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Sample records for senegalese sole testis

  1. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole.

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    François Chauvigné

    Full Text Available Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1 of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh and luteinizing (rLh hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole's natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species.

  2. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

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    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis ) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  3. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

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    Carazo, I.; Chereguini, O.; Martín, I.; Huntingford, F.; Duncan, N.

    2016-07-01

    Senegalese e sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  4. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

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    Carazo, I.; Chereguini, O.; Martín, I.; Huntingford, F.; Duncan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Senegalese e sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  5. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

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    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species’ sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling...... and identify potential molecular markers that indicate a physiological response to chronic stress. Two groups of fish were reared in duplicate for 28 days, one of them weekly exposed to handling stress (including hypoxia) for 3 min, and the other left undisturbed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis enabled...... the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test, p stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12...

  6. Influence of vegetable diets on physiological and immune responses to thermal stress in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

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    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gesto, Manuel; Batista, Sónia

    2018-01-01

    quality parameters. However, scarce information is available regarding the long-term impact of vegetable diets (combining the inclusion of both vegetable protein and oils) on the stress response and immunity of this fish species. This study aims to evaluate the concomitant effect of the extended use...... of vegetable protein-based diets with fish oil (FO) replacement (0, 50 or 100%) by vegetable oils (VO), on the response to acute (10 min) or prolonged (4 days) stress, induced by thermal shock. Plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate as well as hepatic levels of glucose, glycogen and lactate were......The substitution of fish resources as ingredients for aquafeeds by those based on vegetable sources is needed to ensure aquaculture sustainability in the future. It is known that Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) accepts high dietary content of plant ingredients without altering growth or flesh...

  7. Weaning of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis postlarvae to an inert diet with a co-feeding regime

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the weaning success of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, postlarvae when cofed a compound diet, by means of the analysis of growth parameters (relative growth rate [RGR] and condition factor [K], survival, protein and lipid content. Total ammonia in the rearing water was also measured. The experiment lasted for 46 days (36 to 82 days posthatching. One group was fed only with enriched Artemia sp. metanauplii (Artemia treatment, whereas in another group, the Artemia sp. metanauplii were gradually replaced by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES diet over a period of 39 days (ICES treatment. Postlarvae were sampled on rearing days 0, 9, 23, 30, 39 and 46 for growth and biochemical analysis. Water was sampled on rearing day 30 during a 24-h cycle in both treatments. Postlarvae from the ICES treatment were weaned, though by the end of the experiment the Artemia treatment exhibited significantly higher values for growth, RGR, K and survival rates (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed concerning total lipid content. Protein content was significantly higher for the Artemia treatment after 46 days of rearing (P < 0.05. The total ammonia nitrogen concentration in the water increased after each meal and remained below a harmless level for postlarvae.

  8. Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

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    Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2005-09-01

    Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole.

  9. Dominance behaviour in a non-aggressive flatfish, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and brain mRNA abundance of selected transcripts.

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    Elvira Fatsini

    Full Text Available Dominance is defined as the preferential access to limited resources. The present study aimed to characterise dominance in a non-aggressive flatfish species, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis by 1 identifying dominance categories and associated behaviours and 2 linking dominance categories (dominant and subordinate with the abundance of selected mRNA transcripts in the brain. Early juveniles (n = 74, 37 pairs were subjected to a dyadic dominance test, related to feeding, and once behavioural phenotypes had been described the abundance of ten selected mRNAs related to dominance and aggressiveness was measured in the brain. Late juveniles were subjected to two dyadic dominance tests (n = 34, 17 pairs, related to feeding and territoriality and one group test (n = 24, 4 groups of 6 fish. Sole feeding first were categorized as dominant and sole feeding second or not feeding as subordinate. Three social behaviours (i. "Resting the head" on another fish, ii. "Approaching" another fish, iii. "Swimming above another" fish were associated with dominance of feeding. Two other variables (i. Total time occupying the preferred area during the last 2 hours of the 24 h test, ii. Organisms occupying the preferred area when the test ended were representative of dominance in the place preference test. In all tests, dominant fish compared to subordinate fish displayed a significantly higher number of the behaviours "Rest the head" and "Approaches". Moreover, dominant sole dominated the sand at the end of the test, and in the group test dominated the area close to the feed delivery point before feed was delivered. The mRNA abundance of the selected mRNAs related to neurogenesis (nrd2 and neuroplasticity (c-fos in dominant sole compared to subordinate were significantly different. This is the first study to characterise dominance categories with associated behaviours and mRNA abundance in Senegalese sole and provides tools to study dominance related problems in

  10. Effects of the isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: role of the Survivin and proliferation versus apoptosis pathways.

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    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, María; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan B

    2018-01-17

    Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases). The isoflavone genistein induced some temporal disrupting effects in several pro-apoptotic signalling pathways (Fas, CASP-6) at both genistein doses (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L), with increased Fas transcripts and also decreasing CASP-6 mRNA expression levels during metamorphic and post-metamorphic stages of the Senegalese sole. On the other hand, the anti-apoptotic BIRC-5 expression levels were weakly down-regulated with both the highest and lowest doses, but all of these imbalances were stabilised to the baseline levels. In early life stages of the controls, the constitutive basal transcript levels were temporarily and differentially expressed, reaching the highest levels at the pre-metamorphosis phase, as especially in endotrophic larvae (i.e. BIRC-5 mRNA), as well as in the metamorphic (i.e. CASP-6 mRNA) and post-metamorphic stages (i.e. Fas mRNA). In general, through development, continuous and progressive increases in the protein patterns of cell proliferation-PCNA (e.g. mitotic nuclei), anti-apoptotic Survivin (e.g. haematopoietic system, brain, digestive system, gills) and CASP-2 and -6 (e.g. brain, gills, kidney, digestive system, vascular systems, among others

  11. Use of probiotics intercropped with plant protein diets and their influence on the growth performance and immunological status of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis

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    Sónia Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis aquaculture, infectious diseases represent a major challenge, leading to significant economic losses (Arijo et al, 2005. According to FAO / WHO (2001, probiotics are defined as "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Previous studies working with different fish species provided evidence on the effectiveness of various probiotic bacteria in promoting the fish welfare (Castex et al., 2009; Hernandez et al., 2010; Merrifield et al., 2011. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation intercropped with plant protein as fishmeal replacement on the growth performance and immunological status in sole (Solea senegalensis. Fish were fed for 10 weeks on six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (55% protein and 8% lipid, dry matter basis, formulated to have 35% or 72% of fishmeal replacement by plant protein (PP35 or PP72 intercropped with three probiotic supplementation (NO – unsupplemented, PRO1 and PRO2, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The probiotics were tested at a dosage recommended by the manufacturer. PRO1 was a multi-species probiotic bacteria (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. supplemented at 1.8 × 1010 CFU kg-1 diet (CFU - colony forming unit and PRO2 was an autolyzed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplemented at 4g kg-1 diet. Zootechnical parameters were measured at start and the end of the feeding trial for growth performance determination. Plasma was collected at 3, 17, 38 and 73 days of feeding dietary treatment for the determination of innate immune response (plasma lysozyme and peroxidase contents, plasma alternative complement pathway activity – ACH50 in order to detect differences between treatments as well to identify the influence of long or short-time probiotic supplementation. Fish with an initial body weight of 33.1 ± 0.2 g grew to a maximum final body

  12. Effects of the soya isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: Thyroid, estrogenic and metabolic biomarkers.

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    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, Maria; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan Bosco

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3mg/L and 10mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated. In the control larvae, progressive increases of constitutive hormonal signalling pathways have been evidenced from the pre-metamorphosis phase onwards, reaching the highest expression basal levels at the metamorphosis (Tg, TPO, Dio2) and/or during post-metamorphosis (TTR, TRβ, ERβ). When the early larvae were exposed to both genistein concentrations (3mg/L and 10mg/L), a statistically significant down-regulation of TPO, TTR and Tg mRNA levels was clearly detected at the metamorphic stages. In addition, the Dio2 and Dio3 transcript expression levels were also down and up-regulated when exposed to both genistein concentrations. In the larvae exposed to genistein, no statistically significant responses were recorded for the TRβ expression patterns. Nevertheless, the ERβ and Cyp1a transcript levels were up-regulated at the middle metamorphic stage (S2, at 16 dph) in the larvae exposed to high genistein concentrations and, only the ERβ was down-regulated (S1, at 12dph) at the lower doses. Finally, all these pointed out imbalances were only temporarily disrupted by exposure to genistein, since most of the modulated transcriptional signals (i.e. up or down-regulation) were quickly restored to the baseline levels. Additionally, the control and genistein-exposed Senegalese sole specimens showed characteristic ontogenetic patterns and completely suitable for an optimal development, metamorphosis, and growth. Copyright © 2017

  13. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

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    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Interactive effects of a high-quality protein diet and high stocking density on the stress response and some innate immune parameters of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

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    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Afonso, António; Conceição, Luís E C

    2013-10-01

    Amino acids (AA) regulate key metabolic pathways, including some immune responses. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether an increased availability of dietary AA can mitigate the expected increase in plasma cortisol and metabolites levels due to high stocking density and its subsequent immunosuppression. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were maintained at low stocking density (LSD; 3.5 kg m(-2)) or high stocking density (HSD; 12 kg m(-2)) for 18 days. Additionally, both treatments were fed a control or a high protein (HP) diet (LSD, LSD HP, HSD and HSD HP). The HP diet slightly increased the levels of digestible indispensable AA, together with tyrosine and cysteine. HSD was effective in inducing a chronic stress response after 18 days of treatment since fish held at HSD presented higher plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels. Moreover, this increase in stress indicators translated in a decrease in plasma lysozyme, alternative complement pathway (ACP) and peroxidase activities, suggesting some degree of immunosuppression. Interestingly, while plasma glucose and lactate levels in HSD HP specimens decreased to similar values than LSD fish, plasma lysozyme, ACP and peroxidase activities increased, with even higher values than LSD groups for ACP activity. It is suggested that the HP diet may be used as functional feed since it may represent a metabolic advantage during stressful events and may counteract immunosuppression in sole.

  15. Loss of genetic variability in a hatchery strain of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis revealed by sequence data of the mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellite markers

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    Pablo Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the levels of genetic variation within and between a hatchery F1 (FAR, n=116 of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and its wild donor population (ATL, n = 26, both native to the SW Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula, as well as between the wild donor population and a wild western Mediterranean sample (MED, n=18, were carried out by characterizing 412 base pairs of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region I, and six polymorphic microsatellite loci. FAR showed a substantial loss of genetic variability (haplotypic diversity, h=0.49±0.066; nucleotide diversity, π=0.006±0.004; private allelic richness, pAg=0.28 to its donor population ATL (h=0.69±0.114; π=0.009±0.006; pAg=1.21. Pairwise FST values of microsatellite data were highly significant (P < 0.0001 between FAR and ATL (0.053 and FAR and MED (0.055. The comparison of wild samples revealed higher values of genetic variability in MED than in ATL, but only with mtDNA CR-I sequence data (h=0.948±0.033; π=0.030±0.016. However, pairwise ΦST and FST values between ATL and MED were highly significant (P < 0.0001 with mtDNA CR-I (0.228 and with microsatellite data (0.095, respectively. While loss of genetic variability in FAR could be associated with the sampling error when the broodstock was established, the results of parental and sibship inference suggest that most of these losses can be attributed to a high variance in reproductive success among members of the broodstock, particularly among females.

  16. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes): phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression.

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    Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, Jose Pedro; Douglas, Susan E

    2007-07-03

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S) ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29) in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  17. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes: phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression

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    Cañavate Jose

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosomal proteins (RPs are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29 in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. Conclusion The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  18. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

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    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  19. Olfactory transduction pathways in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

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    Velez, Z; Hubbard, P C; Barata, E N; Canário, A V M

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether differences in sensitivity between the upper and lower olfactory epithelia of Solea senegalensis are associated with different odorant receptors and transduction pathways, using the electro-olfactogram. Receptor mechanisms were assessed by cross-adaptation with amino acids (L-cysteine, L-phenylalanine and 1-methyl-L-tryptophan) and bile acids (taurocholic acid and cholic acid). This suggested that relatively specific receptors exist for 1-methyl-L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine (food-related odorants) in the lower epithelium, and for taurocholic acid (conspecific-derived odorant) in the upper. Inhibition by U73122 [a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] suggested that olfactory responses to amino acids were mediated mostly, but not entirely, by PLC-mediated transduction (IC50 ; 15-55 nM), whereas bile acid responses were mediated by both PLC and adenylate cyclase-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AC-cAMP) (using SQ-22536; an AC inhibitor). Simultaneous application of both drugs rarely inhibited responses completely, suggesting possible involvement of non-PLC and non-AC mediated mechanisms. For aromatic amino acids and bile acids, there were differences in the contribution of each transduction pathway (PLC, AC and non-PLC and non-AC) between the two epithelia. These results suggest that differences in sensitivity of the two epithelia are associated with differences in odorant receptors and transduction mechanisms. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M.; Vikraman, Jaya; Li, Ruili

    2017-01-01

    controlled by androgens. The latter phase requires a complex process of migration from the inguinal abdominal wall to the scrotum and is commonly defective, leading to the high incidence (2–4%) of UDT at birth. The clinical examination of babies and infants aims to confirm the persistence of congenital UDT......Undescended testis (UDT) occurs when something goes wrong with testicular descent from high in the abdominal cavity to the scrotum. Normal descent occurs in two steps, with the transabdominal phase controlled by a new testicular hormone, insulin-like hormone 3, and the inguinoscrotal phase...... by 3–6 months, so surgery can be optimally timed at 6–12 months. For those boys who develop acquired UDT later in childhood, the ‘ascending’ testis often needs surgery between 5 years and 10 years, so all boys should be screened again for UDT at school entry....

  1. Senegalese Entrepreneurs in the USA and Managerial Decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-12-26

    Dec 26, 2007 ... and Managerial Decision making: A pilot study ... informal accounts by Senegalese themselves suggest a population reaching at least 4,000 .... unrestricted capacity to consider any information that may provide a better.

  2. Senegalese Entrepreneurs in the USA and Managerial Decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper looks at the conditions that influence how Senegalese entrepreneurs create and manage their businesses in the US while acquiring income in order to maintain and improve their social status in Senegal. The study uses the grounded theory to look at three cases in the city of Cincinnati. The study found that the ...

  3. Building the mammalian testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Development of testes in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. Testis development is unusual in that several cell types such as Sertoli, Leydig, and spermatogonial...

  4. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect.

  5. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  6. Empirical knowledge engine of local governance Senegalese artisanal fisheries Empirical knowledge engine of local governance Senegalese artisanal fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, A.

    2016-02-01

    Fishery resources has always been an administrative management faced with the supposed irrationality of artisanal fishermen and the state has always had a monopoly over such management. The state rules well established, synonyms of denial local populations knowledge on management, and expropriation of their fisheries territories, came into conflict with the existing rules thus weakening the traditional management system.However, aware of the threats to their survival because of the limitations of state rules and technicist perception of management, some populations of fishermen tried to organize and implement management measures.These measures are implemented on the basis of their own knowledge of the environmentsThis is the case in Kayar, Nianing, Bétenty, where local management initiatives began to bear fruit despite some difficulties.These examples of successful local management have prompted the Senegalese administration to have more consideration for the knowledge and know-how of fishermen and to be open to co-management of the fisheries resource. his communication shows how this is implemented new co-management approach in the governance of the Senegalese artisanal fisheries through the consideration of empirical knowledge of fishermen.

  7. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  8. [Comparative review of the Senegalese and French deontology codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumah, M; Mbaye, I; Bah, H; Gaye Fall, M C; Sow, M L

    2005-01-01

    The medical deontology regroups duties of the physicians and regulate the exercise of medicine. The code of medical deontology of Senegal inspired of the French medical deontology code, has not been revised since its institution whereas the French deontology code knew three revisions. Comparing the two codes of deontology titles by title and article by article, this work beyond a parallel between the two codes puts in inscription the progress in bioethics that are to the basis of the revisions of the French medical deontology code. This article will permit an advocacy of the health professionals, in favor of a setting to level of the of Senegalese medical deontology code. Because legal litigation, that is important in the developed countries, intensify in our developing countries. It is inherent to the technological progress and to the awareness of the patients of their rights.

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Vitamin K Affects Transcriptome and Proteome of Senegalese Sole, Improving Larval Performance and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Nadege; Fernandez, Ignacio; Wulff, Tune

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional factors strongly influence fish larval development and skeletogenesis, and may induce skeletal deformities. Vitamin K (VK) has been largely disregarded in aquaculture nutrition, despite its important roles in bone metabolism, in gamma-carboxylation of Gla proteins, and in regulating...

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of seven Na+/K+-ATPase β subunit paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Paula; Infante, Carlos; Cousin, Xavier; Ponce, Marian; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, seven genes encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) β-subunits in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of the predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation with those of other vertebrate species and maintenance of important motifs involved in structure and function. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the seven genes into four main clades: β1 (atp1b1a and atp1b1b), β2 (atp1b2a and atp1b2b), β3 (atp1b3a and atp1b3b) and β4 (atp1b4). In juveniles, all paralogous transcripts were detected in the nine tissues examined albeit with different expression patterns. The most ubiquitous expressed gene was atp1b1a whereas atp1b1b was mainly detected in osmoregulatory organs (gill, kidney and intestine), and atp1b2a, atp1b2b, atp1b3a, atp1b3b and atp1b4 in brain. An expression analysis in three brain regions and pituitary revealed that β1-type transcripts were more abundant in pituitary than the other β paralogs with slight differences between brain regions. Quantification of mRNA abundance in gills after a salinity challenge showed an activation of atp1b1a and atp1b1b at high salinity water (60 ppt) and atp1b3a and atp1b3b in response to low salinity (5 ppt). Transcriptional analysis during larval development showed specific expression patterns for each paralog. Moreover, no differences in the expression profiles between larvae cultivated at 10 and 35 ppt were observed except for atp1b4 with higher mRNA levels at 10 than 35 ppt at 18 days post hatch. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that atp1b1b was mainly localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, and chordacentrum of newly hatched larvae. All these data suggest distinct roles of NKA β subunits in tissues, during development and osmoregulation with β1 subunits involved in the adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions and β3 subunits to hypoosmotic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dietary administration of probiotics on growth and intestine functionality of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saenz de Rodriganez, M.A.; Diaz-Rosales, P.; Chabrillon, M.; Smidt, H.; Arijo, S.; Leon-Rubio, J.M.; Alarcon, F.J.; Balebona, M.C.; Morinigo, M.A.; Cara, J.B.; Moyano, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the dietary administration of two bacterial probiotic strains (Ppd11 and Pdp13) from the Alteromonadaceae family for 60 days, were assessed by measuring growth and feed efficiency, activities of leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase and structural changes in the intestine of

  12. Senegalese sole (solea senegalensis) broodstock nutrition: arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and reproductive physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Norambuena Filcun, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Considerando la total ausencia del desove natural y fertilización de huevos en reproductores de lenguado Senegalés (Solea senegalensis) nacidos en cautividad (G1) comparados con peces salvajes mantenidos en cautivo que son capaces de producir huevos fertilizados viables para su cultivo. Esta tesis se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la importancia dietética de los ácidos grasos, específicamente del ácido graso araquidónico (20:4n-6, ARA) y su interacción en la disfunción reproductiva pre...

  13. Short-term exposure to repeated chasing stress does not induce habituation in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Valente, Luisa M.P.; Hernandez-Perez, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Animals can habituate to certain repeated stressors and reduce the physiological response that such stressor evoked initially. Studies related to stress habituation in fish are scarce and the available data differ depending on the species and on the type, duration and severity of the stressor...... no significant changes in serotonergic activity. However, incremented serotonergic activity was detected in fish previously trained. Furthermore, dopaminergic activity decreased in diurnal trained and nocturnal trained groups with respect to ST/naïve fish. Crh expression in hypothalamus was higher in ST...... for the animals to habituate, indicating that repeated chasing within short periods should be avoided when manipulating fish in order to keep proper welfare conditions in this species....

  14. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E

    2014-01-01

    cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. RESULTS: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis....... Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Hanging drop cultures of human testis...

  15. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  16. Testis. Strategy for the management of seminoma testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, J.C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Many years of experience demonstrate the marked radiocurability of seminoma testis with modest radiation dosage, and accordingly large volumes may be radiated without damage to surrounding normal structures. While several histological types of seminoma are described (classical, anaplastic, or spermatocytic) our treatment strategy is identical

  17. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  18. A simple melatonin treatment protocol attenuates the response to acute stress in the sole Solea senegalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Conde-Sieira, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds have been tested in fish in order to attenuate the effects of different stressors, most often following previous observations in mammals. The hormone melatonin (MEL) and the amino acid L-tryptophan have been tested for this purpose with different degree of success. In Senegalese...... sole (Solea senegalensis) we have previously observed that during prolonged exposure to relatively mild stressors, the presence of MEL in the water helped to reduce the stress response. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-stress effects of a short melatonin exposure that could be easily...... performed in fish farms before an intended manipulative event with the animals. Our results demonstrate that adding MEL to the tanks 30. min before an acute chasing stress is effective in reducing the intensity of the stress response in fish from its beginning, as evidenced by the attenuated and delayed...

  19. Effectiveness of testis cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucht, H.

    1983-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are about thousand to two-thousand incidences of testis cancer yearly. The screening (and examination) program currently used for the early detection of cancer includes the screening of malignant tumours of the testis. Since only males 45 years and older are invited to make use of the preventive measures, the most seriously affected age-group between twenty and forty is hereby not considered. The objective of this study is to find out which of the generally conceivable preventive measures could lead to an improvement of the present situation. The analysis shows that, for a diagnostic accuracy of 1 and a participation of 100%, the quantifyable cost of a yearly performed special screening is higher than the quantifyable cost savings achieved. A final judgement of other ways of execution is only possible when the diagnostic accuracy of suitable screening methods and the percentage of the participants of the groups of people concerned are known. (orig.)

  20. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  1. Detection in testis, epididymis and ovary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the first time, we demonstrate that beyond the oviduct,Ovgp1 mRNA is expressed in the testis, epididymis and ovary, but not in the uterus, cervix, vagina, breast, seminalvesicles and prostate gland. In the testis, Ovgp1 mRNA was localized in the cells at the base of seminiferous tubules(most likely, Sertoli cells), while the ...

  2. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  3. Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjandra, B. S.; Daemen, M. J.; Weil, E. H.

    1994-01-01

    An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature

  4. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans.

  5. Las estructuras asociativas de los senegaleses en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giró Miranda, Joaquín

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to create an associative reference among Senegalese immigrants as a means of sociability and identification led them to initially organize themselves around objectives of welfare nature, essentially in case of illness or death and/or for purposes such as administrative regularization and search for jobs and housing. As time passed by, these initial objectives brought together the awareness on certain aspects of culture and cooperation and co-development with community associations in Senegal. The objectives of these Senegalese associations have proven over time its dynamic nature, and only the economic difficulties or the lack of funding have forced them to slow down or move away from more ambitious goals and objectives. Senegalese associations have also a supportive component closely linked to the teranga or hospitality, which is the existential principle of the networks of solidarity that Senegalese associations recreate based on links and relations of kinship, friendship and, above all, community identity, thus becoming a symbolic element of their culture. It is no wonder, therefore, that along with cooperation and co-development projects, these associations maintain strategies of solidarity and mutual support, even more so in this time of economic downturn.La necesidad de crear un referente asociativo entre los inmigrantes senegaleses como instrumento de sociabilidad e identificación, les ha llevado inicialmente a organizarse en torno a objetivos de carácter asistencial, básicamente en caso de enfermedad o muerte y/o en regularización administrativa y búsqueda de trabajo y vivienda. Con el paso del tiempo, a estos objetivos iniciales se sumarían los de sensibilización sobre determinados aspectos de la cultura y los de cooperación y codesarrollo con asociaciones comunitarias de Senegal. Los objetivos de las asociaciones senegalesas han demostrado en el tiempo su carácter dinámico y, tan solo las dificultades económicas o

  6. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Primary lymphoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskirk, S.J.; Evans, R.G.; Banks, P.M.; O'Connell, M.J.; Earle, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen patients with initial presentation of lymphoma of the testis were evaluated at the Mayo Clinic between 1969 and 1979. The mean age of the patients was 69 years with 15 of the 17 patients age 60 and older at the time of diagnosis. All histologies were diffuse according to the Rappaport classification with 12 of 17 patients being histiocytic. Eleven of the 15 State I/sub E/A and II/sub E/A patients were treated with radiation therapy alone with doses ranging from 2,600 to 4,000 rad. Eight of these 11 Stage I/sub E/A patients experienced recurrence; in five of these eight, the first site of recurrence was Waldeyer's ring and adjacent structures. Four patients were treated initially with chemotherapy. In all four patients the lymphoma recurred, in two patients in the central nervous system (CNS). The survival rate at two years was 73% in Stage I/sub E/A patients and 25% in Stage II/sub E/A patients. There were no survivors at two years in those patients presenting with Stage IV disease. As patients with testicular lymphoma have a relatively high incidence of secondary involvement of Waldeyer's ring and the CNS, careful evaluation of these areas should be performed as part of the routine staging procedures. In view of the high incidence of secondary involvement of distant sites, systemic treatment should be given full consideration in addition to local irradiation as part of the initial treatment of patients with localized disease

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor is processed solely by prohormone convertase 4 in the gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Mbikay, M; Arimura, A

    2000-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is abundant not only in the brain, but also in the testis. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that PACAP-LI in rat testis is expressed stage specifically in spermatids. This suggests that testicular PACAP participates in the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis. Additionally, the ovary contains a relatively small amount of PACAP, conceivably involved in the regulation of folliculogenesis. PACAP is synthesized as a preprohormone and is processed by prohormone convertases, such as PC1, PC2, and PC4. PC4 is expressed only in the testis and ovary, where neither PC1 nor PC2 is expressed. However, whether PC4 is the sole endoprotease for the PACAP precursor in the gonads remains unknown. Recent studies using PC4-transgenic mice revealed that male PC4-null mice exhibited severely impaired fertility, although spermatogenesis appeared to be normal. The female PC4-null mice exhibited delayed folliculogenesis in the ovaries. To examine whether PC4 is the sole processing enzyme for the PACAP precursor in the gonads, we analyzed testicular and ovarian extracts from the PC4-null and wild-type mice for PACAP (PACAP38 and PACAP27) and its messenger RNA using reverse phase HPLC combined with specific RIAs and ribonuclease protection assay, respectively. For RIAs, three different polyclonal antisera with different recognition sites were used to identify PACAP38, PACAP27, and its precursor. Neither the testis nor the ovary from the PC4-null mice expressed PACAP38 or PACAP27, but the levels of PACAP transcripts in the testis and ovary of homozygous PC4-deficient mice were considerably elevated compared with those of the wild-type and heterozygous animals. The findings indicate that PC4 is the sole processing enzyme for the precursor of PACAP in the testis and ovary of mice. The possibility that the absence of bioactive PACAP in the testis and ovary of PC4-null mice caused severely impaired fertility in the males and

  9. A Study of Rural Senegalese Attitudes and Perceptions of Their Behavior to Changes in the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Amadou M.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Semi-structured focus group discussions were employed to capture rural Senegalese attitudes and perceptions of their behavior to changes in the climate and their land use and livelihood strategies. Seven focus groups stratified by gender, ethnicity (Wolof and Peulh) and dominant production system (cultivators and pastoralists) in five villages in semi-arid northern Senegal revealed seven main themes. Rural livelihoods remain predominantly based on rainfall dependant practices, and although cultivators and pastoralists had a clear appreciation of changes in natural resources compared to a perceived more favorable past, few adaptive coping strategies beyond established ones were advocated. The seven themes are discussed in detail and their implications for rural livelihoods under future long term climate predictions discussed with the implications of this study for the development of scenarios of future land cover land use.

  10. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  11. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...... and the aetiology is possibly multifactorial. Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis....

  12. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy) and in Adeane (Southern Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Rachele; Quave, Cassandra L.; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy) and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal), both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies. PMID:22761638

  13. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy and in Adeane (Southern Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele Ellena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal, both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies.

  14. Possible Factors that Affect Testis Volume in Varicocele Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozay Demiray

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Left varicocele degree is associated with decrease in testis volume. There was no relationship between testis volume and body mass index or smoking habit. Early varicocele diagnosis is important to protect testis volume. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 233-238

  15. [Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and its associated factors in Senegalese military personnel sent on mission to Darfur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Moustapha; Diouf, Assane; Seck, Said Malaobé; Lo, Gora; Ka, Daye; Massaly, Aminata; Dieye, Alassane; Fall, Ndeye Maguette; Cisse-Diallo, Viviane Marie Pierre; Diallo-Mbaye, Khardiata; Lakhe, Ndèye Aissatou; Fortes-Déguénonvo, Louise; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Soumaré, Maserigne; Seydi, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    In Senegal, 85% of the adult population have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and about 11% of them are chronic surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. This infection is poorly documented among Senegalese Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBsAg in Senegalese military personnel on mission to Darfur (Sudan) and to identify its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Senegalese military personnel stationed in Darfur from 1 July 2014 to 31 July 2014. HBsAg test was performed on serum of participants using immunochromatographic method. The search for associated factors was carried out using multivariate logistic regression. Our study included 169 male military personnel. The average age was 36.6 ± 9.5 years. A history of familial chronic liver disease, blood exposure and sexual exposure were found in 12.4%, 24.9% and 45.6% of the study population respectively. HBsAg was found in 24 participants [14.2% (CI 95% = 8.9-19.5)]. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, age (OR = 0.9 CI 95% = 0.9-1.0), university level (OR = 9.5 CI 95% = 1.3 - 67 , 1>) and sexual exposure (OR = 3.3 <; CI 95% = 1.0 - 10.3) were independently associated with hepatitis B. Our study shows high prevalence of HBsAg and underlines the need for further evaluation of hepatitis B in this population.

  16. SOLE: enhanced FIA data analysis capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Spinney; Paul Van Deusen

    2009-01-01

    The Southern On Line Estimator (SOLE), is an Internet-based annual forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data analysis tool developed cooperatively by the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Southern Research Station. Recent development of SOLE has...

  17. Suicide in men with testis cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanee, S; Russo, P

    2012-11-01

    Depression, anxiety and aggression are documented in testis cancer patients and can result in death from suicides; however, their risk of suicide is not defined. We report suicide rates among testis cancer patients in the USA and determine factors associated with higher rates. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database maintained by the National Cancer Institute to identify patients diagnosed with testis cancer between 1995 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors affecting suicide rate. Among 23,381 patients followed for 126,762 person-years, suicide rate was 26.0 per 100,000 person-years, with the average corresponding rate in the US population aged 25-44 years being 21.5 per 100,000 person-years; the calculated standardised mortality ratio for death by suicide was 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.1]. The standardised mortality ratio for suicide was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) in ages less than 30 years, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) in men of races other than White and Black. Other patient and disease characteristics were not predictive. In conclusion, patients with testis cancer have a 20% increase in the risk of suicide over that of the general population, and races other than White and Black and younger patients may commit suicide at higher rates. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Sole risk and non-consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, Tom

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the subjects of sole risk and non-consent in joint operation agreements as used by oil and gas joint ventures in the United Kingdom. The difference between these two concepts is examined in detail. (UK)

  19. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  20. Keeping space public : Times Square (New York and the Senegalese peddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Tonnelat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the public nature of Times Square's physical and represented (TV, internet, press spaces through an analysis of the techniques used by Senegalese male peddlers to sell souvenirs to the visiting tourists. Whereas a number of scholars denounce the Disneyfication of Times Square, in other words its privatization, the observation of the peddlers shows that there is an almost self-regulated social order of the flow escaping the control of the pseudo-public institution in charge of Times Square, the Business Improvement District. On the other hand, the difficulties encountered by the vendors also reveal another Times square, less public, constituted by the accumulation of images captured by the finance and media companies settled in the office towers. This "clean and safe" pseudo-private space (Mitchell and Staeheli 2006 cannot tolerate the presence of the vendors, thus pushing them to the blind spots of the site. It nevertheless relies on the dynamics of the flow, thus preserving a place for the vendors and the public nature of the physical space of Times Square. But how long can this compromise work?

  1. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  2. [Hemorrhagic rectocolitis or ulcerative colitis in the black Senegalese. Apropos of 14 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Klotz, F; Oddes, B; Seurat, P L

    1984-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is exceptional in Africa South of the Sahara. The first case was described in 1964: up to 1982, 46 cases were reported. We report on 14 cases (6 females and 8 males) observed in black Senegalese for three years and a half. The medium age of patients was 30 years. All of them had a high social standard of living. Four patients showed intestinal amebiasis in their previous medical history. Clinical and evolutive patterns of ulcerative colitis in Africa present few differences in comparison with the classical ones. The diagnosis is established by endoscopy (rectosigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy) and histopathology. Cryptic abscesses were found in only 2 out of 14 cases. Rectal dysplasia was noted in 2 cases. The course of the disease developed on a fulminating acute mode in one case, on a continuous chronic mode in another case and on a chronic mode with relapses in 11 cases. Irrespective to the clinical form observed, intestinal amebiasis represents the most pressing differential diagnosis. Treatment appears to be difficult in severe acute forms out of an intensive care department, as well as in advanced extensive chronic forms. For the later in black Africa endoscopic and histopathological surveillance appears to be preferable to a total colectomy, made necessary by the important rectal lesions, because the functional sequelae of an ileostomy.

  3. [Doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sport Medicine and doping in sports: survey on knowledge and attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Diallo, Boubacar; Fall, Assane; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Cissè, Fallou; Faye, Babacar

    2005-01-01

    Doping in sports is as old as sports, but it grew considerably during the 20th century with the arrival in stadiums during the 1990s of amphetamines and anabolic steroids as well as such peptide hormones as erythropoietin. The international fight against doping took a giant step forward in 1999 with the creation of the world antidoping agency (WADA). This study is part of that fight. It follows an earlier survey of retail pharmacists in Senegal and aims to evaluate the knowledge about doping of doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sports Medicine and to assess their attitude towards this phenomenon. Its goal is to determine how best to involve them in preventive actions. We conducted a survey in 2001 and randomly selected and interviewed 60 of the 92 doctors in the association. The questionnaire focused on three areas: their knowledge of doping, their attitudes to it, and the means of prevention that they proposed. The results showed that only 11 of the 60 doctors knew the definition of doping and 15% of doctors could not cite any family of doping products. They were aware mainly of testosterone and other anabolic steroids (84.3%), then amphetamines and other stimulants (64.7%), and finally peptide hormones (58.8%). The subjects mentioned blood doping and pharmacological manipulations as forbidden methods. They considered that the four groups of drugs most often used by athletes for doping were, in descending order, anabolic steroids, stimulants, peptide hormones and corticoids. Eighty per cent of doctors think that Senegalese athletes use doping products and that the sports most involved are football, wrestling, track and field and basketball. They also think that doping is a form of drug addiction and a public health problem. Eleven doctors (18%) said they had been contacted for information on use of doping products. The interviewees consider that the three best methods of prevention include information about side effects, unannounced urine and

  4. Solar cooking in Senegalese villages: An application of best–worst scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanschoenwinkel, Janka; Lizin, Sebastien; Swinnen, Gilbert; Azadi, Hossein; Van Passel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination programs of nontraditional cookstoves often fail. Nontraditional cookstoves aim to solve problems associated with biomass fuel usage in developing countries. Recent studies do not explain what drives user's cookstove choice. This study therefore builds a holistic framework that centralizes product-specific preferences or needs. The case study identifies product-specific factors that influence rural Senegalese inhabitants to switch to solar cooking, using best–worst scaling. Looking at the preferences, the case study classified 126 respondents, in three distinct market segments with different solar cooking expectations. The paper identifies socio-demographic characteristics that explain these differences in the respondents' preferences. Finally, the respondent sample is divided in two groups: solar cooker owners and non-owners. When studied with regard to the same issue, solar cooker owners appear to value benefits of the solar cooker lower than non-owners. This is due to program factors (such as formations, after-sales network) and miscommunication (such as a wrong image of the solar cooker) that highly influenced the respondents' cookstove choice. As a conclusion, solar cookers and solar cooking programs are not always adapted to the needs and requirements of the end-users. Needs-oriented and end-user adopted strategies are necessary in order to successfully implement nontraditional cookstoves programs. - Highlights: • Current solar cookers and their programs do not sufficiently fit end-users' needs. • We centralize product-specific preferences in a framework integrating all variables. • Looking at these preferences, three distinct market segments are identified. • Preferences are influenced by both socio-demographic and program characteristics

  5. Cystic dysplasia of the testis: a very rare paediatric tumor of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberli, Daniel; Gretener, Heini; Dommann-Scherrer, Corina; Pestalozzi, Dietegen; Fehr, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    To describe a case of cystic dysplasia of the testis (CDT), an uncommon cause of scrotal swelling in the pediatric patient. Clinic, therapy, fertility, and radiographic and pathologic findings are discussed and the 30 previously reported cases are reviewed. A 9-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic scrotal swelling. A scrotal ultrasound showed a multicystic scrotal mass in the rete testis and an ipsilateral renal agenesis. The growth in size of the mass forced the authors to perform an operative exploration. Intraoperative findings included a multicystic mass in the rete testis of the right testicle. Testicle-sparing total removal of the multicystic mass was performed and the pathologic examination revealed a benign, multilobulated configuration of the cysts in the region of the rete testis. These findings were similar to those found in previously reported cases of CDT. Ipsilateral renal agenesis is the most common associated anomaly. As a pathogenetic factor, mal-junction of the Wolffian duct in the 5th week of gestation is most creditable. CDT is a rare cause of pediatric scrotal mass. When feasible, a testicle-sparing approach should be considered and all patients should undergo evaluation for associated urologic anomalies.

  6. E-learning platform for Senegalese immigrant community focused on media literacy / Plataforma de formación online para la comunidad de inmigrantes senegaleses centrada en alfabetización mediática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Franco Álvarez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is result of a research Project PCI funded by AECID between University Carlos III of Madrid and University Cheikh Anta Diop. Our aim is to design and edit an e-learning platform characterized by a user interface adapted to the cultural heritage of Senegalese immigrant communities living in Madrid. This project, implemented by the NGO "Casa de Senegal" was developed using a qualitative methodology of participant observation and interviews with teachers and students of this center. As a result it has been developed a map of icons typical of Wolof culture for use in representing the commands in the e-learning platform: e-Senegalaise. Platform created specifically to provide a web environment for contextual learning in a Senegalese immigrant community. As a result it was found that Senegalese immigrants had digital and media skills enough to be able to act autonomously if possessed of a platform for media literacy. However, its competences are limited when try access to basic local news as strategy for his social integration. Local news such as training courses or social grants. A second conclusion is that access to local media plays an essential role for them as a factor of social inclusion as we find a greater integration between those with predominant local information.Este trabajo es resultado de una investigación financiada a través deun proyecto de cooperación PCI de la AECID, entre la Universidad Carlos III deMadrid y la Universidad Cheik Anta Diop. Su objetivo es el diseño y edición deuna plataforma de aprendizaje e-learning caracterizada por un interfaz de usuarioadaptado al acervo cultural de las comunidades inmigrantes senegalesas residentesen Madrid. Este proyecto, aplicado en la ONG “Casa de Senegal", sedesarrolló empleando una metodología cuanti-cualitativa de observación participantey entrevistas con docentes y discentes senegaleses del centro. Como resultado se ha ido elaborando un mapa de iconos propios de la

  7. The relationship between visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory span in Senegalese and Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Boivin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC Conant et al. (1999 observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. METHOD: In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements and auditory (Number Recall WM along with education and physical development (weight/height as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. RESULTS: Both the younger (8.5 yrs Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM.

  8. The relationship between visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory span in Senegalese and Ugandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michael J; Bangirana, Paul; Shaffer, Rebecca C; Smith, Rebecca C

    2010-01-27

    Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Conant et al. (1999) observed that visual and auditory working memory (WM) span were independent in both younger and older children from DR Congo, but related in older American children and in Lao children. The present study evaluated whether visual and auditory WM span were independent in Ugandan and Senegalese children. In a linear regression analysis we used visual (Spatial Memory, Hand Movements) and auditory (Number Recall) WM along with education and physical development (weight/height) as predictors. The predicted variable in this analysis was Word Order, which is a verbal memory task that has both visual and auditory memory components. Both the younger (8.5 yrs) Ugandan children had auditory memory span (Number Recall) that was strongly predictive of Word Order performance. For both the younger and older groups of Senegalese children, only visual WM span (Spatial Memory) was strongly predictive of Word Order. Number Recall was not significantly predictive of Word Order in either age group. It is possible that greater literacy from more schooling for the Ugandan age groups mediated their greater degree of interdependence between auditory and verbal WM. Our findings support those of Conant et al., who observed in their cross-cultural comparisons that stronger education seemed to enhance the dominance of the phonological-auditory processing loop for WM.

  9. Ectopic Splenic Tissue in the Testis: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic SplENic tiSSUE iN thE tEStiS associated with bilateral cryptorchidism and hypospadias4. Brasch et al. reported a case involving the right testis5. Ultrasonography, scintigraphy (with technetium-99m) and single positron emission computerized tomography are considered the best diagnostic tools for this condition2,3.

  10. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laparoscopy, the vas and testicular vessels are traced as ... Methods Both Mullerian inhibitory factor and testosterone act locally as ... Surg 9:79–80 c 2013 Annals of Pediatric Surgery. ... Unilateral absent testis should be associated ... Absent testis during groin exploration ... visualized at laparoscopic or open exploration.

  11. Prevalence of Undescended Testis and its Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Undescended Testis and its Associated Factors among under-fives seen at Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Ifakara, Tanzania. ... The male sexual differentiation and development is important for the normal reproductive life span. Similarly, risk of carcinoma of testis will be prevented, if early diagnosis of ...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis-specific gene by use of ... pared against 70 other libraries, and the hits showing >10- fold differences .... proteins or testis-development-related proteins such as TSP-. NY, TPX1 ...

  13. An oncological view on the blood-testis barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J; Groen, HJM; van der Graaf, WTA; Hollema, H; Hendrikse, NH; Vaalburg, W; Sleijfer, DT; de Vries, EGE

    The function of the blood-testis barrier is to protect germ cells from harmful influences; thus, it also impedes the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the testis. The barrier has three components: first, a physicochemical barrier consisting of continuous capillaries, Sertoli cells in the tubular

  14. utilization of crude testis extract to enhance broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EKWUEME

    0.05) while profit per bird and profit over cost of ... effects of different levels of testis extracts in drinking water on ... water. Treatment A served as the control with no testis extract ..... organized by B. B. Vet. Medical ... Maximizing yield. Poultry Sci.

  15. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  16. Effect of the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on embryonic testis cord formation and postnatal testis development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Skinner, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is that transient embryonic exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor at the time of testis determination alters testis development and subsequently influences adult spermatogenic capacity and male reproduction. The effects of vinclozolin on embryonic testicular cord formation in vitro were examined, as well as the effects of transient in utero vinclozolin exposure on postnatal testis development and function. Embryonic day 13 (E13, sperm-positive vaginal smear day = E0) gonads were cultured in the absence or presence of vinclozolin (50-500microM). Vinclozolin treated gonads had significantly fewer cords (P vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day) between embryonic days 8 and 14 (E8-E14) of development. Testis morphology and function were analyzed from postnatal day (P) 0, pubertal P20, and adult P60. No significant effect of vinclozolin on testis histology or germ cell viability was observed in P0 testis. The pubertal P20 testis from vinclozolin exposed animals had significantly higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells (P vinclozolin exposed males (P vinclozolin exposed animals was higher in adult P60 animals. Observations demonstrate that vinclozolin can effect embryonic testicular cord formation in vitro and that transient in utero exposure to vinclozolin increases apoptotic germ cell numbers in the testis of pubertal and adult animals. This correlated to reduced sperm motility in the adult. In conclusion, transient exposure to vinclozolin during the time of testis differentiation (i.e. cord formation) alters testis development and function. Observations indicate that transient exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor during embryonic development causes delayed effects later in adult life

  17. Molecular and cellular endocrinology of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, M.; Conti, M.; Geremia, R.; Ziparo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the IV European Workshop on Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology of the Testis held in Capri (Italy) between the 9th and 12th April 1986. The workshop was organized in several symposia related to some of the most relevant aspects of the regulation of testicular function. Main topics were the role of cell interactions, the mechanisms of signal transduction, gene expression and metabolic response of somatic cells as well as differentiation of germ cells. One session was devoted to prostaglandins in the male reproductive system and to brief discussions on interstitial fluid and on antispermatogenic compounds. In this book only the main lectures and some selected short papers are presented. (Auth.)

  18. Enfrentando el racismo institucional. Análisis de dos casos de migrantes senegaleses en Argentina (2012-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Espiro

    Full Text Available Resumen En este artículo abordamos el modo en el cual el control estatal y el racismo institucional en Argentina son contestados desde las prácticas de algunos migrantes senegaleses. Para ello analizamos dos casos de agencia: la trayectoria de Amadou y la marcha por la muerte de Massar Ba. En ambas situaciones hemos reconstruido el uso estratégico que los migrantes han hecho de las instituciones estatales, de las instituciones no gubernamentales, de los vínculos con académicos y de los medios de comunicación para canalizar sus demandas y mejorar su situación en el país. Así, al visibilizar la agencia de este colectivo migrante, buscamos despojarlos del status de víctimas y reconocerlos con capacidad de acción, de cambio, de toma de decisiones, iniciativas y riesgos.

  19. Institutional barriers to a ‘perfect’ policy: A case study of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhood, Rebecca; Gross, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the political and institutional factors that have influenced the success of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan (Plan d'Action Sénégalais d'Électrification Rurale, PASER). PASER is of interest because its innovative design attracted extensive offers of finance from donors and independent power providers, however it has had limited effect on electrification levels. This paper examines PASER's progress and problems in detail, with the aim of informing rural electrification policy internationally. An extensive literature review was combined with 26 semi-structured stakeholder interviews, to produce a snapshot of the Plan's status after its first decade of operation. PASER's experiences are compared with other reform-based rural electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. PASER has faced significant institutional and political barriers, with delays arising from organisational opposition, inconsistent ministerial support, protracted consultations and the inherent challenges of implementing an innovative policy framework in a country with limited institutional capacity. The development of human and institutional capacity has been compromised by inconsistent political commitment. Such experiences mirror those of electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. Whilst PASER's successes in garnering external support and fundraising are noteworthy and won praise from early reviews, in terms of delivery the Plan has failed to resolve common institutional barriers. - Highlights: • Factors influencing the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan are investigated. • 26 Stakeholder interviews inform a review of the Plan after 10 years of operation. • The Plan has attracted extensive finance, but installations are severely delayed. • The delays are found to be largely the result of institutional and political barriers. • These barriers mirror the experiences of electrification

  20. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M.; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T.; Wade, Salimata

    2013-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother-infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed Infants breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135)g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222)g/d, n 44, P= 0.009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants' energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50)kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448)kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66)kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552)kJ/d), P<0.01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  1. What drives Senegalese migration to Europe? The role of economic restructuring, labor demand, and the multiplier effect of networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baizán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: International migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe is poorly understood. Furthermore, existing studies pay insufficient attention to the links between the micro-level factors and political, social, and economic processes in both origin and destination areas. Here we integrate insights from institutional approaches in migration and development research with perspectives that highlight the role of labor market and social capital. Objective: We analyze the contextual and individual-level determinants of migration from Senegal to France, Italy, and Spain since the mid-1970s. We examine the following hypotheses: (1 In Senegal, the deterioration of living conditions and heightened economic insecurity have created the conditions for increasing out-migration propensities. (2 In Europe, labor market restructuring has increased job opportunities in particular places and job niches. (3 In facilitating access of Senegalese migrants to jobs in Europe, social networks have linked these two processes. (4 The conjunction of periods of strong labor demand and the availability of personal networks in Europe creates a boosting effect on the migration probabilities of the Senegalese to Europe. Methods: We use event history models to analyze life course data from the Migrations between Africa and Europe survey (2008. Results: Our empirical results concerning both individual socioeconomic indicators and contextual indicators provide consistent support for the four hypotheses proposed. Conclusions: The initiation and expansion of migration between Senegal and Europe stem from the simultaneous presence of several key factors at origin and destination, including processes of economic restructuring and the mutually reinforcing process of social capital formation and changing labor market conditions. These factors are historically contingent, but they may have a wider relevance in the explanation of migration from developing countries to developed

  2. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intra-abdominal testis should be treated by standard open ... laparoscopy at two tertiary centers of Pediatric surgery in Egypt ... patients, 25 (21%) had bilateral NPT, whereas the rest .... inguinal approach with transperitoneal extension should.

  3. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... INTRODUCTION. A major determinant of the reproductive performance of ... testis weight as one of the indices in selecting high quality breeding ... equipment (AV and collection bottles) as described by Swierstra and Rahnfeld ...

  4. ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING TESTIS TRANSCRIPTOME FOLLOWING EMBRYONIC VINCLOZOLIN EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Tracy M.; Savenkova, Marina I.; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic day 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 di...

  5. Treatment of impalpable testis - one clinic's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osemlak, Paweł; Żądkowski, Tomasz; Rogowski, Błażej; Cielecki, Czesław; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Woźniak, Magdalena; Jędrzejewski, Grzegorz; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona; Nachulewicz, Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Undescended testes are recognised in 1% to 2% of boys during the first year of life, and about 20% of them are impalpable. Ultrasonography (US) may establish the localisation of the testis but the final diagnosis is usually determined laparoscopically. To evaluate long-term results of laparoscopic treatment of boys with impalpable testes and sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound. Between 2011 and 2015, we operated on 545 boys with undescended testes. Sixty-two of them with 65 impalpable testes were treated laparoscopically - the study group. Mean age was 3.5 years. The study group was divided into 5 groups according to type of treatment. The volume and position of the operated gonad were assessed manually and by ultrasound. In group 1 testicular agenesis was observed in 19 patients. In group 2 revision of the inguinal canal revealed testicular agenesis in 7 and atrophy in 4 patients. In group 3 conversion to classic orchiopexy was performed in 10 patients. In group 4 one-stage orchiopexy was performed in 9 patients on 12 testes. In group 5 a two-stage F-S procedure was performed in 13 patients. Ten testes in group 4 had a volume in the normal range (84%) and also 10 testes in group 5 (77%). Laparoscopy in impalpable testes is the procedure of choice and allows definitive management, even when conversion to open procedure is necessary. Sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound is generally about 60% for true intra-abdominal testes, so diagnostic laparoscopy is necessary.

  6. Human testis-expressed sequence 101 is limitedly distributed in germinal epithelium of testis and disappears in seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Cong Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testis-expressed sequence 101 (TEX101 was found to be highly expressed in testis and involved in acrosome reaction in previous studies. Recently, the metastasis suppressor function of TEX101 in cancer was disclosed, but the comprehensive investigation of its expression has rarely been reported. In this study, the expression features of TEX101 in normal human organs and seminoma were systematically analyzed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated intense staining of TEX101 in human testis tissues; however, its expression in 27 other types of normal human organs, including the ovary, was negligible. Higher expression of TEX101 was observed in the spermatocytes and spermatids of the testis, but relatively lower staining was detected in spermatogonia. Western blotting showed a single TEX101 band of 38 kDa in human testis, but it did not correspond to the predicted molecular weight of its mature form at 21 KDa. Furthermore, we examined seminoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and found that none of the 36 samples expressed TEX101. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed TEX101 to be a testis protein that could be related to the maturation process of male germ cells. The lack of TEX101 in seminoma indicated its potential role in tumor progression. This characteristic expression of TEX101 could provide a valuable reference for understanding its biological functions.

  7. Detection of quantitative trait loci causing abnormal spermatogenesis and reduced testis weight in the small testis (Smt) mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolor, Hasbaira; Wakasugi, Noboru; Zhao, Wei Dong; Ishikawa, Akira

    2006-04-01

    The small testis (Smt) mutant mouse is characterized by a small testis of one third to one half the size of a normal testis, and its spermatogenesis is mostly arrested at early stages of meiosis, although a small number of spermatocytes at the late prophase of meiosis and a few spermatids can sometimes be seen. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of these spermatogenic traits and testis weight using 221 F2 males obtained from a cross between Smt and MOM (Mus musculus molossinus) mice. At the genome-wide 5% level, we detected two QTLs affecting meiosis on chromosomes 4 and 13, and two QTLs for paired testis weight as a percentage of body weight on chromosomes 4 and X. In addition, we found several QTLs for degenerated germ cells and multinuclear giant cells on chromosomes 4, 7 and 13. Interestingly, for cell degeneration, the QTL on chromosome 13 interacted epistatically with the QTL on chromosome 4. These results reveal polygenic participation in the abnormal spermatogenesis and small testis size in the Smt mutant.

  8. 25 CFR 140.1 - Sole power to appoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sole power to appoint. 140.1 Section 140.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.1 Sole power to appoint. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall have the sole power and authority to...

  9. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shera Altaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. Results: A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52% cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30% had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18% had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%, hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each, horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4% and spina bifida (0.4%. On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Conclusion: We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or

  10. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  11. Thyroid Hormone Role and Economy in the Developing Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) exhibit pleiotropic regulatory effects on growth, development, and metabolism, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the developing testis is an important target for them. Testicular development is highly dependent on TH status. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect testis size and the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli, Leydig, and germ cells, with consequences for steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. These observations suggest that an appropriate content of TH and by implication TH action in the testis, whether the result of systemic hormonal levels or regulatory mechanisms at the local level, is critical for normal testicular and reproductive function. The available evidence indicates the presence in the developing testis of a number of transporters, deiodinases and receptors that could play a role in the timely delivery of TH action on testicular cells. These include the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA), the MCT8 transporter, the TH-activating deiodinase DIO2, and the TH-inactivating deiodinase DIO3, all of which appear to modulate testicular TH economy and testis outcomes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inmigrantes senegaleses en Madrid: características sociodemográficas y actividades económicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguemati Wabgou

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un diagnostico de la situación de inserción laboral vivida por la inmigración senegalesa en la Comunidad de Madrid, así como un análisis de las principales características socio demográficas de los grupos de mujeres y hombres que la conforman. La consideración por genero, rangos de edad, estado civil y nivel de estudios, ha permitido la descripción de estas personas como capital humano que busca oportunidades reales en el mercado de trabajo madrileño. El panorama descrito orienta la indagación más detallada de la venta ambulante como ocupación de los varones senegaleses en Madrid. Así mismo, se observa que los grupos cuentan con redes informales intra-étnicas y transnacionales para desarrollar su actividad comercial, si bien parte de ellos, marginados y confinados en esta c1ase de ocupación, suelen adoptar estrategias para evadir los efectos de las persecuciones y restricciones policiales. Otros aspiran a convertirse en mayoristas o patrones. / Abstract. This article examines the insertion in the labor market of the Senegalese immigrants in Madrid and depicts their main sociodemographic characteristics according to gender. The description of these foreign workers according to gender, age, civil status and level of education allows us to treat them as a human capital, in search of real opportunities in Madrid's labor market. As a result, the analysis presents a basic overview of their economic activities in Madrid while focusing on men who have set up retail business: they are hawkers. Thus, it is noteworthy to point out the social ties (intra/inter-ethnic and transnational networks that support some of them as a group, while getting a job and evolving their commercial activities. However, others are marginalized and isolated in these segments of the labor market where they develop strategies in order to avoid or escape Police assault and prosecution because they are illegal migrants; meanwhile, another group of people

  13. Tzfp represses the androgen receptor in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Kari; Klungland, Arne

    2013-01-01

    The testis zinc finger protein (Tzfp), also known as Repressor of GATA, belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors and is thought to play a role in spermatogenesis due to its remarkably high expression in testis. Despite many attempts to find the in vivo role of the protein, the molecular function is still largely unknown. Here, we address this issue using a novel mouse model with a disrupted Tzfp gene. Homozygous Tzfp null mice are born at reduced frequency but appear viable and fertile. Sertoli cells in testes lacking Tzfp display an increase in Androgen Receptor (AR) signaling, and several genes in the testis, including Gata1, Aie1 and Fanc, show increased expression. Our results indicate that Tzfp function as a transcriptional regulator and that loss of the protein leads to alterations in AR signaling and reduced number of apoptotic cells in the testicular tubules.

  14. Tzfp represses the androgen receptor in mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Furu

    Full Text Available The testis zinc finger protein (Tzfp, also known as Repressor of GATA, belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors and is thought to play a role in spermatogenesis due to its remarkably high expression in testis. Despite many attempts to find the in vivo role of the protein, the molecular function is still largely unknown. Here, we address this issue using a novel mouse model with a disrupted Tzfp gene. Homozygous Tzfp null mice are born at reduced frequency but appear viable and fertile. Sertoli cells in testes lacking Tzfp display an increase in Androgen Receptor (AR signaling, and several genes in the testis, including Gata1, Aie1 and Fanc, show increased expression. Our results indicate that Tzfp function as a transcriptional regulator and that loss of the protein leads to alterations in AR signaling and reduced number of apoptotic cells in the testicular tubules.

  15. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  16. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  17. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    . Nine clusters of genes with significant differential expression over time and 49 functional charts were found in the analysed testis samples. Prominent pathways in the prepubertal testis were associated with tissue renewal, cell respiration and increased endocytocis. E-cadherines may be associated...... with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways...

  18. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  19. Surgical treatment and follow up on undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D.

    2009-01-01

    With skill and ability to control a variety of operative techniques, undescended testes can be placed in the scrotum with 90% success rate in palpable testes and 85% in abdominal testes. Long term results are related also to the variability of the disease. A hypothesis that in cryptorchid testes...... number at birth in some cryptorchid testes and Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia seen in early childhood. The hypothesis that the abnormal location of the testis exposes the testis to infertility and malignant transformation is supported by the findings of early treatment lowering the risk of both...

  20. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...... (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay......, using 3 recombinant proteins representing 3 domains of the var2csa gene product. RESULTS: The 3 recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by plasma from pregnant women but not by control plasma. A parity-dependent recognition pattern was observed with 2 of the 3 VAR2CSA antigens. A kinetic study...

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  2. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  4. Tax Policy and Sole Proprietorships: A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The 21 million sole proprietorship returns filed in 2005 represent a wide variety of economic activity. This paper examines three major tax policy issues related to sole proprietorships—taxpayer compliance, taxpayer burden, and incentives for growth. It uses tax return data to take a closer look at sole proprietorships. It proposes a new taxonomy for describing these returns in an economically meaningful way, based on the principal factors of production that they use: their own labor, hired l...

  5. Comparative morphophysiological evaluation of the testis of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Wistar rats fed low protein-energy diet and dosed with aqueous extracts ... extracts of C. australis seed and stem, 300mg/kg body weight/day for seven days, on the testis of the adult Wistar rat ..... Modern Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine,.

  6. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, V. P.; Chaboissier, M. C.; de rooij, D. G.; Schedl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9 are associated with male-to-female sex reversal in humans. To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads. Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the

  7. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... reports seem to indicate that boars with higher body and testis weight may ... in terms of loss of animals of good genetic standing may be of no practical ... weekly intervals until they reached 36 weeks of age. The ... Training of boars and semen collection. All in situ ..... on semen composition in the boar. Can.

  8. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  9. Gonadotropin Regulation of Retinoic Acid Activity in the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of spermatogenesis in primates is triggered at puberty by an increase in gonadotropins; i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Prior to puberty, testis of the monkey contains only undifferentiated germ cells. However, sermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis may be initiated prior to puberty after stimulation with exogenous LH and FSH. Retinoic acid (RA signaling is considered to be a major component that drives spermatogonial differentiation. We were interested in evaluating the relative role of LH and FSH, either alone or in combination, in regulating the retinoic acid signaling in monkey testis. Sixteen juvenile male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were infused with intermittent recombinant single chain human LH (schLH or recombinant human FSH (rhFSH or a combination of both for 11 days. We then analyzed the expression of the several putative RA signaling pathway related genes; i.e. RDH10, RDH11, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, CYP26B1, CRABP1, CRABP2, STRA6, STRA8 in the testis after 11 days of stimulation with vehicle, LH, FSH and combination LH/FSH using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. The qPCR results analysis showed that administration of gonadotropins affected a significant change in expression of some RA signaling related genes in the monkey testis. The gonadotropins, either alone or in combination dramatically increased expression of CRABP2 (p≤0.001, whereas there was a decrease in ALDH1A2 expression (p≤0.001. Moreover, combined gonadotropin treatment led to the significant decrease in CRABP1 expression (p≤0.05. These findings are the first evidence that the activity of retinoic acid signaling in the monkey testis is regulated through gonadotropins (LH/FSH levels.

  10. Discards monitoring in the gillnet fishery for sole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 2-3% of the Dutch fishing quota for sole (Solea solea) is caught by a 60-vessel strong inshore fleet of gillnetters. From their home ports in IJmuiden, Scheveningen and Den Helder, these vessels fish typically with bottom-set gillnets for sole during 1 day trips between March and

  11. 31 CFR 515.546 - Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of Cuba... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships. 515.546 Section 515.546 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  12. End-of-Mission Report: Shared aquifers of the Mauritian Senegalese basin: assessment and prospects in November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travi, Yves

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the mission was to collaborate with the Mauritanian and Senegalese experts working together on the Senegal-Mauritanian basin to assess the progress made by the counterparts (Senegal and Mauritania) on the various components of the Sahel project, Of previous missions. This included a review of the hydrological knowledge needed to interpret hydrochemical and isotopic data. The work plan should also be re-evaluated for the implementation of the activities of the year 2015 More specifically, the actions to be taken were: 1) To assess the progress made by counterparties in: a) collecting hydrological information Necessary for the interpretation of hydrochemical and isotopic data in the Senegal-Mauritanian basin; (B) a sampling plan; And (c) advancement of preliminary interpretations of the data. 2) To evaluate the performance of those who have followed the''training courses'' in their respective study areas. 3) to make an inventory of the equipment received by each country involved in the study of the Senegal-Mauritanian basin. 4) To assist counterparts in the interpretation of hydrochemical and isotopic data acquired at the time of the mission. 5) Propose an update of the work plan, if necessary. Also, the following recommendations are made to the Counterpart Institution and National Counterpart: -The Mauritanian partner should quickly clarify the problem of missing equipment. - For both Senegalese and Mauritanian partners, it is essential to ensure the proper conduct of field missions and to carry out sampling and in situ measurements in strict compliance with the rules of the art. This requires ensuring that the persons in charge of this work are properly trained and that the proper functioning of the equipment has been verified. Both in Senegal and in Mauritania, there are competent persons in this field. It is imperative that these people participate in this work and provide guidance. Fieldwork is the most important phase and it

  13. Correlation of the size of undescended testis with its location in various age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqvi, S R.H.; Akhtar, J; Batool, T; Farhat, M [National Inst. of child Health, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Peadiatrics; Tabassum, R [National Inst. of Child Health, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-09-15

    To assess the correlation of the size of undescended testis with its location in children of various age groups, per- operatively. Children presenting with undescended testis at surgical outpatient were recruited. Physical examination and relevant investigations (haemoglobin, ultrasound for location and size of testes) were performed. Patients were divided randomly into three age groups, group I (8 months - 2.5 years), group II (2.6 - 8 years), group III (8.1-13 years). At orchiopexy location and size of undescended testis were noted. Patients were further sub-divided into groups according to peroperative location of undescended testis, group A (intra-abdominal), group B (intra-canalicular), group C (distal to superficial inguinal ring - pubic). Where no testis was found, a separate group D was assigned. The size of undescended testis at different locations in various age groups was compared with reference to normal descended testicular size in the respective age group, for statistical significance. ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparison for the size of undescended testis and Student t- test was applied for comparison with reference to normal values of the size of testis. A total of 102 patients with undescended testis were included in the study. The total number of 107 testicular units were assessed. Group I had 28, group II, 41 and group III, 38 testes. There were 24 intra-abdominal, 68 intra-canalicular and 12 pubic in location. In 3 cases, no testis was found at exploration. We found no statistically significant difference amongst groups (p-value=0.090) between the size of the undescended testis at different peroperative locations. The size of undescended testis grew with the age as undescended testis of larger size were found in older age group as compared to younger age group. By applying Student t-test, we did not find statistically significant difference in relation to the size of undescended testis in various age groups in comparison to the

  14. Correlation of the size of undescended testis with its location in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taqvi, S.R.H.; Akhtar, J.; Batool, T.; Farhat, M.; Tabassum, R.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the correlation of the size of undescended testis with its location in children of various age groups, per- operatively. Children presenting with undescended testis at surgical outpatient were recruited. Physical examination and relevant investigations (haemoglobin, ultrasound for location and size of testes) were performed. Patients were divided randomly into three age groups, group I (8 months - 2.5 years), group II (2.6 - 8 years), group III (8.1-13 years). At orchiopexy location and size of undescended testis were noted. Patients were further sub-divided into groups according to peroperative location of undescended testis, group A (intra-abdominal), group B (intra-canalicular), group C (distal to superficial inguinal ring - pubic). Where no testis was found, a separate group D was assigned. The size of undescended testis at different locations in various age groups was compared with reference to normal descended testicular size in the respective age group, for statistical significance. ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparison for the size of undescended testis and Student t- test was applied for comparison with reference to normal values of the size of testis. A total of 102 patients with undescended testis were included in the study. The total number of 107 testicular units were assessed. Group I had 28, group II, 41 and group III, 38 testes. There were 24 intra-abdominal, 68 intra-canalicular and 12 pubic in location. In 3 cases, no testis was found at exploration. We found no statistically significant difference amongst groups (p-value=0.090) between the size of the undescended testis at different peroperative locations. The size of undescended testis grew with the age as undescended testis of larger size were found in older age group as compared to younger age group. By applying Student t-test, we did not find statistically significant difference in relation to the size of undescended testis in various age groups in comparison to the

  15. A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  16. Migrazione ed Esperienza Teatrale. Dinamiche Transnazionali ed Integrazione nell’incontro tra un migrante senegalese e la società italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano degli Uberti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is drawn from the data collected during the research fieldwork that I carried out between June and December 2003. The present article reconstructs and analyses the experience of a Senegalese migrant who arrived in Italy in 1987 and achieved the own social recognition as actor in a contemporary drama company. A first theoretical part draws a critical review of anthropological literature concerning the phenomenon of “migration” and the concept of “performance”. Sustained by these theoretical premises, the research will be directed toward the comprehension of his theatrical experience (by a human and professional point of view, and the genesis of a form of métis theatre (intercultural which develops from the common contribute of Italian and African migrant artists. To this regard, I focus the attention on the particular meanings and value assumed by the traditional figure of the griot (the core figure in the oral tradition of many African populations through his artistic dramatisation. This paper aims at shedding light on the transnational dynamics that shapes the experience of this Senegalese migrant and at showing how, in this case, the theatrical space can become both the common ground where people of different culture develop a confrontation and new means of expression, and the meaningful context where an immigrant is able to face and attribute a new sense to the dramatic existential condition that he had to endure after the forced decision of migrating.

  17. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  18. Alterations in the developing testis transcriptome following embryonic vinclozolin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Tracy M; Savenkova, Marina I; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2010-11-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic days 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  20. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... probably do not require sophisticated neurological skills or investigations, failure to recognise an underlying disorder or an ...

  1. Exclusive nuclear location of estrogen receptors in Squalus testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, G V; Mak, P

    1985-01-01

    An estrogen (E)-binding molecule having both occupied and unoccupied sites is restricted to nuclear subfractions in the testis of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). We investigated the hypothesis that a species characterized by high body-fluid osmolarity (1010 mosM) has an estrogen receptor (ER) that binds to chromatin with high affinity and consequently resists redistribution during tissue processing. Although the steroid binding and sedimentation properties of the Squalus nuclear ER conformed to those of classical ER, its elution maximum from DNA-cellulose was unusually high (0.55 M NaCl). A tendency to adhere tightly to cell nuclei was reflected in the high salt concentration (0.43 M KCl) required to extract 50% of the receptors from the nuclear compartment during homogenization and in the stability of the nuclear ER population in the presence of high concentrations of a nonionic solute (urea) or increased buffer volume. Mixing and redistribution experiments showed that nuclear ER could be quantitatively and qualitatively measured in cytosolic extracts, ruling out the possibility that soluble receptors were being masked. Although Squalus oviduct ER was similar to that of testis, ER in the testis and liver of a related elasmobranch (Potamotrygon) that maintains osmotic equilibrium at 300 mosM more closely resembled mammalian ER in its elution maximum from DNA-cellulose (0.22 M NaCl) and cytosolic/nuclear ratios in low-salt buffers. We conclude that Squalus testis has a single ER pool located exclusively in the nuclear compartment. These observations support a revised concept of steroid action and further indicate that the chromatin affinity of the hormone-ER complex is an important factor in determining subfractional distribution during tissue processing. PMID:3856265

  2. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Hone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection.

  4. Barriers to Maori sole mothers’ primary health care access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International research consistently shows that sole mothers experience poorer health and suboptimal health care access. New Zealand studies on sole mothers' health report similar findings. The aim of this exploratory research was to better understand the experiences of Maori sole mothers' access to health services, particularly primary health care, for personal health needs. METHODS: This qualitative study employed a general inductive design informed by a Kaupapa Maori approach, providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols for recruiting and engaging Maori participants. Distributing written information and snowballing techniques were used to purposively recruit seven Maori sole mothers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using general inductive thematic analysis to identify commonalities and patterns in participants' experiences. FINDINGS: The dominant themes that emerged captured and described participants' experiences in accessing health care. The major barrier to access reported was cost. Compounding cost, transport difficulties and location or scheduling of services were additional barriers to health service accessibility. Child-related issues also posed a barrier, including prioritising children's needs and childcare over personal health needs. CONCLUSION: The findings illuminate Maori sole mothers' experiences of accessing health care and the complex socioeconomic inequalities affecting access options and uptake of services. Further investigation of barriers to access is needed. The study has implications for addressing barriers to access at policy, funding and practice levels to improve health outcomes and equitable health care access for Maori sole mothers.

  5. Radiation dose and biological effects to mouse testis from sodium 32P-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, T.A.; Glenn, H.J.; Haynie, T.P.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation dose to mouse testis was estimated to be about 1.65 rad per μCi of intravenously injected 32 P. This high dose to the organ was due to the incorporation of this isotope into the macromolecules of the testis. Up to 30% of the total testis activity was in DNA molecules. Biologic effects on mouse testis from 32 P were determined by testis weight loss and the decrease in the number of sperm heads in the testis. Number of sperm heads reached a minimum of 1.3% of control 36 days after injection of 3.5 μCi/g body weight of 32 P. Significant decreases in sperm head counts were observed after as little as 0.2 μCi/g body weight of 32 P. (author)

  6. Screening for Y microdeletions in men with testicular cancer and undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, Pinar; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Kølvraa, Steen

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate a possible association between testicular cancer or undescended testis and Y microdeletions. METHODS: It was designed as a retrospective clinical study. A total of 225 men with testicular cancer or undescended testis were included to study. Fertile men (n = 200) were...... cases showed a single STS missing of marker sY153 and sY139 in testicular cancer (6/185) and undescended testis (1/40) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Since no contiguous, real Y microdeletions were found in the study population, it seems that Y microdeletions are not a likely common etiological...... cause of poor spermatogenesis in testicular cancer and undescended testis. However, it remains to be determined whether men having a single STS missing have a risk of developing testis cancer or having undescended testis....

  7. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009

  8. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87-30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds.

  9. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  10. Effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shicheng; Luo Qiong; Yang Mingliang; Yang Jiajuan; Yan Jun; Li Zhuoneng; Wang Lihong; Cui Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on local radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal group, the model group, positive control group and LJP treatment group (50 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ). LJP was applied to the treatment group for 10 d before local irradiation with γ-ray (6.0 Gy). The morphological change of the testis, organ index of testis and epididymides, sperm count, motility rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic aldehyde (MDA) contents were measured. Results: LJP could make the damaged testis recover to near normal, elevate the organ index of testis and epididymides, promote the sperm count and motility rate, increase the activity of SOD and decrease the contents of MDA in testis tissue. Conclusions: LJP could inhibit testis tissue damage induced by local radiation, hence enhance the significant radioprotective effect to testis tissue. LJP has the conspicuous protective effect on radiation damage of testis tissue. (authors)

  11. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Sole Ulcers and White Line Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, J K; van Amstel, Sarel R

    2017-07-01

    Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness. Successful treatment requires an orthopedic foot block to the healthy claw and corrective trimming of the lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of the testis to a combined irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratenko, V.G.; Ganzenko, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    Testes of dogs have been studied after a combined γ-irradiation (a continuous irradiation with a dose 0,2 rad/day in the course of one year, and acute exposures to doses of 8 and 42 rads thrice a year). As the time of the exposure and the radiation dose increase, the number of active tubules decreases and that of the desolate, increases. A specifity in the testis response to the combined irradiation, in contrast to merely continuous and fractionated exposures, has been detected

  13. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  14. pigmentation of the sole of the foot in rhodesian africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-23

    Jan 23, 1971 ... basal layer. (Photo by courtesy of Dr C. M. D. Ross.) Fig. 8. From a biopsy of a grade III area on the sole of the foot a section shows, apart from proliferated melanocytes in the basal layer, isolated pigmented cells extending through the stratum malpighii to the stratum granulosum above it, (Photo by courtesy ...

  15. Deaths among West African dwarf goats fed sole Dactyladaenia barteri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dactyladaema barteri is an important shrub utilized in fallow development and as a much-preferred ruminant browse by local farmers in Nigeria. We report the death of two 12 – 15 months old West African Dwarf (WAD) goats used in a digestibility trail with D. barteri as sole feed and in a mixed browse - grass diet in the ...

  16. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  17. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  18. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining neural tube defects: The possible role of autoantibodies. Keat Wei Loo, Siew Hua Gan. Abstract. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe but common congenital malformations. Neonates who suffer from NTDs may experience long-term complications throughout ...

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  20. Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties ... pattern of peasant farmers in Nigeria. Some of the advantages ... in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system as compared to sole crops. While intercropping ...

  1. Leiomyoma of Testis –Rare Benign Mimicker of Testicular Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Baliyan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are benign tumours that originate from any organ containing smooth muscles. The testis is an extremely rare site. We report a case of testicular leiomyoma in a 50-year-old. Testis-associated leiomyomas are a benign and rare disease presenting as a painless, slowly-growing mass. Only histological examination with immunohistochemistry can validate the diagnosis.

  2. Efek ekstrak testis terhadap jumlah implantasi dan jumlah anak pada mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of testis contains the testis specific proteins. The testis proteins may raise immune responses. The immune responses arethe antibodies against testis specific anti-protein. The reaction between the antibodies and the sperms can inhibit fertilization. Thisprocess has contraception effects. This research used 24 female and 20 male mice strain Balb/c. The experiment used the completerandom design with 4 concentration treatments (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg extracts of testis and 3 replications. Mice were injected 3times with time interval 21 days. After 15 days from the rising of vaginal plug, 3 mice were dissected and counted the implantation. Theothers mice were waited until delivered of the children. The datas were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD (α = 5%. The results showed thatextract of testis did not influence the amount of implantation at the uterus endometrial, but it decreased the amount of children. Theeffective concentration of extract testis is 2000 μg. So, this study showed that the intraperitoneum injection of the extract of testis hadcontraception effects.

  3. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low...

  4. Concentration of radiolabeled cholesterol in a feminizing adenoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.M.; Rudd, T.G.; Gurgess, E.C.; Monda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative tissue studies demonstrated increased 19-[ 131 I]-iodocholesterol concentration in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. The potential application of iodocholesterol and its isomers in the detection of steroid-secreting neoplasms of the testis and ovary is suggested

  5. The effect of microgravity on tissue structure and function of rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ding

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether an environment of weightlessness will cause damage to the reproductive system of animals, we used the tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity, and investigated the effect of microgravity on the tissue structure and function of the testis in sexually mature male rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 16 each: control, tail traction, and tail suspension. After the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days, morphological changes of testis were evaluated by histological and electron microscopic methods. The expression of HSP70, bax/bcl-2 and AR (androgen receptor in testis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Obvious pathological lesions were present in the testis after the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days. We detected overexpression of HSP70 and an increase of apoptotic cells, which may have contributed to the injury to the testis. The expression of AR, as an effector molecule in the testis, was significantly decreased in the suspended groups compared to control (P < 0.01. We also observed that, with a longer time of suspension, the aforementioned pathological damage became more serious and some pathological injury to the testis was irreversible. The results demonstrated that a short- or medium-term microgravity environment could lead to severe irreversible damage to the structure of rat testis.

  6. Effects of hyperthermia and radiation on mouse testis stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.O.; Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; West, J.

    1981-01-01

    The response of mouse testis stem cells to hyperthermia and combined hyperthermia-radiation treatments was assayed by spermatogenic colony regrowth, sperm head counts, testis weight loss, and fertility. With the use of spermatogenic colony assay, thermal enhancement ratios at an isosurvival level of 0.1 were 1.27 at 41 degrees, 1.80 at 42 degrees, and 3.97 at 43 degrees for testes exposed to heat for 30 min prior to irradiation. Sperm head counts were reduced by heat alone from a surviving fraction of 0.58 at 41 degrees to 0.003 at 42.5-43.5 degrees. Curves for sperm head survival measured 56 days after the testes had been heated for 30 min prior to irradiation were biphasic and showed a progressive downward displacement to lower survival with increasing temperature. The 41, 42, and 43 degrees curves were displaced downward by factors of 2, 58, and 175, respectively. The proportion of animals remaining sterile after 30 min of heat (41-43 degrees) and the median sterility period in days increased with increasing temperature. The minimum sperm count necessary to regain fertility was 13% of the normal mouse level

  7. Distribution of the DAZ gene transcripts in human testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of variety of genes, especially located on Y chromosome, is critical for the regulation of spermatogenesis. In particular, fertility candidate genes such as deleted in azoospermia (DAZ are believed to have important function in sperm production, since DAZ is frequently deleted in azoospermic and severy oligozoospermic men. The role of the DAZ gene is supported by its exclusive expression in the testis and by its deletion in about 10% of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients. The distribution of DAZ transcripts in seminiferous epithelium of human testis is reported in the present study. The use of Adobe Photoshop and Scion Image softwares allowed for semi-quantitative analysis of in situ RT-PCR (ISRT-PCR results. The intensity of ISRT-PCR product's fluorescence was different within individual seminiferous tubules. It was clearly shown by using the pseudocolour scale and transforming the intensity of the fluorescence into levels of greyscale images. The more intense fluorescence characterised single spermatogonia and those organized in small groups inside separate tubules. The most intense accumulation of DAZ mRNA was observed in spermatogonia.

  8. Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs are rare tumors accounting for <1% of all testicular tumors. Here, we report a rare case of SCT in a 60-year-old man presenting as a painless swelling in the right groin since childhood. Clinically, he presented with right-sided inguinal hernia with absence of the right testis. He had normal left testis and had no gynecomastia or infertility. The specimen of hernial sac showed testis with a 1.6 cm × 1.5 cm nodular mass having gray tan-cut surface. Histopathologically, the testis showed atrophy and the nodular portion showed tumor cells arranged in tubular and microcystic pattern, with no solid pattern or necrosis. The diagnosis of SCT was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for inhibin which showed fine granular cytoplasmic positivity. Cryptorchid testis having SCT and presenting as a content of inguinal hernia is a rare occurrence.

  9. Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Luca; Fulvi, Paola; Sbrollini, Giulia; Filosa, Alessandra; Caraceni, Enrico; Marronaro, Angelo; Galosi, Andrea B

    2016-12-30

    Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%). Testicular Angiofibroma (AF) is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable.

  10. Effective Condition for Whole Testis Cryopreservation of Endangered Miho Spine Loach (Cobitis choii) Through the Optimization of Mud Loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) Whole Testis Cryopreservation Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Nam, Y K; Bang, I C; Gong, S P

      BACKGROUND: Miho spine loach (Cobitis choii) is an endangered Korean endemic fish. Whole testis cryopreservation is a good way for species preservation, but needs to the sacrifice of a large number of fish to optimize the freezing condition. Considering this limitation, a surrogate fish species was used for the protocol development. This study was to establish the effective condition for Miho spine loach whole testis cryopreservation by optimizing the conditions for whole testis cryopreservation in an allied species, mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis). The condition for whole testis cryopreservation was optimized in mud loach first, and then the optimal condition was applied to Miho spine loach testes. The optimal condition for mud loach testis cryopreservation consists of the freezing medium containing 1.3 M dimethyl sulfoxide, 6% fetal bovine serum and 0.3 M trehalose, -1 C/min cooling rate and 26 degree C thawing temperature, which also permits effective cryopreservation of Miho spine loach testes. An effective cryopreservation condition for whole testis of the endangered Miho spine loach has been established by using mud loach as a surrogate fish.

  11. Identification, characterization and functional analysis of regulatory region of nanos gene from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2017-06-20

    The nanos gene encodes an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, which is required in the development and maintenance of germ cells. However, there is very limited information about nanos in flatfish, which impedes its application in fish breeding. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of the nanos gene (Csnanos) from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), which is an economically important flatfish in China. The 1233-bp cDNA sequence, 1709-bp genomic sequence and flanking sequences (2.8-kb 5'- and 1.6-kb 3'-flanking regions) of Csnanos were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that CsNanos shares low homology with Nanos in other species, but the zinc finger domain of CsNanos is highly similar. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsNanos belongs to the Nanos2 subfamily. Csnanos expression was widely detected in various tissues, but the expression level was higher in testis and ovary. During early development and sex differentiation, Csnanos expression exhibited a clear sexually dimorphic pattern, suggesting its different roles in the migration and differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Higher expression levels of Csnanos mRNA in normal females and males than in neomales indicated that the nanos gene may play key roles in maintaining the differentiation of gonad. Moreover, medaka PGCs were successfully labeled by the microinjection of synthesized mRNA consisting of green fluorescence protein and the 3'-untranslated region of Csnanos. These findings provide new insights into nanos gene expression and function, and lay the foundation for further study of PGC development and applications in tongue sole breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual structures for the sole-proprietorship firm

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Robert G.; Quiggin, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a dual representation of firm-level and market-level equilibrium behavior for a sole proprietorship economy with competitive and frictionless financial markets and stochastic production opportunities in a two-period setting. The dual equilibrium model is used to state conditions for the firms' production choices to be independent of their risk preferences in equilibrium. These conditions entail Pareto optimality, but do not require either that the firm's consumption choice...

  13. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  14. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Improving Quality of Shoe Soles Product using Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesslyn Wijaya, Athalia; Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Ma’ruf, Anas; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    A manufacture in Bandung produce kind of rubber-based product i.e. trim, rice rollers, shoe soles, etc. After penetrating the shoe soles market, the manufacture has met customer with tight quality control. Based on the past data, defect level of this product was 18.08% that caused the manufacture’s loss of time and money. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC). In the design phase, the object’s problem and definition were defined. Delphi method was also used in this phase to identify critical factors. In the measure phase, the existing process stability and sigma quality level were measured. Fishbone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analyse the root cause and determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by designing alternative improvement strategy using 5W1H method. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) modifying design of the hanging rack, (ii) create pantone colour book and check sheet, (iii) provide pedestrian line at compound department, (iv) buying stop watch, and (v) modifying shoe soles dies. Some control strategies for continuous improvement were proposed such as SOP or reward and punishment system.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the aqp1aa gene in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    Full Text Available Aquaporin 1 (AQP1 is a member of the transmembrane water channel family of proteins with special structural features, and two AQP1 paralogous genes (aqp1aa and aqp1ab are reported in teleosts. In the present study, the aqp1aa gene of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of aqp1aa is 1411 bp with a 786 bp open reading frame encoding a 261-amino acid putative protein with a characteristic structure consisting of 6 membrane-spanning α-helical domains and two highly conserved asparagine-proline-alanine motifs. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that aqp1aa mRNA is expressed predominantly in the testis of males and pseudo-males, while its expression is low in the ovary and lowest in doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1(DMRT1 knock out fish and triploid males. In situ hybridization indicated that aqp1aa mRNA is expressed mainly in the germ cells of males and pseudo-males, especially in spermatozoa and spermatids. These results suggest that the aqp1aa may play a role in spermatogenesis of C. semilaevis.

  17. Shielding for Scattered Radiation to the Testis During Pelvic Radiotherapy: Is it worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAZMY, M.S.; El-Taher, M.M.; Attalla, E.M.; El-Hosiny, H.A.; Lotayef, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the value of external shielding of the testis during pelvic radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Nineteen patients, receiving radiotherapy to the pelvis with the lower border of the field at the obturator foramen, were randomly selected. A 5 half value layer cerro bent shield was positioned at the inferior border of the field. The dose to the testis was measured with and without the shield. Observations were made regarding the reflex cre master contraction and phantom measurements were done at different distances from the perineum. Results: The mean radiation dose to the testis for patients receiving treatment with no shield was 7.4 cGy (±) and it was 5.7c Gy (±) for patients with external shield, this difference was statistically significant by the paired t test p<0.0001. This accounted for a 22% decrease in the dose received by the testis. The position of the testis with the contraction of the cre master muscle and the dartos fascia after manipulation of the testis during diodes placement changed up to 3.5 cm (mean 1.5). Phantom measurements showed 37% increase in the dose with 2 cm change in the position of the testis to the pelvic direction. Conclusion: External shield at the inferior border of the pelvic field is a simple, easy reproducible, convenient shielding method. Clam-shell scrotal shield is not free of drawbacks, but still its benefits overweigh its harms and should be used with caution

  18. The oligosaccharidic content of the glycoconjugates of the prepubertal descended and undescended testis: lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, Gherardo; Sgambati, Eleonora; Thyrion, Giorgia D Zappoli; Vichi, Debora; Orlandini, Giovanni E

    2004-01-01

    The saccharidic content of the glycoconjugates has been studied in the descended the undescended testes of a 8 years old boy. For this purpose, a battery of seven HRP-conjugated lectins (SBA, DBA,PNA,WGA,UEAI, LTA and ConA) was used. D-galactose-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and alpha-L-fucose sugar residues, which were present in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells of the normally positioned prepubertal testis, were not detected in the same cells of the undescended testis. The Leydig's cells of the descended testis appeared characterized by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine which was absent in the rare and atrophic Leydig's cells of the cryptorchid testis. Differences in sugar residues distribution between the descended and the undescended testis were also detected in the lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules. Peritubular myoid cells in the undescended testis only reacted with PNA, after neuraminidase digestion, thus revealing the presence of D-galactose (beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sialic acid. In this study a complete distributional map of the sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the descended and undescended prepubertal testis is reported.

  19. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Sahin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years. Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69% case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53% cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76% cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  20. Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, G; Bellier, Alexandre; Marnas, G; Boisson, B; Robert, Y; Rabattu, P Y; Chaffanjon, P

    2018-04-01

    The anatomy of gubernaculum testis (GT) is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament (SL) is rarely described. Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis, epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in 56.0% of cases. Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment (28.0%), whereas no cases of testis attachment was found. Distally, there are more variations with scrotal attachment (12%) and cremaster attachment (12.0%). We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in 16.0% of cases too. Finally, in 15 cases (57.7%) an attachment is present between testis and epididymis, as it is commonly described. In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free. So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments".

  1. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant'Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall'Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described

  2. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective

  3. Testis cancer. Ichthyosis constitutes a significant risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, G; Bennett, P; Lykkesfeldt, A E

    1991-01-01

    Testis cancer and ichthyosis are both relatively rare diseases. Hence the finding of six individuals with both these conditions in a small population with testicular cancer is highly conspicuous and indicates some kind of connection among such persons. Despite the identical clinical appearances...... of their ichthyoses, three of the ichthyotic subjects had no measurable activity of the enzyme, steroid sulfatase (STS) in leucocytes, a distinct characteristic of recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). However, the remaining three subjects had normal STS activity, a strong indicator of autosomal dominant ichthyosis...... (ADI). The STS activity in patients with testicular cancer who do not have ichthyosis (N = 30) was also within the normal range. The patients with testicular cancer with no skin disease had elevated serum levels of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone...

  4. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Rossi, Soledad Paola

    2017-05-31

    The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis) mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  5. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Roberto Iglesias [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant' Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall' Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel [Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described.

  6. Sole ulcers in dairy-cattle - associations with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Grohn, Y T; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    lactation and body weight were positively associated with sole ulcer. Heel erosion was associated with sole ulcer depending on season of trimming and parity. Presence of sole ulcer but not heel erosion in a lactation increased the risk of sole ulcer in the subsequent lactation. The interval between...

  7. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... of cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  8. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples: a model used to investigate activin treatment effects in a preserved niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, A; Young, J; Nielsen, J E; Joensen, U N; Toft, B G; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Loveland, K L

    2014-05-13

    Testicular germ cell tumours of young adults, seminoma or non-seminomas, are preceded by a pre-invasive precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS), understood to arise through differentiation arrest of embryonic germ cells. Knowledge about the malignant transformation of germ cells is currently limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis. Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche.

  9. GPR56 is essential for testis development and male fertility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangchun; Yang, Liquan; Begum, Shahinoor; Xu, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Testis development is critical for male fertility and continuation of the mammalian species. Essential structural components of testes are seminiferous tubules, which are lined by Sertoli cells and provide nutrients and physical protection for the maturation of sperm. Seminiferous tubule formation is initiated in embryos as testis cords and relies on their remodeling for maturation during development. Recently, three-dimensional image analyses showed that testis cords in different parts of embryonic gonads undergo distinct remodeling processes. How this asymmetric remodeling is regulated has not been investigated. We report here that the absence of an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR56, leads to partial disruption of seminiferous tubules and reduced fertility in male mice. The defects appear to originate asymmetrically in embryonic gonads, but subsequent to the initial establishment of testis cords, suggesting that GPR56 might act to establish a spatial and/or temporal cue for asymmetric cord remodeling during male gonad development. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  11. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Methods: This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. Results: The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. Conclusion: The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation. PMID:21960925

  12. Inherent variation in multiple shoe-sole test impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Yaron; Wiesner, Sarena; Tsach, Tsadok; Gurel, Ron; Yekutieli, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Shoeprints left at crime scenes are seldom perfect. Many prints are distorted or contaminated by various materials. Noisy background often contributes to vagueness on the shoeprints as well. Test impressions made from the suspect's shoes in the laboratory are considered a genuine replication of the shoe-sole. This naïve attitude is far from being correct. Consecutive test impressions made in the laboratory under strict similar conditions revealed differences among the exemplars of the same sole. Some of them are minor, but some are major, and can mislead the less experienced practitioners during the comparison process. This article focuses on the inherent within source variability between controlled shoeprints made from the same shoe, as it appears on the RACs. To describe and analyze this variability, repeated test impressions were prepared, and datasets were created. Several RACs were marked on each test impression, using an expert assisting software tool (developed in the authors' lab). The variance in repeated test impressions is demonstrated and possible sources are discussed. This variance should be considered when trying to establish the degree of matching between individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  14. “De la ilusión al desencanto”. Senegaleses en Buenos Aires y la construcción de representaciones respecto a su proyecto migratorio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Kleidermacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone reflexionar respecto a las representaciones sociales construidas sobre las trayectorias migratorias de jóvenes senegaleses que han arribado a la Argentina en las últimas dos décadas, y que se enmarcan en una corriente poblacional que une el África Subsahariana con el Cono Sur de América Latina.La elección de analizar las representaciones sociales, se fundamenta en que las entiendo como una modalidad particular del conocimiento cuya función es la elaboración de los comportamientos y la comunicación entre los individuos. A partir de las mismas he podido reflexionar en torno a las expectativas y perspectivas de los protagonistas respecto a diversos condicionamientos sociales, culturales, económicos, históricos y familiares que influyen de diversas maneras en el proyecto migratorio, y que serán desarrollados en el escrito, involucrando los factores de origen y de destino. 

  15. Radiation effects of electromagnetic pulses on mouse blood-testis barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Wugang; Zhao Jie; Zhang Yuanqiang

    2005-01-01

    Radiation effects caused by 100 kV/m and 400 kV/m electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiations on mouse blood-testis barrier were studied by means of routine HE staining, Lanthanum traced electron microscope and injection of caudal vein with Evans Blue. The EMP irradiation of different dose rates damaged Sertoli's cell and blood-testis barrier of mouse testis in different levels. Severe injuries were observed with the 400 kV/m irradiation group, with apoptosis and necrosis in a large quantity of the spermatogenic cells, shape and structural changes of the Sertoli's cells, and serious injuries to the blood-testis barrier, one day after the irradiation. The basal compartment separated from the adluminal compartment in most of the VIII stage seminiferous epithelium, and a great number of apoptosis and necrosis spermatogenic cells were released into the cavities. Injuries of blood-testis barrier could be observed 21 days after the 400 kV/m irradiation. The injuries of 100 kV/m irradiation groups were less severe than the 400 kV/m groups, in which the damages to the Sertoli's cells, the seminiferous epithelium and blood-testis barrier recovered to some extent 14 days after the irradiation. The authors conclude that EMP irradiation can damage mouse blood-tests barrier. The injuries, and the time for recovery, are related to EMP power intensity. (authors)

  16. Mesothelioma of the testis and nephrotic syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacchetta Justine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies are rare manifestations of neoplastic disease to be distinguished from iatrogenic renal damage. Solid tumors are preferentially associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal change disease. Case presentation We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis who, secondary to this, also presented with a nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease. In the present case, the paraneoplastic etiology of the nephrotic syndrome can be discussed on four unusual elements: minimal change lesions were found; the glomerulopathy was very sensitive to corticosteroids; the nephrotic syndrome occurred 11 months after the diagnosis of the primary malignancy, but concomitantly with the recurrence; and the nephrotic syndrome did not decrease with tumor control and did not recur when the mesothelioma escaped treatment. No other etiologies could nevertheless explain this phenomenon. Conclusion Paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is often associated with membranous nephropathy in patients with solid tumors, especially in patients with lung and gastrointestinal tract neoplasia. The management of these patients is associated with a symptomatic treatment such as sodium and water restriction, diuretics and ACE inhibitors and a prophylaxis of specific complications of nephrotic syndrome including thromboembolism, infections and lipid abnormalities. Treatment of neoplasia must be undertaken rapidly, treatments must be regularly analyzed and drugs binding to albumin may be used with precaution.

  17. Cancer-testis antigen expression and immunogenicity in AL amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, M A; Landau, H; Seldin, D; O'Hara, C; Girnius, S; Hanson, N; Frosina, D; Sedrak, C; Arcila, M; Comenzo, R L; Giralt, S; Gnjatic, S; Jungbluth, A A; Koehne, G

    2012-01-01

    Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia closely related to multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) CT7 (MAGE-C1), CT10 (MAGE-C2) and MAGE-A CTAs are expressed in up to 80% of cases. In this study, we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of several CTAs in patients with AL amyloidosis in a total of 38 bone marrow specimens by employing standard immunohistochemistry techniques on paraffin-embedded archival tissues. Plasma samples from 35 patients (27 with matched bone marrow samples) were also analyzed by ELISA for sero reactivity to a group of full-length CTA proteins. CT7 was present in 25/38 (66%) while CT10 was demonstrated in 3/38 and GAGE in 1/38 AL amyloid cases. The expression pattern was mostly focal. There were no significant differences with regard to organ involvement, response to treatment, or prognosis in CTA positive compared to negative cases. None of the specimens showed spontaneous humoral immunity to CT7, but sero reactivity was observed in individual patients to other CTAs. This study identifies CT7 as the prevalent CTA in plasma cells of patients with AL amyloidosis. Further analyses determining the biology of CTAs in AL amyloidosis and their value as potential targets for immunotherapy are warranted

  18. Endocrine disrupting compounds exposure and testis development in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbowona, Biola F.; Mustapha, Olajide A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades, there is substantial evidence that male reproductive function is deteriorating in humans and wildlife and this is associated with unintentional exposure to widely used synthetic chemicals. Subsequently, much has been done to show that certain chemicals in the environment adversely interfere with the developing fetal gonads of the laboratory animals. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated treatment-induced reproductive problems in offspring exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) which are similar to those observed in wildlife and human population. Few EDC studies have demonstrated that there are certain periods of gestation when the developing fetus is highly sensitive and at risk of small endocrine changes. Similar observations have been made in the sewage sludge model, however, while animal studies have been insightful in providing valuable information about the range of effects that can be attributed to in utero exposure to EDCs, varying levels of maternal doses administered in different studies exaggerated extrapolation of these results to human. Thus the EDC concentration representative of fetal exposure levels is uncertain because of the complexities of its nature. So far, the level of fetal exposure can only be roughly estimated. There is substantial evidence from animal data to prove that EDCs can adversely affect reproductive development and function in male and more has accumulated on the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. This paper therefore, reviews previous studies to highlight the extent to which testis development can be disrupted during fetal life. PMID:29255381

  19. Testicular function following irradiation of the human prepubertal testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Jacobs, H.S.; Pearson, D.

    1978-01-01

    Testicular function was studied in ten men, aged between 17 and 36 years, who had received irradiation for a nephroblastoma during childhood. The dose of scattered irradiation to the testes ranged from 268 to 983 rad. Eight subjects had either oligo-or azoosperma (0 to 5.6 million/ml), seven of whom had an elevated serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level. One subject showed evidence of Leydig cell dysfunction with a raised serum luteinizing hormone level (LH) and a low plasma testosterone concentration. A second group of eight prepubertal males, aged between 8 and 14 years, were studied. These had also been irradiated for abdominal malignancies during childhood and received a similar dose of irradiation to the testis as the first group studied. The plasma testosterone levels were within the normal range in all eight. The mean gonadotropin levels were not significantly different from normal. Thus irradiation-induced damage to the germinal epithelium in prepubertal boys raised FSH levels after puberty but not before it. The conclusion is that inhibin has a minor role in the control of the pre-pubertal hypothalmic-pituitary testicular axis and its contribution to gonadal control of gonadotrophin secretion changes with sexual maturation. (author)

  20. Depth and substrate as determinants of distribution of juvenile flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and rock sole (Pleuronectes bilineatus), in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    1998-01-01

    Three transects in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, were sampled in September 1994, May and August 1995, and February, May, and August 1996. Juvenile flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, and rock sole, Pleuronectes bilineatus, were the most abundant flatfishes, comprising 65-85% of all fiatfishes captured at any period. Collections of fish and sediments were made at regular depth contour intervals of l0 m. Habitat distribution was described by depth at 10 m increments and sediment percent weights of gravel, sand, and mud. Year-round habitat of flathead sole age-0 was primarily from 40 to 60 m, and age-1 habitat was primarily from 40 to 80 m. Summer habitat of rock sole age-0 and -1 was from 10 to 30 m, and in winter they moved offshore to depths of up to 150 m. Both age classes of flathead sole were most abundant on mixed mud sediments, while age-1 were also in high abundance on muddy sand sediments. Rock sole age-0 and -1 were most abundant on sand, though age-1 were also found on a variety of sediments both finer and coarser grained than sand. Flathead sole and rock sole had distinctive depth and sediment habitats. When habitat overlap occurred between the species, it was most often due to rock sole moving offshore in the winter. Abundances were not significantly different among seasons for age-1 flatfishes.

  1. De niet-scrotale testis: huidige standpunten van de Werkgroep Kinderurologie van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie [Undescended testis: Current views and advice for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, W.W.M.; Sijstermans, K.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Meijer, R.W.; Heij, H.A.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Eerder dit jaar verschenen in dit tijdschrift drie artikelen gewijd aan de niet-scrotale testis (NST).1-3 Ze hebben tot veel discussie geleid binnen de Werkgroep Kinderurologie (WGKU) van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie (NVU), hetgeen resulteerde in dit commentaar. Vooral de artikelen van

  2. TORSION TESTIS : ROLE OF COLOR DOPPLER : A STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T orsion testis is one of the catast r ophic conditions in children and young a d u lts. Traditionally the diagnosis was made clinical presentation and suspicion. Critical decision making is essential to save the testis . OBJECTIVE: To study the usefu lness and efficacy of Doppler ultrasound in correctly diagnosing acute scrotal conditions in children and young adults to save the testis and to avoid negative explorations. METHODS: Over a period of two years 50 patients with acute scrotum were admitted i n general surgery department who underwent Doppler ultrasound scrotum and its efficacy in correctly diagnosing the pathology was analysed. RESULTS: 50 patients with age group <25 years were included in study. Scrotal pain was the most frequent presenting s ymptom of acute scrotum (98% followed by Swelling of the hemiscrolum on the involved side present in 86% of the patients. Doppler ultrasound showed torsion of testis in 18 patients. On Scrotal exploration, torsion of spermatic cord was confirmed in 16 pat ients, one patient had torsion of appendix of testis and the other had Epididymo - orchitis. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for testicular torsion was 86.9% and 92.6% respectively. 2 patients with equivocal Doppler findings, but strong clinical suspicion of testicular torsion were explored, and testis was found to be torsed in both two patients. Doppler ultrasonography showed Epididymo - orchitis in 22 patients, torsion of testicular appendage in 2 patients, Idiopathic scrotal edema in one, and in 5 pts no significant pathology found. All twenty patients of epididymo - orchitis, two patients of torsion of testicular appendage, and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema were managed conservatively. At three weeks follow up, all th e patients were free of symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for epididymo - orchitis was 95% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: color

  3. Is radiation-induced cell death in mouse testis apoptosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Wilson, Gene; Yun Zhang; Russell, Lonnie D.; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced death of spermatogonia and other germ cells in the testis has been claimed to be by an apoptotic mechanism, but these processes have been incompletely characterized. We investigated irradiated mouse testis by multiple techniques to determine whether the mode of cell death of spermatogonia can be classified as apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Adult male C57BL/6 and p53 knockout mice were irradiated with single doses of 0.5, 2.5 or 5.0 Gy. Four, 6, 8, 12, 18 or 24 hours after irradiation, testes were fixed in Bouin's solution or in 10% formalin. Slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Some testes were perfusion-fixed with 5% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopy. Gel electrophoresis of DNA was also performed to identify DNA fragmentation. The number of sperm heads was counted 29 days after irradiation to evaluate the effect of radiation on the eventual survival of the differentiated spermatogonia. Results: The earliest sign of histological damage was an increase in the numbers of abnormal spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules, particularly in stage I-VI of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. The numbers of abnormal spermatogonia began to increase at 6 hours, reached a peak 12 hours after irradiation, and then declined. The total number of spermatogonia began to decrease at 12 hours after irradiation, resulting in a 60% decline in sperm produced 29 days after 0.5 Gy. Although changes were greatest following 5.0 Gy irradiation, even 0.5 Gy induced marked changes. However, these changes were not induced in p53 knockout mice. By both light and electron microscopy, spermatogonia showed some condensation of nuclear chromatin, but margination of chromatin with clear delineation and nuclear fragmentation was rare. Many of the abnormal spermatogonia showed a positive TUNEL reaction, which was also at a maximum at 12 hours after irradiation. In addition, some TUNEL-positive and

  4. Magnetization transfer imaging of normal and abnormal testis: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsili, Athina C.; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Maliakas, Vasilios; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Baltogiannis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Stavrou, Sotirios; Astrakas, Loukas G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal testes, possible variations with age and to assess the feasibility of MTR in characterizing various testicular lesions. Eighty-six men were included. A three-dimensional gradient-echo MT sequence was performed, with/without an on-resonance binomial prepulse. MTR was calculated as: (SIo-SIm)/(SIo) x 100 %, where SIm and SIo refers to signal intensities with and without the saturation pulse, respectively. Subjects were classified as: group 1, 20-39 years; group 2, 40-65 years; and group 3, older than 65 years of age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least significant difference test was used to assess variations of MTR with age. Comparison between the MTR of normal testis, malignant and benign testicular lesions was performed using independent-samples t testing. ANOVA revealed differences of MTR between age groups (F = 7.51, P = 0.001). Significant differences between groups 1, 2 (P = 0.011) and 1, 3 (P < 0.001) were found, but not between 2, 3 (P = 0.082). The MTR (in percent) of testicular carcinomas was 55.0 ± 3.2, significantly higher than that of benign lesions (50.3 ± 4.0, P = 0.02) and of normal testes (47.4 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). MTR of normal testes decreases with age. MTR might be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of testicular lesions. (orig.)

  5. Effect of vitamin E supplement in diet on antioxidant ability of testis in Boer goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhu; Hailing, Luo; Hui, Meng; Guijie, Zhang; Leyan, Yan; Dubing, Yue

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin E in diet on the antioxidant capacity of testis in Boer goat. Twenty-four healthy, Boer male kids of similar body weight (BW) were selected at 3 months of age from the kid flock. Kids were born from does treated with simultaneous flushing and artificial insemination technology. The Boer kids were divided into four groups randomly, supplemented with 0, 80, 320 and 880 IU kid(-1)d(-1) Vitamin E, which were labeled as Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, for 150 days (5 months). Blood samples were collected at the 15th-, 30th-, 60th-, 90th-, 120th-, and 150th-day during the experimental period, and the serums were used to determine Vitamin E content. Three Boer goats in each group were slaughtered at the age of eight months at the end of the experiment. Liver and testis were collected to test the Vitamin E content and the antioxidant capacity of testis. Results showed that the content of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis increased with the increasing addition of Vitamin E. However, the content of Vitamin E in the serum, liver and testis, in the control, was significantly lower than in Groups 2 and 3, respectively, but there was no significant difference between the control Group and Group 4. When high levels of Vitamin E (880 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) were added, contents of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis were decreased and compared with the controls. Adding a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E can increase activity of total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and decrease content of nitric oxide (NO) in testis. MDA (malondialdehyde) content was decreased significantly in Group 3 (P<0.05). Supplementing a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) and middle level (320 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E decreased activity of nitric oxide syntha (NOS) in testis (P<0.05). Vitamin E can increase activity of GSH-PX (glutathione peroxidase). These results indicate that supplementing

  6. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  7. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  9. Impact of the health and living conditions of migrant and non-migrant Senegalese adolescent girls on their nutritional status and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Denis; Simondon, Kirsten B; Hoarau, Thierry; Benefice, Eric

    2003-09-01

    To describe the living conditions of Senegalese adolescent girls according to their migration status, and to define the main socio-economic and biological determinants of their nutritional and growth status. Health and living conditions, sexual maturation, and nutritional and growth status of adolescent girls were determined within the framework of a longitudinal study on growth. The capital city of Senegal (Dakar) and a rural community (Niakhar), 120 km south-east of Dakar. Three hundred and thirty-one girls, 14.5-16.6 years of age, were recruited from the same villages. Thirty-six per cent of the sample remained in the villages to attend school and/or to help with household subsistence tasks (non-migrants). The remaining (64%) migrated to cities to work as maids (migrants) and lived in two different socio-economic environments: at the home of a guardian during the night and in the house of the employer during the daytime. Family rural environment and guardian and employer urban environments were socio-economically different (P environment was socio-economically more favourable. Migrants had more advanced sexual maturation and higher body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and mid-upper arm circumference than non-migrants. However, migrants were smaller than non-migrants. BMI, FMI and weight-for-age were related to socio-economic levels and duration of migration. Schooling was positively related to height and negatively related to BMI. Migrants enjoyed better living conditions than non-migrants. This could be partly due to the better socio-economic environment of the employer. It was associated with earlier puberty and better nutritional status, but not with a better growth.

  10. Radiation damage to mouse testis cells from [/sup 99m/Tc] pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, T.A.; Suzuki, N.; Glenn, H.J.; Haynie, T.P.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The radiation dose and the biologic damage to mouse testis from intravenously administered [/sup 99m/Tc] pertechnetate were studied. The dose was measured for penetrating radiations from /sup 99m/Tc, using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculations from the uptake of the nuclide in the testis, and was found to be 4.9 rads per mCi of 99 Tc. The biologic damage was measured by the decrease in the number of sperm heads in the testis, counted both by hemacytometer and by Coulter counter. In preliminary experiments using external gamma radiation from 137 Cs, the number of sperm heads reached a minimum 29 days after irradiation. Twenty-nine days after injection of 5.8 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc, which gives 28 rads to the testis, the number of sperm heads decreased to 70% of control. The biologic effect corresponds to that seen after 40 rads of gamma radiation from 137 Cs. The damage to mouse testis cells from internally administered /sup 99m/Tc as measured in an in vivo system appears to be at least as significant as that from external gamma irradiation, if not more so

  11. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  14. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  15. Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Leone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%. Testicular Angiofibroma (AF is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. Case report: A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. Conclusion: We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable.

  16. TGF-β superfamily signaling in testis formation and early male germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Julia C; Wakitani, Shoichi; Loveland, Kate L

    2015-09-01

    The TGF-β ligand superfamily contains at least 40 members, many of which are produced and act within the mammalian testis to facilitate formation of sperm. Their progressive expression at key stages and in specific cell types determines the fertility of adult males, influencing testis development and controlling germline differentiation. BMPs are essential for the interactive instructions between multiple cell types in the early embryo that drive initial specification of gamete precursors. In the nascent foetal testis, several ligands including Nodal, TGF-βs, Activins and BMPs, serve as key masculinizing switches by regulating male germline pluripotency, somatic and germline proliferation, and testicular vascularization and architecture. In postnatal life, local production of these factors determine adult testis size by regulating Sertoli cell multiplication and differentiation, in addition to specifying germline differentiation and multiplication. Because TGF-β superfamily signaling is integral to testis formation, it affects processes that underlie testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer, and its potential to contribute to subfertility is beginning to be understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  18. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  19. Study on changes of sperm count and testis tissue in black mouse after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Seo, Won Sook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa Young [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    For the purpose of the biological effect in black mouse by neutron irradiation, mice were irradiated with 16 or 32 Gy neutron (flux: 1.036739E+09) by lying flat pose at BNCT facility on HANARO Reactors. And 90 days later of irradiation, physical changes of testis and testis tissue were examined. There were no weight changes but a little bit volume changes and sperm counts in the tests. Atrophy of seminiferous tubules irradiated with 32 Gy neutron is increased in number and severity and those in stage VI showed depletion of spermatogonia and pachytene spermatocytes compared to the non-irradiated control group. Testis damage of black mouse was not recovered after long time by 32 Gy neutron irradiation.

  20. Study on changes of sperm count and testis tissue in black mouse after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Seo, Won Sook; Son, Hwa Young

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of the biological effect in black mouse by neutron irradiation, mice were irradiated with 16 or 32 Gy neutron (flux: 1.036739E+09) by lying flat pose at BNCT facility on HANARO Reactors. And 90 days later of irradiation, physical changes of testis and testis tissue were examined. There were no weight changes but a little bit volume changes and sperm counts in the tests. Atrophy of seminiferous tubules irradiated with 32 Gy neutron is increased in number and severity and those in stage VI showed depletion of spermatogonia and pachytene spermatocytes compared to the non-irradiated control group. Testis damage of black mouse was not recovered after long time by 32 Gy neutron irradiation

  1. Stage IE nonHodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a need for a brief aggressive chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, H.; Suc, E.; Pons, A.; Woodman, F.; Huguet-Rigal, F.; Caveriviere, P.; Carton, M.

    1989-01-01

    Primary nonHodgkin's lymphoma of the testis is a localized disease in 50 per cent of the cases. Clinical records and pathological material from 9 stage IE cancer patients treated at our institutions were reviewed. All but 1 patient had B cell type lymphomas of intermediate (6) or high (3) grade according to the Working Formulation. Mean survival was 49 months and actuarial survival was 74 per cent at 5 years. Chemotherapy differed with time and frequently was associated with subdiaphragmatic involved field and prophylactic contralateral testis radiotherapy. In view of the good prognosis of patients receiving doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and recent reports on low stage nonHodgkin's lymphoma we recommend an aggressive brief therapy for stage IE lymphoma of the testis after orchiectomy

  2. The structural and functional state of hemomicrocirculatory bed and parenchyma of the testis in varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testis membranes play a key role in the development of male infertility. Aim. To study the structural features of the bloodstream and testicular parenchyma in terms of varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testis membranes. Meyhods and results. In 23 testicular preparations taken from men of mature age convoluted seminiferous tubules diameter, number of cells of spermatogenic epithelium and interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei volume were studied using macro- and microscopic morphometric methods. It was established that in varicocele testis volume, diameter of convoluted seminiferous tubules and interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei volume significantly reduced. Conclusion. This indicates the presence of circulatory hypoxia of testicles, which leads to a decrease in the volume of interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei by 31%, thereby reducing their functional properties.

  3. Cell-selective determination of trace elements in testis by SR-XRF analysis with nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yoshito; Yukawa, Masae; Ueno, Shunji; Terada, Yasuko

    2005-01-01

    Organotin compounds are widely used in industry and its environmental contamination by these compounds has recently become a concern. It is known that they act as endocrine disruptors but details of the dynamics of Sn in reproductive organs are still unknown. In the present study, we attempted to determine Sn in the testis of rats exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) cell-selectively by synchrotron radiation X-ray florescence analysis with nanoprobe. TBTC was orally administered to rats at a dose of 45 μmol/kg per day for 3 days. One day later, Sn was detected in spermatozoa at the stage VIII seminiferous tubule, which are the final step of spermatogenesis in the testis. Sn levels in the microdissectioned seminiferous tubules determined by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry were approximately equivalent to that in the testis. These data indicate that Sn accumulates in germ cells as well as in spermatozoa in a short period of TBTC exposure. (author)

  4. Genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of mouse testis-specific genes

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    Lee Bernett TK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes are not randomly distributed on a chromosome as they were thought even after removal of tandem repeats. The positional clustering of co-expressed genes is known in prokaryotes and recently reported in several eukaryotic organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. In order to further investigate the mode of tissue-specific gene clustering in higher eukaryotes, we have performed a genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of the mouse testis-specific genes. Results Our computational analysis shows that a large proportion of testis-specific genes are clustered in groups of 2 to 5 genes in the mouse genome. The number of clusters is much higher than expected by chance even after removal of tandem repeats. Conclusion Our result suggests that testis-specific genes tend to cluster on the mouse chromosomes. This provides another piece of evidence for the hypothesis that clusters of tissue-specific genes do exist.

  5. Identification of Hedgehog signaling outcomes in mouse testis development using a hanging drop-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepny, Anette; Hogarth, Cathryn A; Young, Julia; Loveland, Kate L

    2009-02-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway affects fetal testis growth. Recently, we described the dynamic cellular production of Hh signaling pathway components in juvenile and adult rodent testes. The Hh signaling is understood to regulate cord formation in the fetal testis, but minimal knowledge exists regarding how Hh signaling impacts the postnatal testis. To investigate this, we employed hanging drop cultures, which are used routinely in embryoid body formation. This approach has the advantage of using small media volume, and we examined its suitability for short-term culture of both murine embryonic gonads and adult testis tubules. The effects of cyclopamine, a specific Hh signaling inhibitor, were examined following culture of Embryonic Day 11.5 urogenital ridges (as control) and adult seminiferous tubule fragments for 24-48 h using histological, cell proliferation, and gene expression analyses. Cultured embryonic testes displayed generally normal cord structure, anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) expression, and cell proliferation; known Hh target gene expression (Gli1, osteopontin, official symbol Spp1, and Amh) was altered in response to cyclopamine. Cultured adult tubules exhibited some loss of seminiferous epithelium organization over 48 h. Spermatogonia continued to proliferate, however, and no significant loss of viability was noted overall. Addition of cyclopamine significantly affected levels of Gli1, Igfbp6, Ccnd2 (cyclin D2), Ccnb1 (cyclin B1), Spp1, Kit, and Amh mRNAs; these genes have been shown previously to be expressed in Sertoli and germ cells. These novel results identify Hh target genes in the testis and demonstrate this signaling pathway likely affects cell survival and differentiation in the context of normal adult testis.

  6. Follitropin receptors in rat testis. Characterization with enzymatically 125I-labeled human follitropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelslegers, J M; Catt, K J

    1978-07-03

    The interaction between enzymatically radioiodinated human follitropin and the follitropin receptors in testis homogenate was investigated in immature and adult rats. The 125I-labeled human follitropin exhibited high binding activity with specific binding of up to 17% in the presence of an excess of testis homogenate. Approx. 50% of the bound hormone could be eluted at pH 5, and the receptor purified tracer exhibited a 3.6-fold increase in binding activity when compared with the original tracer preparation. Quantitative analysis of equilibrium binding data was performed with corrections for the measured specific activity and maximum binding activity of the tracer hormone. The equilibrium association constants (Ka) determined 24 degrees C were not significantly different in immature and adult rat testis, and the mean value for Ka was 3.9 . 10(9) M-1. At 37 degrees C, the Ka value obtained using immature rat testis was 1.3 . 10(10) M-1. The association of 125I-labeled human follitropin with immature rat testis homogenate was time and temperature dependent. In the presence of an excess of unlabeled hormone, 30--60% of the preformed hormone . receptor complex was dissociated after 24 h incubation. A specific and sensitive radioligand-receptor assay for follitropin was developed using immature rat testis homogenate. The minimum detectable dose of purified human follitropin was 0.6 ng, and human urinary and pituitary follitropin, ovine follitropin and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin reacted in the assay with equivalent slopes. The potencies of highly purified pregnent mare serum gonadotropin and highly purified human follitropin were similar in the radioligand-receptor assay, consistent with the follitropin bioactivity of the equine gonadotropin.

  7. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

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    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  8. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

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    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  9. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

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    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about

  10. Chloroma of the testis in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia

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    Mohammad Hossein Sanei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer, found concomitant with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed along with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid misleading conclusions. We report an interesting case of a 32-year-old male with a clinical history of acute myelogenous leukemia, postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that was found to have chloroma of the right testis.

  11. Chloroma of the testis in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shariati, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer, found concomitant with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed along with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid misleading conclusions. We report an interesting case of a 32-year-old male with a clinical history of acute myelogenous leukemia, postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that was found to have chloroma of the right testis.

  12. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in both children and adolescents representing 40% of such tumours in North America and more than 50% in Africa. The involvement of the paratesticular tissue, testis and the kidney are generally rare and more so when it is occurring synchronously. We present a case of 22 year old male with inguinoscrotal swelling, fever and abdominal distention who was diagnosed as having obstructed left inguinoscrotal hernia and a right renal mass. The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the left testis, paratesticular tissue and right kidney was made by histology and immunohistochemistry.

  13. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...

  14. Endocrine function in patients treated for carcinoma in situ in the testis with irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Daugaard, Gedske; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    CIS is found in the contralateral testis in 5% of the patients with testicular germ cell cancer. The management of CIS in the contralateral testis is important because the majority - if not all - cases of CIS will progress to invasive disease without treatment. It is well documented that testicular...... are sparse. One study has indicated that more radiotherapy with lower doses per fraction could be useful, but more data are needed to confirm this. Endocrine testicular function has been shown to be impaired already before treatment in patients with CIS and is further impaired after testicular irradiation...

  15. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  16. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer testis antigens and NY-BR-1 expression in primary breast cancer: prognostic and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Dimitrios; zur Hausen, Axel; Mayer, Sebastian; Hirschfeld, Marc; Jaeger, Markus; Denschlag, Dominik; Gitsch, Gerald; Jungbluth, Achim; Stickeler, Elmar

    2013-06-03

    Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) comprise a family of proteins, which are physiologically expressed in adult human tissues solely in testicular germ cells and occasionally placenta. However, CTA expression has been reported in various malignancies. CTAs have been identified by their ability to elicit autologous cellular and or serological immune responses, and are considered potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. The breast differentiation antigen NY-BR-1, expressed specifically in normal and malignant breast tissue, has also immunogenic properties. Here we evaluated the expression patterns of CTAs and NY-BR-1 in breast cancer in correlation to clinico-pathological parameters in order to determine their possible impact as prognostic factors. The reactivity pattern of various mAbs (6C1, MA454, M3H67, 57B, E978, GAGE #26 and NY-BR-1 #5) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue micro array series of 210 randomly selected primary invasive breast cancers in order to study the diversity of different CTAs (e.g. MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, GAGE) and NY-BR-1. These expression data were correlated to clinico-pathological parameters and outcome data including disease-free and overall survival. Expression of at least one CTA was detectable in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 37.2% of the cases. NY-BR-1 expression was found in 46.6% of tumors, respectively. Overall, CTA expression seemed to be linked to adverse prognosis and M3H67 immunoreactivity specifically was significantly correlated to shorter overall and disease-free survival (p=0.000 and 0.024, respectively). Our findings suggest that M3H67 immunoreactivity could serve as potential prognostic marker in primary breast cancer patients. The exclusive expression of CTAs in tumor tissues as well as the frequent expression of NY-BR-1 could define new targets for specific breast cancer therapies.

  18. Study on the abnormalities in sperm and gene mutation induced by retention of 147Pm in testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Lun Mingyue; Yang Shuqin

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to ascertain 147 Pm retention in testis and its radiogenotoxicological effects of gene mutation through varying radioactivities of internal exposure. Especially the accumulation of 147 Pm in testis induces the dominant lethal, dominant skeletal mutation and abnormalities in sperm. Studies indicated that the cumulative absorption dose in testis increases as the internal exposure of 147 Pm increases. The internal exposure of 147 Pm can destroy the genetic materials and raise the rates of dominant lethal and dominant mutation of skeletal abnormalities in the offspring. The relationship between the rate of dominant skeletal mutation (B) and accumulated radioactivities of 147 Pm (D) in testis can be described by a linear equation that is B 20.68 + 35.48 D. The relationship between abnormalities of the sperm and the cumulative dose from 147 Pm in testis can be expressed by the following equation: S = 10.8705 D 0.5224 + 3.1768

  19. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  20. Effect of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of knee joint load in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth G; Kean, Crystal O; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and pain in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 30 individuals (mean (SD): age, 61 (7) yr; 15 (50%) male) with radiographic and symptomatic knee OA under three walking conditions in a randomized order: i) wearing rocker-soled shoes (Skechers Shape-ups), ii) wearing non-rocker-soled shoes (ASICS walking shoes), and iii) barefoot. Peak KAM and KAM angular impulse were measured as primary indicators of knee load distribution. Secondary measures included the knee flexion moment (KFM) and knee pain during walking. Peak KAM was significantly lower when wearing the rocker-soled shoes compared with that when wearing the non-rocker-soled shoes (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.27 (-0.42 to -0.12) N·m/BW × Ht%; P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant difference in KAM impulse between rocker-soled and non-rocker-soled shoe conditions (P = 0.13). Both peak KAM and KAM impulse were significantly higher during both shoe conditions compared with those during the barefoot condition (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in KFM (P = 0.36) or knee pain (P = 0.89) between conditions. Rocker-soled shoes significantly reduced peak KAM when compared with non-rocker-soled shoes, without a concomitant change in KFM, and thus may potentially reduce medial knee joint loading. However, KAM parameters in the rocker-soled shoes remained significantly higher than those during barefoot walking. Wearing rocker-soled shoes did not have a significant immediate effect on walking pain. Further research is required to evaluate whether rocker-soled shoes can influence symptoms and progression of knee OA with prolonged wear.

  1. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  2. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testes are extremely rare sites for echinococcosis. To our knowledge only three cases of testicular hydatid disease have been reported so far. In this laboratory animal model, we studied hydatidosis in rabbit testis. Fourteen male albino rabbits (body weight 2.5-3 kg) were randomized into two groups: Group A (study group), ...

  3. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was demonstrable hydatid cyst (protoscoleces and germinative layer) in testes of five rabbits from Group A, but in one rabbit, both testes were normal. In Group B, three out of four rabbits developed peritoneal hydatidosis. The mechanism of testicular resistance to echinococcosis could be due to blood-testis barrier ...

  4. Hydatid cyst of testis: An unusual presentation of hydatid disease - case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldev Singh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hvdatid disease is a parasitic disease usually caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It usually presents with liver involvement and uncommonly lungs and rarely other organs are involved. A rare case of hydatid testis is reported that was provisionally diagnosed as testicular tumor.

  5. Comparison of ex vivo DSP and in vitro MBP Exposures on Fetal Testis Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to di‐butyl phthalate (DBP) during sex differentiation reduces androgen production and produces a characteristic profile of gene expression changes in the fetal testis. The DPB metabolite mono‐butyl phthalate (MBP) is hypothesized to produce these changes by ...

  6. Localization of S-100 proteins in the testis and epididymis of poultry and rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Marei, Hany E. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to demonstrate S-100 protein in the testis and epididymis of adult chickens, Sudani ducks, pigeons, and rabbits. This study may represent the first indication for the presence of S-100 in the male reproductive organs of these species and might therefore serve as a milestone for further reports. In the testis of chickens, pigeons and rabbits, intense S-100 was seen in Sertoli cells. S-100 was also seen in the endothelial lining of blood vessels in rabbit testis. On the contrary, no S-100 reaction was detected in the Sertoli cells of Sudani ducks. In epididymis, the localization of S-100 had varied according to species studied; it was seen in the basal cells (BC) of epididymal duct in duck, non-ciliated cells of the distal efferent ductules in pigeons and ciliated cells of the efferent ductules and BC of rabbit epididymis. Conversely, S-100 specific staining was not detected in the epithelial lining of the rooster and pigeon epididymal duct as well as the principal cells of the rabbit epididymis. In conclusion, the distribution of the S-100 proteins in the testis and epididymis might point out to its roles in the male reproduction. PMID:25276477

  7. Two lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in mouse testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Kirkeby, S; Bøg-Hansen, T C

    1997-01-01

    Three glycoforms of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were biotinylated to examine their binding in mouse testis by light microscopy. The transition from one stage to another in the spermatogenic cycle is marked with an appearance of a receptor for the Concanavalin A (Con A) non-reactive glycoform...

  8. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ALTERS DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE TESTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ALTERS DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE TESTIS. D.K. Tarka*1,2, J.D. Suarez*2, N.L. Roberts*2, J.M. Rogers*1,2, M.P. Hardy3, and G.R. Klinefelter1,2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC; 2USEPA,...

  9. Embryonic stem cell-like cells derived from adult human testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizrak, S. C.; Chikhovskaya, J. V.; Sadri-Ardekani, H.; van Daalen, S.; Korver, C. M.; Hovingh, S. E.; Roepers-Gajadien, H. L.; Raya, A.; Fluiter, K.; de Reijke, Th M.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.; Knegt, A. C.; Belmonte, J. C.; van der Veen, F.; de rooij, D. G.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the significant drawbacks of using human embryonic stem (hES) cells for regenerative medicine, the search for alternative sources of multipotent cells is ongoing. Studies in mice have shown that multipotent ES-like cells can be derived from neonatal and adult testis. Here we report the

  10. An original procedure for balanus repair with transposition of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kurbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the unique clinical experience of successful sexual rehabilitation of a patient who has undergone penile amputation for cancer. Complex reconstruction of all parts of the lost organ, by using known methods and those proposed for the first time in global practice (balanus repair with transposition of the testis, was performed in the patient.

  11. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  12. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  14. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05 for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05 for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075, 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424, and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336 respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  15. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... valuable component of its deliberations in preparing to implement this law, which includes contracting with... Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES...

  16. Growth performances of juvenile sole Solea solea under environmental constraints of embayed nursery areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffargue, P.; Lagardere, F.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Fillon, A.; Amara, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tidal embayments in the Bay of Biscay (France) host nursery grounds where common sole, Solea solea, is the most abundant flatfish species. This study aimed to appraise the way those habitats function as nurseries through juvenile sole's responses in somatic growth and condition (Fulton's K) during

  17. 78 FR 51061 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 32 CFR Part 199 [DoD-2010-HA-0072] RIN 0720-AB41 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals; Correction... TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access...

  18. Variation in behaviour and growth of common sole : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas Muñoz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Common sole (Solea solea) has a high potential for commercial aquaculture because of its consumer popularity and high market values in Europe. However, a major economic constraint for the culture of sole is its slow and variable growth. The aim of this thesis was to investigate: 1) the

  19. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  20. Effects of estradiol and FSH on maturation of the testis in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayhew Terry M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypogonadal (hpg mouse is widely used as an animal model with which to investigate the endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis. Chronic treatment of these GnRH-deficient mice with estradiol is known to induce testicular maturation and restore qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. The aim of the current studies was to investigate whether these effects of estradiol are direct effects in the testis, or indirect actions via paradoxical stimulation of FSH secretion from the pituitary gland. Methods Initially, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse tissues from hpg mice to identify potential sites of action of estradiol. In the main study, hpg mice were treated for 50 days with either an estradiol implant or daily injections of recombinant human FSH, or a combination of both, to determine whether estradiol would have an additive or synergistic effect with FSH on testis development, as assessed by histological analysis and stereological quantification of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cell proliferation. Results Western blot analysis revealed ERα immunoreactive bands of appropriate molecular weight in extracts of testis and pituitary glands from hpg mice, and immunohistochemical studies confirmed ERα in nuclei of anterior pituitary cells and Leydig and peritubular cells in hpg mice. Histological and morphometric analyses revealed that estradiol treatment alone was as effective as FSH in promoting Sertoli cell production and proliferation of the seminiferous epithelium, resulting in the production of elongating spermatids. Combined estradiol and FSH treatment did not produce a greater effect than either treatment alone, though an increased dose of FSH significantly increased seminiferous tubule volume and testis weight and increase Sertoli cell numbers further within the same time frame. In contrast, estradiol caused substantial increases in the wet weight of the seminal vesicles, whereas FSH was without effect on

  1. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...... frequent human cancers, with the purpose of providing novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. We used a set of previously uncharacterized antibodies against the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 to investigate their expression in a large panel of normal tissues as well as breast and lung...... cancers. Staining for the well-characterized MAGE-A proteins was included for comparison. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed previous mRNA analysis demonstrating that ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 proteins are confined to testis in normal individuals. Negative tissues included plancenta, which express many...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource.Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165.This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance with the testis morphology during these phases. This study will pave

  3. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers......, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis...... and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further...

  4. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Bera, Tapan K.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2γC, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2γC and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis

  5. STEREOLOGICAL QUANTITATION OF LEYDIG AND SERTOLI CELLS IN THE TESTIS FROM YOUNG AND OLD MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Petersen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the newer stereological methods, the optical fractionator, was applied to the study of the effects of ageing on the human testis. The estimated total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells per testis in men younger than 30 years were 430×106 (CV = SD/mean = 0.35 and 117×106 (CV = 0.53, respectively, while in men older than 50 years the estimated total Sertoli cell number was 266×106 (CV = 0.46 and the mean Leydig cell number 83×106 (CV = 0.53. The difference between the number of Sertoli cells in men younger than 30 years compared with men older than 50 years was close to statistical significance (p = 0.052 while no differences was found in total Leydig cell number (p = 0.22.

  6. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  7. A case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Herbert; Popper, Helmut; Pummer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to the left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis. A 77-year old male patient underwent a left hemicolectomy for a descending colon cancer. He was referred to our department because of swelling and pain of the left scrotum two years and six months after surgery. High left orchiectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed a metastasis of the colon carcinoma within the spermatic cord and epididymis approaching the testicle. Reports on metastatic cancer of the testis are scarce, because this metastatic cancer is extremely rare. In general, testicular pain is rare in the elderly. We suggest that any elder presenting with testicular pain deserves a complete clinical and diagnostic evaluation. PMID:24578939

  8. Purification of β-acetylglucosaminase and β-galactosidase from ram testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J. C.; Roston, Christine P. J.; Jevons, F. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. The presence of β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of β-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of β-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the β-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the β-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated. PMID:5949569

  9. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  10. Impaired testicular function in patients with carcinoma-in-situ of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Giwercman, A; Hansen, S W

    1999-01-01

    for testicular cancer. Biopsy of the contralateral testis had showed CIS in a group of 24 patients and no evidence of CIS in the other group of 30 patients. Semen quality and serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were compared in these two groups of men...... after orchidectomy but before further treatment for testicular cancer. RESULTS: Significantly higher LH levels (median, 8.1 IU/L v 4.8 IU/L; P ...PURPOSE: To elucidate the biologic association between germ cell neoplasia and testicular dysfunction, through investigation of Leydig cell function and semen quality in men with carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) of the testis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined two groups of men, unilaterally orchidectomized...

  11. [Epidermoid cyst of the testis difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis on the echoic examination: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Honda, Masahito; Fujioka, Hideki

    2003-04-01

    A case of epidermoid cyst of the testis is presented. The patient was a 64-year-old man who complained of a painless mass in the left scrotum. Physical examination revealed a hen-egg sized enlargement of the left scrotal contents. The ultrasonographic appearance did not show a hyperechoic partition, which is called echogenic rim, a characteristic of this tumor on the echoic examination, and was homogeneous, almost similar to that of a normal testis. Because malignant testicular tumors could not be excluded preoperatively, excisional biopsy of the left testis was performed first. Histological diagnosis was an epidermoid cyst of the testis. As the left testis was almost completely occupied by the tumor and no normal testicular tissue was recognized, we performed orchiectomy additionally. Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign tumor that accounts for about 1 percent of all testicular tumors. It clinically resembles malignant testicular tumors, and orchiectomy is often performed for treatment. About 154 cases of testicular epidermoid cyst have been reported in the Japanese literature and are reviewed briefly here.

  12. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuanchun [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Jiang, Haowen [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Zhou, Wenbai; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Yang, Zhihong [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Yong [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Bin [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Xiang [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Ding, Qiang, E-mail: dingqiangd@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: renminghu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2010-03-26

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  13. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuanchun; Jiang, Haowen; Zhou, Wenbai; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Yang, Zhihong; Lu, Yong; Lu, Bin; Wang, Xiang; Ding, Qiang; Hu, Renming

    2010-01-01

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  14. Antibacterial and antiviral roles of a fish β-defensin expressed both in pituitary and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yan Jin

    Full Text Available Defensins are a group of cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized a β-defensin from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides. Interestingly, the β-defensin was shown to be dominantly expressed in pituitary and testis by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and its transcript level is significantly upregulated in reproduction organs from intersexual gonad to testis during the natural and artificial sex reversal. Promoter sequence and the responsible activity region analyses revealed the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site and testis-specific SRY responsible site, and demonstrated that the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site that locates between -180 and -208 bp is the major responsible region of grouper β-defensin promoter activity. Immunofluorescence localization observed its pituicyte expression in pituitary and spermatogonic cell expression in testis. Moreover, both in vitro antibacterial activity assay of the recombinant β-defensin and in vivo embryo microinjection of the β-defensin mRNA were shown to be effective in killing gram-negative bacteria. And, its antiviral role was also demonstrated in EPC cells transfected with the β-defensin construct. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was sensitive to concentrations of Na(+, K(+, Ca(2+ and Mg(2+. The above intriguing findings strongly suggest that the fish β-defensin might play significant roles in both innate immunity defense and reproduction endocrine regulation.

  15. Antibacterial and antiviral roles of a fish β-defensin expressed both in pituitary and testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Jiu-Gang; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2010-12-20

    Defensins are a group of cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized a β-defensin from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Interestingly, the β-defensin was shown to be dominantly expressed in pituitary and testis by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and its transcript level is significantly upregulated in reproduction organs from intersexual gonad to testis during the natural and artificial sex reversal. Promoter sequence and the responsible activity region analyses revealed the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site and testis-specific SRY responsible site, and demonstrated that the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site that locates between -180 and -208 bp is the major responsible region of grouper β-defensin promoter activity. Immunofluorescence localization observed its pituicyte expression in pituitary and spermatogonic cell expression in testis. Moreover, both in vitro antibacterial activity assay of the recombinant β-defensin and in vivo embryo microinjection of the β-defensin mRNA were shown to be effective in killing gram-negative bacteria. And, its antiviral role was also demonstrated in EPC cells transfected with the β-defensin construct. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was sensitive to concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The above intriguing findings strongly suggest that the fish β-defensin might play significant roles in both innate immunity defense and reproduction endocrine regulation.

  16. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of primary vaginal hydrocoele of testis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Anwar, W.

    2008-01-01

    Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis is a common condition which is primarily treated surgically. Many patients with Hydrocoele of testis are either not willing or are unfit for surgery. This study was done to know the safety, efficacy and out come of tetracycline induced sclerotherapy of Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults. This quasi experimental study was done in Shahina Jamil Hospital, attached with Frontier Medical College and Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from March 2006 to April, 2007. Thirty-seven patients with primary vaginal hydrocoele were included in the study. Aspiration and instillation of Tetracycline was done after spermatic cord block with 2% lignocaine. Procedure time, Peri and Post-procedure complications, number of injections for cure and patients satisfaction with the procedure were recorded. Patients were discharged home 3 to 4 hours after the procedure and followed up after one week, one month, three months and six months. Direct admission and re-admissions were recorded. The mean age of patients was 47 years. Mean procedure time was 45 minutes. All patients were cured. Mild postoprocedure pain occurred in 12 (40%), moderate pain in 14 (46%) patients and severe pain in 4 (13.3%) patients. No patient developed haematoma or local infection. One patient (3.3%) had micturition problem. Two (6.6%) patients had minimal recurrence. One injection was sufficient for cure in all patients, 28 (93%) patients were satisfied while 2 (6.6%) patients were not satisfied with this procedure. No patient was admitted in the hospital after the procedure. Aspiration and injection of tetracycline in Primary vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults is safe, effective and very economical procedure. (author)

  18. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of primary vaginal hydrocoele of testis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Johar; Anwar, Waqas; Akbar, Mohammad; Akbar, Syed Ali; Zafar, Arshad

    2008-01-01

    Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis is a common condition which is primarily treated surgically. Many patients with Hydrocoele of testis are either not willing or are unfit for surgery. This study was done to know the safety, efficacy and out come of tetracycline induced sclerotherapy of Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults. This quasi experimental study was done in Shahina Jamil Hospital, attached with Frontier Medical College and Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from March 2006 to April, 2007. Thirty-seven patients with primary vaginal hydrocoele were included in the study. Aspiration and instillation of Tetracycline was done after spermatic cord block with 2% lignocaine. Procedure time, Peri and Post-procedure complications, number of injections for cure and patients' satisfaction with the procedure were recorded. Patients were discharged home 3 to 4 hours after the procedure and followed up after one week, one month, three months and six months. Direct admission and re-admissions were recorded. The mean age of patients was 47 years. Mean procedure time was 45 minutes. All patients were cured. Mild postoprocedure pain occurred in 12 (40%), moderate pain in 14 (46%) patients and severe pain in 4 (13.3%) patients. No patient developed haematoma or local infection. One patient (3.3%) had micturition problem. Two (6.6%) patients had minimal recurrence. One injection was sufficient for cure in all patients. 28 (93%) patients were satisfied while 2 (6.6%) patients were not satisfied with this procedure. No patient was admitted in the hospital after the procedure. Aspiration and injection of tetracycline in Primary vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults is safe, effective and very economical procedure.

  19. Morphology of the Interstitial Tissue of Active and Resting Testis of the Guinea Fowl

    OpenAIRE

    Dharani, Palanisamy; Kumary, S. Usha; Sundaram, Venkatesan; Joseph, Cecilia; Ramesh, Geetha

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY: The morphology of the interstitial tissue of sexually active and resting testis of the guinea fowl were studied. Six adult health birds of active and resting phases of reproductive cycle were used for this study. The interstitial tissue consisted of loose connective tissue, interstitial cells (Leydig cells), few connective cells, blood vessels and adrenergic nerve fibres in the present study in both active and resting testes. The interstitial tissue was compact in sexually active tes...

  20. Congenital juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Talini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT is a very rarely diagnosed benign tumor, accounting for 1.2% of all prepubertal testicular tumors. A full-term healthy neonate was diagnosed with a painless left scrotal mass. During evaluation it was identified to have about two times the volume of the contralateral testis, presenting a firm consistency, not as hard as the consistency of a prenatal testicular torsion. Doppler ultrasound detected a multicystic left testicular mass, with normal blood flow, but failed in detecting normal-appearing testis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were normal. Inguinal approach was performed, section of the lesion was sent to frozen biopsy and excluded yolk sac tumor, and however the impossibility of detecting normal testis tissue indicated orchiectomy with high ligation of the spermatic cord. Histological evaluation demonstrated gray testicular parenchyma with multicystic aspect fulfilled with yellow fluid. The usual clinical presentation of JGCT is a painless scrotal mass, radiological imaging demonstrates a multicystic tumor. Tumoral markers levels are normal and the standard treatment is the inguinal orchiectomy.

  1. Intravaginal testicular torsion in newborns. To fix or not to fix the contralateral testis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal swelling suggesting testicular torsion is a rare urological emergency which requires a clinical urgent evaluation and most of the times must be managed surgically. In newborns it can occur in the postnatal period, usually within the twenty-eighth day of life, or more frequently in utero, during the descent of the testis into the scrotum. Usually its poor fixedness allows the testis an abnormal mobility inside the scrotum, configuring the framework of extravaginal torsion. On the contrary during the perinatal period a twist that takes place inside the tunica vaginalis, known as intravaginal torsion, is extremely uncommon and only few cases are well documented in the literature. Authors present a rare case of intravaginal testicular torsion occurred in perinatal period. In this situation only the early surgical exploration of the scrotum may allow the rescue of the gonad, although in rare cases. Timing of surgical treatment and need for contralateral testicular fixation remain controversial. However since the anatomical defect of the tunica vaginalis can be bilateral the surgical fixation even of the contralateral testis is important, now or later, in order to prevent any future torsion of this gonad. The authors also present a brief review of recent literature on the subject.

  2. Radiation genetic injury and metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine in testis of young and adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Lun; Shoupeng, Zhu

    1990-04-01

    The radiogenetoxicological effects on the adult testis and the metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine between the testis of young and adult BALB/C mice were studied. When 0.037 MBq/g.b.w. of tritiated thymidine was given i.v. to mice, the initial burden of tritium in the adult was larger than that of tritium in the young. But the retention of tritium in testis of the young gradually become larger than that of tritium in the adult with the passing time. Tritiated thymidine which was incorporated into DNA of the male germ cell nuclei damaged the genetic materials and caused the rising of the rates of the dominant lethal and the dominant mutation which produced skeletal abnomalities in the offspring. The relationship between the dominant lethal mutation index (Y) and the injected activity of tritiated thymidine (I, MBq/g.b.w.) is described by Y = 74.13 + 80.20 I (r = 0.95). The relationship between the incidence of the dominant skeletal mutation in the offspring (B) and the injected activity is B = 0.16 + 0.079 I ( r = 0.85).

  3. Radiation genetic injury and metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine in testis of young and adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun Mingyue; Zhu Shoupeng.

    1990-01-01

    The radiogenetoxicological effects on the adult testis and the metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine between the testis of young and adult BALB/C mice were studied. When 0.037 MBq/g.b.w. of tritiated thymidine was given i.v. to mice, the initial burden of tritium in the adult was larger than that of tritium in the young. But the retention of tritium in testis of the young gradually become larger than that of tritium in the adult with the passing time. Tritiated thymidine which was incorporated into DNA of the male germ cell nuclei damaged the genetic materials and caused the rising of the rates of the dominant lethal and the dominant mutation which produced skeletal abnomalities in the offspring. The relationship between the dominant lethal mutation index (Y) and the injected activity of tritiated thymidine (I, MBq/g.b.w.) is described by Y = 74.13 + 80.20 I (r = 0.95). The relationship between the incidence of the dominant skeletal mutation in the offspring (B) and the injected activity is B = 0.16 + 0.079 I ( r = 0.85)

  4. Protective effects of vitamin E on cyclosporineA-induced toxicity in rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Sameni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclosporine A (CsA as an immunosuppressive drug which widely used in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases. This drug is caused many injuries and cell cytotoxic of the body organs such as reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of vitamin E (Vit E against CsA-induced damages in rat testis. Material and Methods: 40 adult male wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (without any intervention, placebo (received only pure olive oil, test 1 (CsA+olive oil, 30 mg/kg, test 2 (Vit E, 100 mg/kg and test 3 (CsA+Vit E, with the same dose. All animal received drugs for three weeks daily by oral gavages. Following, the testis were fixed and sections stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Trichrome Masson. Then with using a microscope equipped with a scaled ocular micrometer and image analysis software were histomorphometry. Results: This study showed that CsA caused severe degenerative changes in testicular tissue include decreased seminiferous tubules diameter, seminiferous epithelium thickness. Also, the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatozoa, and sertoli and leydig cells significantly decreased throughout the experiment. These changes are lead to turbulence and atrophy seminiferous epithelium and delay in spermatogenesis. Treatment with vitamin E minimized the adverse effects of CsA on testis structure and spermatogenesis. Conclusion: These results suggest that vitamin E has a protective effect against CsA-induced testicular toxicity in male rat.

  5. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  6. A single-dose live-attenuated vaccine prevents Zika virus pregnancy transmission and testis damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chao; Muruato, Antonio E; Jagger, Brett W; Richner, Justin; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Xie, Xuping; Nunes, Jannyce G C; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pierson, Theodore C; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Rossi, Shannan L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Graham, Barney S; Diamond, Michael S; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-09-22

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital abnormities or fetal demise. The persistence of Zika virus in the male reproductive system poses a risk of sexual transmission. Here we demonstrate that live-attenuated Zika virus vaccine candidates containing deletions in the 3' untranslated region of the Zika virus genome (ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV) prevent viral transmission during pregnancy and testis damage in mice, as well as infection of nonhuman primates. After a single-dose vaccination, pregnant mice challenged with Zika virus at embryonic day 6 and evaluated at embryonic day 13 show markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues. Vaccinated male mice challenged with Zika virus were protected against testis infection, injury, and oligospermia. A single immunization of rhesus macaques elicited a rapid and robust antibody response, conferring complete protection upon challenge. Furthermore, the ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV vaccine candidates have a desirable safety profile. These results suggest that further development of ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV is warranted for humans.Zika virus infection can result in congenital disorders and cause disease in adults, and there is currently no approved vaccine. Here Shan et al. show that a single dose of a live-attenuated Zika vaccine prevents infection, testis damage and transmission to the fetus during pregnancy in different animal models.

  7. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low androstenone boars. The study allows identification of genes and pathways associated with elevated androstenone levels, which is essential for recognising potential molecular markers for breeding purposes. Results: Testicular tissue was collected from 60 boars, 30 with extreme high and 30 with extreme low levels of androstenone, from each of the two breeds Duroc and Norwegian Landrace. The samples were hybridised to porcine arrays containing 26,877 cDNA clones, detecting 563 and 160 genes that were differentially expressed (p Conclusion: This study contributes to the understanding of the complex genetic system controlling and responding to androstenone levels in pig testis. The identification of new pathways and genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of androstenone is an important first step towards finding molecular markers to reduce boar taint.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of Novel Testis-Specific Diacylglycerol Kinase η Splice Variants 3 and 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Murakami

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK phosphorylates DG to generate phosphatidic acid. Recently, we found that a new alternative splicing product of the DGKη gene, DGKη3, which lacks exon 26 encoding 31 amino acid residues, was expressed only in the secondary spermatocytes and round spermatids of the testis. In this study, we cloned the full length DGKη3 gene and confirmed the endogenous expression of its protein product. During the cloning procedure, we found a new testis-specific alternative splicing product of the DGKη gene, DGKη4, which lacks half of the catalytic domain. We examined the DGK activity and subcellular localization of DGKη3 and η4. DGKη3 had almost the same activity as DGKη1, whereas the activity of DGKη4 was not detectable. In resting NEC8 cells (human testicular germ cell tumor cell line, DGKη1, η3 and η4 were broadly distributed in the cytoplasm. When osmotically shocked, DGKη1 and η4 were distributed in punctate vesicles in the cytoplasm. In contrast, DGKη3 was partly translocated to the plasma membrane and co-localized with the actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that DGKη3 and η4 have properties different from those of DGKη1 and that they play roles in the testis in a different manner.

  9. The roles of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in the mammalian testis and immunoprivileged sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tingting; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Han, Daishu

    2016-01-01

    Three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase family, including Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, are collectively called as TAM receptors. TAM receptors have two common ligands, namely, growth arrest specific gene 6 (Gas6) and protein S (ProS). The TAM-Gas6/ProS system is essential for phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, and plays critical roles in regulating immune response. Genetic studies have shown that TAM receptors are essential regulators of the tissue homeostasis in immunoprivileged sites, including the testis, retina and brain. The mechanisms by which the TAM-Gas6/ProS system regulates the tissue homeostasis in immunoprivileged sites are emerging. The roles of the TAM-Gas6/ProS system in regulating the immune privilege were intensively investigated in the mouse testis, and several studies were performed in the eye and brain. This review summarizes our current understanding of TAM signaling in the testis and other immunoprivileged tissues, as well as highlights topics that are worthy of further investigation.

  10. Tudor Domain Containing Protein TDRD12 Expresses at the Acrosome of Spermatids in Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tdrd12 is one of tudor domain containing (Tdrd family members. However, the expression pattern of Tdrd12 has not been well studied. To compare the expression levels of Tdrd12 in various tissues, real time-polymerase chain reaction was performed using total RNAs from liver, small intestine, heart, brain, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, uterus, ovary, and testis. Tdrd12 mRNA was highly expressed in testis. Antibody against mouse TDRD12 were generated using amino acid residues SQRPNEKPLRLTEKKDC of TDRD12 to investigate TDRD12 localization in testis. Immunostaining assay shows that TDRD12 is mainly localized at the spermatid in the seminiferous tubules of adult testes. During postnatal development, TDRD12 is differentially expressed. TDRD12 was detected in early spermatocytes at 2 weeks and TDRD12 was localized at acrosome of the round spermatids. TDRD12 expression was not co-localized with TDRD1 which is an important component of piRNA pathway in germ cells. Our results indicate that TDRD12 may play an important role in spermatids and function as a regulator of spermatogenesis in dependent of TDRD1.

  11. Acetylation-Dependent Chromatin Reorganization by BRDT, a Testis-Specific Bromodomain-Containing Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot-Pajot, Christophe; Caron, Cécile; Govin, Jérôme; Vion, Alexandre; Rousseaux, Sophie; Khochbin, Saadi

    2003-01-01

    The association between histone acetylation and replacement observed during spermatogenesis prompted us to consider the testis as a source for potential factors capable of remodelling acetylated chromatin. A systematic search of data banks for open reading frames encoding testis-specific bromodomain-containing proteins focused our attention on BRDT, a testis-specific protein of unknown function containing two bromodomains. BRDT specifically binds hyperacetylated histone H4 tail depending on the integrity of both bromodomains. Moreover, in somatic cells, the ectopic expression of BRDT triggered a dramatic reorganization of the chromatin only after induction of histone hyperacetylation by trichostatin A (TSA). We then defined critical domains of BRDT involved in its activity. Both bromodomains of BRDT, as well as flanking regions, were found indispensable for its histone acetylation-dependent remodelling activity. Interestingly, we also observed that recombinant BRDT was capable of inducing reorganization of the chromatin of isolated nuclei in vitro only when the nuclei were from TSA-treated cells. This assay also allowed us to show that the action of BRDT was ATP independent, suggesting a structural role for the protein in the remodelling of acetylated chromatin. This is the first demonstration of a large-scale reorganization of acetylated chromatin induced by a specific factor. PMID:12861021

  12. Expression dynamics of self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mizuki; Masaki, Kaito; Aiba, Shota; Tone, Masaaki; Takashima, Seiji

    2018-04-16

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are bona fide self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Although GDNF is indispensable for the maintenance of SSCs, the role of FGF2 in the testis remains to be elucidated. To clarify this, the expression dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of Fgf2 and Gdnf in the mouse testes were analyzed. It is well known that Sertoli cells express Gdnf, and its receptor is expressed in a subset of undifferentiated spermatogonia, including SSCs. However, we found that Fgf2 was mainly expressed in the germ cells and its receptors were expressed not only in the cultured spermatogonial cell line, but also in testicular somatic cells. Aging, hypophysectomy, retinoic acid treatment, and testicular injury induced distinct Fgf2 and Gdnf expression dynamics, suggesting a difference in the expression mechanism of Fgf2 and Gdnf in the testis. Such differences might cause a dynamic fluctuation of Gdnf/Fgf2 ratio depending on the intrinsic/extrinsic cues. Considering that FGF2-cultured spermatogonia exhibit more differentiated phenotype than those cultured with GDNF, FGF2 might play a role distinct from that of GDNF in the testis, despite the fact that both factors are self-renewal factor for SSC in vitro.

  13. Hyperthyroidism in the developing rat testis is associated with oxidative stress and hyperphosphorylated vimentin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamoner, Ariane; Barreto, Kátia Padilha; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Sell, Fabíola; Woehl, Viviane Mara; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2007-03-15

    Hyperthyroidism was induced in rats and somatic indices and metabolic parameters were analyzed in testis. In addition, the morphological analysis evidenced testes maturation and intense protein synthesis and processing, supporting the enhancement in vimentin synthesis in hyperthyroid testis. Furthermore, vimentin phosphorylation was increased, indicating an accumulation of phosphorylated vimentin associated to the cytoskeleton, which could be a consequence of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activation regulating the cytoskeleton. Biomarkers of oxidative stress demonstrated an increased basal metabolic rate measured by tissue oxygen consumption, as well as, increased TBARS levels. In addition, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defences appeared to respond according to the augmented oxygen consumption. We observed decreased total glutathione levels, with enhancement of reduced glutathione, whereas most of the antioxidant enzyme activities were induced. Otherwise, superoxide dismutase activity was inhibited. These results support the idea that an increase in mitochondrial ROS generation, underlying cellular oxidative damage, is a side effect of hyperthyroid-induced biochemical changes by which rat testis increase their metabolic capacity.

  14. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb ... Biological, and Social Sciences Research, 2nd Edition. Optimal Publ.

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from northern rock sole

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth data from archival tags on northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were examined to assess whether fish used tidal currents to aid horizontal migration....

  16. Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material in periodontal intrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Chang

    2011-09-01

    Conclusions: From a clinical and radiologic point of view at 6 months after surgery, the use of PRF as the sole grafting material seems to be an effective modality of regenerative treatment for periodontal intrabony defects.

  17. 31 CFR 353.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEFINITIVE... of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e., without a coowner or...

  18. 31 CFR 315.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS... § 315.36 Payment during life of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e...

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuki Tateno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.

  20. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  1. Simulating the Behavioural Effects of Welfare Reforms among Sole Parents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Duncan; Mark N. Harris

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives and estimates an econometric model of labour supply among sole parents in Australia, using modelling techniques which treat the labour supply decision as a utility maximising choice between a given number of discrete states. In estimation, we control for random preference heterogeneity as well as Þxed and search costs. Using our econometric model, we look at the e.ects of actual and hypothetical welfare policy reforms on the employment choices of sole parents in Australia. ...

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  3. ALGORITHMS FOR THE PROGRAMMING OF FOOTWEAR SOLES MOULDS ON WORKING POSTS OF INJECTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain

  4. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  5. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  6. A testis-specific and testis developmentally regulated tumor protein D52 (TPD52)-like protein TPD52L3/hD55 interacts with TPD52 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qinhong; Chen Jie; Zhu Li; Liu Yun; Zhou Zuomin; Sha Jiahao; Wang Shui; Li Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Tumor protein D52-like proteins (TPD52) are small coiled-coil motif bearing proteins that were first identified in breast cancer. TPD52 and related proteins have been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. To date, three human TPD52 members had been identified, named hD52 (TPD52), hD53 (TPD52L1), and hD54 (TPD52L2). The most important characteristic of the protein family is a highly conserved coiled-coil motif that is required for homo- and heteromeric interaction with other TPD52-like proteins. Herein, we identified a novel TPD52-like sequence (TPD52L3, or hD55) in human testis using cDNA microarray. Sequence analysis of the deduced protein suggests that hD55 contains a coiled-coil motif and is highly conserved compared with other TPD52-like sequences. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays revealed that hD55 interacts with hD52, hD53, hD54, and itself. cDNA microarray detection found that hD55 was expressed at 5.6-fold higher levels in adult testis than in fetal testis. Additionally, the expression profile shows that hD55 is testis-specific, indicating a potential role for hD55 in testis development and spermatogenesis

  7. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  8. Seasonal incidence of lameness and risk factors associated with thin soles, white line disease, ulcers, and sole punctures in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A H; Shearer, J K; De Vries, A

    2009-07-01

    Lameness is a multifactorial condition with many causes. In this study, cow lifetime records were used to quantify the incidence of specific lameness-causing lesions and investigate factors associated with those lesions. Of primary interest were the effects of seasonality and the effects of thin soles (TS). Thin sole-induced toe ulcers (TSTU) occurring adjacent to the white line in the apical portion of the weight-bearing surface were distinguished from white line disease (WLD) occurring in the region of the abaxial heel sole junction. Sole (SU), heel (HU), and toe (TU) ulcers; TS; sole punctures (SP); leg injuries (INJ); and other (OTH) lesions (e.g., infectious diseases, laminitis, unclassified hemorrhage) were also considered. Data were collected from May 2004 through October 2007 and included records for 4,915 cows of which 1,861 had at least one recorded lameness event. Of these, 20% were TSTU, 20% OTH, 16% SU, 13% TS, 10% WLD, 8% HU, 6% INJ, 4% SP, and 2% TU. Annual incidence risk for lameness was 49.1%. Overall incidence rate for lameness was 1.41/1,000 cow-days, and rates for all lesions were highest in the summer. As parity increased, so did incidence rates for TS, SU, WLD, HU, and INJ. For TS, TSTU, and WLD, incidence rates were lowest in early lactation (16 to 60 DIM), whereas for SU, HU, TU, incidence rates were highest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM). Cox proportional hazard models for TS, TSTU, WLD, SU, HU, TU, and SP included age and year of first calving and milk production capacity. Prior/concurrent lameness events, season, parity, and stage of lactation were included as time-dependent effects. Prior/concurrent TS increased the hazard for all other lesions, particularly TSTU, and HU. Having any other prior claw lesion also increased the hazard for all lesions. Hazard was highest in summer for all lesions except TU. Stage of lactation was a significant effect in hazard of TSTU, which was lowest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM).

  9. Study on the abnormalities in sperm and gene mutation induced by retention of {sup 147}Pm in testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Mingyue, Lun; Shuqin, Yang [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to ascertain {sup 147}Pm retention in testis and its radiogenotoxicological effects of gene mutation through varying radioactivities of internal exposure. Especially the accumulation of {sup 147}Pm in testis induces the dominant lethal, dominant skeletal mutation and abnormalities in sperm. Studies indicated that the cumulative absorption dose in testis increases as the internal exposure of {sup 147}Pm increases. The internal exposure of {sup 147}Pm can destroy the genetic materials and raise the rates of dominant lethal and dominant mutation of skeletal abnormalities in the offspring. The relationship between the rate of dominant skeletal mutation (B) and accumulated radioactivities of {sup 147}Pm (D) in testis can be described by a linear equation that is B 20.68 + 35.48 D. The relationship between abnormalities of the sperm and the cumulative dose from {sup 147}Pm in testis can be expressed by the following equation: S = 10.8705 D{sup 0.5224} + 3.1768.

  10. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  11. Mechanisms of the Testis Toxicity Induced by Chronic Exposure to Mequindox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China since the 1980s. Although the toxicity of MEQ is well recognized, its testis toxicity has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and spermatogenesis deficiency in mice after exposure to MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg in the diet for up to 18 months. The genotoxicity and adrenal toxicity may contribute to sperm abnormalities caused by MEQ. Moreover, using LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, two metabolites, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4 and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8, were detected in the serum of mice, which directly confirms the relationship between the N→O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and oxidative stress. Interestingly, only M4 was detected in the testes, suggesting that the higher reproductive toxicity of M4 than M8 might be due to the increased stability of M4-radical (M4-R compared to M8-radical (M8-R. Furthermore, the expression of the blood-testis barrier (BTB-associated junctions such as tight junctions, gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations were also examined. The present study demonstrated for the first time the role of the M4 in testis toxicity, and illustrated that the oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and interference in spermatogenesis, as well as the altered expression of BTB related junctions, were involved in the reproductive toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo.

  12. White tea intake prevents prediabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in testis and epididymis preserving sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Rato, Luís; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-11-01

    Prediabetes has been associated with alterations in male reproductive tract, especially in testis and epididymis. Moreover, in vitro studies described a promising action of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) against metabolic dysfunctions. Herein, we hypothesized that white tea (WTEA) ingestion by prediabetic animals could ameliorate the metabolic alterations induced by the disease in testicular and epididymal tissues, preserving sperm quality. WTEA infusion was prepared and its phytochemical profile was evaluated by 1 H-NMR. A streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rat model was developed and three experimental groups were defined: control, prediabetic (PreDM) and prediabetic drinking WTEA (PreDM+WTEA). Metabolic profiles of testis and epididymis were evaluated by determining the metabolites content ( 1 H-NMR), protein levels (western blot) and enzymatic activities of key metabolic intervenient. The quality of spermatozoa from cauda epididymis was also assessed. Prediabetes increased glucose transporter 3 protein levels and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in testis, resulting in a lower lactate content. WTEA ingestion led to a metabolic adaptation to restore testicular lactate content. Concerning epididymis, prediabetes decreased the protein levels of several metabolic intervenient, resulting in decreased lactate and alanine content. WTEA consumption restored most of the evidenced alterations, however, not lactate content. WTEA also improved epididymal sperm motility and restored sperm viability. Prediabetes strongly affected testicular and epididymal metabolic status and most of these alterations were restored by WTEA consumption, resulting in the improvement of sperm quality. Our results suggest that WTEA consumption can be a cost-effective strategy to improve prediabetes-induced reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The short term effects of resveratrol on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuluğ, Esin; Türedi, Sibel; Karagüzel, Ersagun; Kutlu, Omer; Menteşe, Ahmet; Alver, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify changes taking place in the rat testis at the 24th hour of reperfusion following testicular torsion and to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (RSV), a powerful antioxidant, in preventing these changes using novel biochemical parameters and histopathology. Eighteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Sham-operated (S), torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+RSV groups. In the T/D group, testicular ischemia was achieved by rotating the left testis 720° clockwise for 4h. In the T/D+RSV group, 20mg/kg RSV was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before detorsion. All rats were sacrificed 24h after detorsion. Serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and histopathological damage score were analyzed. Serum MDA, IMA, TOS, and OSI levels rose significantly in the T/D group. Serum MDA and IMA values were lower in the T/D+RES groups, but not significantly. OSI and TOS values were lower in the T/D+RES group, and the difference was significant. TAS values decreased significantly in the T/D group and rose in the T/D+RSV group, but not significantly. Ipsilateral tissue MDA values were significantly elevated in the T/D group and decreased in the T/D+RSV group, but not significantly. Apoptosis and histopathological damage increased significantly in the T/D group and decreased significantly in the T/D+RSV group. In the contralateral testis, apoptosis increased significantly in the T/D group. It decreased significantly in the T/D+RSV group. Our findings show that RSV had a protective effect against oxidative damage induced with a testicular T/D model, especially at the antiapoptotic and histopathological level. OSI may be a good guide to the clinical status of testicular T/D. © 2014.

  14. Marital status independently predicts testis cancer survival--an analysis of the SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abern, Michael R; Dude, Annie M; Coogan, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that married men with malignancies have improved 10-year survival over unmarried men. We sought to investigate the effect of marital status on 10-year survival in a U.S. population-based cohort of men with testis cancer. We examined 30,789 cases of testis cancer reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 17) database between 1973 and 2005. All staging were converted to the 1997 AJCC TNM system. Patients less than 18 years of age at time of diagnosis were excluded. A subgroup analysis of patients with stages I or II non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) was performed. Univariate analysis using t-tests and χ(2) tests compared characteristics of patients separated by marital status. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model to generate Kaplan-Meier survival curves, with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality as the primary endpoints. 20,245 cases met the inclusion criteria. Married men were more likely to be older (38.9 vs. 31.4 years), Caucasian (94.4% vs. 92.1%), stage I (73.1% vs. 61.4%), and have seminoma as the tumor histology (57.3% vs. 43.4%). On multivariate analysis, married status (HR 0.58, P married status (HR 0.60, P married and unmarried men (44.8% vs. 43.4%, P = 0.33). Marital status is an independent predictor of improved overall and cancer-specific survival in men with testis cancer. In men with stages I or II NSGCT, RPLND is an additional predictor of improved overall survival. Marital status does not appear to influence whether men undergo RPLND. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from bovine testis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ekyune

    2015-01-01

    A well-characterized sperm specific protein of the Member of immunoglobulin superfamily, IZUMO1, has crucial role in fertilization by mediating sperm binding to the egg plasma membrane in the mouse. However little is known about IZUMO1 in bovine. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and expression analysis of bovine IZUMO1 (bIZUMO1). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of the bovine tissues indicated that bIZUMO1 was specifically expressed in the testis and sperm, Furthermore, the result of o...

  16. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan; Hu, Yan-Jun; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We identified P. trituberculatus MT-1 and MT-2 complete cDNA sequence. •We analyzed the protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic trees of MT-1 and MT-2. •RT-PCR analysis the tissue expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA. •The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA during spermiogenesis. •Testis MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression are dramatically affected after the cadmium exposure. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 196 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 328 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H and E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase

  17. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Hu, Yan-Jun [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tan, Fu-Qing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang, Wan-Xi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We identified P. trituberculatus MT-1 and MT-2 complete cDNA sequence. •We analyzed the protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic trees of MT-1 and MT-2. •RT-PCR analysis the tissue expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA. •The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA during spermiogenesis. •Testis MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression are dramatically affected after the cadmium exposure. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 196 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 328 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H and E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase

  18. Histological evaluation of the human testis--approaches to optimizing the clinical value of the assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLachlan, R I; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Hoei-Hansen, C E

    2007-01-01

    on genotype-phenotype relationships. The rising incidence of testis cancer and carcinoma in situ (CIS), especially in infertile populations, requires that every effort be made for its early detection. We provide a systematic approach to the histological classification of spermatogenic disorders and detection...... within the hypospermatogenesis classification, that helps account for reported success of TESE. We propose a new diagnosis code for testicular biopsies that addresses the needs of ART clinicians and allows data storage and retrieval of value in clinical practice and research....

  19. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake

    2000-01-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  20. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  1. Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Hindhede, Jens; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Records of claw trimmings were analyzed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole...... stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December...

  2. Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Armando Mares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.

  3. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  4. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).

  5. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  6. Identification of Hedgehog Signaling Outcomes in Mouse Testis Development Using a Hanging Drop-Culture System1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepny, Anette; Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Young, Julia; Loveland, Kate L.

    2008-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway affects fetal testis growth. Recently, we described the dynamic cellular production of Hh signaling pathway components in juvenile and adult rodent testes. The Hh signaling is understood to regulate cord formation in the fetal testis, but minimal knowledge exists regarding how Hh signaling impacts the postnatal testis. To investigate this, we employed hanging drop cultures, which are used routinely in embryoid body formation. This approach has the advantage of using small media volume, and we examined its suitability for short-term culture of both murine embryonic gonads and adult testis tubules. The effects of cyclopamine, a specific Hh signaling inhibitor, were examined following culture of Embryonic Day 11.5 urogenital ridges (as control) and adult seminiferous tubule fragments for 24–48 h using histological, cell proliferation, and gene expression analyses. Cultured embryonic testes displayed generally normal cord structure, anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) expression, and cell proliferation; known Hh target gene expression (Gli1, osteopontin, official symbol Spp1, and Amh) was altered in response to cyclopamine. Cultured adult tubules exhibited some loss of seminiferous epithelium organization over 48 h. Spermatogonia continued to proliferate, however, and no significant loss of viability was noted overall. Addition of cyclopamine significantly affected levels of Gli1, Igfbp6, Ccnd2 (cyclin D2), Ccnb1 (cyclin B1), Spp1, Kit, and Amh mRNAs; these genes have been shown previously to be expressed in Sertoli and germ cells. These novel results identify Hh target genes in the testis and demonstrate this signaling pathway likely affects cell survival and differentiation in the context of normal adult testis. PMID:18843087

  7. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169, Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  8. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stefano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169), Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  9. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  10. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...... cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs - the alternative initiators were...

  11. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. Protection of Pentoxifylline against Testis Injury Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH and unveil the underlying mechanism, experimental animals were assigned to Control, IHH+Vehicle, and IHH+PTX groups and exposed to 4 cycles of 96 h of hypobaric hypoxia followed by 96 h of normobaric normoxia for 32 days. PTX was administered for 32 days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 7 days thereafter. Serum malondialdehyde levels were used to assess lipid peroxidation; ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were assessed to determine antioxidant capacity in various samples. Testis histopathology was assessed after hematoxylin-eosin staining by Johnsen’s testicular scoring system. Meanwhile, testosterone synthase and vimentin amounts were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Sperm count, motility, and density were assessed to determine epididymal sperm quality. IHH treatment induced significant pathological changes in testicular tissue and enhanced serum lipid peroxide levels, while reducing serum FRAP, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone synthase expression. Moreover, IHH impaired epididymal sperm quality and vimentin structure in Sertoli cells. Oral administration of PTX improved the pathological changes in the testis. IHH may impair spermatogenesis function of testicular tissues by inducing oxidative stress, but this impairment could be attenuated by administration of PTX.

  13. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  14. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Weskott, H.P. [Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah , Hannover (Germany); Romanini, L. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); Grazhdani, H. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Passamonti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Lodi (Italy); Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Isidori, A. [Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Meloni, F.M. [Dipartimento servizi diagnostici, Ospedale Valduce, Como (Italy); Calliada, F. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments.

  15. Cancer/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and "brain-storming" session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenpreisa Jekaterina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer/ Testis associated genes – CTA have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of genome destabilisation in the process of tumorigenesis?, or maybe activation of these genes is not quite random but instead related to some programme giving tumours a survival advantage? This review collates most of the recent information available about CTAs expression, function, and regulation. The data suggests a programme related to ontogenesis, mostly to gametogenesis. In the "brain-storming" part, facts in conflict with the hypothesis of random CTA gene activation are discussed. We propose a programme borrowed from organisms phylogenetically much older than humans, which existed before the differentiation of sexes. It is a programme that has served as a life cycle with prominent ploidy changes, and from which, as we know, the germ-cell ploidy cycle – meiosis – has evolved. Further work may show whether this hypothesis can lead to a novel anti-tumour strategy.

  16. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J.

    2009-01-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to γ-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  17. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  18. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantisani, V.; Bertolotto, M.; Weskott, H.P.; Romanini, L.; Grazhdani, H.; Passamonti, M.; Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F.; Isidori, A.; Meloni, F.M.; Calliada, F.; D’Ambrosio, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments

  19. Profiling of androgen response in rainbow trout pubertal testis: relevance to male gonad development and spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine D Rolland

    Full Text Available The capacity of testicular somatic cells to promote and sustain germ cell differentiation is largely regulated by sexual steroids and notably androgens. In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. Here we studied the influence of androgens on testicular gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males with physiological doses of testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone, 418 genes that exhibit changes in expression were identified. Interestingly, the activity of testosterone appeared stronger than that of 11-ketotestosterone. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed androgens to mainly affect gene expression in somatic cells. Furthermore, specific clusters of genes that exhibit regulation coincidently with changes in the natural circulating levels of androgens during the reproductive cycle were highlighted, reinforcing the physiological significance of these data. Among somatic genes, a phylogenetic footprinting study identified putative androgen response elements within the proximal promoter regions of 42 potential direct androgen target genes. Finally, androgens were also found to alter the germ line towards meiotic expression profiles, supporting the hypothesis of a role for the somatic responsive genes in driving germ cell fate. This study significantly increases our understanding of molecular pathways regulated by androgens in vertebrates. The highly cyclic testicular development in trout together with functions associated with regulated genes reveal potential mechanisms for androgen actions in tubule formation, steroid production, germ cell development and sperm secretion.

  20. Cancer/testis antigen SPATA19 is frequently expressed in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah Keng; Hussain, Faezahtul Arbaeyah; Loo, Suet Kee; López, José I

    2017-12-01

    Spermatogenesis-associated 19 (SPATA19) is a cancer/testis antigen overexpressed in various cancers. However, its protein expression profile in malignant or non-malignant tissues remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated SPATA19 protein expression patterns in a panel of non-malignant human samples and primary prostate cancer (PCa) with or without benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. SPATA19 was absent in all non-malignant tissues investigated (n=14) except testis and prostate tissues. In terms of malignancies, all PCa cases were positive for SPATA19 exhibiting frequency between 20 and 100% (median 85%) with 63 (52.5%) and 57 (47.5%) cases demonstrating weak/moderate and strong intensities, respectively. Thirty-nine PCa cases (32.5%) contained BPH, and all BPH glands were SPATA19 positive (frequency between 20 and 100%; median 90%) with 13 (33.3%) demonstrating strong SPATA19 expression. Higher SPATA19 expression (higher frequency, intensity, or H-score) was not associated with overall survival or disease-specific survival (DFS) in all PCa cases. However, biochemical recurrence (BR) was associated with worse DFS (p = 0.005) in this cohort of 120 patients, and cases with strong SPATA19 intensity were associated with BR (p = 0.020). In conclusion, we showed that SPATA19 protein was frequently expressed in both BPH and PCa glands, and this warrants future investigations on its pathogenic roles in the disease. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of ginger extract on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuhua; Li Jingshun; Wang Chunhua; Pan Qin; Yang Qiong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the effects of extract of ginger on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. Methods: Mice were treated with three different doses of extract of ginger: high dose (9.3 mL·kg -1 ), middle dose (4.7 mL·kg -1 ), and low dose (2.3 mL·kg -1 ). All mice were irradiated once with 2.0 Gy X-ray. At the same time, the negative group (treated with vegetable oil only) and positive one (irradiated as well as extract of ginger groups after treated with vegetable oil) were set up. The changes of activities of enzymes in testes of mice were observed. Results: After irradiated, in the group of high dose the activity of G-6-PD was decreased but the activity of LDH was increased (P 0.05). In every group, SDH had no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The proper dose of extract of ginger has significant effects on stabilization of testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  2. An attempt to distinguish a modified genetic response of the mouse testis to X-ray exposure by the action of a spermatogonial chalone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, B.M.; Jones, J.T.; Andrews, S.J.; Crocker, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an experiment designed to distinguish whether the action of a spermatogonial chalone in the mouse testis could modify the genetic response of a depleted stem spermatogonial population to X-radiation are reported. The results are consistent with the view that the stem cell population of the depleted adult testis a few days after damage closely approximates that of the early post-natal or immature animal, do not provide any indication that the testis extract in any way influence the response of the depleted testis to the 500-rad challenging dose. The yield of genetic damage was almost identical to that in the two control groups and the sterile period and testis weight data provided little reason to suspect that the amount of spermatogonial killing was altered. (Auth.)

  3. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  4. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruuk, H.

    1963-01-01

    1. 1. The diurnal rhythm in the trawl catch of Solea vulgaris Quensel gave rise to this investigation into the diurnal activity rhythm of the fish. 2. 2. Periodicity in the food intake of the Sole in its natural habitat was studied by analyses of the contents of the intestines. Food intake

  5. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Business Administration (SBA) may not accept a sole- source 8(a) contract in excess of $20 million for... is no conflict with the law. Execution of the J&A prior to the SBA's initiation of contract... small number of businesses that have been awarded 8(a) contracts over the $20 million threshold may be...

  6. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  8. Plantar Sole Unweighting Alters the Sensory Transmission to the Cortical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mouchnino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission. To test this hypothesis, we recorded cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs of individuals following cutaneous stimulation (by mean of an electrical stimulation of the foot sole in different conditions of unweighting when standing still with eyes closed. To this end, the effective bodyweight (BW was reduced from 100% BW to 40% BW. Contrary to what was expected, we found an attenuation of sensory information when the BW was unweighted to 41% which was not compensated by an increase of the late SEP component. Overall these results suggested that the attenuation of sensory transmission observed in 40 BW condition was not solely due to the absence of forces acting on the sole of the feet but rather to the current relevance of the afferent signals related to the balance constraints of the task.

  9. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, B.C.; Vanwanseele, B.; Holtkamp, F.; van der Horst, H.E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Menz, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  10. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Horst; H.B. Menz; ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp; P. Elders; B. Vanwanseele; B. van der Zwaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  11. Effects of climate change on growth of 0-group sole and plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Leeuw, de J.J.; Veer, van der H.W.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of rising seawater temperature on growth of 0-group sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the southeastern North Sea was investigated for the period 1970 to 2004 using annual autumn pre-recruit survey data and frequent surveys on a nursery ground. Autumn length showed an

  12. Retrospective analysis of the treatment of psoriasis of the palms and soles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuls, P. I.; Hadi, S.; Rivera, L.; Lebwohl, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this retrospective analysis, the effect of currently used treatments in 26 patients with psoriasis of the palms and soles were analyzed. In general, patients are treated initially with topical medications including superpotent topical corticosteroids in combination with calcipotriene ointment or

  13. Craniocervical Junction Meningiomas without Hydrocephalus Presenting Solely with Syncope: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-06-01

    To our knowledge, there have not been any reported cases of a meningioma of the craniocervical region presenting solely with syncope as its initial symptom. Only 1 case of meningioma presenting with syncope has been published, but it was associated with hydrocephalus. We report 2 cases of syncope caused by a craniocervical junction meningioma, with syncope being the sole presenting symptom and without hydrocephalus. We discuss the possible pathophysiology, as well as the clinical relevance of this type of presentation. We reviewed the charts, operative details, and imagery of 2 cases of meningioma in the region of the craniocervical junction, with syncope as their sole presenting feature. We also reviewed the literature. In 1 case the syncope occurred spontaneously. In the other, it occurred during a Valsalva maneuver. Both meningiomas were surgically removed via a retromastoid approach. There was no recurrence of syncope following surgery. Following a literature review, we found 1 case of posterior fossa meningioma presenting with syncope, but hydrocephalus was also present. Syncope can be the sole manifestation of a meningioma of the craniocervical junction. Such syncopes are a consequence of transient dysfunction of the autonomous pathways in the medulla and/or of the medulla's output. In the absence of other causes of syncope, a meningioma in this region, even in the absence of hydrocephalus, should not be considered as fortuitous, but rather as the actual cause of syncope. Recognizing this possibility offers the potential for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the syncope. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shoe sole tread designs and outcomes of slipping and falling on slippery floor surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.

  15. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  16. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  17. Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Murray, R D; Ward, W R

    1992-10-01

    In dairy cattle, histopathology of the outer hind claws with overgrown sole revealed arteriosclerosis of blood vessels at the ulcer site in the sole. The laminae did not show any hyperplasia of the epidermis and thrombi were not seen in the blood vessels. Partial or complete disappearance of onychogenic substance was observed in the sole as well as in the wall epidermis. In beef animals, typical changes suggestive of chronic laminitis were seen: these included hyperplasia of the epidermis of the laminae, thrombus formation, arteriosclerosis in the corium of the sole, the abaxial wall and the coronary corium. Morphometric analysis quantified measurements of hooves of normal, beef and dairy cattle. It may be concluded that the changes associated with overgrowth of the sole in dairy cattle are localized to the sole without involvement of the laminae and that the term laminitis is not appropriate in the condition seen in dairy cattle.

  18. Probing of brain states in real-time: Introducing the ConSole environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHartmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen huge advancements in the methods available and used in neuroscience employing EEG or MEG. However, the standard approach is to average a large number of trials for experimentally defined conditions in order to reduce intertrial-variability, i.e. treating it as a source of "noise". Yet it is now more and more accepted that trial-to-trial fluctuations bear functional significance, reflecting fluctuations of "brain states" that predispose perception and action. Such effects are often revealed in a pre-stimulus period, when comparing response variability to an invariant stimulus. However such offline analyses are disadvantageous as they are correlational by drawing conclusions in a posthoc-manner and stimulus presentation is random with respect to the feature of interest. A more direct test is to trigger stimulus presentation when the relevant feature is present. The current paper introduces ConSole (CONstance System for OnLine Eeg, a software package capable of analyzing ongoing EEG / MEG in real-time and presenting auditory and visual stimuli via internal routines. Stimulation via external devices (e.g. TMS or third-party software (e.g. Psyscope X is possible by sending TTL-triggers. With ConSole it is thus possible to target the stimulation at specific brain-states. In contrast to many available applications, ConSole is open-source. Its modular design enhances the power of the software as it can be easily adapted to new challenges and writing new experiments is an easy task. ConSole is already pre-equipped with modules performing standard signal processing steps. The software is also independent from the EEG / MEG system, as long as a driver can be written (currently 2 EEG systems are supported. Besides a general introduction, we present benchmark data regarding performance and validity of the calculations used, as well as three example applications of ConSole in different settings. ConSole can be downloaded at: http://console-kn.sf.net.

  19. 18F FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on 18F FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. 18F FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8±13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of 18F FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. 18F FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7±7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4±11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p 18F FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular 18F FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  20. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; Jonker, M. J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  1. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J.V.; Jonker, M.J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  2. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...

  3. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  4. Expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and steroidgenic enzymes in canine testis tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.A.J.; Mol, J.A.; Wolferen, van M.E.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Teerds, K.J.; Sluijs, van F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Testis tumors occur frequently in dogs. The main types of tumors are Sertoli cell tumors, seminomas, and Leydig cell tumors. Mixed tumors and bilateral occurrence of tumors may be encountered frequently. To elucidate the possible relationship between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and

  5. Male-biased genes in catfish as revealed by RNA-Seq analysis of the testis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyue Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish.

  6. Molecular Cloning, mRNA Expression, and Localization of the G-protein Subunit Galphaq in Sheep Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive function of G-protein subunit Galphaq (GNAQ, a member of the G protein alpha subunit family, has been extensively studied in humans and rats. However, no data is available on its status in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression pattern of the GNAQ in the testis and epididymis of sheep by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and cellular localization of GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, GNAQ protein was qualitatively evaluated via western blot, with the results indicating that similarities between GNAQ mRNA levels from sheep was highly conserved with those observed in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa. Our results also indicated that GNAQ exists in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, while GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was localized to Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, spermatid, principal cells, and epididymis interstitial cells. The concentrations of GNAQ mRNA and protein in the caput and cauda epididymis were significantly greater than those observed in the corpus epididymis (p<0.01 and testis (p<0.05. Our results indicated that GNAQ exists at high concentrations in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, suggesting that GNAQ may play an important role in gonad development and sperm maturation.

  7. Anatomical relationships between testis and epididymis during the fetal period in humans (10-36 weeks postconception)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favorito, LA; Sampaio, FJB

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anatomy of the epididymis and its relationship with the testis during the fetal period in normal individuals. Methods: We studied bilaterally 146 testes and epididymides taken from 73 normal fresh human fetuses ranging in age from 10 to 36 weeks postconception. The

  8. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    A histochemical avidin-biotin technique with three different alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms showed pronounced alterations in the cellular localization of two alpha 1-acid glycoprotein lectin-like receptors during cell differentiation in the developing rat testis. The binding of alpha 1-acid...

  9. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development. Keywords: Gonad transcriptome, Testis, Ovary, Rock bream

  10. The proliferative activity of testicular cell types and the effect of postnatal X-irradiation in the developing mouse testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergouwen, R.P.F.A.; Huiskamp, R.; Davids, J.A.G.; Rooij, D.G. de

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the effects of x-irradiation on the developing mouse testis, particularly in relation to A spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and mesenchymal cells commonly regarded as Leydig precursors. It was concluded that radiosensitivity is highest during the first week after birth and decreases thereafter, with the exception of A spermatogonia which are radiosensitive at all ages. (UK)

  11. The effects of different endocrine disruptors defining compound-specific alterations of gene expression profiles in the developing testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Casas, Pedro P.; Mizrak, Sefika C.; López-Fernández, Luis A.; Paz, María; de Rooij, Dirk G.; del Mazo, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contaminants considered endocrine disruptors have been shown to affect testis development and function but the mechanisms of action are not clear. We now have analyzed the effects on the transcriptome in testes of mice exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (9.2; 46.3 or 92.7

  12. Identification of metalloprotease/disintegrins in Xenopus laevis testis with a potential role in fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F M; Krätzschmar, J; Cai, H; Weskamp, G; Gayko, U; Leibow, J; Myles, D G; Nuccitelli, R; Blobel, C P

    1997-06-15

    Proteins containing a membrane-anchored metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin domain, and a cysteine-rich region (MDC proteins) are thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, as well as in somatic cell-cell interactions. We have identified PCR sequence tags encoding the disintegrin domain of five distinct MDC proteins from Xenopus laevis testis cDNA. Four of these sequence tags (xMDC9, xMDC11.1, xMDC11.2, and xMDC13) showed strong similarity to known mammalian MDC proteins, whereas the fifth (xMDC16) apparently represents a novel family member. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA for xMDC16 was only expressed in testis, and not in heart, muscle, liver, ovaries, or eggs, whereas the mRNAs corresponding to the four other PCR products were expressed in testis and in some or all somatic tissues tested. The xMDC16 protein sequence, as predicted from the full-length cDNA, contains a metalloprotease domain with the active-site sequence HEXXH, a disintegrin domain, a cysteine-rich region, an EGF repeat, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. To study a potential role for these xMDC proteins in fertilization, peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding domain of each protein were tested for their ability to inhibit X. laevis fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC16 peptides inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas xMDC16 peptides that were scrambled or had certain amino acid replacements in the predicted integrin-binding domain did not affect fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC9 peptides and linear xMDC13 peptides also inhibited fertilization similarly to xMDC16 peptides, whereas peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding site of xMDC11.1 and xMDC11.2 did not. These results are discussed in the context of a model in which multiple MDC protein-receptor interactions are necessary for fertilization to occur.

  13. Normal uptake of 18F-FDG in the testis. An assessment by PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Kazuro; Nakamoto, Yuji; Senda, Michio; Onishi, Yumiko; Okizuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physiological uptake of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) by an apparently normal testis with combined positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) and its correlation with age, blood glucose level, and testicular volume. The testicular uptake of 18 F-FDG, expressed as the standardized uptake value (SUV), was measured on PET/CT images in 203 men. The correlation between SUV and age, blood glucose level, and testicular volume was assessed. The SUV in the total of 406 testes was 2.44±0.45 (range 1.23-3.85). The SUV was 2.81±0.43 (2.28-3.85) for 30-39 years (n=12), 2.63±0.45 (1.77-3.75) for 40-49 years (n=64), 2.46±0.35 (1.44-3.15) for 50-59 years (n=82), 2.51±0.41 (1.50-3.46) for 60-69 years (n=86), 2.43±0.47 (1.42-3.29) for 70-79 years (n=86), and 2.18±0.45 (1.23-3.03) for 80-89 years (n=76). When we calculated the mean SUV of bilateral testes in each patient, there were significant statistical differences between those in the age group of 30-39 years and 80-89 years, 40-49 years and 80-89 years, and 50-60 years and 80-89 years, when using an unpaired test with Bonferroni correction. The laterality index (|L-R|/(L+R) x 2) in 203 men was 0.066±0.067 (0-0.522). There was a mild correlation between the mean SUV and age (r=-0.284, P<0.001) as well as between the mean SUV and mean volume (r=+0.368, P<0.001). There was no correlation between the mean SUV and glucose blood level (r=-0.065, P=0.358). Some uptake of FDG is observed in the normal testis and declines slightly with age. Physiological FDG uptake in the testis should not be confused with pathological accumulation. (author)

  14. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  15. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  16. Minor abnormalities of testis development in mice lacking the gene encoding the MAPK signalling component, MAP3K1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Warr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

  17. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  18. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  19. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  20. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis.

  1. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  2. The effects of grading on the growth and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month study was carried out to investigate the effects of grading on the overall production, growth performance and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.). Juvenile fish (4.0–40.4 g) were sorted into three size groups: small (4.0–15.5 g), medium (16.0–21.5 g) and large (22.0–40.5 g)...

  3. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  4. Studies in cross-linking PVC footwear soling compounds using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation cross-linking of polymeric materials has been known for some time, but it is only in recent years that it has been put to commercial advantage. Well known uses are the modification of PVC for higher temperature applications. Fundamental studies were carried out on amongst other materials, plasticised PVC compounds for use in cable applications. The results of this work, encouraged the author to investigate cross-linkable PVC in areas such as footwear soling

  5. Tiny intracranial aneurysms: Endovascular treatment by coil embolisation or sole stent deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jun; Liu Jiachun; Wang Lijun; Qi Peng; Wang Daming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Tiny intracranial aneurysms pose a significant therapeutic challenge for interventional neuroradiologists. The authors report their preliminary results of endovascular treatment of these aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 52 tiny intracranial aneurysms (defined as ≤3 mm in maximum diameter) in 46 patients (22 men; mean age, 57.9 years) were treated by endosaccular coil embolisation or sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Of 52 aneurysms, 29 had ruptured and 23 remained unruptured. The initial angiographic results, procedural complications, and clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge. Imaging follow-up was performed with cerebral angiography. Results: One aneurysm coiling procedure failed because of unsuccessful micro-catheterization. Forty-three aneurysms were successfully coil embolized, of which complete occlusion was obtained in 14, subtotal occlusion in 18 and incomplete occlusion in 11. The other 8 aneurysms were treated by sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Procedural complications (2 intraprocedural ruptures and 3 thromboembolic events) occurred in 5 (9.6%) of 52 aneurysms, resulting in permanent morbidity in only 1 (2.2%, 1/46) patient. No rebleeding occurred during clinical follow-up (mean duration, 46.7 months). Of the 16 coiled aneurysms that receiving repetitive angiography, 6 initially completely and 3 subtotally occluded aneurysms remained unchanged, 4 initially subtotally and 3 incompletely occluded aneurysms progressed to total occlusion. Five sole stent deployed aneurysms received angiographic follow-up (mean duration, 10.0 months), of which 3 remained unchanged, 1 became smaller and 1 progressed to total occlusion. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of tiny intracranial aneurysms is technical feasible and relatively safe. Coil embolisation seems to be effective in preventing early recanalisation, whereas sole stenting technique needs further investigation to determine its effectiveness.

  6. Late neurological complications after irradiation of malignant tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Marianne; Bentzen, Søren M.; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    To identify and describe late neurological complications in a Danish testis cancer cohort treated by radiotherapy. Clinical retrospective material of 94 consecutive patients with malignant testicular tumours treated at Aarhus County Hospital from 1964 to 1973. The irradiated dose in the paraaortic...... field varied from 27 to 55 Gy given 5 or 6 days a week, from the back and front alternately. The biological equivalent dose of the spinal cord was calculated using the linear-quadratic model. Median follow-up was 25 years, range 7 to 33 years. Seven patients were identified with late neurological...... complications after irradiation. One developed symptoms 9 months after treatment, but in the six other cases we found a latency period between 10 and 20 years from radiotherapy until the initial neurological symptoms began. The clinical picture in all seven patients was dominated by muscle atrophy, flaccid...

  7. Skin, eye, and testis: current exposure problems and recent advances in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Three organs, the skin, eye and testis are potentially at risk from poorly penetrating radiations such as beta particles or low energy X-Rays. They may be preferentially irradiated in fields with steep depth - dose gradients and thereby dictate radiological protection procedures. Since there is not a wide margin of safety in the annual permissible dose limits for these organs it is important to have clearly defensible methods of dose assessment. This requires both an adequate understanding of the radiobiology of these organs and the availability of experimental techniques for measuring doses at various depths near the surface of the body. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge in this field, drawing partly on information from two recent CEC workshops on the 'Dosimetry of Beta Particles and Low Energy X-Rays' and 'Radiation Damage to the Skin'. It is concluded that protection criteria for the limitation of skin dose are in need of revision. (author)

  8. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  9. Expression analysis of cancer-testis genes in prostate cancer reveals candidates for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Sepideh; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disorder among men with a heterogeneous etiological background. Several molecular events and signaling perturbations have been found in this disorder. Among genes whose expressions have been altered during the prostate cancer development are cancer-testis antigens (CTAs). This group of antigens has limited expression in the normal adult tissues but aberrant expression in cancers. This property provides them the possibility to be used as cancer biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets. Several CTAs have been shown to be immunogenic in prostate cancer patients and some of the have entered clinical trials. Based on the preliminary data obtained from these trials, it is expected that CTA-based therapeutic options are beneficial for at least a subset of prostate cancer patients.

  10. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery.

  11. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  12. Testis-Specific Histone Variant H3t Gene Is Essential for Entry into Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ueda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes. Thus, by incorporating H3t into the genome during spermatogonial differentiation, male germ cells are able to enter meiosis and beyond.

  13. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  14. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.

    2013-02-01

    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  15. Novel Thermal Analysis Model of the Foot-Shoe Sole Interface during Gait Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Shimazaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive heat at the foot-shoe sole interface negatively affects a human’s thermal comfort. An understanding of the thermal behavior at this interface is important for alleviating this discomfort. During gait motion, a human’s body weight cyclically compresses a shoe sole (commonly constructed of viscoelastic materials, generating heat during loading. To evaluate the thermal effects of this internal heat generation on foot comfort, we developed and empirically validated a thermal analysis model during gait motion. A simple, one-dimensional prediction model for heat conduction with heat generation during compressive loading was used. Heat generation was estimated as a function of the shoe sole’s material properties (e.g., elastic modulus and various gait parameters. When compared with experimental results, the proposed model proved effective in predicting thermal behavior at the foot-shoe sole interface under various conditions and shows potential for improving a human’s thermal comfort during gait motion through informed footwear design.

  16. Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2017-08-01

    Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.

  17. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  18. [Safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangbin; Ouyang, Wenbin; Li, Shoujun; Guo, Gaili; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Fengwen; Pang, Kunjing; Fang, Nengxin; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    To avoid the radiation injuries and use of contrast agent, we assessed the safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance. From June 2013 to June 2014, thirty patients (mean age: (6.3 ± 2.5) years, mean body weight:(22.5 ± 7.3) kg) with pure patent ductus arteriosus were continuously included in this study. The mean diameter of patent ductus arteriosus was (3.8 ± 0.9) mm. Patients were all treated by percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure via right femoral artery solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated by thoracic echocardiography. Follow-up was performed at one month after procedure. All 30 cases were successfully treated with percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thracic echocardiography guidance. The procedural time was (32.8 ± 5.7) minutes. The mean diameter of Amplatzer ADO II was (4.9 ± 1.0) mm. Postoperative trivial residual shunt occurred in six patients immediately after the procedure. All patients survived without peripheral vascular injury or complications such as cardiac perforation. Hospitalization time was (3.4 ± 0.7) days. At one-month follow-up, no complications such as residual shunt or pericardial effusion were observed. Echocardiography guided percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure by femoral artery approach is safe and effective, and can avoid X-ray and the use of contrast agents.

  19. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Testicular prosthesis: Patient satisfaction and sexual dysfunctions in testis cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied patient satisfaction about sexual activity after prosthesis implantation using validated questionnaires with the aim to discover if testicular prosthesis could be responsible of sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 67 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and a silicon testicular prosthesis implantation from January 2008 to June 2014 at our Hospital. These patients completed 5 validated questionnaires the day before orchiectomy and 6 months after surgery: the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the Body Exposure during Sexual Activities Questionnaire (BESAQ, the Body-Esteem Scale and the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. We also evaluated 6 months after surgery any defects of the prosthesis complained by the patients. Results: The questionnaires completed by patients didn’t show statistically significant changes for erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05 and premature ejaculation (p > 0.05. On the contrary the psychological questionnaires showed statistically significant change for the BESAQ (p < 0.001 and the Body Esteem Scale (p < 0.001, but not for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (p > 0,05. A total of 15 patients (22.37% were dissatisfied about the prosthesis: the most frequent complaint (8 patients; 11.94% was that the prosthesis was firmer than the normal testis. Conclusions: Testicular prosthesis implantation is a safe surgical procedure that should be always proposed before orchiectomy for cancer of the testis. The defects complained by patients with testicular prosthesis are few, they don’t influence sexual activity and they aren’t able to cause erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

  1. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  2. Comparison of micromorphometric testis tissue structures in antenatal fetuses and patients with congenital cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Bunkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of paired organs, testicles in particular, in the antenatal period as compared to congenital cryptorchidism in the context of interrelationship can objectively approach the consideration of the whole set of physiological and pathological processes in them, by taking into account histophysiological identity. The paper gives the results of micromorphometric examinations of the units of a communication system (cellular populations and the areas of parenchymatous and stromal structures (intertubular connective tissue, convoluted seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic epithelium in two groups: 1 34 antenatal (ANT fetuses at 20–41 weeks' gestation and 2 46 children with congenital unilateral cryptorchidism (CR, in whom testis tissue biopsy specimens were examined at the age of 1 to 14 years. Determination of the similarity of micromorphometric structures (the number of cellular population in the intertubular connective tissue, convoluted seminiferous tubules, and the areas of intertubular connective tissue, spermatogenic epithelium, and capillary lumens was analyzed to discover an identity in the testes tissues of the ANT fetuses versus the children with congenital unilateral CR, by considering the position and site of testicles. The findings indicate that there are synchronous changes of individual similar structures between the right and left testicle during its natural descent into the scrotum in the ANT fetuses and in the patients with congenital CR, which is suggestive of the symmetry and relationship between the contralateral sex glands in different ontogenetic groups. This may testify that there are similar processes occurring between the testis tissues in the children with congenital CR and in the ANT fetuses. The findings may become a ground for further consideration of congenital CR in the context of not only the micromorphometry, but also functional activity of tests tissue structures when comparatively analyzing these

  3. Expression analysis of HSP70 in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ling-Li; Han, Ying-Li; Sheng, Zhang; Du, Chen; Wang, You-Fa; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2015-09-01

    The gene encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified in Octopus tankahkeei by homologous cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA (2471 bp) consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (89 bp), a 3'-UTR (426 bp), and an open reading frame (1956 bp) that encodes 651 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 71.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment, this cDNA is a member of cytoplasmic hsp70 subfamily of the hsp70 family and was designated as ot-hsp70. Tissue expression analysis showed that HSP70 expression is highest in the testes when all examined organs were compared. Immunohistochemistry analysis, together with hematoxylin-eosin staining, revealed that the HSP70 protein was expressed in all spermatogenic cells, but not in fibroblasts. In addition, O. tankahkeei were heat challenged by exposure to 32 °C seawater for 2 h, then returned to 13 °C for various recovery time (0-24 h). Relative expression of ot-hsp70 mRNA in the testes was measured at different time points post-challenge by quantitative real-time PCR. A clear time-dependent mRNA expression of ot-hsp70 after thermal stress indicates that the HSP70 gene is inducible. Ultrastructural changes of the heat-stressed testis were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We suggest that HSP70 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and testis protection against thermal stress in O. tankahkeei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IL PROCESSO DI PRODUZIONE SCRITTA: LA COESIONE VERBALE IN TESTI DI SCUOLA PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rosi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Una delle principali difficoltà che incontrano i bambini della scuola primaria nella produzione scritta riguarda la coesione verbale, ovvero il mantenimento lungo il testo della dimensione temporale inizialmente selezionata per riportare gli eventi. L’articolo esamina questo specifico tipo di competenza testuale negli alunni di sei classi del secondo ciclo della scuola primaria, tre delle quali hanno partecipato alla sperimentazione educativa sulla produzione di testi scritti “Osservare l’interlingua”. Il confronto fra i dati raccolti all’inizio e alla fine dell’anno scolastico mostra una riduzione dei salti immotivati da un tempo verbale all’altro, definiti shift temporali, nei testi prodotti nelle classi del campione sperimentale in misura maggiore rispetto a quelle di controllo e sottolinea gli effetti positivi, a breve e lungo termine, di una didattica task-based condotta con approccio inclusivo, cooperativo ed attivo.  The process of writing: verb cohesion in primary school textsOne of principal difficulties in producing written texts for primary school pupils concerns verb cohesion, i.e. maintaining the temporal dimension initially chosen for expressing events throughout the text. The paper examines this specific textual competence in pupils from six classes within second cycle of primary school. Three of these classes were involved in the “Observing interlanguage” project focused on written production. The comparison of data collected at the beginning and the end of school year shows a decrease in temporal shifts (transitions from one verb tense to another in the texts produced by the students involved in the project with regard to the control group. These findings highlight the positive effects, both short-term and long-term, of task-based teaching through an inclusive, cooperative and active approach. 

  5. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C, royal jelly (R, diabetic (D and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW. The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT, seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD, Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermiogenesis index (SPI, Sertoli cell index (SCI, meiotic index (MI, and mononuclear immune cells (MICs in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05. RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5, RJ (13.4±0.3, D (7.8±0.6 and D+R (12.4±0.7 groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  6. Infrequent Expression of the Cancer-Testis Antigen, PASD1, in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is very treatable in the early stages of disease; however, it is usually detected in the later stages, at which time, treatment is no longer as effective. If discovered early (Stage I, there is a 90% chance of five-year survival. Therefore, it is imperative that early-stage biomarkers are identified to enhance the early detection of ovarian cancer. Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs, such as Per ARNT SIM (PAS domain containing 1 (PASD1, are unique in that their expression is restricted to immunologically restricted sites, such as the testis and placenta, which do not express MHC class I, and cancer, making them ideally positioned to act as targets for immunotherapy as well as potential biomarkers for cancer detection where expressed. We examined the expression of PASD1a and b in a number of cell lines, as well as eight healthy ovary samples, eight normal adjacent ovarian tissues, and 191 ovarian cancer tissues, which were predominantly stage I ( n = 164 and stage II ( n = 14 disease. We found that despite the positive staining of skin cancer, only one stage Ic ovarian cancer patient tissue expressed PASD1a and b at detectable levels. This may reflect the predominantly stage I ovarian cancer samples examined. To examine the restriction of PASD1 expression, we examined endometrial tissue arrays and found no expression in 30 malignant tumor tissues, 23 cases of hyperplasia, or 16 normal endometrial tissues. Our study suggests that the search for a single cancer-testes antigen/biomarker that can detect early ovarian cancer must continue.

  7. Testicular prosthesis: Patient satisfaction and sexual dysfunctions in testis cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Francesco; Polito, Benedetta; Polito, Massimo

    2016-10-05

    We studied patient satisfaction about sexual activity after prosthesis implantation using validated questionnaires with the aim to discover if testicular prosthesis could be responsible of sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation). We evaluated a total of 67 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and a silicon testicular prosthesis implantation from January 2008 to June 2014 at our Hospital. These patients completed 5 validated questionnaires the day before orchiectomy and 6 months after surgery: the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the Body Exposure during Sexual Activities Questionnaire (BESAQ), the Body-Esteem Scale and the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. We also evaluated 6 months after surgery any defects of the prosthesis complained by the patients. The questionnaires completed by patients didn't show statistically significant changes for erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05) and premature ejaculation (p > 0.05). On the contrary the psychological questionnaires showed statistically significant change for the BESAQ (p < 0.001) and the Body Esteem Scale (p < 0.001), but not for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (p > 0,05). A total of 15 patients (22.37%) were dissatisfied about the prosthesis: the most frequent complaint (8 patients; 11.94%) was that the prosthesis was firmer than the normal testis. Testicular prosthesis implantation is a safe surgical procedure that should be always proposed before orchiectomy for cancer of the testis. The defects complained by patients with testicular prosthesis are few, they don't influence sexual activity and they aren't able to cause erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

  8. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Selenium on Seminiferous Tubules of Immature Mice Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kushki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The freezing of immature testis tissue and then the transplant of it can be considered as a major step in fertility preservation for young boys with cancer, the survival of animal generation exposed to extinction and cloning animalistic desirable species. One of the most prevalent of damages in during the freezing-thawing process is oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of selenium compound (Na2SeO3 on rate of seminiferous tubules injury in during of cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 BALB/c immature male mice (6 - 8 days old were randomly selected, and the testes removed surgically (n = 16. The testes divided into 2 groups: experimental group, control group (opposite testes. For each of the two experimental and control groups, two types of soluble (freezing solution and thawing solution were prepared. These solutions, which contain 2 mg/mL solution of Na2SeO3 and control solution, were prepared in the DMEM (Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium base medium. Of each group were 4 testes into fast freezing-thawing procedure and 4 testes were into slow freezing-thawing procedure. Then this testis for analyzing injury, after preparatory process, was stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results: At the slow freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared to control group. At the fast freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared with of control group. Conclusions: It seems that Se due to its antioxidant properties, the harmful effects of freezing-thawing process reduces and protects seminiferous tubules from oxidative injury.

  10. Shear-wave elastography of the testis in the healthy man - determination of standard values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, M; Marcon, J; D'Anastasi, M; Bruce, M F; Stief, C G; Reiser, M F; Buchner, A; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    Real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) is a newly developed technique for the sonographic quantification of tissue elasticity, which already is used in the assessment of breast and thyroid lesions. Due to limited overlying tissue, the testes are ideally suited for assessment using shear wave elastography. To our knowledge, no published data exist on real-time SWE of the testes. Sixty six male volunteers (mean age 51.86±18.82, range 20-86) with no known testicular pathology underwent normal B-mode sonography and multi-frame shear-wave elastography of both testes using the Aixplorer ® ultrasound system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France). Three measurements were performed for each testis; one in the upper pole, in the middle portion and in the lower pole respectively. The results were statistically evaluated using multivariate analysis. Mean shear-wave velocity values were similar in the inferior and superior part of the testicle (1.15 m/s) and were significantly lower in the centre (0.90 m/s). These values were age-independent. Testicular stiffness was significantly lower in the upper pole than in the rest of the testis with increasing volume (p = 0.007). Real-time shear-wave elastography proved to be feasible in the assessment of testicular stiffness. It is important to consider the measurement region as standard values differ between the centre and the testicular periphery. Further studies with more subjects may be required to define the normal range of values for each age group. Useful clinical applications could include the diagnostic work-up of patients with scrotal masses or male infertility.

  11. Thermal preference of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea in relation to thermal acclimation and optimal growth temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Schram

    Full Text Available Dover sole (Solea solea is an obligate ectotherm with a natural thermal habitat ranging from approximately 5 to 27°C. Thermal optima for growth lie in the range of 20 to 25°C. More precise information on thermal optima for growth is needed for cost-effective Dover sole aquaculture. The main objective of this study was to determine the optimal growth temperature of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea and in addition to test the hypothesis that the final preferendum equals the optimal growth temperature. Temperature preference was measured in a circular preference chamber for Dover sole acclimated to 18, 22 and 28°C. Optimal growth temperature was measured by rearing Dover sole at 19, 22, 25 and 28°C. The optimal growth temperature resulting from this growth experiment was 22.7°C for Dover sole with a size between 30 to 50 g. The temperature preferred by juvenile Dover sole increases with acclimation temperature and exceeds the optimal temperature for growth. A final preferendum could not be detected. Although a confounding effect of behavioural fever on temperature preference could not be entirely excluded, thermal preference and thermal optima for physiological processes seem to be unrelated in Dover sole.

  12. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  13. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  14. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  15. Simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Mi; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Oh, Ji-Hyeon; Fang, Yiqin; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Recently, several authors have shown that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using autologous platelet-rich fibrin as the sole filling material is a reliable procedure promoting bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material on bone formation in a canine sinus model. An implant was placed after sinus membrane elevation in the maxillary sinus of six adult female mongrel dogs. The resulting space between the membrane and sinus floor was filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin retrieved from each dog. The implants were left in place for six months. Bone tissue was seen at the lower part of the implants introduced into the sinus cavity. The height of the newly formed bone around the implants ranged from 0 mm to 4.9 mm (mean; 2.6 ± 2.0 mm) on the buccal side and from 0 mm to 4.2 mm (mean; 1.3 ± 1.8 mm) on the palatal side. The findings from this study suggest that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material is not a predictable and reproducible procedure, especially with respect to the bone formation around the implants in the sinus cavity. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. An econometric viability model for ongrowing sole (Solea senegalensis) in tanks using pumped well sea water

    OpenAIRE

    García García, J.; García García, B.

    2006-01-01

    Sole (Solea senegalensis) is of great interest to marine aquaculture in the Mediterranean because of its relatively fast growth and good commercial prospects (high price). However, the wide mean annual variation in the temperature of Mediterranean sea water (14-26 deg C) is a limiting factor for the ongrowing of this species; the optimum for this process is 19-20 deg C. One of the possible mid-term solutions for ensuring a constant year-round temperature is to ongrow these fish in tanks conta...

  17. Discriminating bot accounts based solely on temporal features of microblog behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junshan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hanping

    2016-05-01

    As the largest microblog service in China, Sina Weibo has attracted numerous automated applications (known as bots) due to its popularity and open architecture. We classify the active users from Sina Weibo into human, bot-based and hybrid groups based solely on the study of temporal features of their posting behavior. The anomalous burstiness parameter and time-interval entropy value are exploited to characterize automation. We also reveal different behavior patterns among the three types of users regarding their reposting ratio, daily rhythm and active days. Our findings may help Sina Weibo manage a better community and should be considered for dynamic models of microblog behaviors.

  18. Sole stenting treatment for small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms:a clinical therapeutic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jiyong; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Huang Qinghai; Yang Pengfei; Zhao Wenyuan; Liu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility, safety and efficacy of sole stenting technique for the treatment of small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between February 2001 and November 2009, 36 consecutive patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms (18 males and 18 females, aged 19-75 years,with a mean age of 52.3 years) were treated with stenting technique only. Of 36 patients, the Grade 0 of Hunt and Hess classification was seen in 22,Grade I in 8, Grade II in 5 and Grade III in 1. The aneurysmal diameter ranged from 1.8 mm to 5.0 mm,with a mean diameter of 3.6 mm. The aneurysms were located at the anterior communicating artery (n=1), posterior communicating artery (n=11), intradural paraclinoid internal carotid artery (n=18), basilar artery (n=1), anterior choroidal artery (n=4) or middle cerebral artery (n=1). The clinical manifestations, the angiographic findings and the follow-up observations were analyzed and the results were evaluated by means of the Modified Rankin Scale, magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. Results: Sole stenting treatment was performed in 36 patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. A total of 37 stents were successfully delivered and deployed at the targeted location. Immediate post-procedural angiography showed that complete occlusion was obtained in one aneurysm, a sluggish intra-aneurysmal vortex motion in 3 aneurysms and a correction of the angle of the parent vessel in two cases, whereas no change was seen in the remaining 30 aneurysms. Angiographic follow-up was carried out in 22 of the 36 patients (61%) during a mean following-up period of 16 months (ranged from 3 to 59 months). The follow-up angiography showed that the complete occlusion was seen in 11 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck with shrinkage of the aneurysm in 9 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck only in 1 case, and shrinkage of the aneurysm only in 1 case.All the patients remained

  19. Pixel Statistical Analysis of Diabetic vs. Non-diabetic Foot-Sole Spectral Terahertz Reflection Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Salas-Gutierrez, I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present a series of hydration mapping images of the foot soles of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects measured by terahertz reflectance. In addition to the hydration images, we present a series of RYG-color-coded (red yellow green) images where pixels are assigned one of the three colors in order to easily identify areas in risk of ulceration. We also present the statistics of the number of pixels with each color as a potential quantitative indicator for diabetic foot-syndrome deterioration.

  20. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B

    2013-01-01

    development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression...... was restricted to the cytoplasm/plasma membrane of spermatogonia and was most prevalent at mid-gestation, infancy and from puberty onwards. Phosphorylated (p)FGFR was detected in pre-spermatogonia at mid-gestation and in spermatogonia during puberty and in the adult testis. Throughout normal human testis...

  1. Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell tumor of the testis presenting with prepubertal gynecomastia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhan, Hale; Abaci, Ayhan; Sarsık, Banu; Öztürk, Tülay; Olguner, Mustafa; Catli, Gonul; Anik, Ahmet; Olgun, Nur; Bober, Ece

    2017-08-01

    Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia (ITLCHSCN) resulting from Sertoli cells of the testis are mainly reported in young adults and these are rarely seen in childhood. The most common presenting symptoms of the patients diagnosed with ITLCHSCN are gynecomastia, enlargement in the testicles, increase in growth velocity, and advanced bone age. Symptoms are basically resulting from increased aromatase enzyme activity in Sertoli cells. In this case report, an eight-and-a-half-year-old case presenting with complaint of bilateral gynecomastia since two years, showing no endocrine abnormality in laboratory during two years of follow-up, determined to have progression in bilateral gynecomastia, increase in testicular volumes, advanced bone age, increase in growth velocity in the clinical follow-up, and diagnosed with ITLCHSCN after testis biopsy was presented.

  2. Influence of rete testis fluid deprivation on the kinetic parameters of goat epididymal 5 alpha-reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Lubis, A M; Braun, W F; Youngquist, R S; Ganjam, V K

    1990-01-01

    A surgical technique to cannulate the rete testis of the goat was utilized to examine the effects of rete testis fluid (RTF) deprivation on the enzymatic activity of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase. Kinetic techniques were used to determine whether the regional enzymatic effect of RTF deprivation is to decrease the apparent number of 5 alpha-reductase active sites or the catalytic activity of each active site within the epididymal epithelium. Paired comparisons of (Vmax)app and (Km)app values between control and RTF-deprived epididymides indicated that RTF deprivation affected the value of (Vmax)app with no apparent change in the values of (Km)app in caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal regions. We conclude that RTF deprivation in the goat epididymis for 7 days results in a decreased number of apparent 5 alpha-reductase active sites within the epididymal epithelium.

  3. An examination of the characteristics, concentration, and distribution of androgen receptor in rat testis during sexual maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In these studies a nuclear exchange assay was established in rat testis in which exchange after 86 hours at 4 degree C was greater than 85% complete and receptor was stable. Receptor concentration per DNA measured by exchange declined between 15 and 25 days of age in the rat testis, then increased 4-fold during sexual maturation. Proliferation of germ cells which had low receptor concentration appeared to account for the early decline in testicular receptor concentration, whereas increase in receptor number per Sertoli cell between 25 and 35 days of age contributed to the later increase. Detailed studies showed that other possible explanations for changes in receptor number were not likely. Androgen receptor dynamics in testicular cells showed rapid, specific uptake of [ 3 H]-testosterone that was easily blocked by unlabeled testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not as well as by the anti-androgens cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide

  4. Successful Treatment of Plantar Hyperkeratosis in the Form of Recurrent Corns With Split-Thickness Sole Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Chang, Chun-Kai; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Chiao, Hao-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tim-Mo; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Plantar hyperkeratosis, such as corns and calluses, is common in older people and associated with pain, mobility impairment, and functional limitations. It usually develops on the palms, knees, or soles of feet, especially under the heels or balls. There are several treatment methods for plantar hyperkeratosis, such as salicylic acid plaster and scalpel debridement, and conservative modalities, such as using a shoe insert and properly fitting shoes. We present an effective method of reconstructing the wound after corn excision using a split-thickness sole skin graft (STSSG). We harvested the skin graft from the arch of the sole using the dermatome with a skin thickness of 14/1000th inches. Because the split-thickness skin graft, harvested from the sole arch near the distal sole, is much thicker than the split-thickness skin graft from the thigh, it is more resistant to weight and friction. The healed wound with STSSG coverage over the distal sole was intact, and the donor site over the sole arch had healed without complication during the outpatient follow-up, 3 months after surgery. The recovery time of STSSG for corn excision is shorter than that with traditional treatment. Therefore, STSSG can be a reliable alternative treatment for recurrent palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.

  5. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  6. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hass, U.; Ladefoged, O. [Inst. of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, K.S. [National Inst. of Occupational Health, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-04-01

    In one study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 1200 ppm toluene by inhalation 6 h a day from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 18. Sperm analysis was performed in the adult male offspring at PND 110 by using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Toluene did not affect the semen quality of exposed rats. In another study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1800 ppm from GD 7 to GD 20, and the male offspring were killed at PND 11, 21 or 90. Paired testes weight, histopathology and immunoexpression of vimentin in Sertoli cells were used as markers of testis toxicity. In the brain, the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and cerebellum were counted after visualisation by means of the TUNEL assay. Mean body weight in pups of exposed dams was lower than in pups from control litters. This decrease was still statistically significant at PND 11, but at PND 21 and 90 the body weight of toluene-exposed males tended to approach that of the controls. Absolute and relative testes weights were reduced in all three age groups, although not to a statistically significant degree. Histopathological examinations of the testis and immuno-expression of vimentin did not reveal any differences between toluene-exposed animals and control animals. In the hippocampus, almost no apoptosis was observed in any age group, and there were no differences in apoptotic neurodegeneration between male rats exposed to 1800 ppm and control animals at PND 11, 21 or 90. Generally, a marked increase in number of apoptotic cells was observed in cerebellar granule cells at PND 21 compared with the other age groups. Toluene induced a statistically significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the cerebellar granule layer at PND 21. The mean was increased from 37 in the control group to 71 in the toluene-exposed group. Thus, the granular cell layer in cerebellum is a highly relevant tissue with which to study toluene-induced apoptosis, because of the continuous migration of neurons and

  7. Correlation of Serum Lipid P rofile with Histological and Seminal Parameters of Testis in The Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Louei Monfared

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Methods: In this analytic, cross-sectional study, we chose a total often mature Iranian male goats that comprised a homogenous group through simplerandom sampling. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; the sera wereseparated and subsequently used for measurement of serum lipids, lipoproteins andtestosterone levels. In addition, we collected semen from the animals and evaluatedthe seminal characteristics. We also performed histological and anatomical assessmentsof the testes.Results: The findings demonstrated that serum levels of high density lipoprotein(HDL-c had a significant positive correlation with interstitial testicular tissue area(r=0.73; p<0.001, seminiferous tubule area (r=0.61; p<0.01, the number of Leydigcells (r=0.53; p<0.05, the diameter of the Leydig cell nuclei (r=0.54; p<0.05,scrotal circumference (r=0.83; p<0.001, testis weight (r=0.72; p<0.001, the numberof live, normal sperm (r=0.94 ; p<0.001 and serum testosterone levels (r=0.88;p<0.001. Significant but negative correlations were found between serum triglycerideconcentration and seminiferous tubule area (r=-0.53; p<0.05, the diameterof the Leydig cell nuclei (r=-0.55; p<0.05, testis weight (r =-0.64; p<0.01, totalsperm number (r=-0.82; p<0.001, number of live, normal sperm (r=-0.55; p<0.05and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.79; p<0.001. In addition, a significant negativecorrelation was observed between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cconcentration and the percent of live sperm (r=-0.67; p<0.01, and serum testosteronelevels (r=-0.65; p<0.01.Conclusion: The present results indicated that among serum lipids only the levelsof HDL-c positively correlated with testicular parameters. High serum triglyceridelevels exerted direct adverse effects at the testicular level, which was mainly observedin the seminiferous tubules (STs, characterization of Leydig cells and semenquality.

  8. Dual Functions in Response to Heat Stress and Spermatogenesis: Characterization of Expression Profile of Small Heat Shock Proteins 9 and 10 in Goat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins 9 and 10 (HSPB9 and HSPB10 are two testis-specific expressed sHsps. The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression profile of HSPB9 and HSPB10 in goat testis among the different seasons, ages, and environmental temperatures. Allocation of the two sHsps was also performed by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the transcript levels of HSPB9 and HSPB10 were extremely high in the testis (P<0.01. The relative expression of HSBP9 and HSPB10 in testis showed a tendency to increase with age and then is maintained at the constant level after sexual maturity. HSPB9 and HSPB10 have significantly higher expression in the breeding season  (P<0.05 and hot season (P<0.01. Both HSPB9 and HSPB10 were found to be upregulated by high-temperature stress in testis (P<0.05, and the expressions of Hsp70 and Hsp90 were also increased simultaneously (P<0.01. Immunohistochemistry analysis localized HSPB9 expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids and HSPB10 expressed in the elongate spermatids. In epididymis, strongly staining signal of HSPB10 was detected in pseudostratified columnar epithelium. In conclusion, the two testis-specific sHsps are closely related to male reproduction and heat tolerance. The results could provide valuable data for the further studies on HSPB9 and HSPB10.

  9. MicroRNA and piRNA profiles in normal human testis detected by next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the class of small endogenous RNAs that play an important regulatory role in cells by negatively affecting gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There have been extensive studies aiming to discover miRNAs and to analyze their functions in the cells from a variety of species. However, there are no published studies of miRNA profiles in human testis using next generation sequencing (NGS technology. RESULTS: We employed Solexa sequencing technology to profile miRNAs in normal human testis. Total 770 known and 5 novel human miRNAs, and 20121 piRNAs were detected, indicating that the human testis has a complex population of small RNAs. The expression of 15 known and 5 novel detected miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. We have also predicted the potential target genes of the abundant known and novel miRNAs, and subjected them to GO and pathway analysis, revealing the involvement of miRNAs in many important biological phenomenon including meiosis and p53-related pathways that are implicated in the regulation of spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the first genome-wide miRNA profiles in human testis using a NGS approach. The presence of large number of miRNAs and the nature of their target genes suggested that miRNAs play important roles in spermatogenesis. Here we provide a useful resource for further elucidation of the regulatory role of miRNAs and piRNAs in the spermatogenesis. It may also facilitate the development of prophylactic strategies for male infertility.

  10. Normal uptake of F-18 FDG in the testis as assessed by PET/CT in a pediatric study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethals, I.; Vriendt, C.D.; Hoste, P.; Smeets, P.; Ham, H.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the normal testis as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and patient age in a pediatric study population. The study population consisted of 22 subjects aged between 9 and 17 years. For these subjects 42 PET-CT scans were available for analysis. The testis was identified on the CT images. Mean standard uptake values and testicular volume were calculated based on manually drawn regions-of-interest over the organ. The correlation between mean standardized uptake value (SUV) and age as well as between testicular volume and age was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A strong and statistically significant positive correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the testis and age was documented. The correlation coefficient was 0.406 in the analysis based on 42 PET-CT studies (p=0.005). The correlation between tracer uptake and age was reassessed based on 22 PET-CT studies including the last recorded PET-CT scan per patient. The correlation coefficient was 0.409 (p=0.05). In addition, based on 22 PET-CT scans, a strong and statistically significant positive correlation between testicular volume and age was documented (r=0.67, p<0.001). Whereas it was previously shown that in adult men there was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the normal testis and age, we found a strong and statistically significant positive correlation in children and teenage boys. (author)

  11. Testis size variation within sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus (Gobiidae): effects of within-tactic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Shoma; Hayashi, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    A ‘sneaking tactic’ is an alternative reproductive strategy that usually results in sperm competition among males with different tactics. Relatively large testes are a sneaker-specific trait that has generally been thought to have evolved due to sperm competition between sneaker males and bourgeois (guarding) males. However, here we show that competition among sneaker males can also affect testis enlargement in the dusky frillgoby (Bathygobius fuscus) sneaker males. The competitive advantage ...

  12. Morphofunctional evaluation of the testis, duration of spermatogenesis and spermatogenic efficiency in the Japanese fancy mouse (Mus musculus molossinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guilherme M J; Leal, Marcelo C; França, Luiz R

    2017-08-01

    Japanese fancy mouse, mini mouse or pet mouse are common names used to refer to strains of mice that present with different colour varieties and coat types. Although many genetic studies that involve spotting phenotype based on the coat have been performed in these mice, there are no reports of quantitative data in the literature regarding testis structure and spermatogenic efficiency. Hence, in this study we researched testis function and spermatogenesis in the adult Japanese fancy mouse. The following values of 68 ± 6 mg and 0.94 ± 0.1% were obtained as mean testis weight and gonadosomatic index, respectively. In comparison with other investigated mice strains, the fancy mouse Leydig cell individual size was much smaller, resulting in higher numbers of these cells per gram of testis. As found for laboratory mice strains, as a result of the development of the acrosomic system, 12 stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle have been described in this study. The combined frequencies of pre-meiotic and post-meiotic stages were respectively 24% and 64% and very similar to the laboratory mice. The more differentiated germ cell types marked at 1 h or 9 days after tritiated thymidine administration were preleptotene/leptotene and pachytene spermatocytes at the same stage (VIII). The mean duration of one spermatogenic cycle was 8.8 ± 0.01 days and the total length of spermatogenesis lasted 37.8 ± 0.01 days (4.5 cycles). A high number of germ cell apoptosis was evident during meiosis, resulting in lower Sertoli cell and spermatogenic efficiencies, when compared with laboratory mice strains.

  13. Distinguishing non-obstructive azoospermia from obstructive azoospermia in Taiwanese patients by hormone profile and testis size

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    I-Shen Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An accurate diagnosis of the etiology of azoospermia is crucial, as sperm retrieval methods differ between patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA and obstructive azoospermia (OA. The aim of this study was to determine hormone and testes size cutoff values to identify the cause of azoospermia in Taiwanese patients. Methods: The medical records of azoospermic patients were retrospectively collected from April 2008 to July 2016, including hormone profile, physical examination findings, and testes size. Bilateral testes biopsies or microdissection testicular sperm extraction were performed in all patients for a definite diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters used to distinguish NOA from OA were analyzed using the t-test and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: A total of 51 patients with OA and 156 with NOA were included. The mean levels of testosterone (4.5 vs. 3.4 ng/ml and E2 (26.3 vs. 19.2 pg/ml were significantly higher in the OA group, whereas the levels of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH (5.6 vs. 25.4 mIU/ml and Leutinizing hormone (LH (3.7 vs. 11.6 mIU/ml were lower. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that FSH and right testis size were the best individual diagnostic predictors. Using a combination of FSH >9.2 mIU/ml and right testis size 9.2 mIU/ml and right testis size <15 ml was a strong predictor of NOA in our Taiwanese patients. Keywords: Azoospermia, FSH, Hormone, Testis

  14. Localization and expression of Orexin A and its receptor in mouse testis during different stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepanshu; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-01-15

    Orexin A (OXA), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, is involved in regulation of various biological functions and its actions are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor, OX1R. This neuropeptide has emerged as a central neuroendocrine modulator of reproductive functions. Both OXA and OX1R have been shown to be expressed in peripheral organs such as gastrointestinal and genital tracts. In the present study, localization and expression of OXA and OX1R in mouse testis during different stages of postnatal development have been investigated. Immunohistochemical results demonstrated localization of OXA and OX1R in both the interstitial and the tubular compartments of the testis throughout the period of postnatal development. In testicular sections on 0day postpartum (dpp), gonocytes, Sertoli cells and foetal Leydig cells showed OXA and OX1R-immunopositive signals. At 10dpp, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, early spermatocytes and Leydig cells showed immunopositive signals for both, the ligand and the receptor. On 30 and 90dpp, the spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, spermatocytes, spermatids and Leydig cells showed the OXA and OX1R-immunopositive signals. At 90dpp, strong OXA-positive signals were seen in Leydig cells, primary spermatocytes and spermatogonia, while OX1R-immunopositive intense signals were observed in Leydig cells and elongated spermatids. Further, semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that OXA and OX1R were expressed in the testis both at transcript and protein levels during different stages of postnatal development. The expression of OXA and OX1R increased progressively from day of birth (0dpp) until adulthood (90dpp), with maximal expression at 90 dpp. The results suggest that OXA and OX1R are expressed in the testis and that they may help in proliferation and development of germ cells, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, and in the spermatogenic process and steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  16. MRI findings of bilateral juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis in a newborn presenting as intraabdominal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yikilmaz, Ali [Erciyes Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gevher Nesibe Hospital, Kayseri (Turkey); Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the testis is a rare benign tumor that typically presents as a relatively small (<2 cm) unilateral scrotal mass in neonates or infants. Bilateral JGCT of the testes presenting as large intraabdominal masses in the neonate is very rare. Utilizing preoperative MRI findings, we report a rare case of bilateral JGCT of the testes presenting as large multiseptated abdominal masses originating from undescended intraabdominal testes in a neonate. (orig.)

  17. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation: Clinical Case Series of 245 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Okolo, Patrick I

    2008-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation.

  18. In defence of Kant's moral prohibition on suicide solely to avoid suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, G

    2008-09-01

    In Ian Brassington's article in a previous issue of this journal, he argues that suicide for the purpose of avoiding suffering is not, as Kant has contended, contrary to the moral law. Brassington's objections are not cogent because they rely upon the exegetically incorrect premise that according to Kant the priceless value of personhood is in the noumenal world that we have no perception of. On the basis of Kant's normative, metaphysical and epistemological theory, I argue, contrary to Brassington, that according to Kant personhood's moral value is explicitly in the sensible, phenomenal realm. While I argue that suicide solely to avoid suffering is immoral, I show that Kant's normative system allows some acts of suicide to be morally permissible. In the course of the discussion of the value of humanity's rationality and the immorality of suicide, I will discuss the broader modern medical ethical implications of Kant's arguments, such as the moral impermissibility of using rationality depriving drugs, such as ketamine, solely to avoid pain.

  19. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deli, Martin; Fritz, Jan; Mateiescu, Serban; Busch, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Becker, Jan; Garmer, Marietta; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  20. Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Rocker-Sole Footwear for First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis: Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

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    Majid Naghdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day; Fc-treated (200 mg/kg; and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA.

  2. Abnormal spermatogenesis following sodium fluoride exposure is associated with the downregulation of CREM and ACT in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Chen, Yan; Manthari, Ram Kumar; Wang, Jundong

    2018-04-01

    cAMP response element modulator (CREM) is involved in regulating gene expression in normal spermatogenesis. The transcriptional activity of CREM is partly regulated by activator of CREM in the testis (ACT). To investigate the effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the gene and protein expression of CREM and ACT in the mouse testis, sexually mature male Kunming mice were exposed to 50, 100, or 150 mg/L NaF in their drinking water for 90 days. NaF reduced the sperm count and viability and increased the percentage of malformed sperm in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of CREM and ACT was markedly downregulated in the NaF-treated groups. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that CREM and ACT proteins were decreased significantly in the 50, 100, and 150 mg/L NaF-treated groups compared to the control group. These findings indicate that the decreased gene and protein expression of CREM and ACT in the testis is associated with an impairment of reproductive functions by NaF.

  3. Effect of low dose radiation on cytochrome c and caspase-3 protein expressions in spermatogenic cells of mouse testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Piao Chunnan; Liu Guangwei; Liu Shuchun; Lv Zhe; Gong Shouliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low dose radiation on the expressions of cytochrome e (Cyt c) and caspase-3 proteins in spermatogenic cells of mouse testis. Methods: The relationships of dose- and time-effect of Cyt c and caspase-3 protein expressions with different dose of X-rays were observed in the spermatogenic cells of mouse testis with immunohistochemical technique (SABC). Results: After irradiation with 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.2 Gy, Cyt c and caspase-3 proteins expressed differently in all kinds of spermatogenic cells, and principally in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and less in spermatids and spermatozoa. And the expressions increased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The expressions of both proteins after irradiation with 0.075 Gy increased with the lapse of time and reached to the peak at 12 h, and then decreased. Conclusion: Dose-and time-effect exists on the low-dose irradiation induced expressions of Cyt e and caspase-3 proteins in spermatogenic cells of mouse testis. (authors)

  4. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Tan Fuqing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Junquan [Faculty of Life Science and Bioengineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhou Hong [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587 bp MT cDNA contains: an 80 bp 5 Prime untranslated region, a 333 bp 3 Prime untranslated region, and a 174 bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution.

  5. Role of chemotherapy prior to orchiectomy in metastatic testicular cancer-is testis really a sanctuary site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B Vinusha; Sivakanth, A; Naveen Babu, G; Swamyvelu, Krishnamurthy; Basavana Goud, Yg; Madhusudhana, Ba; Challa, Vasu Reddy

    2014-01-01

    A germ-cell tumour (GCT) of the testis is a chemosensitive tumour with high cure rates even in advanced disease. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the initial procedure used to diagnose it which helps to risk-stratify these patients. However, in patients with life-threatening metastases, primary chemotherapy was attempted in a few studies, followed by delayed orchiectomy. The aim of this review is to study the histopathological findings of delayed orchiectomy and the retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) specimens, to assess difference and concordance in response rates in histological types of GCTs in pathological specimens. Overall, 352 patients received initial chemotherapy followed by orchiectomy, and 235 of them had undergone RPLND. Delayed orchiectomy specimens had viable tumour in 74 (21%) patients, scarring/necrosis in 171 patients (48.5%), and teratoma in 107 (30.3%) patients. RPLND specimens had residual disease in 36 (15.3%) patients, scarring/necrosis in 100 patients (42.5%), and teratoma in 99 patients (42.3%). Patients with seminoma who underwent delayed orchiectomy had complete disappearance of tumour in 81.3% of cases, and in non-seminomatous GCT, it was 43.4%. These results raise the question of the existence of a blood-testis barrier in patients with advanced GCT and argue against the testis as a sanctuary site.

  6. Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

    2012-08-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH.

  7. Electron microscopic observation of 137Cs-irradiated rat testis. Production of basal laminae for germ cells, despite their absence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Hajime; Esaki, Michiyo

    2003-01-01

    Whole body γ-ray irradiation of rats with caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at embryonic day 20 induced marked reduction of the weight of the testis. Body weight and other tissues, however, seemed to remain normal. By light microscopy, complete loss of germ cells was observed in the testis. Other components, such as Sertoli cells and interstitial cells, seemed to be normal. The testes from day 8 postpartum rats contained very few spermatogonia compared with newborn rats, indicating loss of germ cells between days 0 and 8. In the adult, 137 Cs-irradiated testes showed two conspicuous features other than the loss of germ cells: empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells and multilayered seminiferous tubule basal laminae (lamina densa). The junctional structures (ectoplasmic specializations) between Sertoli cells, however, seemed normal. The thickness of each layer of multilayered basal laminae was the same as that of normal rats and electron-lucent layers similar to lamina lucida were interposed between them. Of the empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells, basal laminae bridge the gap. The basal laminae contained laminin, type IV collagen and heparan sulphate proteoglycan evenly distributed among layers, suggesting a normal composition. Rough estimation of the amount of basal laminae deposited in 137 Cs-irradiated rats indicates that it is within a range similar to that in normal testis. These features imply that Sertoli cells are, in part, determined perinatally to produce basal laminae for germ-line cells. (author)

  8. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  9. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Cell cycle arrest and gene expression profiling of testis in mice exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Lei, Ying; Cheng, Jing; Wang, Jundong

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to fluoride results in low reproductive capacity; however, the mechanism underlying the impact of fluoride on male productive system still remains obscure. To assess the potential toxicity in testis of mice administrated with fluoride, global genome microarray and real-time PCR were performed to detect and identify the altered transcriptions. The results revealed that 763 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 330 up-regulated and 433 down-regulated genes, which were involved in spermatogenesis, apoptosis, DNA damage, DNA replication, and cell differentiation. Twelve differential expressed genes were selected to confirm the microarray results using real-time PCR, and the result kept the same tendency with that of microarray. Furthermore, compared with the control group, more apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed in the fluoride group, and the spermatogonium were markedly increased in S phase and decreased in G2/M phase by fluoride. Our findings suggested global genome microarray provides an insight into the reproductive toxicity induced by fluoride, and several important biological clues for further investigations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1558-1565, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC 4 , LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC 4 is as different from rodent LDHC 4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA 4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB 4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC 4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC 4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC 4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  13. Imaging of Chromosome Dynamics in Mouse Testis Tissue by Immuno-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry

    2017-01-01

    The mouse (Mus musculus) represents the central mammalian genetic model system for biomedical and developmental research. Mutant mouse models have provided important insights into chromosome dynamics during the complex meiotic differentiation program that compensates for the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologous chromosomes (homologues) undergo dynamic pairing and recombine during first meiotic prophase before they become partitioned into four haploid sets by two consecutive meiotic divisions that lack an intervening S-phase. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been instrumental in the visualization and imaging of the dynamic reshaping of chromosome territories and mobility during prophase I, in which meiotic telomeres were found to act as pacemakers for the chromosome pairing dance. FISH combined with immunofluorescence (IF) co-staining of nuclear proteins has been instrumental for the visualization and imaging of mammalian meiotic chromosome behavior. This chapter describes FISH and IF methods for the analysis of chromosome dynamics in nuclei of paraffin-embedded mouse testes. The techniques have proven useful for fresh and archived paraffin testis material of several mammalian species.

  14. Identification and verification of potential piRNAs from domesticated yak testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jishang; Zhang, Quanwei; Wang, Qi; Ma, Youji; Du, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xingxu

    2018-02-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA) are small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal germ cells that interact with PIWI family proteins to form RNA-protein complexes involved in epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene silencing of retrotransposons and other genetic elements in germ line cells, including reproductive stem cell self-sustainment, differentiation, meiosis and spermatogenesis. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of piRNAs in testis samples from yaks in different stages of sexual maturity. Deep sequencing of the small RNAs (18-40 nt in length) yielded 4,900,538 unique reads from a total of 53,035,635 reads. We identified yak small RNAs (18-30 nt) and performed functional characterization. Yak small RNAs showed a bimodal length distribution, with two peaks at 22 nt and >28 nt. More than 80% of the 3,106,033 putative piRNAs were mapped to 4637 piRNA-producing genomic clusters using RPKM. 6388 candidate piRNAs were identified from clean reads and the annotations were compared with the yak reference genome repeat region. Integrated network analysis suggested that some differentially expressed genes were involved in spermatogenesis through ECM-receptor interaction and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Our data provide novel insights into the molecular expression and regulation similarities and diversities in spermatogenesis and testicular development in yaks at different stages of sexual maturity. © 2018 The authors.

  15. Effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury-induced oxidative damage in mice testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X-C; Wang, P; Li, H-W; Wu, Q-B; Zhang, X-Y; Li, B-W; Xiu, R-J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced oxidative damage in testes. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-, SCI- or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated SCI groups. To induce SCI, a standard weight-drop method that induced a contusion injury at T10 was used. After 1 week, testicular blood flow velocity was measured using the Laser Doppler Line Scanner. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in testis homogenates. Microvascular permeability of the testes to Evan's Blue was examined by spectrophotometric and fluorescence microscopic quantitation. The tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in testes were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Melatonin increased the reduced blood flow and decreased SCI-induced permeability of capillaries. MDA levels and MPO activity were elevated in the SCI group compared with shams, which was reversed by melatonin. In contrast, SCI-induced reductions in GSH/GSSG ratio were restored by melatonin. Decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin was observed, which was attenuated by melatonin. Overall, melatonin treatment protects the testes against oxidative stress damage caused by SCI. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Sertoli cell death by apoptosis in the immature rat testis following x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, D.J.; Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the morphological study of cell death has recently been emphasized by the recognition that the ultrastructural features of dying cells allow categorization of the death as either apoptosis or necrosis. This classification enables inferences to be drawn about the mechanism and biological significance of the death occurring in a particular set of circumstances. In this study, Sertoli cell death induced in the immature testis of three and four day old rats by 5 Gy (500 rads) x-irradiation was described by light and transmission electron microscopy with the objective of categorizing the death as apoptosis or necrosis. The testes were examined 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after irradiation. Following irradiation, there was a wave of apoptosis of the Sertoli cells starting in three to four hours and reaching a peak between four and eight hours. At 24 hours, only 61% of the expected number of Sertoli cells remained. These findings are in accord with recent ultrastructural reports that ionizing radiation induces cell death by apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell populations. New insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cell death might thus be expected to stem from future elucidation of the general molecular events involved in triggering apoptosis

  17. Vitamin E modifies the ultrastructure of testis and epididymis in mice exposed to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Mohamed A; Tariq, Saeed; Adeghate, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to cause abnormal function of several systems including the male reproductive system, where it has been shown to reduce sperm count. In order to examine the morphological basis of the reduction in sperm count and a possible effect of vitamin E, lead acetate (1 mg/kg body weight) was given to control and vitamin E-treated mice daily, intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The testis and body of epididymis of the mice were subjected to electron microscopy study. Pb caused degenerative changes in spermatids inducing vacuolization and a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic organelles in Leydig cells. Pb also destroyed the stereocilia of epididymal epithelium. The addition of vitamin E ameliorated the severity of these morphological changes. In conclusion, Pb-induced reduction in sperm count may be due to changes in the ultrastructure of spermatids, epididymal epithelia and Leydig cells. These changes can be reduced by vitamin E. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between spermatogonial stem cell survival and testis function after cytotoxic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistrich, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    This review, with substantial bibliography, concludes that the acute effects of radiation and cytotoxic drugs are a result of toxicity to the most sensitive of the germ cells, which in most cases are the differentiating spermatogonia. Long-term sterility or reduction in sperm production depends directly on killing of spermatogonial stem cells. For a variety of cytotoxic agents, the same relationship holds between the stem cell survival index and the prompt recovery level of sperm production (at 56 days), the maximal recovered level of sperm production, and the time required for fertility to return. It also appears that the spermatogonial stem cell is the target for long-term sterility in man following cytotoxic therapy. It is not known whether the delay in recovery is a result of this direct damage to the stem cell or an effect on another target cell in the tissue. Data obtained in both experimental animals and man indicate very little direct changes in the secretory cells and other stromal cells of the testis, and there is no evidence as yet that any alterations in these cells adversely affect sperm production or reproductive performance. (UK)

  19. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  20. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  1. Proteomic analysis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD dipalmitate toxicity in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Stefanie; Oberemm, Axel; Buhrke, Thorsten; Meckert, Christine; Rozycki, Christel; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Thermal treatment of foodstuff containing fats and salt promotes the formation of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its fatty acid esters. 3-MCPD-exposed rats develop testicular lesions and Leydig cell tumors. 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD ester toxicity is thought to be caused by 3-MCPD and its metabolites, since 3-MCPD esters are hydrolyzed in the gut. Inhibition of glycolysis is one of the few known molecular mechanisms of 3-MCPD toxicity. To obtain deeper insight into this process, a comparative proteomic approach was chosen, based on a 28-days repeated-dose feeding study with male Wistar rats. Animals received equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD dipalmitate. A lower dose of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was also administered. Absence of histopathological changes supported an analysis of early cellular disturbance. Testes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometric protein identification. Data provide a comprehensive overview of proteomic changes induced by 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD dipalmitate in rat testis in an early phase of organ impairment. Results are compatible with known 3-MCPD effects on reproductive function, substantially extend our knowledge about cellular responses to 3-MCPD and support the hypothesis that toxicity of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters is mediated via common effectors. DJ-1 was identified as a candidate marker for 3-MCPD exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Tribulus tertesris extract on body weight, testis histopathology and size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kaffashi Elahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (TT is a flowering plant, traditionally being used as an aphrodisiac agent. Studies shown that TT extract increases testosterone levels and produces aphrodisiac effects. Nowadays is a major ingredient of most aphrodisiac drugs but there is no document about its testicular pathology in long term use. The purpose of our study was to identify the effects in rats of oral TT on body weight, testicular histopathology and weight at normal and double doses to presume its probable negative effects in human while using exaggerated for long period of time. 30 male mature SD rats were used, kept in individual cages, fed with standard ration and water ad libitum, divided into 3 groups (G; c, a and b received placebo and oral doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of TT, SID for 8weeks .Rats were weighted at day 1, and At the end of the study, all were weighted, anaesthetized and the left testis excised. Testicular weigh with and without epididymis was recorded then histopathologic slides prepared with H&E and Masson trichrome, and focused on seminiferous tube diameter, epithelial layer thickness, interstitial space length, testicular capsule thickness. All stages of the experiment were conducted as blind. Data statistically analyzed by variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5% (p

  3. Dose and time relationships in the endocrine response of the irradiated adult rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.I.; Hendry, J.H.; Morris, I.D.; Shalet, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The dose- and time-dependent responses for the interstitial and tubular compartments in irradiated adult rat testes are described. Leydig cell dysfunction, as indicated by increased serum LH (to a maximum of 385% of control after 5 Gy) and decreased serum T (to a minimum of 30% of control after 10 Gy), was observed at 8 weeks postirradiation. Subsequent recovery of Leydig cell function was then observed, so that after 9 months serum T was normal but LH was still marginally elevated. The dysfunction, with a threshold of about 4 to 5 Gy, was associated with a loss of Leydig cells from the testis. Spermatogenic damage was observed; after doses of 3 Gy and above a marked dose-response was recorded as assessed by counts of tubule cross sections exhibiting spermatogenesis. Reduced serum levels of androgen binding protein indicated Sertoli cell dysfunction at 8 weeks after 3 Gy and above, with values of less than one half of those seen in the controls. Serum FSH also was elevated to between 150% and 200% of control, and after 9 months closely reflected androgen binding protein changes. Unlike the Leydig cell, no recovery with time was observed for this aspect of Sertoli cell function

  4. Intratubular germ cell neoplasms of the testis and bilateral testicular tumors: Clinical significance and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Risk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN is the precursor lesion for invasive testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs of adolescents and young adults. The rising incidence of these tumors has prompted a rigorous investigation of the etiology, diagnosis and management of ITGCN. Bilateral testicular cancer is closely linked with ITGCN, as patients with unilateral testicular cancer are at the highest risk for a future malignancy in the contralateral testicle. Methods : A literature review directed at ITGCN and bilateral testis cancer was performed using the Medline/PubMed database. Our review focused on the pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment regimens utilized. Results : Major advances have been made in the understanding of ITGCN over the past 30 years. There is evidence that TGCTs arise from ITGCN, ITGCN is closely related to fetal gonocytes, and that events in pre- and perinatal period may result in abnormal persistence of fetal gonocytes leading to ITGCN and subsequent TGCT. Controversy exists regarding the need to biopsy men at increased risk of TGCT, as well as the best approach to managing patients with known ITGCN. Bilateral testicular cancer has excellent outcomes in the current era of platinum-based chemotherapy. Conclusion : The optimal management of patients at risk for ITGCN and future TGCT is still a matter of debate. Individualization of management, including biopsy and treatment, should be based on risk factors for TGCT, compliance with potential surveillance, and patient preferences particularly with regard to fertility.

  5. Premeiotic germ cell defect in seminiferous tubules of Atm-null testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Keiyo; Hirao, Atsushi; Ohmura, Masako; Azuma, Masaki; Arai, Fumio; Nagamatsu, Go; Suda, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong spermatogenesis is maintained by coordinated sequential processes including self-renewal of stem cells, proliferation of spermatogonial cells, meiotic division, and spermiogenesis. It has been shown that ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) is required for meiotic division of the seminiferous tubules. Here, we show that, in addition to its role in meiosis, ATM has a pivotal role in premeiotic germ cell maintenance. ATM is activated in premeiotic spermatogonial cells and the Atm-null testis shows progressive degeneration. In Atm-null testicular cells, differing from bone marrow cells of Atm-null mice, reactive oxygen species-mediated p16 Ink4a activation does not occur in Atm-null premeiotic germ cells, which suggests the involvement of different signaling pathways from bone marrow defects. Although Atm-null bone marrow undergoes p16 Ink4a -mediated cellular senescence program, Atm-null premeiotic germ cells exhibited cell cycle arrest and apoptotic elimination of premeiotic germ cells, which is different from p16 Ink4a -mediated senescence

  6. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  7. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Polychaete worm tubes modify juvenile northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra depth distribution in Kodiak nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that evaluates whether inter-annual variability in the depth distribution of juvenile northern rock sole on their nursery grounds around...

  8. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Substrate preference and delayed settlement in northern rock sole larvae Lepidopsetta polyxystra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from laboratory experiments testing the onset and ontogenetic changes in habitat selection of pre- and post-settling northern rock sole (NRS) larvae,...

  9. Effects of environmental Bisphenol A exposures on germ cell development and Leydig cell function in the human fetal testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Eladak

    Full Text Available Using an organotypic culture system termed human Fetal Testis Assay (hFeTA we previously showed that 0.01 μM BPA decreases basal, but not LH-stimulated, testosterone secreted by the first trimester human fetal testis. The present study was conducted to determine the potential for a long-term antiandrogenic effect of BPA using a xenograft model, and also to study the effect of BPA on germ cell development using both the hFETA and xenograft models.Using the hFeTA system, first trimester testes were cultured for 3 days with 0.01 to 10 μM BPA. For xenografts, adult castrate male nude mice were injected with hCG and grafted with first trimester testes. Host mice received 10 μM BPA (~ 500 μg/kg/day in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Plasma levels of total and unconjugated BPA were 0.10 μM and 0.038 μM respectively. Mice grafted with second trimester testes received 0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day BPA by oral gavage for 5 weeks.With first trimester human testes, using the hFeTA model, 10 μM BPA increased germ cell apoptosis. In xenografts, germ cell density was also reduced by BPA exposure. Importantly, BPA exposure significantly decreased the percentage of germ cells expressing the pluripotency marker AP-2γ, whilst the percentage of those expressing the pre-spermatogonial marker MAGE-A4 significantly increased. BPA exposure did not affect hCG-stimulated androgen production in first and second trimester xenografts as evaluated by both plasma testosterone level and seminal vesicle weight in host mice.Exposure to BPA at environmentally relevant concentrations impairs germ cell development in first trimester human fetal testis, whilst gonadotrophin-stimulated testosterone production was unaffected in both first and second trimester testis. Studies using first trimester human fetal testis demonstrate the complementarity of the FeTA and xenograft models for determining the respective short-term and long term effects of environmental exposures.

  10. Asymptomatic hyper-creatine-kinase-emia as sole manifestation of inclusion body myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM usually manifests with painless weakness of the hand, finger and hip flexors. Absence of symptoms or signs, but mild hyper-CK-emia as the sole manifestation of IBM, has not been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old male who presented with asymptomatic recurrent hyper-CK-emia ranging from 200 to 1324 U/L (n<171 U/L, since 10 years. Clinical neurologic investigation, nerve conduction studies and EMG were non-informative. Muscle biopsy surprisingly revealed sIBM. sIBM may be asymptomatic and may manifest with hyper-CK-emia exclusively. So, it has to be included in the differential diagnoses of asymptomatic hyper-CK-emia.

  11. Pitted keratolysis – a frequently misdiagnosed, mild, infectious disorder of soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Lewicka-Potocka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Pitted keratolysis (PK is a mild infectious skin disorder caused by Corynebacterium spp., Kytococcus sedentarius or Dermatophilus congolensis . These bacteria produce enzymes that digest keratin, causing superficial lesions in the plantar surface. The disease is predominantly observed in young men. Objective . Pitted keratolysis despite the characteristic presentation of skin lesions is often misdiagnosed. In this article we aimed to remind readers of its clinical aspects and treatment by presenting a typical PK case. Case report. A 35-year-old man was admitted to the dermatological clinic due to skin lesions on both soles. In the physical examination we found multiple crateriform pits, associated with hyperhidrosis and malodour diagnosed as PK. Remission of lesions was observed after treatment with oral erythromycin. Conclusions . The differential diagnosis of plantar skin lesions should include PK. Due to typical clinical manifestation the diagnosis is based on physical examination.

  12. Isolated Tenosynovitis as a Sole Manifestation: The Great Mimicker Still Continues to Surprise Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhishek; Surana, Trupti V; Biswas, Saugato; Reja, Abu Hena Hasanoor; Chatterjee, Gobinda

    2015-01-01

    A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M. leprae. We, thus, report a unique case of isolated tenosynovitis as a sole manifestation of pure neural leprosy which is extremely rare in world literature. PMID:25814736

  13. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  14. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  15. De novo acute leukemia with a sole 5q-: morphological, immunological, and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchayne, E; Dastugue, N; Kuhlein, E; Huguet, F; Pris, J

    1993-11-01

    The 5 q deletion is frequently found in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute non lymphoid leukemia, but this anomaly is usually found in secondary diseases and associated with many other chromosomal aberrations. This report describes four cases of "de novo" acute leukemia with a sole 5q- anomaly. They had no cytological, genetic or clinical characteristics of secondary disorders. It is important to note that of the four patients studied, three had proliferation of immature blast cells. One case was classified as a MO AML and two as "undifferentiated" acute leukemia. Furthermore, these four cases of acute leukemia showed a deletion of the same portion of the long arm of chromosome 5: q22q33. On the same part of this chromosome many hematopoietic growth factor genes have been located, like IL3 and GM-CSF which have early undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells as a their target.

  16. Ultrasound-guided greater auricular nerve block as sole anesthetic for ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Ritchie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater auricular nerve (GAN block was used as the sole anesthetic for facial surgery in an 80-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities which would have made general anesthesia challenging. The GAN provides sensation to the ear, mastoid process, parotid gland, and angle of the mandible. In addition to anesthesia for operating room surgery, the GAN block can be used for outpatient or emergency department procedures without the need for a separate anesthesia team. Although this nerve block has been performed using landmark-based techniques, the ultrasoundguided version offers several potential advantages. These advantages include increased reliability of the nerve block, as well as prevention of inadvertent vascular puncture or blockade of the phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, or deep cervical plexus. The increasing access to ultrasound technology for medical care providers outside the operating room makes this ultrasound guided block an increasingly viable alternative.

  17. Ahistological and histochemical study of the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Arellano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A histological and histochemical study was performed in the buccal cavity and papillae, which were around the teeth, as well as in the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis adult specimens. The oesophagus and oesogaster were made up of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscular and serous. Two morphological types of epithelial cells were distinguishable in the oesophageal mucosa: the more numerous type cells possessed an electron-dense cytoplasm, whereas the cytoplasm was electron-clear in the other cells. Mucussecreting cells were the dominant feature of the epithelium throughout the oesophagus. These goblet cells were filled with numerous mucous droplets of low electron-density. The oesophagus was devoid of taste buds.

  18. Effects of shoe sole geometry on toe clearance and walking stability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, S B; Price, C; Kenney, L P J; Baker, R

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-five percent of people above age 65 fall each year, and half of their falls are associated with tripping: tripping, an apparently 'mundane' everyday problem, therefore, significantly impacts on older people's health and associated medical costs. To avoid tripping and subsequent falling, sufficient toe clearance during the swing phase is crucial. We previously found that a rocker-shaped shoe sole enhances toe clearance in young adults, thereby decreasing their trip-risk. This study investigates whether such sole design also enhances older adults' toe clearance, without inadvertently affecting their walking stability. Toe clearance and its variability are reported together with measures of walking stability for twelve older adults, walking in shoes with rocker angles of 10°, 15°, and 20°. Surface inclinations (flat, incline, decline) were chosen to reflect a potential real-world environment. Toe clearance increased substantially from the 10° to the 15° rocker angle (p=0.003) without compromising measures of walking stability (p>0.05). A further increase in rocker angle to 20° resulted in less substantial enhancement of toe clearance and came at the cost of a decrease in gait speed on the decline. The novelty of this investigation lies in the exploration of the trade-off between reduction of trip-risk through footwear design and adverse effects on walking stability on real-life relevant surfaces. Our two studies suggest that the current focus on slip-resistance in footwear design may need to be generalised to include other factors that affect trip-risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.