66% and 52.8% in boys, respectively (intersexes P values were P < 0.001 and P = 0.7 respectively, and intra-sex P value was P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Results showed that girls and city dwellers were more aware of recognizing violent behaviors, outcomes, and causes, compared with boys and villagers, and in terms of general practice, violence was observed among boys more than girls. Further complementary studies in this area seem required.
Stewart, Christopher J
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the number and range of clinical procedures completed by undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry in Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Ireland, and to compare the number of procedures undertaken with the subsequent examination scores. The work comprised a retrospective audit of clinical logbooks for all of the undergraduate dental students in one cohort through their fourth and fifth clinical years between 2004 and 2006. Thirty-four quantitative logbooks were audited. Students had seen a total of 1,031 patients, and each student had completed a full course of dental treatment for an average of twenty-two children. Students completed means of 30.2 restorative procedures for children, fourteen in deciduous dentition (range six to twenty-eight), and seventeen in permanent dentition (range seven to twenty-eight). Continuity of education and care (measured through children having their treatment fully completed by the same student) was 72 percent. A moderate positive correlation between levels of clinical experience and exam score was identified. All students gained experience in management of child patients with students providing care for an average of thirty children and a minimum of nineteen.
Saxena, Payal; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Mehrotra, Divya; Kamthan, Shivam; Sabir, Husain; Katiyar, Pratibha; Sai Prasad, S V
Education has largely been digitalized. More so, for professional education, keeping updated in this fast paced world has become a necessary requisite and dentistry has not been left untouched. This cross sectional questionnaire based study aimed to assess the digital literacy and smartphone usage amongst the 260 Central Indian dental students including their perspicacity about smartphone/internet usage for learning purposes. The students' attitude for implementation of digital technology in study programs/education system was also evaluated. The questionnaire was distributed among total 260 dental students from different dental institutes of Central India. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS software. Out of 260 students, 250 were internet users, out of which 56% had internet access all time. 94.23% students owned a smartphone. 46.53% (114/245) students had some app related to the dentistry in their smartphone device. The commonest site for surfing related to knowledge seeking was google scholar (72%) followed by Pubmed and others. Nearly 80% dental students believed that social media helps them in their professional course studies. Post graduate students showed statistitically significant difference from undergraduates and interns in terms of knowledge of keywords, dental apps and reading research journals. 89.23% students were keen for implementation of e-learning in their curriculum. This study reflects willingness of dental students to adopt digital revolution in dental education which in turn may present an opportunity for educators and policy makers to modify educational methods and thereby advance student's current learning approaches.
Yanulde Massano Galvez
Full Text Available This work presents a system of activities for t he development of the appreciation process of folk craft in Senior High students. The Edad de Oro, by José Martí, is taken as a starting point, since this work considers authentic Cuban values stated by “The Teacher”. Consciousness about the Cuban cultural identity is fostered in the students by promoting local and traditional folk art.
Gershen, J A; McCreary, C P
The marked increase in women enrolled in dental school warrants a reassessment of dental student personality profiles. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to compare personality profiles of two first-year dental classes, (2) to compare male and female dental student profiles to their respective norm populations, and (3) to compare male and female dental student personality traits with each other. The Comrey Personality Scales were administered to two first-year dental classes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Between sex and within sex comparisons were made over ten inventory scales. Results indicated that the collective personality profiles of male and female dental students were markedly similar to each other for both classes. These results do not reflect the differences encountered between the sexes in the norm population. It was also noted that the "average" male dental student differed from the male norms on Orderliness versus Lack of Compulsion, Social Conformity versus Rebelliousness, and Emotional Stability versus Neuroticism. In addition, "average" female dental student differed from the female norms on Masculinity versus Femininity.
Bearor, Dawn E.
The clinical education component provided to dental hygiene students is an essential part of their development as competent practitioners. Instructor approaches to clinical teaching are therefore critical in providing quality clinical learning experiences. This study sought to identify dental hygiene students' perceptions of "best" and…
Butters, Janice M.; Vaught, Randall L.
A study investigated the effect of an extramural rotation on dental-hygiene students' self-perceptions of competence in specific clinical areas. Results indicate student perceptions of competence improved significantly on six of 19 dimensions of dental-hygiene practice over the course of the rotation, suggesting that rotation is a valuable…
Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Morris, Dustin R
A lack of curriculum time devoted to teaching dental students about the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) health care patient needs and biases against LGBT students and faculty have been reported. Understanding dental school administrators' attitudes about LGBT students' needs might provide further insight into these long-standing issues. The aims of this study were to develop a survey to assess dental administrators' attitudes regarding the support services they believe LGBT-identified students need, to identify dental schools' current diversity inclusion policies, and to determine what types of support dental schools currently provide to LGBT students. A survey developed with the aid of a focus group, cognitive interviewing, and pilot testing was sent to 136 assistant and associate deans and deans of the 65 U.S. and Canadian dental schools. A total of 54 responses from 43 (66%) schools were received from 13 deans, 29 associate deans, and 11 assistant deans (one participant did not report a position), for a 40% response rate. The findings suggest there is a considerable lack of knowledge or acknowledgment of LGBT dental students' needs. Future studies are needed to show the importance of creating awareness about meeting the needs of all dental student groups, perhaps through awareness campaigns initiated by LGBT students.
Newbrun, E. Fluoride and Dental caries (3 ed.). San francisco: Springfield. 1978. 5.Vuhahula et al. Dental fluorosis in Great Rift Valley in relation to fluoride level in water and Magadi. Desalination. 2010; 252: 193-198. 3. Group students who didn't know how fluorosis can be avoided students who knew how fluorosis can be.
Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Gruythuysen, R. J. M.
A study measured the influence of treating disabled persons during the practical training period on the dental hygiene student's attitude toward the disabled, and studied whether attitude and self-confidence are related to certain student characteristics. (MSE)
Champine, J M; Inglehart, M R; Furgeson, D; Halaris, J F; Fitzgerald, M; Danciu, T E; Kinney, J S
The dental hygiene profession in the U.S. is in the process of establishing a direct access model of care and contributing to the creation of the profession of a dental therapist. The objectives were to analyse the professional role perceptions of dental hygiene students and registered dental hygienists in these times of change. Specifically, it was explored whether dental hygiene students' current professional identities differ (i) from their expected future identities, and (ii) from dental hygienists' current and (iii) past identities. Survey data were collected from 215 dental hygiene students concerning their present and future role perceptions, and from 352 registered dental hygienists concerning their present and past professional identity perceptions. Students' future professional identity perceptions were even more positive than their very positive current perceptions of their professional role components. Students' current perceptions of professional pride, professional ambition, work ethic and patient relations were more positive than dental hygienists' current perceptions of these professional role components. A comparison of students' current perceptions with dental hygienists' current and retrospective descriptions showed that students were more positive than dental hygienists in each case. The fact that dental hygienists had less positive role perceptions than dental hygiene students might lead to the conclusion that a loss of idealism occurs over the course of a professional lifespan. However, dental hygienists actually improved their role perceptions over time and students' future descriptions were more positive than their current descriptions, supporting the interpretation that realistic optimism dominates professional role perceptions in these times of change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela; Vodanović, Marin
Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process.
Full Text Available In the article the functional analysis of future music art teachers’ training for singing activity of comprehensive school senior students is depicted. This issue is very important because improving educators and musicians’ training contributes not only to professional selfactualisation, but also to young generation’s encouraging for thorough learning music art works and their creative development in the process of group music tuitions. Extracurricular singing activity also plays an important part. It reveals art images to students, enriching creativity experience, forms the spiritual world, develops independent thinking, awakens creativity. The author points out the main functions of future music art teachers’ training. They are system and value, information, communication, creative and transformative, projective functions. The special attention is paid to characterizing the features of each function. The author claims that system and value function relates to the necessity to analyze the results of the educational process that contributes to productive solving problems by students and main tasks of music training. Information function is a subject background of art music teachers’ and pedagogical activities. Communicative function is realized in a teacher’s ability to develop the student’ initiative to plan cooperative activities, to be able to distribute duties, to carry out instructions, to coordinate cooperative activities, to create special situations for the implementation of educational influence. The analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature shows that The creative and transformative function is manifested in the creative use of pedagogical and methodological ideas in specific pedagogical conditions. The projective function is thought to promote the most complete realization of content of comprehensive and art education. Functional analysis of students’ training of art faculties at pedagogical universities to
Meitar, Dafna; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eidelman, Shmuel
To evaluate the possible influence of personal difficulties and barriers that are within the news bearer and his or her self-awareness (SA) of them, on the patterns of communication during encounters involving breaking bad news (BBN). Following an intensive BBN course in 2004, 103 senior medical students at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, were evaluated for BBN competencies by the analysis of their written descriptions of how they visualized their manner of delivering bad news to a patient described in a challenging vignette. The students were further asked to reflect on their own difficulties and barriers that surfaced in response to reading the narrative presented in the vignette and in delivering the bad news. Using an immersion crystallization narrative analysis method, the authors analyzed the relationship between the students' BBN strategies and their self-perceived barriers and difficulties. Four types of communicators were identified and related to 45 different personal and professional barriers that the students, through self-reflection, found in themselves. These perceived barriers as well as the ability to self-reflect on them influenced their patterns of communication in their envisioned and written-down encounters, including the level of emotional connectedness, information provided, and the chosen focus-of-care paradigm (physician-centered, patient-centered, or relationship-centered). These findings empirically demonstrate that intrapersonal difficulties within the communicator and his or her level of SA about them influenced the manner and content of the communication during the encounter. This finding suggests that enhancing SA and addressing personal and professional difficulties could help physicians' capability to cope with challenging communication tasks. The authors propose a working tool (the Preparatory SPIKES) to facilitate the integration of self-reflection (by identifying personal difficulties) into day-by-day planning
I Wayan Dirgeyasa
Full Text Available This research aims to find out the typical categories of answers to Yes/No questions most used by students at selected Public Senior High Schools in Medan, Indonesia. These schools were classified into top favorite, medium favorite and non-favorite schools. Through a stratified clustered random sampling technique, six schools were chosen consisting of two schools from each classification. A number of 40 students were chosen from three class X, three class XI and three class XII at each of the six chosen schools, making a total sample of 720 students with 360 sets of dialogue scripts. Data was collected through documentation-recording dialogues. The data was transcribed and analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results of the research showed that: 1 the categories of the students’ answers to the Yes/No questions were distributed variously in terms of the six models. However, the distribution of the answers was not proportionally equal amongst all the models, 2 the dominant distribution of the answers was the third model with the formula Yes/No+additional information such as confirming, supporting, etc., reaching 37% of the total answers, whilst the least common models were the sixth and fourth categories respectively, which had 1% and 3% of the answers respectively, and finally 3 there was no significant difference in the distribution of the students’ answers in terms of the class of school whether top favorite, medium favorite or non-favorite. In conclusion, the ways to answer Yes/No questions need to be developed amongst students by their teachers by teaching and learning using natural, real life-like situations and in contextual ways.
George N. Ani
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Use of drugs among adolescents is a global phenomenon eating deep into the fabrics of our society. Students are most vulnerable at this transformative stage in their life. Available report indicates that Nigeria is currently the highest consumer of cannabis and amphetamine in Africa. What is the prevalence of this abuse by students? Methodology: This research was a cross sectional descriptive design to identify the prevalence of substance abuse among students in public senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government, Lagos. A sample size of two hundred and sixty two was determined and used from randomly selected five out of the nine public schools identified. Multi stage sampling (including simple random and systematic sampling and probability proportional to size methods were usefully employed in scientific selection of 262 samples and subsequent data collection in a total sample frame of 1,938 students. Self-administered questionnaire consisting of open and close-ended questions generated using research objectives was used in data collection. Result: It identified that 19.5% had smoked cigarette once or more in their lifetime. 77.2% had used alcohol once or more in a life time while 7.7% used marijuana, 8.4% tranquilizers and 1.9% cocaine all in a life time respectively. Conclusion: It recommended strict regulation of alcohol and tobacco products import and use in public places as well as aggressive dissemination of information on the dangers of substance use and abuse.
Full Text Available Background. University students are exposed to a multitude of stressors that may impact on their performance. The nature of health sciences education generally involves early engagement with patients and communities, which may add to the stressors inherent to university life. There is sparse information on stressors in the oral hygiene educational environment. Objective. To determine perceived stressors and the level of burnout among oral hygiene students at the University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. Method. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. The study sample included all students in the Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH degree during 2012 (N=89. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data. Three parameters were measured, i.e. (i demographic characteristics; (ii perceived sources of stress, using a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire; and (iii burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Results. Respondents were mostly female (74% and primarily in the 18 - 25-year age group (92%. First- and 2nd-year students identified fear of failing and study load as major stressors. Stressors related to a lack of basic needs were identified as major stressors by 25% of 1st-year students. Third-year students identified clinical quotas, supervision and patients being late as major stressors. MBI scores indicated that students were not at risk for burnout; however, most students (66.2% scored high on emotional exhaustion (EE. Conclusion. Oral hygiene students identified stressors in their learning environment. There was a progressive increase in EE across academic years. The results suggest that interventions should be tailored for specific academic year groups.
Junco, Pilar; Barrios, Rocío; Ruiz, María José; Bravo, Manuel
Oral piercing can lead to complications and dentists are in a unique position to detect such complications. The purpose of this study was: (i) to assess the immediate and the long-term effects, on dental students, of a training programme about oral piercing knowledge; and (ii) to assess the immediate effect, on adolescents, of a single educational intervention session about oral piercing. A training programme for dental students (n = 66) was carried out in three phases. The last phase consisted of preparing and giving talks about oral piercing at schools, which was delivered by a random selection of dental students involved in the training programme. Dental students answered a questionnaire about oral piercing knowledge, before, immediately after (only the dental students included in the last phase) and 12 months after the training programme. Adolescents (n = 347) answered a survey about oral piercing knowledge before and after the talks. There were statistically significant differences in all comparison groups, except for the results in the 'before intervention' and in the '12 months after intervention' groups among dental students who had not prepared and given the talks to adolescents. Knowledge about oral piercing significantly improved among adolescents when comparing results before (mean questionnaire score = 3.0) and after (mean questionnaire score = 6.2) the talks. Oral piercing educational intervention had a favourable impact on adolescents and dental students, particularly among those who were more involved in the learning process. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available Becher Al-Halabi,1 Yousef Marwan,2 Mohammad Hasan,3 Sulaiman Alkhadhari41Department of Surgery, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kuwait; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Al-Razi Hospital, Al-Sabah Medical Area, Ministry of Health, Kuwait; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Kuwait Cancer Control Center, Al-Sabah Medical Area, Ministry of Health, Kuwait; 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, KuwaitBackground: Research is the foundation of scientific advancement and improvement in quality of health care, which ensures the good health of the community. The aim of this study is to explore experiences, attitudes, and barriers of medical students in Kuwait University (KU in regards to extracurricular research.Methods: A questionnaire about extracurricular research activities (ie, any research activity that is not part of the required undergraduate curriculum, such as publishing a paper, research elective, etc was distributed to 175 senior medical students (years 6 and 7. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were used to analyze the responses, considering a P-value of <0.05 as the cut-off level for significance. The main outcome was defined as taking part in any of the extracurricular research activities.Results: Of the 150 participants (response rate = 85.7%, 26 (17.3%, 68 (45.3%, 52 (34.7%, and 17 (11.3% had published their required medical school research, presented abstracts in conferences, conducted extracurricular research, and completed a research elective/course, respectively; 99 (66.0% took part in any of these activities. Participants who read medical journals regularly (81; 54% reported higher participation in extracurricular research activities than those who did not read journals (P=0.003. Improving the availability of mentors for students' extracurricular research was ranked by the participants as the most important factor to improve their participation in
Moler, Perry J.
The purpose of this study was to understand what perceptions junior and senior engineering & technology students have about change, change readiness, and selected attributes, skills, and abilities. The selected attributes, skills, and abilities for this study were lifelong learning, leadership, and self-efficacy. The business environment of today is dynamic, with any number of internal and external events requiring an organization to adapt through the process of organizational development. Organizational developments affect businesses as a whole, but these developments are more evident in fields related to engineering and technology. Which require employees working through such developments be flexible and adaptable to a new professional environment. This study was an Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods design, with Stage One being an online survey that collected individuals' perceptions of change, change readiness, and associated attributes, skills, and abilities. Stage Two was a face-to-face interview with a random sample of individuals who agreed to be interviewed in Stage One. This process was done to understand why students' perceptions are what they are. By using a mixed-method study, a more complete understanding of the current perceptions of students was developed, thus allowing external stakeholders' such as Human Resource managers more insight into the individuals they seek to recruit. The results from Stage One, one sample T-test with a predicted mean of 3.000 for this study indicated that engineering & technology students have a positive perceptions of Change Mean = 3.7024; Change Readiness Mean = 3.9313; Lifelong Learning Mean = 4.571; Leadership = 4.036; and Self-Efficacy Mean = 4.321. A One-way ANOVA was also conducted to understand the differences between traditional and non-traditional student regarding change and change readiness. The results of the ANOVA test indicated there were no significant differences between these two groups. The results
Oh, Hye-Young; Jung, Hoi-In; Lee, Jeong-Woo; de Jong, Elbert de Josselin; Kim, Baek-Il
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology in detecting dental restorations by comparing the detection ability of dental hygiene students between using conventional visual inspection alone and visual inspection combined with QLF technology. The subjects of this study comprised 92 dental hygiene students. The students assigned to the control group only used white-light images to visually assess the mouth environment, while those in the experimental group additionally used fluorescence images. Using the test results of an experienced inspector as a reference value, the agreement between the reference value and the evaluation results of the students in the experimental and control groups was evaluated using Cohen's kappa and the percentage agreement. The subjects were then classified into groups covering three percentage ranges according to the score distribution and agreement values of the three groups were compared. The percentage agreement was calculated according to the type of dental restorations. The mean kappa value was significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (0.70 vs 0.60, ptechnology increased by 8% more in the middle and bottom percentage groups than in the top percentage group (ptechnology with conventional visual inspections could improve the ability to detect dental restorations and distinguish sound teeth from aesthetic restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina
Although substantial gender differences in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour are frequently reported in the international physics education literature, the majority of studies focus on students who intend to choose physics for their future study. The present multi-occasional study examines the gender difference in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour among senior secondary students from New South Wales schools who have already chosen to study physics. It examines whether the differences reflect differences of degree in these dimensions, or differences of kind for these students. Fine-grained analyses at module-specific level of the senior secondary physics curriculum indicated that the differences do not represent differences of kind. That is, girls' and boys' perceptions of the key facets of motivation, sustained engagement and choice intentions in relation to physics seemed to be qualitatively the same. However, there were differences in the degree to which boys and girls are motivated, although the pattern was inconsistent across the four modules of the senior secondary physics curriculum. Girls' motivation, engagement and sustained enrolment plans in relation to physics were found equal to or higher than boys' at various time points through the course. These findings highlight the need to change the existing gender-biased stereotype that students perceive physics as a male domain and that subjective motivation, engagement and enrolment plans will always report higher measures for males. The results have implications for intervention strategies aimed at sustaining student motivation in physics. The potential implications of the findings for practitioners and researchers are discussed.
Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was proposed to estimate the effectiveness of different screening methods of the Burnout Syndrome among dental students. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The Burnout Syndrome assessment was performed using the Oldenburg Inventory-Student survey (OLBI-SS and the Copenhagen Inventory-Student survey (CBI‑SS. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student survey (MBI-SS was used as the gold standard. The psychometric properties of the instruments were measured. The second-order hierarchical model was estimated to calculate the overall scores for OLBI-SS and CBI-SS, and ROC curves were constructed and the areas were estimated (AUROC. RESULT: A total of 235 undergraduate students participated in this study. The instruments showed an adequate reliability and validity; however three questions had to be removed from OLBI-SS and one from CBI-SS. The Exhaustion dimension of OLBI-SS, and Personal Burnout and Study related Burnout of CBI-SS presented a good discriminating capacity. CONCLUSION: CBI-SS showed higher discriminating capacity, than OLBI-SS, to identify the Burnout Syndrome (DAUROC=.172 [.103-.240]; p<.05.
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological disturbances in clinical dental students and teachers remain largely unknown. Aim: To describe the psychological health of clinical dental students and their trainers in an institution in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among clinical dental students and faculty of an Indian dental college in November 2014. The questionnaire consisted of depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS 21, a short version of the original 42-item DASS. Data were compiled on SPSS version 21. Group comparisons were done and P values were obtained. All tests were two-tailed with significance set at P< 0.05. Results: Stress scores were found to be higher in students as compared to trainers (P = 0.040, with the highest scores for undergraduate students. Statistically, significant difference was seen in stress scores between graduate and postgraduate trainers (P = 0.015, undergraduates and postgraduate trainers (P = 0.005, and postgraduate trainers and students (P = 0.029. A significant difference was also observed between depression scores in graduate and postgraduate trainers (P = 0.006 as well as postgraduate trainers and students (P = 0.041. Females had significantly higher level of stress (P = 0.007 and anxiety (P = 0.003 scores as compared to males. Conclusion: Stress, anxiety, and depression scores in dental students are higher than trainers. Undergraduate students among all showed the highest scores for all three parameters. Different approaches to reduce them should be further investigated and utilized at the earliest.
Reed, Susan G; Adibi, Shawn S; Coover, Mullen; Gellin, Robert G; Wahlquist, Amy E; AbdulRahiman, Anitha; Hamil, Lindsey H; Walji, Muhammad F; O'Neill, Paula; Kalenderian, Elsbeth
The Consortium for Oral Health Research and Informatics (COHRI) is leading the way in use of the Dental Diagnostic System (DDS) terminology in the axiUm electronic health record (EHR). This collaborative pilot study had two aims: 1) to investigate whether use of the DDS terms positively impacted predoctoral dental students' critical thinking skills measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and 2) to refine study protocols. The study design was a natural experiment with cross-sectional data collection using the HSRT for 15 classes (2013-17) of students at three dental schools. Characteristics of students who had been exposed to the DDS terms were compared with students who had not, and the differences were tested by t-tests or chi-square tests. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome on the overall critical thinking score. The results showed that exposure was significantly related to overall score (p=0.01), with not-exposed students having lower mean overall scores. This study thus demonstrated a positive impact of using the DDS terminology in an EHR on the critical thinking skills of predoctoral dental students in three COHRI schools as measured by their overall score on the HSRT. These preliminary findings support future research to further evaluate a proposed model of critical thinking in clinical dentistry.
Louise M. Saija
Full Text Available Salah satu standar yang diberikan oleh National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM adalah disposisi matematik. Disposisi bukan sekedar merujuk pada sikap tetapi suatu kecenderungan untuk berpikir dan bersikap dalam cara yang positif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa disposisi matematik dan hubungannya dengan hasil belajar matematika siswa-siswa sekolah menengah atas (SMA. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah 149 siswa SMA di Bandung. Analisa statistik didasarkan pada korelasi peringkat Spearman dan uji-t. Ditemukan bahwa secara rata-rata, disposisi matematik dari siswa-siswa SMA dikategorikan rendah. Selanjutnya, terdapat korelasi positif dan signifikan antara disposisi matematik dan hasil belajar matematika siswa-siswa SMA, walaupun nilai koefisien korelasinya tidak tinggi. Suatu observasi juga dilakukan untuk menganalisa hubungan ini, dan didapati bahwa walaupun beberapa siswa memiliki disposisi matematik yang baik, kadang kala mereka tidak dapat menyelesaikan ujian dengan baik, karena padatnya kurikulum, dan juga aktifitas sosial mereka, yang membuat hasil belajar matematika mereka lebih rendah. Temuan lainnya adalah bahwa siswa-siswa SMA memerlukan guru-guru matematika dengan lebih banyak strategi mengajar agar mereka dapat memiliki disposisi matematik yang lebih baik. Kata Kunci: Disposisi Matematik, Hasil Belajar Matematika One of the evaluation standards given by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM was mathematical disposition. Disposition refers not simply to attitudes but to a tendency to think and to act in positive ways. This study aimed to analyze the mathematical disposition and its correlation with mathematics achievement of senior high school (SMA students. A total of 149 SMA students in Bandung were procured as samples. Statistical analysis was based on the Spearman rank correlation and on the t-test. The findings showed that at average, the mathematical disposition of the SMA
Full Text Available The nature of motivation and learning strategy use is vital to improving student learning outcomes. This study was intended to explore the motivational beliefs and learning strategy use by Liberian junior and senior high school students in connection with their academic performance. It also solicited students’ self-reports about presumed factors hindering their learning. Utilizing a cross-sectional quantitative research design, 323 participants took part in the study from 2 counties. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ was adapted and 12 potential learning hindrances were identified and used as instruments. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. The results showed the motivational belief component of extrinsic goal orientation as the most preferred belief and test anxiety was the least possessed belief. Rehearsal strategies were found to be the most frequently used, while help seeking was reported to be the least strategy considered. The result also showed significant relationships between the two constructs. In addition, the study found some learning hindrances. A number of conclusions as well as some practical recommendations for action relative to the improvement of student performance have been advanced.
Full Text Available Formal lectures have been a traditional part of medical and dental education, but there is debate as to their compulsory status. This study was designed to explore dental and medical students’ views on compulsory lectures and the use of Video-Recorded Lectures (VRL. A cross-sectional study of University of Bristol students in Years 2 to 4 was conducted using an online questionnaire. The majority of both dental (76% and medical (66% students felt lectures should be non-compulsory. The most common learning resources used by both dental and medical students were live lectures, lecture handouts and VRL. The majority of both dental (84% and medical (88% students used VRL. Most students attended lectures all of the time both before and after the introduction of VRL, even though most dental and medical students believe lectures should be non-compulsory. VRL is a popular learning resource. These findings tie-in with General Dental Council and General Medical Council recommendations that encourage self-directed learning. Dental and Medical schools should offer a range of learning resources and make use of current technology, including the use of VRL.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Yaneva, Krassimira; Hottel, Timothy L; Proctor, Hannah L
In this study, 491 dental students at one dental school in the United States and one in Bulgaria were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy. The study included questions about prior involvement in charitable dental missions. Many respondents felt that their dental school does not advance global dentistry nor adequately teaches students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. The majority agreed, however, that dental schools have a moral obligation to raise the level of oral health care worldwide and help underserved communities access basic dental care. They reported that an opportunity to spend a semester at a foreign dental school would enhance their dental education in ways that are not presently fulfilled; help them better understand cultural diversity; and teach them about philanthropy and volunteerism. In their opinion, international exchange programs that provide clinical rotations and field experiences in economically challenged and underserved areas of the world would a) foster the global advancement of dentistry; b) promote an appreciation for cultural diversity and socioeconomic disparity in the communities that graduates will be serving; and c) teach students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. This study may contribute to understanding factors affecting student involvement in programs to advance global dentistry.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to empirically investigate the possible correlation and the influence between students’ language learning strategies and listening comprehension. The population of this study was 138 eleventh grade students of Islamic Senior High School number 2 Palembang. The sample was all of eleventh grade students in social class. The total number of the student was 138. Since 16 students were absent, so the sample consisted of 122 students. To collect the data in order to measure the students’ language learning strategies and listening comprehension, SILL (strategy inventory in learning language and listening comprehension test from TOEFL Junior test were used in this study. The Pearson correlation was used in analyzing the data using SPSS 16. The result from questionnaire showed that most of the students used metacognitive strategies were in medium level and sometimes used language learning strategies. The result from listening comprehension test showed that most of the students were in very poor level. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between the two variables that can be seen from the correlation coefficient or r-obtained (-.011 was lower than r-table (0.1779 then the level of probability or sig. value (.902 was higher than .05. From the result, it can be concluded that there was no significant correlation between language learning strategies and listening comprehension of eleventh grade students of Islamic Senior High School number 2 Palembang.
Y. A. Lyakh
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the tutoring system in the modern high school. The system in question is based on the complex developmental educational technology of personalized teaching, aimed at identifying students’ educational motives and interests, and creating individual training programs and educational reflection. The important role is given to the tutor’s competence both in profile teaching and creating the comfortable communicative and stimulating educational environment. The author reveals the structural and functional implementation model of tutoring technologies, and observes its performance in the course of education quality monitoring of senior students in the profile high schools. The effectiveness of the personalized tutor technology system is demonstrated in three different aspects: the students’ education quality and communicative educational activity; development of tutors’ competence in monitoring the profile education quality; and students’ self-assessment and professional self-determination. The experimental research demonstrates that the implementation model of tutor technologies facilitates education quality improvement in the high school.
Praveen K; Christofer; Purna Singh; Shivanand
CONTEXT Recent reports show high amount of academic stress among the students and chronic stress is shown to have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students. AIMS The purpose of study was to determine the prevalence of self-perceived stress among dental students and to observe any possible association between the levels of stress and (a) academic year, (b) motivation to study dental science, (c) medium of study at 10+2 level, (d) mother tongue, (e...
Jurkat, H; Höfer, S; Richter, L; Cramer, M; Vetter, A
Which are the differences in health-related quality of life and stress management in medical and dental students? 101 dental and 237 medical students from different years of Justus-Liebig University Giessen were examined during winter term 2008/09 and summer term 2009 using the specific Questionnaire on Health Promotion, Life Satisfaction, and Stress Management in Dental or Medical Students (addressing work satisfaction and choice of subject, private life, relaxation behavior and stress management, and health behavior), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and SF-36 Health Survey. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney-U-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation and Chi2-Tests were primarily used. Dental and medical students showed considerable mental impairment in SF-36. Every fifth dental student suffered from slight to moderate depression. Though averaging more hours per week, medical students were more satisfied with their studies. More than half of the dental and medical students did not have appropriate strategies of coping with stress. Concerning the mental impairment in both groups and regarding a higher health-related quality of life, specific prevention courses or mentoring programs should already be offered at the beginning of medical training in order to cope with strains of medical school and future job strains in the medical or dental profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa
The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.
Flick, Heather; Barrett, Sheri; Carter-Hanson, Carrie
To provide dental hygiene students with a service learning opportunity to work with special needs and culturally diverse underserved populations through the Oral Health on Wheels (OHOW) community based mobile dental hygiene clinic. A student feedback survey was administered between the years of 2009 and 2013 to 90 students in order to gather and identify significant satisfaction, skills acquisition and personal growth information after the student's clinical experience on the OHOW. ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical analysis were utilized to investigate relationships between student responses to key questions in the survey. An analysis of 85 student responses (94.44%) demonstrated statistically significant correlations between student learning and their understanding of underserved populations, building confidence in skills, participation as a dental team member and understanding their role in total patient care. The strong correlations between these key questions related to the clinical experience and students confidence, skills integration into the dental team, and understanding of both total patient care, and the increased understanding of the oral health care needs of special populations. All questions directly link to the core mission of the OHOW program. The OHOW clinical experience allows dental hygiene students a unique opportunity to engage in their community while acquiring necessary clinical competencies required by national accreditation and providing access to oral health care services to underserved patients who would otherwise go without treatment. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Valic, M; Pecotic, R; Lusic, L; Peros, K; Pribudic, Z; Dogas, Z
It is well accepted that sleep and lifestyle habits affect academic success in students. However, sleep patterns and sleep problems amongst dental students have been insufficiently addressed in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of dental students and the relationship between sleep habits and academic performance. A self-administered questionnaire on sleep habits, academic performance and lifestyle was administered. The participants were 447 dental students from Split University Dental Medicine School and Zagreb University Dental Medicine School from the six academic years. The subjects were classified into two groups based on academic success (high-performing vs. low-performing students) for comparison of sleep and lifestyle habits. Amongst the whole group of students, average bedtime and wake time during weekday was significantly earlier compared with weekend. Main findings indicate that students with high academic performance had earlier bedtimes during weekdays and weekends, earlier wake times during weekends and shorter sleep latency compared with low academic performing students. Self-reported academic performance of dental students in Croatia is associated with timing of sleep and wakefulness, rather than with total sleep time duration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Syukriani, Andi; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
The purpose of this study was to explore the strategic competence of senior secondary school students in solving mathematics problems. Terdapat dua subjek, satu bergaya kognitif field-independent dan satu bergaya kognitif field-dependent tetapi keduanya memiliki tingkat prestasi belajar matematika yang setara. There were two subjects, one field-independent cognitive style and one field-dependent cognitive style. They had an equivalent high level of mathematics achievement. Keduanya dipilih berdasarkan hasil tes kompetensi matematika dan GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Subjects were selected based on the test results of mathematics competence and GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Kompetensi strategis dapat merangsang perkembangan otonomi dan fleksibilitas dalam diri siswa karena merupakan keterampilan yang sangat dibutuhkan di sepanjang abad 21. Gaya kognitif merupakan kecenderungan siswa dalam mengolah informasi sangat mempengaruhi performance dalam menyelesaikan masalah matematika. Strategic competence can stimulate the development of autonomy and flexibility of students and they are skills which are needed in the 21st century. Cognitive style is the tendency of students in processing informations and it greatly affects the performance in solving mathematics problems. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa subjek FI cenderung analitis baik pada pembentukan bayangannya maupun pada gambar yang dibuatnya untuk memproses informasi berdasarkan dengan struktur pengetahuannya sendiri (Internally directed). The research result showed that subject FI tended to be analytical both in forming the mental imagination and the picture to process information in accordance with his own knowledge structure (internally directed). Subjek FD kurang analitis dan tidak dapat mengenal bentuk sederhana (konsep matematika) dari bentuk yang kompleks (Exeternally directed) sehingga menerima ide sebagaimana yang disajikan. Subject FD was less analytical and unable to recognize simple form
Petti, S.; Kakisina, N.; Volgenant, C.M.C.; Messano, G.A.; Barbato, E.; Passariello, C.; de Soet, J.J.
We assessed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage rate among dental students from an Italian university. A total of 157 subjects participated (67 preclinical students and 90 clinical students); samples were collected from the nose, mouth, and skin. Five preclinical students and
Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.
Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…
Knevel, Ron J M; Gussy, Mark G; Farmer, Jane; Karimi, Leila
This is the first study of its kind to provide data regarding the self-reported career choice motivation and intentions after graduation of dental and dental hygiene students in Nepal. The findings of this study can be used to inform future oral health workforce planning in Nepal. A cross-sectional survey of dentistry and dental hygiene students attending a large accredited dental college in Kathmandu, Nepal. Quantitative data were analysed using IBM® SPSS® 22. The respondents were given the opportunity to provide clarifying comments to some of the questions. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 171 students completed the anonymous survey (response rate 86 %). Working in health care and serving the community were the most important initial motives for career choice, with significantly more dentistry students selecting their degree course because of the possibility to work flexible working hours (p work in rural areas after study. Most common preferred locations to live after graduation are urban (33 %) or abroad (38 %). Data suggest a preference to combine working in a hospital with working in their own practice (44 %) while interest in solely working in their own practice is low (work.
Kumar, Amit; Puranik, Manjunath P; Sowmya, K R
Since the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in achieving academic excellence requires further research, the aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess EI and its associated factors and to determine any association between EI and academic performance among final-year dental students in Bengaluru, India. In 2015, 208 dental students from six dental colleges in Bengaluru were invited to participate in the study. Their demographic and lifestyle data were collected, and EI was assessed with the 30-item Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist developed by Sterrett. Academic performance was assessed using grades obtained in the final-year undergraduate examination. The response rate was 96% (N=200). Overall, 54.5% of the participants had high EI scores (≥120), although only 51 (25.5%) had a high EI score in all the domains (≥20). EI was significantly greater in females than males. Gender, sleep, meeting friends, physical exercise, recreational activities, and academic performance were significantly associated with EI and accounted for 42% variance in hierarchical regression analysis. EI was also positively associated with academic performance. Gender and healthy lifestyle habits were positively associated with EI, which in turn influenced these students' academic performance. These findings suggest a possible need for attention to developing dental students' EI.
Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley; Boyd, Linda D; Bowen, Denise M; Pattillo, Robin E
One challenge facing dental hygiene, as well as dental, education is to identify clinical teaching strategies promoting critical thinking and clinical reasoning. These skills are crucial elements in the practice of dental hygiene. A two-group design (intervention, n=28, and control, n=30) assessed first-year dental hygiene students using pre-and post-Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) scores to evaluate the effect of reflective blogging on critical thinking skills. A reflective blog rubric, based on Mezirow's levels of reflection, determined if reflective blogging increased the level of reflection for dental hygiene students. The results suggest within this nonprobability sample that reflective blogging did not produce a significant change in students' HSRT scores (p>0.05). However, analyses of reflective blog rubric scores demonstrated statistically significant improvements (pcritical thinking.
Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc
For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.
Full Text Available Introduction: Educators of the health care profession (teachers are committed in preparing future health care providers, but are facing many challenges in transmitting their ever expanding knowledge to the students. This study was done to focus on different learning styles among dental students. Aim: To assess different learning preferences among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire study using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire among dental students. Results: Majority 75.8% of the students preferred multimodal learning style. Multimodal learning was common among clinical students. No statistical significant difference of learning styles in relation to gender (P > 0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, majority of students preferred multimodal learning preference. Knowledge about the learning style preference of different profession can help to enhance the teaching method for the students.
Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena
The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (ptechnology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.
Harsh, P; Arunima, C; Manoj, K
To assess the oral health quality of life among Malaysian dental students using the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale. Malaysian dental students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal campus, Manipal University, Manipal answered a structured questionnaire recording the demographic characteristics, behavioral characteristics and eight items of OIDP. The mean OIDP ADD and OIDP SC scores were respectively, 4.10 (sd = 5.16, range 8 - 40) and 2. 3 (sd = 2.3, range 0-8). A total of 50%, 32.9% and 28.6% of the dental students confirmed difficulties with eating, cleaning teeth and sleeping and relaxing, respectively. Statistically significant relationships were observed between OIDP (ultimate oral impact) and a count of non-clinical oral health indicators representing the second (intermediate) levels of oral impact. Logistic regression analysis revealed that dental students who were dissatisfied with their oral health had greater oral impact than their counterparts. The odds ratios for satisfaction with oral health, dental visits and frequency of brushing teeth were respectively 1.74 (0.58-5.32), 0.59 (0.11-3.24) and 1.33 (0.41-4.30). The study reports the Oral Impact on Daily Performance among Malaysian dental students and provides evidence of importance of social and behavioral characteristics in shaping dental students response.
Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.
Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…
May 22, 2018 ... clinical dentistry as there is an increase in the prevalence of infectious diseases among dental ... procedures for infection control in dental schools and clinics. Objectives: ... former were regularly disinfecting dental cast before sending it to the laboratory and later ..... improve their quality of life. This survey ...
Berg, Christine M.
Dental hygiene students' perceptions of themselves and the "typical dental hygienist" were assessed in relation to feminist attitudes at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dempewolff's (1972) 56-item Feminism II Scale was administered to all first-year, second-year, and…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M
This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth.
Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought. Methods Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years. Results Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD. Conclusions There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum. PMID:23547959
Santiago, Victoria; Cardenas, Melissa; Charles, Anne Laure; Hernandez, Estefany; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Kwon, So Ran
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether current educational strategies at a dental institution in the United States made a difference in dental hygiene (DNHY) and dental students' (D3) learning outcomes in the four domains of evidence-based practice (EBP), knowledge, attitude, accessing evidence, and confidence (KACE), following a 12-week research design course. Methods: All participants DNHY (n=19) and D3 (n=96) enrolled in the research design course at Loma Linda University completed a paper KACE survey distributed on the first day of class. Students completed the KACE survey once more at the end of the 12-week course. Pre- and post-survey results were compared both within and between the DNHY and D3 student groups to identify the learning outcomes in the four domains of EBP; knowledge, attitude, accessing evidence, and confidence in EBP. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile all variables in the study; the level of significance was set at α=0.05. Results: All DNHY students (n=19) completed the pre and post KACE surveys; of the D3 (n=96) students enrolled in the course 82% (n=79) competed the post-survey. Comparison of the survey results showed that both DNHY and D3 students demonstrated statistically significant increases in their level of knowledge and attitude (p 0.05). Conclusion: DNHY and D3 students increased their knowledge and developed more positive attitudes towards EBP following a 12-week research design course. Study results identify improvement areas for EBP knowledge acquisition including determining levels of evidence, analysis of study results, and evaluating the appropriateness of research study designs through the use of validated EBP survey instrument. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
The new learning opportunities that feed mind, body and soul helps the senior students develop the resiliency and intellectual qualities they need to make a healthy transition to post-high school life. The Monsignor Donovan High School in Toms River, New Jersey, has provided creative learning opportunities to seniors, which has planted in them the…
Poelman, Marcella R; Brand, Henk S; Forouzanfar, Thymour; Daley, Ellen M; Jager, Derk H Jan
The aim of this study is to assess dental students' opinions of the dentists' role in primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancer using a cross-sectional web-based survey. A questionnaire, containing questions about knowledge of HPV and oral cancer, confidence in head and neck examination and role of the dentist in preventing HPV-related oral cancer, was sent to all students of the Academic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (n = 912). One hundred and twenty-six (n = 126) students completed the questionnaire. Significantly, more master students (75%) than bachelor students (54.3%) were aware that HPV is a causative factor for oral cancer. Master students had more knowledge of HPV than bachelor students, but knowledge about HPV vaccination was irrespective of the study phase. The majority of dental students agreed that it is important to discuss HPV vaccination with patients. Eighty-nine percent of the students think that more education about symptoms of oral cancer will increase screening for oral cancer. Development of a protocol for screening in dental practices was considered even more important. According to dental students, dentists should discuss HPV as a risk factor for oral cancer with patients. Future dentists are willing to be involved in both primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related oral cancer. Therefore, screening for oral cancer and education about HPV vaccination should be integral elements of the dental curriculum.
Maggio, Margrit P; Villegas, Hilda; Blatz, Markus B
optical magnifying devices such as magnification loupes are increasingly used in clinical practice and educational settings. However, scientific evidence to validate their benefits is limited. This study assessed the effect of dental magnification loupes on psychomotor skill acquisition during a preclinical operative dentistry course. the performance of first-year dental students was assessed during an Advanced Simulation Course (AS) using virtual reality-based technology (VRBT) training. The test group consisted of 116 dental students using magnification loupes (+MAG), while students not using them (-MAG, n = 116) served as the control. The following parameters were evaluated: number of successfully passing preparation procedures per course rotation, amount of time per tooth preparation, number of times students needed computer assistance and evaluation, and amount of time spent in the computer assistance and evaluation mode per procedure. Data were collected on each student through VRBT during the preparation procedure and stored on a closed network server computer. Unpaired t tests were used to analyze mean differences between the groups. In addition, student acceptance of magnification loupes was measured and evaluated through survey interpretation. +MAG students completed more preparations, worked faster per procedure, and used the computer-assisted evaluation less frequently and for shorter periods, therefore displaying greater overall performance. The survey revealed a high degree of student acceptance of using magnification. dental magnification loupes significantly enhanced student performance during preclinical dental education and were considered an effective adjunct by the students who used them.
Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N
Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.
Vuletic, L; Spalj, S; Peros, K
The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposing dental students to visual stimuli related to dental profession during the medical physiology seminar could affect their perception of the clinical relevance of the topic. A self-administered questionnaire on attitudes towards medical physiology was conducted amongst 105 students of the School of Dental Medicine in Zagreb, Croatia, aged 19-24 years (80% females) following a seminar on respiratory system physiology. Power-point presentation accompanying the seminar for a total of 52 students (study group) was enriched with pictures related to dental practice in order to assess whether these pictures could make the topic appear more clinically relevant for a future dentist. The results of the survey indicated that dental students in the study group perceived the topic of the seminar as more important for them as future dentists when compared to the perception of the control group (P = 0.025). The results of this survey encourage physiology lecturers to present medical physiology as clinically relevant for dental students whenever possible as this could increase students' interest in the subject and their motivation for learning. Such an approach could be particularly beneficial if there is a significant time gap between basic courses and involvement of students into clinical training for it could promote meaningful learning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gedam, Sachin Ratan; Shivji, Imran Ali; Goyal, Arvind; Modi, Lipsy; Ghosh, Santanu
There has been an enormous use of internet among health professionals in the last decade. It has made significant changes in the health care system. Besides its several benefits, the excessive undisciplined use has led to the emergence of concept of internet addiction. The objectives of our study were to estimate prevalence of internet addiction among medical and dental students; to determine association of internet use pattern and psychopathology between medical and dental internet addicted (IA) students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 597 students from medical and dental colleges. They completed semi-structured data, internet addiction test and mental health inventory questionnaires as per instructions provided. Students were divided into medical internet addicts and dental internet addicts for comparison. The prevalence of severe internet addiction was more among dental students (2.3%) than that among medical students (1.2%). There was significant difference between the students of medical and dental faculties, who fall under the category of addiction on the basis of-gender, computer ownership and purpose of internet use (Pinternet use pattern and psychopathology among the two groups of internet addict from health professionals. So, further studies need to be conducted among different groups of internet addicts to evaluate different parameters. Specific measures should be taken to prevent internet addiction and its complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen
This study examined the relationship between the changes of physical fitness across the 3-year spectrum of senior high school study and academic performance measured by standardized tests in Taiwan. A unique dataset of 149 240 university-bound senior high school students from 2009 to 2011 was constructed by merging two nationwide administrative datasets of physical fitness test performance and the university entrance exam scores. Hierarchical linear regression models were used. All regressions included controls for students' baseline physical fitness status, changes of physical fitness performance over time, age and family economic status. Some notable findings were revealed. An increase of 1 SD on students' overall physical fitness from the first to third school year is associated with an increase in the university entrance exam scores by 0.007 and 0.010 SD for male and female students, respectively. An increase of 1 SD on anaerobic power (flexibility) from the first to third school year is positively associated with an increase in the university entrance exam scores by 0.018 (0.010) SD among female students. We suggest that education and school health policymakers should consider and design policies to improve physical fitness as part of their overall strategy of improving academic performance.
Maria Dalva de S. SCHROEDER; Constanza MARIN; Fabio MIRI
Introduction and objective: This study evaluated the degree ofimportance regarding biosafety in the point of view of undergraduatedental students from the University of the Region of Joinville– Univille. Material and methods: The sample was composed of142 undergraduate dental students from first to fifth year, who wereasked to sign the term of free and clarified assent in order to answera questionnaire with 13 closed-ended and 2 open-ended questionsregarding dental clinical practice and conce...
Recordings of patient satisfaction with provision of dental implant treatment are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate satisfaction amongst patients attending for provision of implant treatment by training undergraduate and postgraduate students at Dublin Dental School and Hospital (DDSH). A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to 100 individuals randomly selected from records of patients who had received implant treatment via student clinics in the previous 5 years. The response rate was 68%. Results showed a high overall level of satisfaction with treatment received.
Full Text Available Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental students can be a significant threat, resulting in physical and/or mental illness, and have a negative effect on students' performance and the professional practice of dentistry. Stress can occur from different sources. The purpose of this study is to test whether the year of study has an effect on the stress levels of dental students.Method: Our study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out by male undergraduate dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh City during the 2010–2011 academic year (n = 214.Results: The results show the most common sources of stress: examinations and completing clinical requirements. Moreover, in the five-year lecture-based traditional curriculum, the third year students reported the highest level of stress, whereas the first year reported the lowest level of stress.Conclusion: Third year undergraduate dental students reported the highest level of stress. This stress could be reduced by reviewing and modifying the dental curriculum by allowing students to have contact with patients more gradually, starting from the first year, in addition to adding stress prevention and intervention programs in dental curricula.Keywords: dental, education, students, stress, study year
Ahiaoma Ibegwam; Oshiotse Andrew Okwilagwe
This study examined the indigenous medical publications used by medical and dental students in Nigeria with a view to discovering factors that affects their usage. Data was gathered through a questionnaire survey. The population of the study was 1,264 undergraduate medical and dental students from ten universities in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Data gathered was analysed using SPSS to obtain the summaries of the variables in form of frequency distribution and other descriptive stat...
Wagner, Julie A; Redford-Badwal, Deborah
In order to decrease the well-documented disparities in oral health and oral health care, the next generation of dentists must be prepared to serve a diverse patient population. This article describes dental students' self-reported knowledge of culture and importance of using culturally sensitive dental practices. Three consecutive graduating classes (n=111) were surveyed anonymously in their sophomore years. Students indicated their self-rated knowledge of oral health and oral health care for their own culture and the cultures of patients they are likely to see in dental practice. Students also rated their perceived importance of culturally sensitive dental practice. Overall, students reported low knowledge of the cultures of the patients they will see in practice. Few students could identify any cultural group that they knew well. However, students as a group indicated that using culturally sensitive practices in dentistry is important. Students who could identify at least one cultural group they knew well perceived cultural sensitivity in dental practice as more important than students who could not. These results suggest that students need cross-cultural training and believe that such training is important. The results also suggest that a specific curriculum that increases knowledge of other cultures may have the potential to ultimately increase the use of culturally sensitive practices.
Daalmans, M T; Vissia, M S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Lagro-Janssen, A L M
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002 (n = 258). The overall response was 65%. Both male and female students prefered working in a group practice environment rather than a solo practice, in which significant more males prefered ownership. Only 23% of the males and 7% of the females expected to work full time in the future. An important factor was leisure time, but for the female students 'taking care for children' was still decisive. The new job description 'oral physician' for the future dentist as advocated by Dutch health authorities was found less attractive than the present profession 'dentist'. Only a quarter of the females and half of the males is interested to serve as manager of a team of dental health professionals. It is concluded that male and female dental students differ in their plans and expectations with respect to their future career choices and practice pattern preferences. As the majority of the present dental students is female this will have a major impact on the dental profession.
Habib, Syed R; Alghofaily, Sakhar; Alshamrani, Hussam; Alhammad, Abdullah; Awan, Kamran Habib
The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight issues and obesity by recording the body mass index (BMI) and explore the dietary habits, physical activities (PAs), and lifestyles of male students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. A custom-designed self-administrative form and questionnaire were used in this study for data collection. The first part of the form was used to record the participants' height and weight for the BMI. The participants were grouped as underweight (BMI 30.0). The second part comprised questions related to the dietary habits, PAs, and lifestyles of the male dental students. Chi-squared test was used to generate the significance of each question at significance surfing per day (p = 0.012). The prevalence of overweight issues and obesity is high among the dental students compared with the general population of Saudi Arabia, and there is a need for intervention programs to combat obesity among the dental students. The awareness about PA, healthy diet/lifestyle, consequences of overweight and obesity on their health and profession must be increased among the dental students to avoid future complications. The impact of obesity on individuals' oral health and its influence on dental treatment protocols and postoperative procedures has been well documented. Dental students are more prone to obesity due to their lifestyle with less PA and disordered eating habits and, thereby, are prone to obesity-related health hazards.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance voluntary STI testing, an intervention was designed and evaluated in senior vocational schools. The intervention combined classroom health education with sexual health services at the school site. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and single effects on STI testing of health education and school-based sexual health services. Methods In a cluster-randomized study the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools, using three experimental conditions: 1 health education, 2 sexual health services; 3 both components; and a control group. STI testing was assessed by self reported behavior and registrations at regional sexual health services. Follow-up measurements were performed at 1, 3, and 6-9 months. Of 1302 students present at baseline, 739 (57% completed at least 1 follow-up measurement, of these students 472 (64% were sexually experienced, and considered to be susceptible for the intervention. Multi-level analyses were conducted. To perform analyses according to the principle of intention-to-treat, missing observations at follow-up on the outcome measure were imputed with multiple imputation techniques. Results were compared with the complete cases analysis. Results Sexually experienced students that received the combined intervention of health education and sexual health services reported more STI testing (29% than students in the control group (4% (OR = 4.3, p Conclusions Despite a low dose of intervention that was received by the students and a high attrition, we were able to show an intervention effect among sexually experienced students on STI testing. This study confirmed our hypothesis that offering health education to vocational students
Alricsson, Marie; Domalewski, Debra; Romild, Ulla; Asplund, Ragnar
Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.
Brunet, Darlene P; Bates, Michael L; Gallo, John R; Strother, Elizabeth A
Since 2005, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Dentistry has required the VitalSource Technologies, Inc. Bookshelf as the textbook program for all dental students. In a 2008 survey, four classes of dental students expressed dissatisfaction with most features of the bookshelf. With the expectation that incoming students would be more accustomed and amenable to digital textbooks and to further determine student attitudes toward electronic textbooks, we developed two surveys for first-year dental students in the class of 2013. The sixty-five first-year students received a survey (S1) one week before they were introduced to the e-textbook program. Questions centered on their undergraduate experience with e-books and their expectations of studying with an electronic textbook collection. In the second survey (S2), sent nine months later, the questions focused on students' opinion of the VitalSource Bookshelf. Forty-five students (69.2 percent) completed the S1 survey. Of those, thirty-six (80 percent) responded that they never used e-textbooks in college. Of the nine students who responded that they used e-books, only two liked them without reservations. The response rate to S2 increased to fifty students (77 percent). After using VitalSource for nine months, thirty-three students (66 percent) indicated a preference for reading print textbooks, compared to forty-seven students (57.3 percent) of the four classes surveyed in 2008. Although we expected incoming dental students to have had previous experience with e-textbooks, only nine students had used e-books in college courses. Few students indicated preference for e-textbooks, and over half of the group was undecided. After experience with VitalSource for first-year courses, students indicated that they like VitalSource for the ability to search for specific topics across the entire collection of dental books, but not for reading large amounts of text.
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is highly infectious, but preventable diseases and dentists are at increased risk of exposure to saliva and blood of patients during their clinical practice, and so it is of utmost importance that they follow standard guidelines for infection control. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding infection control measures among dental students of Government Dental College in Punjab. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered pretested questionnaire to dental students and responses were statistically analyzed. The analysis of variance was used to compare means of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores between four groups of study subjects and P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: Although the students have sufficient knowledge regarding hepatitis B, still there are gaps in putting their knowledge into practice. Third and final year students have significantly less mean knowledge and practice scores compared to interns and postgraduate students. The majority of students have a positive attitude and were willing to perform any procedure on hepatitis B-infected patients. Conclusions: Dental students have adequate knowledge and good attitude but still there are some misconceptions. There is poor implementation of standard infection control measures in their practice. Rigorous training programs on preventive practices and regular workshops must be organized on an annual basis in dental colleges. Moreover, hepatitis B vaccination must be made mandatory for students before they start their clinical practice.
Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Onal, Banu; Kayrak, Gul
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of burnout among a group of Turkish preclinical dental students, to compare the level of burnout and to determine the consequences in structural equation model. Preclinical dental students (n = 329, 50.5% of females and 49.5% of males) aged between 18 and 24 took part in the study. Maslach burnout inventory student version, academic satisfaction scale, and personal information sheet were used to gather data. Pearson correlation analyses, t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The proposed theoretical model was tested via observed variable path analysis using maximum likelihood parameter estimation with AMOS 7.0. About 22.3% of students had high level of emotional exhaustion, 16.7% of students had high level of cynicism, and 17.9% of students suffered from high level of reduced academic efficacy. While the students attending the first grade reported higher level of reduced academic efficacy, the students in the third grade reported higher level of emotional exhaustion. Academic workload played an important role in the development of burnout. As consequences of burnout, students with high levels of burnout intended to change their current major and did not to plan to continue to postgraduate education. Students with high level of burnout reported less level of academic satisfaction and academic achievement. Creating awareness on the burnout of dental students from the preclinical period may be useful for prevention and more compatible dental education environment.
Schultze, Felix; Nilsson, Pernilla
During the last decade there has been on-going discussions about students' declining interest and low achievement in science. One of the reasons suggested for this decline is that teachers and students have different frames of reference, whereby teachers sometimes communicate science in the classroom in a way that is not accessible to the students. There is a lack of research investigating the effects of coteaching with senior students in science in upper secondary schools. To improve teaching and to narrow the gap between teachers' and students' different frames of references, this study investigates how an experienced chemistry teacher gains and refines her pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by cooperating with two grade 12 students (age 18) as coteachers. The teacher and the two coteachers coplanned, cotaught and coevaluated lessons in chemical bonding in a grade 10 upper secondary class. Findings indicate that the coteachers contributed with their own learning experiences to help the teacher understand how students perceive difficult concepts. In such way, the coteachers were mediating between the teacher and the students, thus bridging the gap between the teacher and the students' frames of references. The teachers' PCK was refined which in turn lead to improved teaching strategies.
Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine
The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.
Carneiro, L C; Kabulwa, M N
The prevalence of dental caries and supragingival plaque and calculus in 785 secondary schools students was assessed. More than half (53.6%) of the students were caries-free, and the majority of those with dental caries experience were aged 14–17 (68.1%) and females (53%). Mean DMFT was 1.26, with mean D-component of 1.05, and molars were most affected. Most students had supragingival plaque (74%) and calculus (56.9%) and more so in males than females (P > 0.05). Less than half of the student...
Makeeva, I M; Doroshina, V Iu; Protsenko, A S
A clinical epidemiologic study was made among 432 Moscow students and as a part of it was found the high prevalence rate of pathologies of dentition and variety of nosologic forms. The most common cases were: caries, periodontal disease, deformity and anomalies of tooth position. These findings were necessary to estimate the need of all types of dentistry for Moscow students. It was specified that 43% of students were in need of filling and dental restoration, 35% were in need of crowns of tooth, 22% were in need of dental restoration by means of orthopedic constructions. Endodontic dentistry was necessary for 31% of students, surgical removal - for 8%, periodontal dentistry - for 37%.
Novak, Karen F; Whitehead, Albert W; Close, John M; Kaplan, Alan L
Intercultural competence is an important component of the doctor-patient relationship in the multicultural climate evolving in the United States. We hypothesized that 1) exposure to racial and ethnic diversity in the student body, faculty, staff, and patient population in dental school and 2) a dental school curriculum that includes presentations on issues concerning racial and ethnic diversity will contribute to students' feeling more competent and confident to enter the multicultural work environment that is rapidly developing in the United States. A Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to 627 fourth-year dental students enrolled in seven dental schools representing geographically diverse regions of the United States. Of these, 376 questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 60 percent. Results indicated that both the perception of diversity in the school environment and the presentation of diversity-specific content in the curriculum had moderately positive and significant correlations with the students' perception of their competency or ability to serve and work with diverse populations. The respective Pearson correlation coefficients for diversity in the school environment and diversity curriculum were .497 (ptraining in the dental school environment are important for dental students entering a multicultural workplace.
Widdifield, H; Ryan, C A; O'Sullivan, E
The Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada developed a competency framework to assist future specialists in responding to challenges as health care providers. The CANMEDs project described 7 essential roles of Specialist Physicians include Health Advocate, Manager, Scholar, Medical Expert, Professional, Communicator and Collaborator (HMSEPC(2)). The object of the current study was to investigate whether medical students and dental students in Ireland recognised these responsibilities as essential to a qualified doctor/dentist. Ninety-eight medical and forty-six dental students (year 1 and year 4) were asked to mind map the responsibilities of qualified doctors/dentists. The comments on the mind map were applied to one of the 7 CANMED roles. There were 484 comments from 128 students. Students had the greatest number of responses referring to the Medical and Dental Expert (257, 30.4%) and Professional (227, 26.9%) roles. This was followed by Communicator (130, 15.4%), Scholar (107, 12.7%) and Health Advocate (82, 9.7%) roles. There were relatively few responses relating to Manager (12, 1.4%) and Collaborator (i.e. teamwork) roles (30, 3.6%). There were no differences in responses between Dental Students and Medical Students and between 1 st year and 4th year students. Similarly there were no differences between the responses of Irish students (n =95; 68%) and International students (n =45; 32%) Students are aware of their responsibilities as Medical or Dental experts (diagnostic and therapeutic skills) for ethical and effective patient care (professional role). They are somewhat aware of the Communicator (therapeutic relationships and effective listening), Scholar (personal continuing education strategies) and Health Advocate (contribute to improved community health) roles. In general they have little concept of the importance of Management skills (utilising resources effectively), and of Collaboration (teamwork and consulting effectively with other
Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi
The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.
Jackson, Tate H; Zhong, James; Phillips, Ceib; Koroluk, Lorne D
The Growth and Development (G&D) curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry uses self-directed web-based learning modules in the place of lectures and includes scheduled self-study times during the 8 am-5 pm school hours. The aim of this study was to use direct observation to evaluate dental students' access patterns with the self-directed, web-based learning modules in relation to planned self-study time allocated across the curriculum, proximity to course examinations, and course performance. Module access for all 80 students in the DDS Class of 2014 was recorded for date and time across the four G&D courses. Module access data were used to determine likelihood of usage during scheduled time and frequency of usage in three timeframes: >7, 3 to 7, and 0 to 2 days before the final exam. The results showed a statistically significant difference in the likelihood of module access during scheduled time across the curriculum (pstudents, 64% accessed modules at least once during scheduled time in G&D1, but only 10%, 19%, and 18% in G&D2, G&D3, and G&D4, respectively. For all courses, the proportion of module accesses was significantly higher 0-2 days before an exam compared to the other two timeframes. Module access also differed significantly within each timeframe across all four courses (pstudents rarely accessed learning modules during syllabus-budgeted self-study time and accessed modules more frequently as course exams approached.
Badovinac, Ana; Božić, Darko; Vučinac, Ivana; Vešligaj, Jasna; Vražić, Domagoj; Plancak, Darije
The aim of this study was to investigate oral health behavior and attitudes of dental students in years 1 to 6 at the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The Croatian version of the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) was administered to predoctoral dental students, and collected data were analyzed. A total of 503 students (22.3 ± 2.6 mean age) completed the questionnaire. The response rate was 85.1 percent, and 72.4 percent of the respondents were female. These dental students' answers to eleven out of twenty HU-DBI items differed significantly by academic year. The mean questionnaire score was 6.62 ± 1.54, and the highest value of the HU-DBI score was in the fourth year (7.24 ± 1.54). First-year students were most likely to have a toothbrush with hard bristles and felt they had not brushed well unless done with hard strokes. Students in the sixth year were least worried about visiting a dentist and most frequently put off going to a dentist until having a toothache, indicating that rise of knowledge contributes to higher self-confidence. The mean HU-DBI score for these students showed average value, pointing out the need for a comprehensive oral hygiene and preventive program from the start of dental school.
Eslamipour, Faezeh; Noroozi, Zahra; Hosseinpour, Kobra
Ensuring achievement of research experience by students is one of the most important goals of the thesis-conduction process and evaluation of student satisfaction with this process is one of the most imperative challenges herein. The aim of this study is to investigate the satisfaction of dental students passing the thesis educational course from the Isfahan Dental School. Sixty-two dental students who had graduated in2011, from the Isfahan Dental School, participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. The postgraduate Research Experience Questionnaire (PREQ) was used for data collection. The questionnaire evaluated student satisfaction in seven domains: Thesis supervision, skill development, intellectual climate, infrastructure, thesis examination, goals and expectations, and overall satisfaction. The data were analyzed on an SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean score of satisfaction of the participants was 75 ± 12. On the basis of their scores, satisfaction in 3.2% of them was slow, in 33.9%was medium, in 61.3% was good and in 1.6% was high. The highest satisfaction was found to be in thesis supervision and the least was in the intellectual climate domain. There was no significant statistical difference between satisfaction and gender (P = 0.46). Considering the results, to increase student satisfaction for passing the thesis courses, it is necessary to improve the intellectual climate in dental schools and also increase the research budget for more financial support of students to carry out their projects.
Ihm, Jung-Joon; Seo, Deog-Gyu
The value of dental students' self-assessment is often debated. The aim of this study was to explore whether reflective learning with feedback enabled dental students to more accurately assess their self-perceived levels of preparedness on dental competencies. Over 16 weeks, all third- and fourth-year students at a dental school in the Republic of Korea took part in clinical rotations that incorporated reflective learning and feedback. Following this educational intervention, they were asked to assess their perceptions of their clinical competence. The results showed that the students reported feeling most confident about performing periodontal treatment (mean 7.1 on a ten-point scale) and least confident about providing orthodontic care (mean 5.6). The fourth-year students reported feeling more confident on all the competencies than the third-year students. Their self-perceived competence in periodontal treatment and oral medicine significantly predicted the instructors' clinical evaluations. This study offered insights into determining if structured reflective learning with effective feedback helps to increase dental students' self-perceived level of clinical preparedness.
Van der Berg-Cloete, Sophy E; Snyman, Lorraine; Postma, Thomas C; White, John G
Recent developmental frameworks suggest that dental curricula should focus on developing nonclinical skills in dental students. The aim of this study was to qualitatively map students' perceptions of the most important nonclinical skills against the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF). A representative sample of second- to fifth-year students (n=594; overall response rate 69%) from all four dental schools in South Africa participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2014-15 enquiring about nonclinical skills and dental practice management. One of the questions required students to list the four most important nonclinical skills required for a dentist. Students (n=541) most frequently noted competencies related to working with others (97.9%), personal qualities (72.3%), and managing services (42.9%) as the most important nonclinical skills. Very few students mentioned competencies related to the improvement of services (14.1%) and the provision of strategic direction (10.9%). The students' attention appeared to be on nonclinical skills generally required for clinical care with some realization of the importance of managing services, indicating a need for a stronger focus on leadership and management training in dental schools in South Africa. The results also helped to unravel some of the conceptual ambiguity of the MLCF and highlight opportunities for leadership research using the MLCF as a conceptual framework.
Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar
Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ≥60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (pProcrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education.
Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Hsieh, Hsin-Chin; Huang, Chih-Ling
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which social smoking expectations mediate the relationship between adolescent smoking behaviour and the smoking behaviour of family and peers. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Setting: Taiwan, Republic of China. Method: The participants were 921 senior high school students…
Chifor, Ioana; Badea, Iulia; Chifor, Radu; Popa, Dan; Staniste, Liviu; Tarmure, Dragos; Avram, Ramona
The use of sugar by dental plaque microorganisms leads to acid formation from the bacteria metabolism, which determines a decrease of pH onto teeth surfaces. The value of the critical pH is 5.2-5.5. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of patients to change their diet towards caries prevention after acknowledging the values of saliva parameters (pH, buffer capacity). A group of 52 subjects were clinically examined according to the International Caries Assessment and Detection System protocol. They were required to complete a diet questionnaire and salivary tests were made for the oral mucosa hydration level, pH, buffer capacity, salivary flow rate at rest and upon stimulation. 4 pre-calibrated 6th year students and 2 dentists performed the tests and the ICDAS examination. One week after the tests, the subjects were asked to complete the diet questionnaire again. The studied group consisted of students aged between 23-26 years, randomly selected among 6(th) year students of the Faculty of Dentistry from Cluj-Napoca. The mean DMF-S index was 18.39. Most of the patients (65%) had a DMF-S index between 9 and 21. Just 2.5% had an index of 3, which was the lowest value recorded. 5% of the patients had a DMFS of 35, which was the maximal value recorded. The distribution of DMF-S was normal. 50% of the patients had no active caries. Even though most subjects (19.23%) had a pH within the normal interval, most of them were at the bottom value of the interval (6.8). Most subjects had a pH of 6.4, which is moderately acid. The mean pH was 6.7, therefore, a moderately acid one. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DMFS and pH was 0.255. A mild negative correlation (-0.275) was found between the cariogenic food and buffer capacity. A week later we noticed a statistically significant decrease of cariogenic foods and drinks in students with acid pH and with low buffer capacity. A regular intake of cakes, bonbons and chocolate was reported by subjects who had a high DMF-S value
Notgarnie, Howard M.
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
Lalloo, Ratilal; Johnson, Newell W.; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.; Ichim, Paul
Objective: The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission Report suggests introducing an internship period for all newly qualified dental/oral health practitioners in Australia. This study gauged the opinions of undergraduates from three dental schools in Australia. Methods: An online survey collected demographic information on gender and…
Results: Only 58.1% (72/124) respondents were aware of the inclusion of a medical emergency in the dental curriculum and fewer, 17.7% (22/124), were aware of guidelines on medical emergency formulated by any dental authority. Fifty-two out of all the respondents (41.9%) claimed not to have received any form of ...
Orfanou, Christina; Tsiamis, Costas; Karamagioli, Evika; Pikouli, Anastasia; Terzidis, Agis; Pikoulis, Emmanuel
Doctors in Greece face the possibility of encountering a person that has suffered torture, especially since the high rates of refugees' and migrants' inflows that took place over the last years. In order to assess the awareness and the knowledge of doctors and senior medical students in Greece regarding a manual on effective investigation and documentation of torture such as Istanbul Protocol (official United Nation document since 1999), a cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample was doctors practicing in public hospitals in Greece, doctors volunteering at a non-governmental organization (NGO) and undergraduate medical students in their final year of studies in the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23, using descriptive statistics and statistical significance tests.In a total of 289 participants, the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol knowledge was 4.43 ± 1.104 (the maximum possible score was 10) and the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol awareness was 2.04 ± 1.521 (the maximum possible score was 10). The most important conclusion was that among doctors and senior medical students, there seem to be knowledge, awareness, and information deficit about Istanbul Protocol and several issues relating to torture. The overall research outcome highlights the need for the development of a relevant informative/educational program, in order to cover the corresponding existing needs of the population of doctors in Greece.
This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took…
Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A
In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Talaat, Wael; AlRozzi, Balsam; Kawas, Sausan Al
The aim of this study was to assess the undergraduate dental education in sleep medicine in Middle East universities as well as the students' knowledge in this field. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out during the period from September 2013 to April 2014.Two different questionnaires were used. A self-administered questionnaire and a cover letter were emailed and distributed to 51 randomly selected Middle East dental schools to gather information about their undergraduate sleep medicine education offered in the academic year 2012-2013.The second questionnaire was distributed to the fifth-year dental students in the 2nd Sharjah International Dental Student Conference in April 2014, to assess their knowledge on sleep medicine. A survey to assess knowledge of sleep medicine in medical education (Modified ASKME Survey) was used. Thirty-nine out of 51 (76%) responded to the first questionnaire. Out of the responding schools, only nine schools (23%) reported the inclusion of sleep medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. The total average hours dedicated to teaching sleep medicine in the responding dental schools was 1.2 hours. In the second questionnaire, 29.2% of the respondents were in the high score group, whereas 70.8% scored low in knowledge of sleep-related breathing disorders. Dental students in Middle East universities receive a weak level of sleep medicine education resulting in poor knowledge in this field.
Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance
Bakr, Mahmoud M; Skerman, Emma; Khan, Usman; George, Roy
To evaluate the knowledge of signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with oral cancer amongst undergraduate dental students and members of the general public. This study was open for a period of six months (Jan-June, 2013) to all undergraduate dental students in the 4th and 5th year of the dental science programme and dental patients attending the School of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. The survey evaluated the knowledge and awareness of clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors of oral cancers. A total of 100 undergraduate students and 150 patients provided informed consent and participated in this survey study. Both patients and dental students were aware of the importance of early detection of oral cancer. With the exception of smoking and persistent ulceration, this study indicated that the knowledge about oral cancer, its signs, symptoms and risk factors was limited amongst participants. This study highlights the need to raise awareness and knowledge pertaining to oral cancer, not only in the general community but also amongst those in the dental field. Specific points of concern were the common intraoral sites for oral cancer, erythroplakia as a risk factor, the synergistic action of smoking and alcohol, and HPV (human papilloma virus) as risk factors for oral cancer.
Cannick, Gabrielle F.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Garr, David R.; Reed, Susan G.; Neville, Brad W.; Day, Terry A.; Woolson, Robert F.; Lackland, Daniel T.
Although communications competency is recommended by the American Dental Education Association, only a few (n=5) dental schools report evaluating students’ skills using a competency examination for communication. This study used an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to evaluate dental students’ competency in interpersonal and tobacco cessation communication skills. All students were evaluated on their interpersonal communication skills at baseline and at six months post-OSCE by standardized patients and on their tobacco cessation communication skills by two independent raters. First- and second-year dental students (n=104) were randomized to a control or intervention group. One month after the baseline OSCE, students in the intervention group participated in a two-hour training session in which faculty members communicated with a standardized patient during a head and neck examination and counseled the patient about tobacco cessation. There were no statistically significant differences from baseline to post-test between the intervention and control group students as measured by the OSCE. However, among first-year students, both the intervention (n=23) and control (n=21) groups significantly increased in tobacco cessation communication scores. Second-year students in both intervention (n=24) and control (n=28) groups declined in interpersonal communication skills from baseline to post-test. Overall, this one-shot intervention was not successful, and results suggest that a comprehensive communication skills training course may be more beneficial than a single, brief training session for improving dental students’ communication skills. PMID:17761627
Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.
Coelho, C; Pooler, J; Lloyd, H
A qualitative study to explore the issues for patients and students when giving feedback on the communication of dental students. The Department of Health and National Institute for Health Research are committed to involving patients in improving clinical education, research and service delivery. Yet, there is a limited body of evidence on the perceptions of patients when asked to be involved in this way, and specifically when asked to provide feedback on the communication skills of dental students. This study seeks to address this gap and heighten the understanding of the issues faced by patients when asked to be involved in clinical education. Data were collected using focus groups with dental students (n=10) and patients (n=8) being treated by these students. Both groups were asked about their thoughts, feelings and beliefs about patients being asked to provide feedback on the communication skills of dental students. Data analysis involved inductive thematic analysis of transcribed audio recordings. Four themes emerged from the data: "legitimacy," "co-educators," "maintaining the equilibrium of the patient-student relationship" and the "timing of patient feedback." Support for involving patients in giving feedback on students' communication skills was established, with patients considering they were best placed to comment on the communication skills of dental students. Patients and students do not want to provide feedback alone and want support to assist them, especially if feedback was negative. Issues of anonymity, confidentiality and ownership of the feedback process were worrisome, and the positioning of patient feedback in the programme was seen as critical. Patients and students are willing to engage in patient feedback on students' communication skills, and with support and training, the concerns around this are not insurmountable and the benefits could potentially profit both groups. These findings have resonance with other healthcare educators when
Yoon, M N; Compton, S M
As Canadians age, there is an increased need for oral health professionals specializing in services for this unique population. Dental hygiene students require exposure to this population to develop professional competencies. This study investigated the dimensions of professional competence that were developed through a practicum for dental hygiene students in long-term care settings while working with older adults. Nine dental hygiene students were recruited across two cohorts. All students completed reflective journals describing their practicum experiences. Five students also participated in an audio-recorded focus group and completed a pre-focus group questionnaire. Additionally, the practicum course coordinator completed an audio-recorded interview. Transcripts and journals were coded using a constant comparative approach and themes were identified. Students described developing client-focused skills, such as effective verbal and non-verbal communication with older adults with dementia. Context-based learning was also a large part of the competency development for the practicum students. Understanding the care environment within which these residents lived helped students to understand and empathize why oral health may not be prioritized. Students also developed an understanding of the work of other health professionals in the settings and improved their abilities to communicate with other healthcare providers. However, students recognized that the utility of those interprofessional skills in private practice may be limited. Dental hygiene students developed personal and ethical competencies during practicum that are highly transferrable across professional settings. Exposure of students to older adult populations in long-term care may increase the likelihood of dental hygienists working in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.
The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…
Jarnagin, Lea Marie
While the number of women entering the student affairs profession has increased, gender equity at the senior level of leadership remains elusive in the student affairs profession. In comparison to their presence in graduate preparation programs and lower levels of administration women continue to lag behind men in their rate of advancement to the…
DePaola, Dominick; Howell, Howard; Baker, Charles G
complications of cancer treatment; the treatments of HIV/AIDS diseases and hepatitis; the use of dental and dental hygiene staff on health-care teams to deal with issues such as birth defects, orofacial trauma, head and neck cancer, chronic pain management and so on. There seems to be an excessive emphasis......There has been significant concern that the dental curriculum and system of clinical education, in particular, is not designed to take advantage of the explosion in knowledge in biomedical science and its application to the health of the public. Although there are some examples of innovations...
Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne
The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.
Partido, B B; Wright, B M
Dental professionals are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to static working positions for extended periods of time. Musculoskeletal pain has been identified as early as during their entry-level dental education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve ergonomic scores and the accuracy of ergonomic self-assessments amongst dental students. The study involved a randomised control design of 135 dental students. At weeks 1 and 4, participants were photographed, and at weeks 1 through 4, participants completed ergonomic self-evaluations, using a Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks 2 and 3, participants in the training group were photographed and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were evaluated for ergonomic scores by two raters. A mixed-design ANOVA of ergonomic scores revealed that ergonomic scores improved for all students who received the ergonomics training (F(1,254)=17.41, P < .001). In addition, a mixed-design ANOVA of kappa coefficient values between student and rater scores revealed that the accuracy of self-assessments improved for all students who received the ergonomics training (F(1,127)=6.33, P < .05). The use of photographs and self-assessment provides dental and dental hygiene educators with a pragmatic method to improve self-assessment skills, increase student awareness of any postural deviations from ideal and improve musculoskeletal health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Formicola, Allan J
The cost for students of a dental education has become an issue of concern. This article explores the return on investment and the debt to income ratio of studying dentistry. These two measures are monitored to gain perspective on whether the cost of education pays off in earnings. The factors underlying these measures and a discussion of them are included. The purpose of this article is to focus attention on one of the current issues facing dental schools in the United States. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
This study is designed to gather information concerning a possible relationship between how dental students prefer to take in and communicate new information and how they prefer to be assessed. Though there are numerous references in the literature regarding the learning styles of students there are also references to the inaccuracy of such…
Full Text Available The article presents a case of dental student with immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves. Symptoms appeared during the second year of regularly using of latex gloves. The student was with no history of allergies and no previous exposure to latex products.
Taylor, Carly L.; Grey, Nick; Satterthwaite, Julian D.
Education, from a student perspective, is largely driven by assessment. An effective assessment tool should be both valid and reliable, yet this is often not achieved. The aim of this literature review is to identify and appraise the evidence base for assessment tools used primarily in evaluating clinical skills of dental students. Methods:…
Samuel Adejare Awolola
Full Text Available One dominant factor on how well students learn mathematics is the quality of teaching. Studies have shown that typical mathematics classroom is frosted with teaching technique that centered on explain – practice – memorize. There is a paucity particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the effect of brain-based learning strategy on the achievement regarding the learning of Mathematics of 522 Senior Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The moderator effect of cognitive style was also examined on independent variable (instructional strategy and dependent variable (mathematics achievement. The study adopted a pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design in a quasi – experimental setting. The ANCOVA statistic was used to analyzed the data collected fro the study. The result revealed significant main effect of treatment, (F(1,510 = 75.0; P < 0.05, cognitive style (F(1,510 = 23.78; P < 0.05 and significant interaction effect of treatment and cognitive style (F(1,510 = 5.027; P < 0.05 on achievement in mathematics. The result showed that brain-based instructional strategy enhanced students’ achievement in mathematics more than the conventional lecture method. It is therefore recommended that Teachers of mathematics should adopt the strategy in teaching mathematics in senior secondary school.
Chimah, Uzoh C; Nnebue, Chinomnso C; Ilika, Amobi L; Lawoyin, Taiwo O
To determine the sexual behavioral pattern, consequences, and adopted solutions among senior secondary schools students in Ojo military barracks, Lagos. This was a cross-sectional study of 400 senior secondary schools students in Ojo military barracks, Lagos, selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using pre-tested, self-administered semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences version 17. Tests of statistical significance were carried out using χ2-test, and a p-value of sexual intercourse and were influenced mainly by peer pressure (p=0.0000). Their age at first sexual intercourse ranged between 10-19 years. Ten (6.5%) of the respondents (all males) had their sexual debut with a commercial sex worker. More girls 41 (56.2%) than boys 12 (14.8%), were forced into sexual intercourse (p=0.0000). Over half of the sexually active respondents had at least two sexual partners for either sex. Findings from this study have shown that young people living in the barracks indulged in sexual activity at very early ages and engaged in risky sexual behavior. We therefore recommend an improved multi-sectoral approach in reproductive health and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS education.
Kenny, Philip; Johnson, Ilona Gail
Use of social media has increased amongst health professionals. This has benefits for patient care but also introduces risks for confidentiality and professional fitness to practise. This study aimed to examine dental student attitudes towards professional behaviour on social media. The secondary aim was to establish the extent and nature of social media use and exposure to potentially unprofessional behaviours.\\ud \\ud A cross-sectional study was carried out in one dental school. Data were co...
Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Alshahrani, Obaid Abdullah; Jhugroo, Chitra; Tashery, Hamed Mohammed; Mathews, Jacob; Chavan, Khechari
Background: Organized dentistry has recognized the role of oral health professionals in discouraging tobacco use. Unexplored level of knowledge regarding the benefits and prescription of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have aroused interest among us which initiated us to assess the knowledge and perception of dental students toward NRT among various dental colleges in Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was done among 16 selected colleges in Karnataka. It ...
Montiel-Company, José María; Subirats-Roig, Cristian; Flores-Martí, Pau; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel
The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as a tool for assessing the prevalence and level of burnout in dental students in Spanish universities. The survey was adapted from English to Spanish. A sample of 533 dental students from 15 Spanish universities and a control group of 188 medical students self-administered the survey online, using the Google Drive service. The test-retest reliability or reproducibility showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.95. The internal consistency of the survey was 0.922. Testing the construct validity showed two components with an eigenvalue greater than 1.5, which explained 51.2% of the total variance. Factor I (36.6% of the variance) comprised the items that estimated emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Factor II (14.6% of the variance) contained the items that estimated personal accomplishment. The cut-off point for the existence of burnout achieved a sensitivity of 92.2%, a specificity of 92.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.96. Comparison of the total dental students sample and the control group of medical students showed significantly higher burnout levels for the dental students (50.3% vs. 40.4%). In this study, the MBI-HSS was found to be viable, valid, and reliable for measuring burnout in dental students. Since the study also found that the dental students suffered from high levels of this syndrome, these results suggest the need for preventive burnout control programs.
Gallagher, J; Clarke, W; Wilson, N
Given the changing nature of the dental workforce, and the need to retain the services of future members, it is important to understand why current dental students perceive that they were motivated to study dentistry. Qualitative research provides the opportunity to explore the underlying issues in addition to informing subsequent quantitative research. The objectives of this research were to investigate final-year dental students' motivation for studying dentistry and how they perceive this has been modified during their undergraduate degree programme. Purposive sampling of a representative group of 35 final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute to participate in audio-taped focus groups. Qualitative data were analysed using Framework Methodology. The findings suggest a strong emphasis on having a career, providing 'professional status', 'financial benefits', 'job security, flexibility and independence' and 'good quality of life'. Students reported being attracted by features of the job, supported to a greater or lesser extent by personal experience, family and friends. It appears however that students' initial motivation is being tempered by their experiences during their undergraduate degree programme, in particular, the 'responsibilities of an intensive professional education', their 'mounting student debt' and the perception of 'feeling undervalued'. This perception related to dentistry in general and National Health Service dentistry in particular, being undervalued, by government, patients, the public and members of the dental profession. Students' vision of a 'contained professional career' within health care, providing status and financial benefits, appears to have influenced their choice of dentistry. Pressures relating to student life and policy changes are perceived as impacting on key components of professional life, particularly status in the social and economic order. The implications for educators, professional leaders and
Brand, H.S.; Tan, L.L.S.; van der Spek, S.J.; Baart, J.A.
Objective: To investigate students’ opinion about theoretical and clinical training in local anaesthesia at different European dental schools. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia teaching. Students’ opinion was quantified with five-point
Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.
Rosenzweig, Julien; Blaizot, Alessandra; Cougot, Nancie; Pegon-Machat, Estelle; Hamel, Olivier; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe; Munoz-Sastre, Maria-Teresa; Vergnes, Jean-Noel
Person-centered or patient-centered care (PCC) focuses on the individual's needs and concerns. Although PCC is widely acknowledged as a core value of modern medicine, there has been a lack of research on how dental curricula could engage future dentists in PCC approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a PCC course on empathy in dental students. A controlled study was conducted with fourth-year dental students in four dental faculties in France in 2014-15. The test group (n=63) received 20 hours of PCC training including arts-based approaches, narrative dentistry activities, and workshops on communication based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide. There was no change in the curriculum of the control group (n=217). Pretest and posttest measures with the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) were compared for the two groups. The comparisons showed no significant differences on the TEQ or JSPE (p=0.25 and p=0.08, respectively). However, there was a higher proportion of students with more than an eight-point decrease in TEQ values in the control group (p=0.02). The stabilization of empathic ability in the test group may have counteracted the tendency for natural erosion of empathy among students during their clinical activities. These results suggest that PCC training constitutes a promising approach to developing dental students' empathic ability, but there is a need to assess the effects of such training over longer periods.
Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L
This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.
Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-concept of EFL teachers influenced their effectiveness in teaching English as a foreign language, as perceived by both teachers and students. The study involved 275 EFL teachers and 88 senior high school students in South Sumatra. Variables of education, teaching experience, and age were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, and specific hypotheses were tested to see whether the addition of the other independent variables could add to the effectiveness of the teacher. The results showed significant relationships between self-concept and all the four factors used to define teacher effectiveness. The combination of self-concept and experience serves as the first salient factor influencing the four factors of teacher effectiveness in addition to self-concept alone. Education was also found to be a factor which influenced teacher effectiveness
Kirchhoff, Julien; Filippi, Andreas
Self-reliant oral health behavior exert great influence on the oral health of our society. The aim of the present study was to find out whether there is an occupation-related difference in the oral health behavior between dental students, students of other disciplines, and fashion models in German-speaking Switzerland. The survey comprised 19 questions which were asked using a web-based anonymous questionnaire. The investigation particularly inquired about employed auxiliaries and their application for an improvement of oral hygiene. In addition, the satisfaction with the own teeth and smile as well as the influence of the occupation or the study on oral hygiene were examined. Included in this evaluation were 204 dental students, 257 students of other disciplines, and 117 fashion models aged between 21 and 25 years. The evaluation reveals that the state of knowledge and the professional relationship affect the practice of oral hygiene, in particular among dental students. Fashion models, however, are most intensively concerned with body care and oral hygiene. Their attention is directed particularly to means supposed to improve the smile as well as to ensure fresh breath. Dental students and fashion models constitute a selected minority clearly demarcated from students of other disciplines regarding a higher awareness of self-reliant oral hygiene. The comparatively minor rating of oral health in a group of basically well-trained individuals suggests great need of educational work in the general population.
Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet
Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Hasan, Fariha; Khan, Mohammad O; Ali, Mukarram
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan. We approached 613 students that were available on the dates of this survey, keeping a medical to dental student ratio of 75:25. All students from first to final year comprised of the study population, and no internists or medical personnel were included. The questionnaire was divided into three sections, namely knowledge, attitudes and, practices. All questions were based on a multiple choice format. The data were entered and interpreted using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York). Results The majority of the students were aware that the swine flu is a transmittable disease (n=485, 80.8%). Most students identified the signs and symptoms correctly; however, diarrhea (15.5%) and vomiting (32.2%) were the least correct answers (n=93, n=193 respectively). Most of the preventative measures were reported accurately by the participants. Despite this, only 15.5% students (n=93) reported the use of a facemask when suffering from fever, cough and a runny nose. Conclusion There is a dire need for the routine integration of the awareness and management programs in the medical and dental schools. There exists a gap between the policy and practice, and it is high time we bridge the divide. The students should also be vaccinated
Breuer, Georg; Knipfer, Christian; Huber, Tobias; Huettl, Stephan; Shams, Nima; Knipfer, Kristin; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schuettler, Juergen; Stelzle, Florian
Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) in life-threatening situations is perceived as a basic skill for dental professionals. However, medical emergency training in dental schools is often not standardized. The dental students' knowledge transfer to an ACLS setting thus remains questionable. The aim of the study was to evaluate dental pre-doctorate students' practical competence in ACLS in a standardized manner to enable the curriculum to be adapted to meet their particular needs. Thirty dental students (age 25.47 ± 1.81; 16 male/14 female) in their last year of dental studies were randomly assigned to 15 teams. Students' ability to successfully manage ACLS was assessed by a scenario-based approach (training module: Laerdal® ALS Skillmaster). Competence was assessed by means of (a) an observation chart, (b) video analysis and (c) training module analysis (Laerdal HeartSim®4000; Version 1.4). The evaluation was conducted by a trained anesthesiologist with regard to the 2010 guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). Only five teams (33.3%) checked for all three vital functions (response, breathing and circulation). All teams initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Only 54.12% of the compressions performed during CPR were sufficient. Four teams stopped the CPR after initiation. In total, 93% of the teams used the equipment for bag-valve-mask ventilation and 53.3% used the AED (Automated external defibrillator). ACLS training on a regular basis is necessary and, consistent with a close link between dentistry and medicine, should be a standardized part of the medical emergency curriculum for dental students with a specific focus on the deficiencies revealed in this study.
Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sundaram, Devipriya B; Jayathilake, Sumedha; Joseph, Bobby K; Sharma, Prem N
Several studies regarding knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS have been reported from various countries. However, to the best of our knowledge, an international comparison between countries with diverse cultural and educational backgrounds has not been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of dental students of Kuwait University (KU), Kuwait and the University of Peradeniya (UP), Sri Lanka, the only dental schools in the respective countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a total of 258 dental students, representing the clinical years of both universities, using a similar structured questionnaire with sixty questions to examine their knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS and thirteen questions to examine their attitudes towards the disease. The mean knowledge and attitude scores were calculated and compared between students from the two universities using t-test with SPSS 17.0. A total of 215 questionnaires were completed and returned, giving a total response rate of 83.3 percent. The KU students were significantly more knowledgeable (p=0.018) regarding HIV/AIDS than the UP students. However, the UP students demonstrated a more highly significant positive attitude (peducation in these countries.
Full Text Available Objective: Dental students are particularly affected by stress, which can lead to ‘burnout syndrome’ by association with other psychological factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of perceived stress, coping strategies, and vocational satisfaction on the severity of burnout in Chilean dental students in the clinical years. Method: The study population was comprised of clinical dental students of five Chilean dental schools. The following variables were considered: age, gender, year of study, burnout, coping strategies, perceived stress, and vocational satisfaction. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures, correlation tests, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results: The final sample included 244 students. Three (1.23% students did not have burnout in any of its factors and 38 (15.57% had severe levels in all three factors. There was a statistically significant greater ‘emotional exhaustion’ in 4th year students. There was a statistically significant correlation of the three factors of burnout with ‘social withdrawal’ coping strategy, high levels of perceived stress, and low levels of present and future vocational satisfaction. Conclusion: Most students presented moderate and high levels of burnout. This situation is associated with dysfunctional coping strategies, high levels of perceived stress, and low levels of present and future vocational satisfaction.
Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N
There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.
Andegiorgish, Amanuel Kidane; Weldemariam, Bizen Weldmicheal; Kifle, Meron Mehari; Mebrahtu, Filmon Gebreysus; Zewde, Henos Keflom; Tewelde, Micheal Gebregziabhir; Hussen, Mohammed Anwar; Tsegay, Winta Kesete
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases of childhood in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries in Eritrea. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among 12 years old school children in Eritrea. A school based cross sectional study was conducted among 225 twelve years old students in two selected schools. One school from randomly selected urban and rural subzones of the country were selected. WHO adopted questionnaire and a standard checklist were used to collect relevant data. To assess dental caries, two examiners were calibrated by a certified dentist and inter observer agreement was calculated using the Cohen's Kappa statistic (0.82). All data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of dental caries was 78%, without significant difference between males (78%) and females (79%).The mean DMFT value was 2.50 (±2.21). The decayed component contributed 98.3% of the score as it had 2.44 (±1.2) share to the mean DMFT value. The first molar was the most affected tooth with a DMFT value of 1.55 (±1.36). The mean significant caries index score (SiC) was 4.97 (±1.9) which is higher than the upper limit of SiC value of 3 set by the WHO as a global average. More than half of the respondents had never visited a dentist and out of the students who had utilized a dental health facility, 82% of visits were due to dental pain while visits for regular checkups were cited by only 6.6% of the respondents. Dental caries was found to be a common public health problem among 12 years old Eritrean students. The prevalence of dental caries, mean DMFT and SiC scores were higher than the average score of other developing countries. Gaps in dental health service utilization, dental health practices and suboptimal water fluoride levels contribute to poor dental health among school children in Eritrea.
Costa-Silva, Daniela; Côrtes, Juliana A; Bachinski, Rober F; Spiegel, Carolina N; Alves, Gutemberg G
Although the discipline of cell biology (CB) is part of the curricula of predoctoral dental schools, students often fail to recognize its practical relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a practical-theoretical project-based course in closing the gaps among CB, scientific research, and dentistry for dental students. A project-based learning course was developed with nine sequential lessons to evaluate 108 undergraduate dental students enrolled in CB classes of a Brazilian school of dentistry during 2013-16. To highlight the relevance of in vitro studies in the preclinical evaluation of dental materials at the cellular level, the students were challenged to complete the process of drafting a protocol and performing a cytocompatibility assay for a bone substitute used in dentistry. Class activities included small group discussions, scientific database search and article presentations, protocol development, lab experimentation, and writing of a final scientific report. A control group of 31 students attended only one laboratory class on the same theme, and the final reports were compared between the two groups. The results showed that the project-based learning students had superior outcomes in acknowledging the relevance of in vitro methods during biocompatibility testing. Moreover, they produced scientifically sound reports with more content on methodological issues, the relationship with dentistry, and the scientific literature than the control group (p<0.05). The project-based learning students also recognized a higher relevance of scientific research and CB to dental practice. These results suggest that a project-based approach can help contextualize scientific research in dental curricula.
Wittmann-Price, Ruth A; Kennedy, Lynn D; Godwin, Catherine
Research indicates that having electronic resources readily available increases learners' ability to make clinical decisions and confidence in patient care. This mixed-method, descriptive pilot study collected data about senior prelicensure nursing students using smartphones, a type of mobile electronic device (MED), in the clinical area. The smartphones contained nursing diagnosis, pharmacology, and laboratory information; an encyclopedia; and the MEDLINE database. Student (n = 7) data about smartphone use during a 10-week clinical rotation were collected via student-recorded usage logs and focus group recordings. Staff nurses' (n = 5) perceptions of students' use of smartphones for clinical educational resources were collected by anonymous survey. Both the focus group transcript and staff surveys were evaluated and the themes summarized by content analysis. Positive results and barriers to use, such as cost and technological comfort levels, are discussed. The results may help nurse educators and administrators initiate further research of MEDs as a clinical resource. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Inquimbert, Camille; Tramini, Paul; Alsina, Ivan; Valcarcel, Jean; Giraudeau, Nicolas
The purpose of this study was to identify the major sources of perceived stress and their relation to a student satisfaction questionnaire about the curriculum and the pedagogy among French dental students. All dental students ( n = 178) from years 4 to 6 at the University of Montpellier (France) participated in this exploratory survey. In spring 2016, a 3-part questionnaire was distributed during clinical sessions: the first part asked about sociodemographic and living conditions, the second part aimed to assess the students' perceived stress (Dental Environmental Stress questionnaire), and the third part was a satisfaction questionnaire exploring the clinical organization and the teaching methodologies (Student Course Experience Questionnaire). A Spearman's correlation test and a principal component analysis were used to assess the relation between the variables of the questionnaire. The response rate was 99.4%. The most stressful items were "the number of tasks to be performed during clinical practice," "the waiting time before opinion from teachers," and "the administrative part and computer problems." Fifty-four percent of the students claimed to be satisfied with their studies, showing a score of seven or higher. There was a negative correlation between the level of student satisfaction and the level of perceived stress. Although most of the students were globally satisfied with their curriculum, this study highlighted dysfunctions in the clinical education with a level of stress correlated with the student's dissatisfaction. Most of all, students found that examinations were too stressful and that the clinical requested task quotas were overestimated.
Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, San-Yue; Huang, Heng-Li; Tsai, Chi-Cheng
Preparing a continuous tapering conical shape and maintaining the original shape of a canal are obligatory in root canal preparation. The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping performance in simulated curved canal resin blocks of the same novice dental students using hand-prepared and engine-driven nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary ProTaper instruments in an endodontic laboratory class. Methods: Twenty-three fourth-year dental students attending China Medical University Dental Schoo...
Full Text Available The study investigated constructivist practices through guided discovery approach and the effect on students’ cognitive achievement in Nigerian senior secondary school Physics. The study adopted pretest-posttest control group design. A criterion sampling technique was used to select six schools out of nine schools that met the criteria. A total of 278 students took part in the study; this was made up of 141 male students and 137 female students in their respective intact classes. Physic Achievement Test (PAT with the internal consistency of 0.77 using Kuder-Richardson formula (21 was the instrument used in collecting data. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and t-test. The results showed that guided discovery approaches was the most effective in facilitating students’ achievement in physics after being taught using a pictorial organizer. This was followed by demonstration while expository was found to be the least effective. Also, there exists no significant difference in the achievement of male and female physics students taught with guided discovery, demonstration and expository teaching approaches and corresponding exposure to a pictorial organizer. It is recommended that physics teachers should endeavor to use constructivist practices through guided discovery approach in order to engage students in problem solving activities, independent learning, critical thinking and understanding, and creative learning, rather than in rote learning and memorization.
Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A
The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.
Abu Kasim, N H; Abu Kassim, N L; Razak, A A A; Abdullah, H; Bindal, P; Che' Abdul Aziz, Z A; Sulaiman, E; Farook, M S; Gonzalez, M A G; Thong, Y L; Ahmad, N A; Naimie, Z; Abdullah, M; Lui, J L; Abdul Aziz, A
Training dentists today is challenging as they are expected to provide a wide range of dental care. In the provision of good dental care, soft skills are equally important as clinical skills. Therefore in dental education the development of soft skills are of prime concern. This study sought to identify the development of soft skills when dental students are paired in their clinical training. In this perception study, four open-ended items were used to elicit students' feedback on the appropriateness of using clinical pairing as an instructional strategy to promote soft skills. The most frequently cited soft skills were teamwork (70%) and communication (25%) skills. However, both negative and positive behaviours were reported. As for critical thinking and problem solving skills, more positive behaviours were reported for abilities such as to explain, analyze, find ideas and alternative solutions, and make decisions. Leadership among peers was not evident as leading without legitimate authority could be a hindrance to its development. If clinical pairing is to be used as an effective instructional strategy to promote soft skills amongst students, clear guidelines need to be developed to prepare students to work in a dental team and the use of appropriate assessment tools can facilitate the development of these soft skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oakley, Marnie; Horvath, Zsuzsa; Weinberg, Seth M; Bhatt, Jaya; Spallek, Heiko
As e-mail and other forms of electronic communication increase in popularity, it is important for dental schools to consider a curriculum that prepares their graduates to understand and apply effective electronic communication strategies to their patients. Reflecting this shift in communication behavior, the American Medical Association has developed specific e-mail communication guidelines. Some behavioral examples in these guidelines include protecting patients' protected health information (PHI), ensuring proper record keeping, and using professional, courteous, and understandable language. In this study, a sample of first- and fourth-year dental students (n=160) at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine participated in an assignment assessing their patient-provider e-mail communication skills. A rubric was used to evaluate and compare the data between dental student classes. The results reveal a generalized lack of compliance with several of these guidelines by both classes (e.g., failure to protect PHI), despite efforts to expose students to these concepts in the curriculum. In an effort to train emerging dentists to function in a rapidly changing technological environment, these findings suggest a need for growth and development of curricula and perhaps guidelines/recommendations for behavioral competencies regarding dental students' use of electronic communication in the patient care environment.
Sheridan, Rachel A; Hammaker, Daniel J; de Peralta, Tracy L; Fitzgerald, Mark
This pilot study compared second- and fourth-year dental students' perceived values of newly implemented clinical leadership experiences (CLEs) at one U.S. dental school during the 2012-13 academic year. In the CLEs, fourth-year (D4) students mentored second-year (D2) dental students during faculty-supervised patient treatment. The two cohorts' perceived value of the experiences was measured with questionnaires consisting of five-point Likert scale questions and open text responses. Out of a total of 114 D2 and 109 D4 students, 46 D2 students and 35 D4 students participated (response rates of 40.4% and 32.1%, respectively). While responses from both cohorts showed they highly valued the CLEs, the D2s perceived greater value: 4.07 (0.53) v. 3.51 (0.95), pmentor D2s, that the CLEs had educational benefits, and that the CLEs increased their comfort with peer communication. Theme analysis of open text questions revealed that the respondents perceived the D4s were more accessible than faculty and provided guidance and individual attention; the CLEs increased student comfort; the CLEs reinforced D4 skills, knowledge, and confidence; and the CLEs provided management, leadership, and collaborative work experience. Theme analysis also highlighted student concerns about a lack of program structure. Overall, the majority of both groups valued CLEs in their dental education. Particular advantages they perceived were increased comfort, guidance, and attention. Further program development should address student concerns. These results suggest that similar programs should be considered and/or expanded in other dental schools' curricula.
Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara
Aim To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%). Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training. PMID:22741025
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results: This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%. Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion: Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training.
Wilson Nairn HF
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental graduates are joining a profession experiencing changes in systems of care, funding and skill mix. Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce is vital to inform professional and policy decisions. The objective of this research was to investigate final year dental students' perceived motivation for their choice of career in relation to sex, ethnicity and mode of entry. Methods Self-administered questionnaire survey of all final year dental students at King's College London. Data were entered into SPSS; statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association, multiple regression, factor analysis and logistic regression. Results A response of 90% (n = 126 was achieved. The majority were aged 23 years (59%, female (58% and Asian (70%. One in 10 were mature students. Eighty per cent identified 11 or more 'important' or 'very important' influences, the most common of which were related to features of the job: 'regular working hours' (91%, 'degree leading to recognised job' (90% and 'job security' (90%. There were significant differences in important influences by sex (males > females: 'able to run own business'; females > males: 'a desire to work with people', ethnic group (Asians > white: 'wish to provide public service', 'influence of friends', 'desire to work in healthcare', having 'tried an alternative career/course' and 'work experience' and mode of entry (mature > early entry: 'a desire to work with people'. Multivariate analysis suggested 61% of the variation in influences is explained by five factors: the 'professional job' (31%, 'healthcare-people' (11%, 'academic-scientific' (8%, 'careers-advising' (6%, and 'family/friends' (6%. The single major influence on choice of career was a 'desire to work with people'; Indian students were twice as likely to report this as white or other ethnic groups. Conclusion Final year dental students report a wide range of important
Elagra, Marwa I.; Rayyan, Mohammad R.; Alnemer, Omaima A.; Alshehri, Maram S.; Alsaffar, Noor S.; Al-Habib, Rabab S.; Almosajen, Zainab A.
Objective: To investigate the sleep patterns of dental students from different academic levels and to determine the effect of sleep patterns on the academic performance of students. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was designed and distributed among 1160 students from clinical and non-clinical levels to measure the sleep-related variables and academic performance. The questionnaire included questions on demographics, sleep habits, sleep quality index (PSQI), and grade point averages (GP...
The field of dental medical education is one of the most rapidly evolving fields in education. Newer teaching methods are being evaluated and incorporated in dental institutions. One of the promising new methods is the blended learning approach that may involve a "flipped" instructional sequencing, where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking. The author conducted a mixed method, experimental study that focused on second year dental students' perceptions of blended learning and its effectiveness. A sample size of 40 dental students in their second year from a Northeastern Regional Dental School were invited to participate in this study to evaluate a blended learning approach in comparison to a more traditional lecture format. Students who participated in the study, participated in group problem-solving, responded to Likert-type surveys, completed content exams, and were interviewed individually. Based on Likert survey data and interview responses, the participants in the blended learning treatment reported very positive opinions including positive perceptions of the organization, support of meaningful learning and potential merits for use in dental education. There also was evidence that the blended learning group achieved at least as well as the traditional lecture group, and excelled on certain content test items. The results of this study support the conclusion that blended instruction promotes active, in-depth and self-regulated learning. During blended learning, students set standards or goals regarding their learning, evaluate their progress toward these goals, and then adapt and regulate their cognition, motivation, and behavior in order to accomplish their goals. Overall, the results of this research on blended learning, including the use of problem-based learning in group discussions, supports the merits of incorporating blended earning in dental education curricula.
Prud'homme, Robert K.
Reviews a senior undergraduate research program in chemical engineering at Princeton University. Includes strengths and requirements for a successful program. Senior thesis research provides creative problem solving experiences for students and is congruent with departmental research objectives. Selected student comments are included. (SK)
Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002
Brand, H.S.; Kamell, H.; Kharbanda, A.; Dozic, A.
The aim of this study was to explore the materials and procedures used by students in dental schools across Europe for teaching fixed prosthodontics. An online questionnaire, containing twenty-eight dichotomous, multiple-choice, and Likert scale rating questions, was sent to students in forty dental
Sushma, R; Vanamala, N; Nagabhushana, D; Maurya, M; Sunitha, S; Reddy, Cvk
In pursuit of a more "holistic" dentistry and an increasing focus on promoting oral health, dental students are increasingly being trained to take a more active part in health promotion and education. In particular, this incorporates an emphasis on diet and educating people to eat in more healthy ways. This paper works from the premise that if dental students are to engage in oral health promotion, they will do so more effectively if they have first explored their own food choice motivations. A descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire study. The food choice questionnaire (FCQ) was distributed to a comparative group of 1(st) and 5(th) year dental students in timetabled lecture slots. The FCQ is a previously validated measure designed to assess ten main factors relevant to peoples" food choices. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. Nearly 77% (122/159) students responded. Findings were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results indicated statistically significant differences in terms of food choice motivations between male and female students of 1(st) and 5(th) year. Awareness and an understanding of the differences in motivational factors affecting food choice between dental students is important as they are increasingly taught to play an active role in oral health promotion.
Nieminen, P; Virtanen, J I
One of the core skills of competent dentist is the ability to search and analyse high-quality evidence. Problems in understanding the basic aspects of knowledge-based information may impede its implementation into clinical practice. We examined how Finnish dental students acquire scientific information and how familiar they are with methods for evaluating scientific evidence related to clinical questions. All fifth-year dental students (n = 120) at the three universities in Finland received a self-administered questionnaire. The three most commonly used sources of information were colleagues, the commercial Health Gate Portal for dental practitioners and personal lecture notes. Although students rarely read scientific journals, they did find that they possess at least passable or even good skills in literature retrieval. Three questions related to the appraisal of evidence in dentistry revealed that students' knowledge of evidence-based dentistry was inadequate to critically evaluate clinical research findings. Most students seem to lack knowledge of key methodological evidence-based terms. The present curricula in dental schools fail to encourage the students to search and acquire knowledge wider than their patients themselves do. Universities have the responsibility to teach dentists various methods of critical appraisal to cope with scientific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pendharkar, Bhagyashree; Levy, Steven M; McQuistan, Michelle R; Qian, Fang; Squier, Christopher A; Slach, Nancy A; Aquilino, Mary L
In order to facilitate effective tobacco cessation services within dental school clinics, it is necessary to understand the perceived barriers encountered by dental students while providing these services. The aim of this study was to identify which factors fourth-year dental students perceive to be associated with barriers to providing tobacco intervention services. A written survey was developed and completed by incoming fourth-year dental students (a convenience sample of seventy students) at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry in 2008. The survey assessed the perceived barriers to providing tobacco intervention services and related factors. Descriptive, bivariate, and linear regression analyses were conducted. The response rate was 97 percent. The most frequently reported barriers were patients' resistance to tobacco intervention services (96 percent), inadequate time available for tobacco intervention services (96 percent), and forgetting to give tobacco intervention advice (91 percent). The following variables were significantly (p<0.05) related to greater perceived barriers in providing tobacco intervention services: lower "adequacy of tobacco intervention curriculum coverage of specific topics covered over the previous three years" and greater "perceived importance of incorporating objective structured clinical examination teaching method for learning tobacco intervention." Students probably could benefit from additional didactic training, but most important may be enhanced clinical experiences and faculty reinforcement to facilitate effective practical student learning and adaptation for future delivery of intervention services in private practice settings.
Errante, Margaret R; Gill, Gurjinder S; Rodriguez, Tobias E
The purpose of this study was to assess if a clinical group practice model has an impact on enhancing the interpersonal skills of predoctoral dental students, what factors may influence the development of these skills, and what, if any, are innovative and technological solutions that can potentially influence interpersonal skills in predoctoral dental students. This study surveyed the faculty responsible for teaching the dental students in a recently developed group practice model. Out of 18 eligible group practice leaders at one US dental school, 17 respondents (94.4%) completed the survey. In addition, this study asked the faculty to provide qualitative response and recommendations to improve interpersonal skills. Based on the feedback, a focus group was conducted to explore opportunities to further enhance the skills. The results of the study suggest that the group practice model has a positive and distinct impact on the development of overall interpersonal skills for students. Further research suggests that the greatest impacted areas of personal development are critical thinking skills and teamwork. However, as a way to make the model more effectual, most faculty suggested the need for additional time, for both students and faculty. To some extent, using technology and innovative teaching pedagogies could potentially address the challenge of limited time. Based on the results of the survey, one may conclude that with adequate design and conditions, the group practice model can have a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of its students.
Dos Santos, Beatriz Ferraz; Madathil, Sreenath; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense; Bedos, Christophe; Nicolau, Belinda
The aims of this study were to investigate dental students' attitudes toward people living in poverty and the extent to which their perceptions were associated with their willingness to treat those patients in their future practice. All 910 dental students enrolled in three Brazilian public universities in 2010 were invited to take part in a cross-sectional survey. A total of 766 students (83.7% response rate) completed the self-administered questionnaire on their perceptions of and attitudes about poverty and their intention to provide dental care to poor people. The responding students showed slightly positive attitudes about people living in poverty; however, a high percentage (35%) reported thinking they were different from the rest of the population. Nevertheless, most of these students expressed willingness to provide care to underserved populations in their future practice; this willingness was found to be associated with their beliefs about poverty (OR 1.65; 95% CI=1.41-1.94). Overall, the study found that these dental students had altruistic views toward people living in poverty. However, they seemed to lack a deep understanding of poverty that may prevent them from acting on their good intentions.
Errante, Margaret R; Gill, Gurjinder S; Rodriguez, Tobias E
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess if a clinical group practice model has an impact on enhancing the interpersonal skills of predoctoral dental students, what factors may influence the development of these skills, and what, if any, are innovative and technological solutions that can potentially influence interpersonal skills in predoctoral dental students. Methods This study surveyed the faculty responsible for teaching the dental students in a recently developed group practice model. Out of 18 eligible group practice leaders at one US dental school, 17 respondents (94.4%) completed the survey. In addition, this study asked the faculty to provide qualitative response and recommendations to improve interpersonal skills. Based on the feedback, a focus group was conducted to explore opportunities to further enhance the skills. Results The results of the study suggest that the group practice model has a positive and distinct impact on the development of overall interpersonal skills for students. Further research suggests that the greatest impacted areas of personal development are critical thinking skills and teamwork. However, as a way to make the model more effectual, most faculty suggested the need for additional time, for both students and faculty. To some extent, using technology and innovative teaching pedagogies could potentially address the challenge of limited time. Conclusion Based on the results of the survey, one may conclude that with adequate design and conditions, the group practice model can have a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of its students. PMID:29720884
Laurence, Brian; Bertera, Elizabeth M; Feimster, Tawana; Hollander, Roberta; Stroman, Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to adapt the twenty-six-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) developed for medical students for use among dental students and to test the psychometric properties of the modified instrument. The sample consisted of 250 students (an 80.1 percent response rate) in years D1 to D4 at a dental school in Washington, DC. The mean age of participants was 26.6 years with a range from twenty-one to forty-two years. Slightly more than half of the participants were female (52.4 percent) and were African American or of African descent (51.7 percent). Principal components analysis was used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The index that resulted measured both positive and negative attitudes toward learning communications skills. The final twenty-four-item scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87), and the study obtained four important factors-Learning, Importance, Quality, and Success-that explained a significant portion of the variance (49.1 percent). Stratified analysis by demographic variables suggested that there may be gender and ethnic differences in the students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. The authors conclude that the CSAS modified for dental students, or DCSAS, is a useful tool to assess attitudes towards learning communication skills among dental students.
Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Fang Num, Kelly Sze; How Koh, Raymond Chee
Background: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of dental students’ knowledge and attitude regarding human papillomavirus infection of cervical cancer on willingness to pay for vaccination. Basic research design: A convenience sampling method was used. The minimal sample size of 136 was calculated using the Raosoft calculator with a 5 % margin of error and 95% confidence level. Participants: The study population were all final year dental students from the School of Dentistry. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge levels and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination. Contingent valuation was conducted for willingness to pay for vaccination. Main outcome measures: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that human papillomavirus are associated with oropharynx cancer and the American Dental Association insist on expanding public awareness of the oncogenic potential of some HPV infections. Thus, as future dental practitioners, dental students should be aware of human papillomavirus and their links with cancer and the benefits of vaccination. Results: Knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer did not impact on attitudes towards vaccines. However, significant correlation existed between knowledge and willingness to pay for vaccination. Conclusions: Dental students’ knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer has no influence on their attitude towards HPV vaccines. However, their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination is influenced by their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Creative Commons Attribution License
Full Text Available I nactive life style is one of the problems of today‟s health issues and has seri ous damage in health which threatens and risks human life. That‟s why „„living by raising life quality‟‟is considered to be a key for a healthy life. The way to handle that key is to make the regular physical activity a permanent part of life. Especially t he progress in technology brings the young generation an inactive life style.This study is made to form permanent solutions for suggestions by investigatingthe differences between physical activity and life quality. It is applied in 2013 - 2014 education yea rs, in Manisa city YunusEmre township senior high schools institutes, on 833 male and female students.The personal information form formed by the researchers and Life Quality SF - 36 Short form is applied on the participants in order to search the difference s of physical activity and life quality. Some statistical differences appeared and some did not in the participants‟ age, sex, sporting or not, having a sports license variables and SF - 36 sub dimensions. It is recommended that, in order to gain regular phy sical activity practice, especially in senior - high schools, gymnastics lessons should be increased and be lectured actively to raise the life quality.
Gussy, M G; Knevel, R J M; Sigurdson, V; Karlberg, G
Globalization and concurrent development in computer and communication technology has increased interest in collaborative online teaching and learning for students in higher education institutions. Many institutions and teachers have introduced computer-supported programmes in areas including dental hygiene. The potential for the use of this technology is exciting; however, its introduction should be careful and considered. We suggest that educators wanting to introduce computer-supported programmes make explicit their pedagogical principles and then select technologies that support and exploit these principles. This paper describes this process as it was applied to the development of an international web-based collaborative learning programme for dental hygiene students.
Dadang S. Anshori
Full Text Available This study aims to describe the analysis model of framing on journalism discourse in Indonesian textbooks in Senior High School to be used in language learning. This research used qualitative method with framing theory from Pan and Kosicki as an tool of analysis. The research data is journalism discourse in textbook amounted to 30 pieces of discourse taken from 10 text books of class X, XI, and XII in Senior High School. The results show the following: (1 The discourse of journalism has received acceptance in the world of education, especially in textbooks. The use of journalism discourse in 10 textbooks is very high and very diverse in terms of number, topic, source, and usage. (2 The journalism discourse in the textbook meets the criteria of reporting value, even if not all reporting value is fulfilled. (3 The frame construction of the journalism discourse in Indonesian textbooks is packaged in different angles according to news topics and facts. (4 The analysis model of journalism discourse framing is developed by focusing on the structural analysis of category, syntax, script, thematic, diction/phrase, and rhetoric.
Vikram Pal Aggarwal
Full Text Available Background: Empathy plays an important role in healthy dentist and patient relationship. Hence, the aim of the study is to (a to measure the self-reported empathy levels among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. (b To review the trend of changes in empathy level with experience, age, and gender among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out in two private dental institutions situated in Sri Ganganagar, India, with a sample size of 978. Data were obtained from the 1 st to final year (BDS, interns, and postgraduate students from January to March 2015. An empathy level of students was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Health Profession Students Version Questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis using Kaiser′s criteria was undertaken to appraise the construct validity and dimensionality. Based on the results of the factor analysis, three factors were selected; labeled as "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "standing in patient′s shoes." Results: The majority of the students was female in a equivalent ratio of 1338:618. There were significant differences in empathy scores by gender and age (P < 0.01. The lowest and highest mean empathy scores were found in postgraduate (mean = 108.77, standard deviation [SD] =9.12 and 1 st year (mean = 117.23, SD = 14.19 dental students, respectively. Conclusion: Dental educators should consider the likely decline in empathy among students as early as possible and adopt communication teaching strategies to promote the development of empathy and reduce the risk of further decline.
Felicidad Loscertales Abril
Full Text Available Hoy día la relevancia de Internet es cada vez mayor en todos los ámbitos. Participar en la misma es fundamental para estar integrados socialmente. El aumento de la esperanza y la calidad de vida conllevan que los mayores activos supongan un volumen significativo de la población. En este trabajo se analiza el uso que personas mayores activas realizan de Internet, así como los principales beneficios o motivaciones de su utilización, y las barreras que encuentran aquéllos que no la utilizan. Se administró un cuestionario a personas inscritas en programas universitarios de mayores. Los resultados muestran que estos mayores universitarios se conectan a Internet frecuentemente, a diario o entre dos o tres veces por semana. Se destaca la relevancia de Internet para estar actualizados, contactar con la familia y los amigos, el uso académico, y consultar la prensa. La consideran fácil de utilizar aunque afirman que podrían vivir sin ella. Por otro lado, para los que no acceden a Internet no saber utilizarla es una de las principales barreras, si bien las personas que no la utilizan consideran que serían capaces de aprender. En su conjunto los datos animan a romper estereotipos negativos sobre los mayores y a no considerar a los mayores activos como personas incapaces o desconectadas de la Red sino a valorar positivamente los avances que realizan y la motivación por aprender.The Internet is increasingly prominent in all walks of life, and Web connection is a key factor in social integration. The rise in life expectancy and quality of life mean that our active seniors now represent a growing sector in society. This study analyses what senior citizens use the Internet for and why, as well as the main benefits of its usage and the perceived obstacles of those who are non-users. The results derive from a questionnaire completed by senior citizens enrolled on university courses for older people, and they show that university seniors frequently
Full Text Available In the article features and maintenance of pedagogical preparation of senior youthspupilsopen up to implementation of social roles of man and father.Key words: pedagogical preparation, senior youths-pupils, social role of man andfather
Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hongmei; Wu, Xinyi
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for dry eye syndrome (DES) among senior high school students in Shouguang, a county of Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2010, and 1902 senior high school students were selected by multi-stage sampling to answer a questionnaire assessing the prevalence and risk factors for DES. DES was defined as the presence of a previous clinical diagnosis of DES or severe symptoms (both dryness and irritation constantly or often). Risk factors associated with DES were evaluated with a χ(2) test and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of DES was 23.7%. In univariate analysis, myopia (P sleep quality (P = 0.007) were significantly associated with DES. In multivariate analysis, inadequate refractive correction (P sleep quality (P = 0.001, OR 1.342; 95% CI 1.054-1.709) were significant risk factors for DES. Senior high school students are a neglected population with a high prevalence of DES. Preventive measures directed against risks factors for DES among senior high school students may help reduce the prevalence and provide a positive impact on students' health.
Mardiana, Nana; Kuswanto, Heru
The aims of the research concerned here were to reveal (1) the characteristics of Android-assisted PML (physics mobile learning) to improve SMA (sekolah menengah atas, Indonesian senior high school) students' divergent thinking skills and physics HOTS (higher order thinking skills); (2) the feasibility of the Android-assisted PML; and (3) the influence of using the Android-assisted PML on improvement in SMA students' divergent thinking skills and physics HOTS. The7 research was of the R&D (research and development) type, adapted from theBorg-&-Gall development model. The research data were analyzed by means of MANOVA with the significance level of 5%. The results are as follows. (1) The product of the development, a learning media in software form with the android package(apk) format, is named PML (to refer to Physics Mobile Learning), which has such characterictics as being operable with use of Android devicesand being very good in quality in the aspect oflearning, material, software technology, and audiovisual appearance. 2) The developed learning media referred to as PML is appropriate for learning activity according to evaluation by a material expert, a media expert, peer reviewers, and physics teachers as well as according to results of students' tryouts. (3) The use of the Android-assisted PML media product could improve SMA students' divergent thinking skillsand physics HOTS with the respective high-category gain scores of 0.701 and 0.759.
Full Text Available Studies in well-defined populations contribute to the body ofevidence that the psychosocial aspects of people’s environment can have a substantial effect on their physical health. Senior students in health professional education programs were interviewed using structured instruments to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and tension-type headaches in a young adult university population. Almost 70%of the study sample was either at risk of becoming distressed, or already distressed with somatic or depressive symptoms. About two-thirds of thestudents reported symptoms of either tension-type headache or other typesof headache, while over 30% of all the students complained of tension-type headache. Almost 20% of the students whoreported symptoms of tension-type headache were also distressed, while another 47% were at risk of being distressed.The possible impact on the academic performance of the students and their future role as health care professionalsis discussed.
Azodo, Cc; Omili, Ma; Akeredolu, Pa
The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection and willingness to care for HIV-infected patients among respondents in the lower class and those in upper class.
Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati
Full Text Available Fire safety is essential component and requirement in health care sector. It includes components like emergency exits, manual call outs, different types of fire extinguishers, safe assembly area, fire hydrant system with water sprinkler systems etc. We attempt to provide some basics about fire and fire safety that are prerequisite for safe working environment in dental clinics along with some recommendations that can be incorporated in the curriculum.
Orsini, Cesar; Binnie, Vivian; Evans, Phillip; Ledezma, Priscilla; Fuentes, Fernando; Villegas, Maria J
The Academic Motivation Scale is one of the most frequently used instruments to assess academic motivation. It relies on the self-determination theory of human motivation. However, motivation has been understudied in dental education. Therefore, to address the lack of valid instruments to assess academic motivation in