WorldWideScience

Sample records for seminal plasma-induced mast

  1. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductiv...

  2. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C; Johnson, Brittni A; Erikson, David W; Piltonen, Terhi T; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C; Greene, Warner C; Giudice, Linda C; Roan, Nadia R

    2014-06-01

    How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ≥|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P reproductive success, female reproductive health and susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. The gene list provided by the transcriptome analysis reported here should prove a valuable resource for understanding the response of the upper FRT to SP exposure. This project was supported by NIH AI083050-04 (W.C.G./L.C.G.); NIH U54HD 055764 (L.C.G.); NIH 1F32HD074423-02 (J.C.C.); DOD W81XWH-11

  3. Seminal vesicle cycts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpern, M.B.; Dorfman, R.E.; Gross, B.H.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Sandler, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adult polycystic kidney disease (APKCD), an autosomal dominant disorder, causes cyst formation in the kidney, liver, pancreas, esophagus, ovaries, uterus, and brain. This paper describes four APKCD patients with CT evidence of seminal vesicle cysts (SVCs). Four patients (aged 45-65 years) underwent abdominal/pelvic CT with oral and intravenous contrast material. Three were evaluated for possible renal transplantation and one for sepsis material. All seminal vesicles contained cystic masses with fluid that measured between 0 and 30 HU. Seminal vesicle thickness was 3-4 cm (normal, 1.5 cm). High-density walls separated the 3-12-mm diameter cysts. All patients demonstrated typical renal stigmata of APKCD. One patient had hepatic cysts, and none had cysts elsewhere. Postmortem examination in one patient confirmed the SVCs

  4. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  5. Mast Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  6. First results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykes, A.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    MAST is one of the new generation of large, purpose-built spherical tokamaks (STs) now becoming operational, designed to investigate the properties of the ST in large, collisionless plasmas. The first six months of MAST operations have been remarkably successful. Operationally, both merging-compr...

  7. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  8. Magnetic resonance of seminal vesicles: a noninvasive study of seminal way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, J.A.; Rey Valzacchi, G.; Sinclair, M.E.; Loor Guadamud, G.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic resonance without endorectal coil is an excellent diagnostic tool for studying the entire route of seminal non-invasive way in a single step diagnosis. We call magnetic resonance of seminal vesicles, but includes both the study of the seminal vesicles as the channels of the seminal way. [es

  9. Seminal transferrin in the seminal quality evaluation of hemodialytic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify the association between seminal quality and seminal transferrin (ST level and fertility index in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (CH. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study in a group of 60 men (case undergoing CH for more than 6 months, and a group of 30 healthy men (control, aged 18-60 years, without clinical or laboratory signs of infection/inflammation. Spermiogram was performed, fertility index (FI was calculated and ST and sex hormones (SH levels were measured, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and prolactin. Results: All individuals were eugonadal. No differences for age (49.47 ± 5.56, 47.90 ± 6.2, p = 0.22 were observed between cases and controls, whereas there were significant differences between the individuals in the case and control groups with respect to the mean FI (p = 0.000, seminal parameters (SP (p = 0.000, and ST levels (40.12 ± 08.25 vs 73.32 ± 06.8, p = 0.000. ST levels were correlated with FI (r = 0.787, p = 0.00 and SP (motility: r = 0.857, p = 0.000; vitality: r = 0.551, p = 0.000; density: r = 0.850, p = 0.000; normal morphology: r = 0.386, p = 0.000. Linear regression model showed relationship of ST levels with total sperm motility (R2 = 0.701; p = 0.000 and and FI (R2 = 0.569; p = 0.000. Conclusions: Our results suggest that seminal quality is associated with ST levels and FI and that it can be used the initial investigation of subfertility/infertility of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis..

  10. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    remodeling, wound healing, and tumor repression or growth. The broad scope .... lesions, and (iv) MC leukemia, probably representing the ..... Slow-release Vitamin C (increased degranulation of histamine; inhibition of mast cell degranulation ...

  11. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  12. MAST data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Counsell, G.; Cunningham, G.; Manhood, S.J.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Waterhouse, J.

    2006-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) presently collects up to 400 MB of data in about 3000 data items per shot, and subsequent fast growth is expected. Since the start of MAST operations (in 1999) the system has changed dramatically. Though we continue to use legacy CAMAC hardware, newer VME, PCI, and PXI based sub-systems collect most of the data now. All legacy software has been redesigned and new software has been developed. Last year a major system improvement was made-replacement of the message distribution system. The new message system provides easy connection of any sub-system independently of its platform and serves as a framework for many new applications. A new data acquisition controller provides full control of common sub-systems, central error logging, and data acquisition alarms for the MAST plant. A number of new sub-systems using Linux and Windows OSs on VME, PCI, and PXI platforms have been developed. A new PXI unit has been designed as a base sub-system accommodating any type of data acquisition and control devices. Several web applications for the real-time MAST monitoring and data presentation have been developed

  13. Overview of MAST results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapman, I.T.; Adámek, Jiří; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bigelow, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Carr, M.; Caughman, J.; Cecconelo, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W.A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.J.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Diallo, A.; Dickinson, D.; Diem, S.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fox, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gibson, K.; Graves, J.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawke, J.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Holgate, J.; Horáček, Jan; Howard, J.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Leggate, H.; Lilley, M.; Lipschutz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A.W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O’Brien, M.; O’Gorman, T.; Ono, Y.; Oliver, H.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Podesta, M.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Roach, C.; Robinson, J.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Storrs, J.; Takase, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, D.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Walkden, N.; Wilson, H.; Wyk, L.V.; Yamada, T.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2015), s. 104008-104008 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference 2014 (FEC) /25./. St Petersburg, 13.10.2014-18.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : numerical model * MAST * high confinement operation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  14. The MAST improved divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darke, A.C.; Hayward, R.J.; Counsell, G.F.; Hawkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham is one of the leading world machines studying the spherical tokamak (ST) concept. At the time of the initial construction in 1998 little was known about the sort of divertor structures that would be required in an ST. The machine was therefore provided with relatively rudimentary structures that were designed mostly to protect important components from the hot plasma. While these have served the machine well it was accepted that they might not be suitable when operating MAST to its full potential. The years of experience of operating MAST have led to the design, manufacture and now installation of a new divertor, the MAST improved divertor (MID), that should be able to cope with the full performance of the machine. The design is based on imbricated (fan-shaped) disks of tiles at the top and bottom of the machine for the outer strike points, giving an excellent compromise between power handling and diagnostic access, with substantial new centre column strike point armour and a shaped plate in between. High purity graphite is chosen as the plasma facing material in preference to CFC since in this case it has a better balance of performance and cost. The lower imbricated disk is insulated in alternate sectors for studies of divertor biasing and extensive diagnostics and additional inboard gas injection are included

  15. Drilling rig mast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, E.S.; Barashkov, V.A.; Lebedev, A.I.; Panin, N.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-01-07

    A drilling rig mast is proposed that contains a portal with a carrier shaft hinged to it and struts with stays. In order to decrease the time expended in the assembly and dessembly of the drilling rig, the portal is constructed from mobile and immobile parts that are connected together by a ball pivot; the immobile section of the portal has a T-shaped recess for directing the mobile section.

  16. Assay of mast cell mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Mediator release from activated mast cells is a major initiator of the symptomology associated with allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Thus, methods to monitor the generation and release of such mediators have widespread applicability in studies designed to understand the processes...... regulating mast cell activation and for the identification of therapeutic approaches to block mast cell-driven disease. In this chapter, we discuss approaches used for the determination of mast cell degranulation, lipid-derived inflammatory mediator production, and cytokine/chemokine gene expression as well...

  17. Pervasive Adaptive Evolution in Primate Seminal Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Seminal fluid proteins show striking effects on reproduction, involving manipulation of female behavior and physiology, mechanisms of sperm competition, and pathogen defense. Strong adaptive pressures are expected for such manifestations of sexual selection and host defense, but the extent of positive selection in seminal fluid proteins from divergent taxa is unknown. We identified adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins using genomic resources in a tissue-specific study. We found extensive signatures of positive selection when comparing 161 human seminal fluid proteins and 2,858 prostate-expressed genes to those in chimpanzee. Seven of eight outstanding genes yielded statistically significant evidence of positive selection when analyzed in divergent primates. Functional clues were gained through divergent analysis, including several cases of species-specific loss of function in copulatory plug genes, and statistically significant spatial clustering of positively selected sites near the active site of kallikrein 2. This study reveals previously unidentified positive selection in seven primate seminal proteins, and when considered with findings in Drosophila, indicates that extensive positive selection is found in seminal fluid across divergent taxonomic groups.

  18. MR imaging of the seminal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, S.B.; Hricak, H.; Chun-Fang Chang, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The seminal vesicles of 56 healthy males and 23 males with pathologic conditions were studied with a .35-T magnet and spin-echo (SE) techniques (repetition time/echo time [msec] = 500/30 and 2,000/60). The authors analyzed (1) the size and relative signal intensity of seminal vesicles compared to surrounding fat, muscle, or urine; (2) the effect of aging on the size and signal intensity of the vesicles, and (3) the appearance of the seminal vesicles in different pathologic conditions. In the transverse plane, the normal seminal vesicle measures 31 +- 7 mm in length and 17 +- 4 mm in width. Its size or signal intensity did not change significantly with age. On SE = 500/30 images the seminal vesicles were isointense with muscle; on SE = 2,000/60 images they were isointense or slightly hypointense relative to fat. MR imaging was highly sensitive for displaying seminal vesicle pathology, based on asymmetry in size and changes in signal intensities. MR imaging provides unique information but its role in pathologic conditions needs to be further explored

  19. Immune regulation by mast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jolien

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this PhD thesis is to understand mast cell (and basophil) functions and their role in autoimmune disease by focusing on three main aims: 1. To characterize the interaction between innate and Fc receptor triggers on mast cell and basophil function 2. To analyze the interaction

  20. MAST magnetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlington, T.; Martin, R.; Pinfold, T.

    2001-01-01

    The mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) experiment is a new, large, low aspect ratio device (R=0.7-0.8 m, a=0.5-0.65 m, maximum BT˜0.63 T at R=0.7 m) operating its first experimental physics campaign. Designed to study a wide variety of plasma shapes with up to 2 MA of plasma current with an aspect ratio down to 1.3, the poloidal field (PF) coils used for plasma formation, equilibrium and shaping are inside the main vacuum vessel. For plasma control and to investigate a wide range of plasma phenomena, an extensive set of magnetic diagnostics have been installed inside the vacuum vessel. More than 600 vacuum compatible, bakeable diagnostic coils are configured in a number of discrete arrays close to the plasma edge with about half the coils installed behind the graphite armour tiles covering the center column. The coil arrays measure the toroidal and poloidal variation in the equilibrium field and its high frequency fluctuating components. Internal coils also measure currents in the PF coils, plasma current, stored energy and induced currents in the mechanical support structures of the coils and graphite armour tiles. The latter measurements are particularly important when halo currents are induced following a plasma termination, for example, when the plasma becomes vertically unstable. The article describes the MAST magnetic diagnostic coil set and their calibration. The way in which coil signals are used to control the plasma equilibrium is described and data from the first MAST experimental campaign presented. These coil data are used as input to the code EFIT [L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)], for measurement of halo currents in the vacuum vessel structure and for measurements of the structure of magnetic field fluctuations near the plasma edge.

  1. First results from MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, A.

    2001-01-01

    MAST is one of the new generation of large, purpose-built Spherical Tokamaks now becoming operational, designed to investigate the properties of the ST in large, collisionless plasmas. The first 6 months of MAST operations have been remarkably successful. Operationally, both merging-compression and the more usual solenoid induction schemes have been demonstrated, the former providing over 400kA of plasma current with no demand on solenoid flux. Good vacuum conditions and operational conditions, particularly after boronization in trymethylated boron, have provided plasma current of over 1MA with central plasma temperatures (Ohmic) of order 1keV. The Hugill and Greenwald limits can be exceeded, and H-mode achieved at modest additional NBI power. Moreover, particle and energy confinement show an immediate increase at the L-H transition, unlike START where this only became apparent at the highest plasma currents. Halo currents are small, with low toroidal peaking factors, in accordance with theoretical predictions, and there is evidence of a resilience to the major disruption. (author)

  2. Overview of MAST results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G.F.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) towards a fundamental understanding of transport, stability and edge physics and addressing technological issues for future large devices. Collaborative studies of the L-H transition with NSTX and ASDEX Upgrade confirm that operation in a connected double-null configuration significantly reduces the threshold power, P thr . The MAST data provide support for a theory for the transition based on finite β drift wave turbulence suppression by self-generated zonal flows. Analysis of low and high field side density gradients in the H-mode pedestal provides support for an analytical model of the density pedestal width dependent on the neutral penetration depth. Adding MAST data to international confinement databases has enhanced confidence in scalings for ITER by significantly expanding the range of β and ε explored and indicates a slightly stronger ε dependence than in current scalings. Studies of core transport have been conducted for well-diagnosed L-mode, H-mode and internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges using TRANSP, and microstability and turbulence studies have been carried out using GS2. Linear micro-stability analysis indicates that ITG modes are typically unstable on all flux surfaces with growth rates that are comparable to the equilibrium E x B flow shearing rate. Mixing length estimates of transport coefficients from ITG (neglecting flow shear) give diffusion coefficients that are broadly comparable with observed thermal diffusivities. Non-linear, collisionless ETG calculations have been performed and suggest radially extended electrostatic streamers up to 100ρ e across in radius. Transport from ITG could easily be suppressed in regions where the E x B shear flow rate, ω SE , exceeds the ITG growth rate, possibly contributing to ITBs. Toroidal rotation, driven by neutral beam torque, is the dominant contribution to ω SE via the v Φ B θ term in the radial electric

  3. Overview of MAST results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G.F.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on MAST towards a fundamental understanding of transport, stability and edge physics and addressing technological issues for future large devices. Collaborative studies of the L-H transition with NSTX and ASDEX Upgrade confirm that operation in a connected double-null configuration significantly reduces the threshold power, P thr . MAST data provide support for a theory for the transition based on finite β drift wave turbulence suppression by self-generated zonal flows. Analysis of low and high field side density gradients in the H-mode pedestal provide support for an analytical model of the density pedestal width dependent on the neutral penetration depth. Adding MAST data to international confinement databases has enhanced confidence in scalings for ITER by significantly expanding the range of β and ε explored and indicates a slightly stronger ε dependence than in current scalings. Studies of core transport have been conducted for well diagnosed, L-mode, H-mode and ITB discharges using TRANSP and microstability and turbulence studies have been carried out using GS2. Linear micro-stability analysis indicates that ITG modes are typically unstable on all flux surfaces with growth rates that are comparable to the equilibrium ExB flow shearing rate. Mixing length estimates of transport coefficients from ITG (neglecting flow shear) give diffusion coefficients that are broadly comparable with observed thermal diffusivities. Non-linear, collisionless ETG calculations have been performed and suggest radially extended electrostatic streamers up to 100ρ e across in radius. Transport from ITG could easily be suppressed in regions where the ExB shear flow rate, ω SE exceeds the ITG growth rate, possibly contributing to ITBs. Toroidal rotation, driven by neutral beam torque, is the dominant contribution to ω SE via the v φ B θ term in the radial electric field. Early ELM activity on MAST is associated with the formation of narrow

  4. Mast cell repopulation of the peritoneal cavity: contribution of mast cell progenitors versus bone marrow derived committed mast cell precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells have recently gained new importance as immunoregulatory cells that are involved in numerous pathological processes. One result of these processes is an increase in mast cell numbers at peripheral sites. This study was undertaken to determine the mast cell response in the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow during repopulation of the peritoneal cavity in rats. Results Two mast cell specific antibodies, mAb AA4 and mAb BGD6, were used to distinguish the committed mast cell precursor from more mature mast cells. The peritoneal cavity was depleted of mast cells using distilled water. Twelve hours after distilled water injection, very immature mast cells could be isolated from the blood and by 48 hours were present in the peritoneal cavity. At this same time the percentage of mast cells in mitosis increased fourfold. Mast cell depletion of the peritoneal cavity also reduced the total number of mast cells in the bone marrow, but increased the number of mast cell committed precursors. Conclusions In response to mast cell depletion of the peritoneal cavity, a mast cell progenitor is released into the circulation and participates in repopulation of the peritoneal cavity, while the committed mast cell precursor is retained in the bone marrow.

  5. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  6. Wind flow around met masts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heraud, P.; Masson, C.; Tusch, M. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the impacts of meteorological masts on the measurement of wind resources. Two types of meteorological masts are used in wind power applications, namely lattice, and tubular masts. Anemometer accuracy can be impacted by the logger as well as by the instrumentation layout. The International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) recommends that anemometers are placed at a 45 degree angle from pre-dominant winds. However, the impact of turbulent flow around meteorological masts is poorly understood. The numerical model developed in the study included mass and momentum conservation models for tubular and lattice towers. Distortion level recommendations were presented. The study showed that distortion depends on the layout, and that IEC recommendations for instrumentation layouts need to be revised. tabs., figs.

  7. Investigation of Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    diseases, chronic vaginal candidiasis ); 3) establish the prevalence of BSS and localized/systemic seminal plasma protein hypersensitivity among the GW...of further investigation as our population grows. Subsequent pharmacologic treatment of this female for chronic vaginal candidiasis with an...partner.2Ř Subsequently, women experiencing localized vaginal inflammation, characterized by burning and pain and occurring immediately after contact

  8. Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Sønksen, J; Sommer, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration....

  9. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen are the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/02/0195-0207. Keywords. Kallikrein; prostate cancer biomarker; proteinase activity; seminal plasma; tumour proliferation and metastasis; therapeutic target. Abstract. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were each isolated from human seminal fluid and ...

  10. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  11. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  12. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  13. Thrombopoietin inhibits murine mast cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Ghinassi, Barbara; Lorenzini, Rodolfo; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Rana, Rosa Alba; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Partamian, Sandra; Migliaccio, Giovanni; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that Mpl, the thrombopoietin receptor, is expressed on murine mast cells and on their precursors and that targeted deletion of the Mpl gene increases mast cell differentiation in mice. Here we report that treatment of mice with thrombopoietin, or addition of this growth factor to bone marrow-derived mast cell cultures, severely hampers the generation of mature cells from their precursors by inducing apoptosis. Analysis of the expression profiling of mast cells obtained in the presence of thrombopoietin suggests that thrombopoietin induces apoptosis of mast cells by reducing expression of the transcription factor Mitf and its target anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. PMID:18276801

  14. MAST Upgrade – Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Joe, E-mail: Joe.Milnes@ccfe.ac.uk; Ayed, Nizar Ben; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O’Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlines unique capability of MAST-U, including divertor and diagnostic capability. • Describes progress made in the manufacture and assembly of key MAST-U components. • Highlights the design challenges that have been overcome. • Lists the key lessons learned thus far in the project. - Abstract: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: (1) testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); (2) adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and (3) exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progress in delivering the upgraded diagnostic capability, the modification and upgrading of the NBI heating systems and the complete overhaul of the machine control infrastructure, including a new control room with full remote participation facilities.

  15. Double Stranded RNA in Human Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Zagoskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, human semen was shown to contain cell-free nucleic acids, such as DNA, long single stranded RNA, and small RNAs–miRNA and piRNA. The RNAs have been suggested to have potential biological roles as communication molecules between cells and in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression in the male reproductive system. Here we demonstrate that human seminal plasma contains a variety of cell-free dsRNAs, describe a robust method to isolate this type of nucleic acid in preparative amounts, and discuss the potential biological roles of these molecules in inheritance. dsRNA plays a role in a variety of biological processes, including gene regulation, is extremely stable and can gain access to cells from the extracellular medium. We suggest that one of the possible functions of dsRNA in human seminal plasma may be to influence human oocytes and therefore, influence the offspring. It also remains possible that these dsRNAs might have potential use as biomarkers for the study of human physiopathological conditions and genetic variation.

  16. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  17. Generation, isolation, and maintenance of rodent mast cells and mast cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily J; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    Antigen-mediated mast cell activation, with subsequent mediator release, is a major initiator of the inflammatory allergic response associated with such conditions as asthma. A comprehensive understanding of the principles involved in this process therefore is key to the development of novel...... therapies for the treatment of these disease states. In vitro models of mast cell function have allowed significant progress to be made in the recognition of the fundamental principles of mast cell activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcvarepsilonRI) and, more recently, other receptors expressed...... on mast cells. In addition to human mast cells, the major cell culture systems employed to investigate these responses are rat and mouse peritoneal mast cells, mouse bone-marrow-derived mast cells, the rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3, and the mouse MC/9 mast cell line. In this unit, we describe...

  18. Mast cell activators as novel immune regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Weaver, Brandi; Choi, Hae Woong; Abraham, Soman N; Staats, Herman F

    2018-05-26

    Mast cells are an important cell type of the innate immune system that when activated, play a crucial role in generating protective innate host responses after bacterial and viral infection. Additionally, activated mast cells influence lymph node composition to regulate the induction of adaptive immune responses. The recognition that mast cells play a beneficial role in host responses to microbial infection and induction of adaptive immunity has provided the rationale to evaluate mast cell activators for use as antimicrobials or vaccine adjuvants. This review summarizes the role of mast cell activators in antimicrobial responses while also discussing the use of different classes of mast cell activators as potent vaccine adjuvants that enhance the induction of protective immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytoskeleton in mast cell signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 130 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/1701; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Grant - others:ECST(XE) Action BM1007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytoskeleton * mast cell activation * signal transduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast - whose data forms the basis of this wind atlas - is placed. The paper will describe an experiment, where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  1. Are mast cells important in diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisamy Kempuraj; Alessandro Caraffa; Gianpaolo Ronconi; Gianfranco Lessiani; Pio Conti

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with microvascular and macrovascular syndromes mediated by mast cells. Mast cells are activated through cross-linking of their surface high affinity receptors for IgE (FcRI) or other antigens, leading to degranulation and release of stored inflammatory mediators, and cytokines/chemokines without degranulation. Mast cells are implicated in innate and acquired immunity, inflammation and metabolic disorders such as d...

  2. Seminal quality prediction using data mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Anoop J; Kumar, Yugal

    2014-01-01

    Now-a-days, some new classes of diseases have come into existences which are known as lifestyle diseases. The main reasons behind these diseases are changes in the lifestyle of people such as alcohol drinking, smoking, food habits etc. After going through the various lifestyle diseases, it has been found that the fertility rates (sperm quantity) in men has considerably been decreasing in last two decades. Lifestyle factors as well as environmental factors are mainly responsible for the change in the semen quality. The objective of this paper is to identify the lifestyle and environmental features that affects the seminal quality and also fertility rate in man using data mining methods. The five artificial intelligence techniques such as Multilayer perceptron (MLP), Decision Tree (DT), Navie Bayes (Kernel), Support vector machine+Particle swarm optimization (SVM+PSO) and Support vector machine (SVM) have been applied on fertility dataset to evaluate the seminal quality and also to predict the person is either normal or having altered fertility rate. While the eight feature selection techniques such as support vector machine (SVM), neural network (NN), evolutionary logistic regression (LR), support vector machine plus particle swarm optimization (SVM+PSO), principle component analysis (PCA), chi-square test, correlation and T-test methods have been used to identify more relevant features which affect the seminal quality. These techniques are applied on fertility dataset which contains 100 instances with nine attribute with two classes. The experimental result shows that SVM+PSO provides higher accuracy and area under curve (AUC) rate (94% & 0.932) among multi-layer perceptron (MLP) (92% & 0.728), Support Vector Machines (91% & 0.758), Navie Bayes (Kernel) (89% & 0.850) and Decision Tree (89% & 0.735) for some of the seminal parameters. This paper also focuses on the feature selection process i.e. how to select the features which are more important for prediction of

  3. Effects of supplemental seminal plasma on cryopreserved boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To analyse the effects of supplemental autologous seminal plasma on boar semen quality before freezing and after thawing, thirty ejaculates were collected from six Pietrain boars. The main factors of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments were Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), seminal plasma before freezing, and ...

  4. Are Mast Cells MASTers in Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Marone, Giancarlo; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged low-grade inflammation or smoldering inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Mast cells form a heterogeneous population of immune cells with differences in their ultra-structure, morphology, mediator content, and surface receptors. Mast cells are widely distributed throughout all tissues and are stromal components of the inflammatory microenvironment that modulates tumor initiation and development. Although canonically associated with allergic disorders, mast cells are a major source of pro-tumorigenic (e.g., angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors) and antitumorigenic molecules (e.g., TNF-α and IL-9), depending on the milieu. In certain neoplasias (e.g., gastric, thyroid and Hodgkin's lymphoma) mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, in others (e.g., breast cancer) a protective role, whereas in yet others they are apparently innocent bystanders. These seemingly conflicting results suggest that the role of mast cells and their mediators could be cancer specific. The microlocalization (e.g., peritumoral vs intratumoral) of mast cells is another important aspect in the initiation/progression of solid and hematologic tumors. Increasing evidence in certain experimental models indicates that targeting mast cells and/or their mediators represent a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Thus, mast cells deserve focused consideration also as therapeutic targets in different types of tumors. There are many unanswered questions that should be addressed before we understand whether mast cells are an ally, adversary, or innocent bystanders in human cancers.

  5. Multi-Axial Simulation Table (MAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MAST delivers an extensive array of testing applications providing rapid, flexible and reliable analysis for ground vehicle components and subassemblies. Using...

  6. Seminal vesicle intrafraction motion analysed with cinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Suki; Dang, Kim; Fox, Chris; Bressel, Mathias; Kron, Tomas; Bergen, Noelene; Ferris, Nick; Owen, Rebecca; Chander, Sarat; Tai, Keen Hun; Foroudi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses seminal vesicle displacement relative to the prostate and in relation to treatment time. A group of eleven patients undergoing prostate cancer radiotherapy were imaged with a continuous 3 T cine-MRI in the standard treatment setup position. Four images were recorded every 4 seconds for 15 minutes in the sagittal plane and every 6.5 seconds for 12 minutes in the coronal plane. The prostate gland and seminal vesicles were contoured on each MRI image. The coordinates of the centroid of the prostate and seminal vesicles on each image was analysed for displacement against time. Displacements between the 2.5 percentile and 97.5 percentile (i.e. the 2.5% trimmed range) for prostate and seminal vesicle centroid displacements were measured for 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes time intervals in the anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Real time prostate and seminal vesicle displacement was compared for individual patients. The 2.5% trimmed range for 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes for the seminal vesicle centroids in the SI direction measured 4.7 mm; 5.8 mm; 6.5 mm and 7.2 mm respectively. In the AP direction, it was 4.0 mm, 4.5 mm, 6.5 mm, and 7.0 mm. In the LR direction for 3, 5 and 10 minutes; for the left seminal vesicle, it was 2.7 mm, 2.8 mm, 3.4 mm and for the right seminal vesicle, it was 3.4 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.4 mm. The correlation between the real-time prostate and seminal vesicle displacement varied substantially between patients indicating that the relationship between prostate displacement and seminal vesicles displacement is patient specific with the majority of the patients not having a strong relationship. Our study shows that seminal vesicle motion increases with treatment time, and that the prostate and seminal vesicle centroids do not move in unison in real time, and that an additional margin is required for independent seminal vesicle motion if treatment localisation is to the prostate

  7. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  8. Are mast cells important in diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with microvascular and macrovascular syndromes mediated by mast cells. Mast cells are activated through cross-linking of their surface high affinity receptors for IgE (FcRI or other antigens, leading to degranulation and release of stored inflammatory mediators, and cytokines/chemokines without degranulation. Mast cells are implicated in innate and acquired immunity, inflammation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Histamine and tryptase genes in mast cells are overexpressed in pancreatic tissue of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Histamine is a classic inflammatory mediator generated by activated receptors of mast cells from the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC, which can be activated by two inflammatory chemokines, RANTES and MPC1, when injected intramuscularly or intradermally in mice. This activation is inhibited in genetically mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice, which show higher insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. This study contributes to understanding the mechanism by which mast cells profoundly affect diabetes, and their manipulation could represent a new therapeutic strategy. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of mast cells in inflammation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

  9. Mast cells in neuroinflammation and brain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841900; van Bergeijk, Doris; Oosting, Ronald S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087179695; Redegeld, Frank A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074752464

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia and astrocytes are major pathogenic components within this process and known to respond to proinflammatory mediators released from immune cells such as mast cells. Mast cells

  10. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Janssens (Artiena Soe); R. Heide (Rogier); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); P.G.M. Mulder (P. G M); B. Tank (Bhupendra); A.P. Oranje (Arnold)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__AIMS:__ To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. __METHODS:__ Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults.

  11. The Model for Assessment of Telemedicine (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Clemensen, Jane; Caffery, Liam J

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of telemedicine can be achieved using different evaluation models or theoretical frameworks. This paper presents a scoping review of published studies which have applied the Model for Assessment of Telemedicine (MAST). MAST includes pre-implementation assessment (e.g. by use...

  12. Mast cells in lung of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of scientific literature on lung mast cells in norm and pathology that shows the current state of this problem. Particular attention is paid to the quantity, location and arrangement of the mast cells. The mast cells are a part of immune system whom origin are myeloid stem cells. They are a kind of white blood cells. Many authors from the 19th century to the present day have traced and described the role of mast cells in the human body, their structure and changes depending on the functional state of the organism. Paul Ehrlich is the first author that described in his doctoral thesis the mast cells as effectors of allergy particularly in the beginning of reaction and in acute phase of the process. Research has continued through out the 20th century and researchers' efforts are primarily focused on clarifying the structure and function of mast cells and identifying their role in pathological responses in the human body. Mast cells are found in all organs, but they predominate in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. There are cells in the rat skin that live for about 12 weeks, and more recent studies have found that proliferation of mature mast cells is caused by various factors.

  13. The MAST data acquisition upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, G.J.; Shibaev, Sergei; Storrs, John; Thomas-Davies, Nigel; Stephen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A programme has begun on MAST to replace its ageing CAMAC and VME based data acquisition systems with new modern hardware which, together with several improvements in the supporting infrastructure, will provide support for faster data acquisition rates, longer-pulse operation, faster data access and higher reliability. The main principle of the upgrade was to use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and well-established standards wherever possible. CompactPCI or PXI was chosen as the digitiser form factor to replace CAMAC/VME, and Ethernet would be used as the means to access all devices. The modular architecture of the MAST data acquisition software framework has helped to minimise the integration effort required to phase in new subsystems and/or new technologies whilst continuing to use the old hardware in other systems. The software framework was updated to allow more versatile use of the network-attached data acquisition devices. The new data acquisition devices had multiple connector types, which created difficulties with the cable interfacing. To resolve this and provide support for easy substitution, a standard connector interface was chosen, based on the most common connector type and pin-out already in use, and several cable assemblies were produced to connect the proprietary interface of the digitiser to the standard interface block. The in-house IDA-3 data storage format is unable to accommodate the larger file sizes and is increasingly difficult to maintain, so it is to be gradually phased out. The NetCDF-4/HDF5 data standard is being adopted as its replacement, thus reducing in-house maintenance whilst providing a data format that is more accessible to the Fusion community. Several other infrastructure upgrades were necessitated by the anticipated increase in data traffic and volume including the Central Timing System, the MAST Ethernet infrastructure and servers for front-end data processing, data storage and data access management. These

  14. FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA CALIDAD SEMINAL EN TOROSFACTORS AFFECTING SEMINAL QUALITY IN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Marquez Harvey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La calidad seminal de los toros se puede ver afectada por múltiples causas tanto de origen infeccioso o no infeccioso. El entendimiento adecuado de estas causas es de gran importancia ya que de este modo se pueden tomar los correctivos necesarios ya sea para tratar al toro, o en otros casos para descartarlo del sistema productivo del cual haga parte. No se debe olvidar como la presencia física del toro se puede dar a partir de un banco de germoplasma (semen congelado, el cual puede tener problemas de calidad no inherentes al proceso de criopreservación sino a factores infecciosos o no infecciosos previos a la congelación. Los problemas de calidad seminal se verán reflejados en los diferentes parámetros reproductivos del sistema productivo, lo que a su véz será de gran relevancia al hacer un balance de pérdidas y ganancias de una ganadería tanto de ganado de carne como de leche.Semen quality of bulls can be affected by multiple causes, both infectious and non infectious. Proper understanding of these causes is imperative, either to take the necessary correctives to treat the bull or to discard it from the productive system. It is important not to forget that the physical presence of the bull can be from a germoplasm bank (frozen semen which can have quality problems not related to the cryopreservation procedure but to infectious or not infectious factors before freezing. Seminal quality problems will be reflected on different reproductive parameters of the productive system and these will be highly relevant when estimating earnings and losses of the productive system, both for beef or milk production.

  15. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  16. Cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhus, E; Bundgaard, N; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1984-01-01

    Cystadenomas of the seminal vesicle are extremely rare benign tumours, which only have been reported seven times earlier in the literature. The first Danish case is reported with discussion of symptomatology, pathology and treatment.......Cystadenomas of the seminal vesicle are extremely rare benign tumours, which only have been reported seven times earlier in the literature. The first Danish case is reported with discussion of symptomatology, pathology and treatment....

  17. Seminal vesicle involvement at salvage radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Walker, Marc; Bernstein, Melanie; Eastham, James A

    2013-06-01

    To describe the incidence and clinical outcomes of seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) at salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) and to describe the accuracy of SV biopsy. As SRP is used after biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer after radiotherapy (RT) to gain local oncological control. The SVs receive lower doses of radiation from external-beam RT (EBRT) to avoid rectal exposure and are not targeted with brachytherapy (BT) with low-risk prostate cancer. SRP was performed on 206 men with BCR after RT at a tertiary care institution between 1998 and 2011. Post-RT biopsy and SRP specimens were reviewed by a genitourinary pathologist. SVI was detected in 65 (32%) of 206 patients. No difference was found between EBRT alone (65% vs 63%) and BT (29% vs 31%) with or without EBRT in patients with SVI. Men with SVI had higher rates of cT3 disease (20% vs 8%) and Gleason score ≥ 8 at SRP (52% vs 21%). BCR-free survival at 5 years was 18% and 56% in patients with and without SVI (hazard ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.87-4.36, P < 0.001), yet the rate of local recurrence was low (11%). Prostate cancer was identified in nine of 18 patients who underwent SV biopsy and was the only location of prostate cancer in two patients. SVI is a prognostic indicator for BCR after SRP, but local recurrence in patients with SVI after SRP remains low. We recommend SV biopsy to improve staging and cancer detection in men with BCR after radiotherapy. © 2013 BJU International.

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Mast Cell Quantification in Orofacial Granulomatosis | Nwizu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Abstract. This study was to quantify mast cells (MC), their corresponding densities, surface areas and surface areas of their distribution in relation to oedema formation. Formalin fixed, wax embedded, oral tissue sections from 29 cases of OFG ...

  20. Seminal SIRT1 expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocoele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, T; Nabil, N; Rashed, L; Makeen, K; El-Kasas, M A; Mohamaed, H A

    2018-03-01

    In a case-controlled study, we assessed the expressed seminal NAD-dependent protein deacetylase (SIRT1) expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men associated with varicocoele. Our study involved 81 men, recruited from the University hospitals, after ethical approval and informed consent. They were allocated into fertile normozoospermic men (n = 23), infertile OAT men without varicocoele (n = 23) and infertile OAT men with varicocoele (n = 35). Inclusion criteria consisted of confirmation of abnormal semen parameters and normal female partners whereas exclusion criteria were leukocytospermia, tobacco smoking, hormonal therapy, immunological disorders, dyslipidemia, hypogonadism, cardiovascular disorders, morbid obesity, and hepatic or renal failures. All participants had an interview to assess clinical history, clinical examination, semen analysis, and estimation of seminal SIRT1 expression. Seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in infertile OAT men than fertile men. Among infertile OAT men, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in those with varicocoele than in those without. Additionally, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in varicocoele grade III cases compared with other grades. Seminal SIRT1 expression was positively correlated with sperm concentration (r = 0.327, p = 0.001), total sperm motility (r = 0.532, p = 0.001), and sperm normal forms (r = 0.469, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that seminal SIRT1 expression has a role of male infertility being significantly decreased in infertile OAT men in general and in infertile OAT men associated with varicocoele in particular. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Diverse exocytic pathways for mast cell mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Bin, Na-Ryum; Sugita, Shuzo

    2018-04-17

    Mast cells play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunities but are also culprits in allergy, autoimmunity, and cardiovascular diseases. Mast cells respond to environmental changes by initiating regulated exocytosis/secretion of various biologically active compounds called mediators (e.g. proteases, amines, and cytokines). Many of these mediators are stored in granules/lysosomes and rely on intricate degranulation processes for release. Mast cell stabilizers (e.g. sodium cromoglicate), which prevent such degranulation processes, have therefore been clinically employed to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, it has become increasingly clear that different mast cell diseases often involve multiple mediators that rely on overlapping but distinct mechanisms for release. This review illustrates existing evidence that highlights the diverse exocytic pathways in mast cells. We also discuss strategies to delineate these pathways so as to identify unique molecular components which could serve as new drug targets for more effective and specific treatments against mast cell-related diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Seminal Quality Prediction Using Clustering-Based Decision Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of seminal quality with statistical learning tools is an emerging methodology in decision support systems in biomedical engineering and is very useful in early diagnosis of seminal patients and selection of semen donors candidates. However, as is common in medical diagnosis, seminal quality prediction faces the class imbalance problem. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised ensemble learning approach, namely Clustering-Based Decision Forests, to tackle unbalanced class learning problem in seminal quality prediction. Experiment results on real fertility diagnosis dataset have shown that Clustering-Based Decision Forests outperforms decision tree, Support Vector Machines, random forests, multilayer perceptron neural networks and logistic regression by a noticeable margin. Clustering-Based Decision Forests can also be used to evaluate variables’ importance and the top five important factors that may affect semen concentration obtained in this study are age, serious trauma, sitting time, the season when the semen sample is produced, and high fevers in the last year. The findings could be helpful in explaining seminal concentration problems in infertile males or pre-screening semen donor candidates.

  3. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I.G.; Akers, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis...

  4. Mass spectrometric identification of diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis in seminal plasma by analysis of seminal plasma protein clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, A; Mehik, A; Tonttila, P; Vaarala, M

    2017-08-15

    There are few specific diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to evaluate differences in seminal plasma protein expression among patients with prostatitis and young and middle-aged healthy controls. We analysed pooled seminal plasma protein samples from four prostatitis patients (two pools), three young controls (one pool), and three middle-aged controls (one pool). The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 349 proteins identified, 16 were differentially expressed between the two control pools. Five proteins were up- or down-regulated in both of the prostatitis pools compared to middle-aged controls but not between young and middle-aged pools. Progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) was over-expressed in prostatitis samples compared to young and middle-aged controls. Our findings and those of previous studies indicate that PAEP is a potential seminal plasma marker for chronic prostatitis. In conclusion, we found age-related changes in seminal plasma protein expression. PAEP expression in seminal plasma should be investigated further to evaluate its potential as a diagnostic marker for chronic prostatitis.

  5. Recombinant ArtinM activates mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria Cintra; Cecilio, Nerry Tatiana; de Almeida Buranello, Patricia Andressa; Pranchevicius, Maria Cristina; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2016-07-04

    Mast cells are hematopoietically derived cells that play a role in inflammatory processes such as allergy, as well as in the immune response against pathogens by the selective and rapid release of preformed and lipid mediators, and the delayed release of cytokines. The native homotetrameric lectin ArtinM, a D-mannose binding lectin purified from Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, is one of several lectins that are able to activate mast cells. Besides activating mast cells, ArtinM has been shown to affect several biological responses, including immunomodulation and acceleration of wound healing. Because of the potential pharmacological application of ArtinM, a recombinant ArtinM (rArtinM) was produced in Escherichia coli. The current study evaluated the ability of rArtinM to induce mast cell degranulation and activation. The glycan binding specificity of rArtinM was similar to that of jArtinM. rArtinM, via its CRD, was able to degranulate, releasing β-hexosaminidase and TNF-α, and to promote morphological changes on the mast cell surface. Moreover, rArtinM induced the release of the newly-synthesized mediator, IL-4. rArtinM does not have a co-stimulatory effect on the FcεRI degranulation via. The IgE-dependent mast cell activation triggered by rArtinM seems to be dependent on NFkB activation. The lectin rArtinM has the ability to activate and degranulate mast cells via their CRDs. The present study indicates that rArtinM is a suitable substitute for the native form, jArtinM, and that rArtinM may serve as an important and reliable pharmacological agent.

  6. Seminal vesicle metastasis after partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li; Zheng, Minwen; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Wendong; Bu, Wangjun; Shi, Lifang; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the seminal vesicle is extremely rare for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To our knowledge, it has been not reported in literature. The purpose of the present paper was to report a case of metastasis to the seminal vesicle after HCC resection, along with its histological features and immunohistochemical characteristics. A 46-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal distension. He had a history of HCC related to hepatitis B virus infection. Moreover, left partial hepatectomy was performed in another hospital 28 months ago, and right partial hepatectomy for HCC recurrence in our hospital 4 months ago. After resection, radiofrequency ablation therapy had been performed. About 27 months after the initial operation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the pelvic cavity revealed a mass with homogeneous enhancement in the seminal vesicle. Transrectal needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, seminal vesiculectomy was resected. The histological diagnosis of the removed tumor was compatible with the original HCC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for glypican-3 (GPC3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocyte paraffin-1 (Hep Par 1), cytokeratin 18 (CK 18), and hepatocyte antigen, which confirmed that the seminal vesicle tumor was a metastatic tumor of HCC. However, CT subsequently revealed multiple metastatic foci in the abdominal and pelvic cavities in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. The seminal vesicle is an extremely rare metastatic site for HCC, and the prognosis is very poor. A combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis, and primary tumor should be excluded before diagnosing metastatic foci

  7. Television alignment of mast assembly in refueling of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, J.W.; Swidwa, K.J.; Hornak, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the refueling of a nuclear reactor having component assemblies of at least one type and being disposed in a pit in a containment under water, the refueling being carried out with a mast movable axially and circumferentially for raising and lowering the component assemblies, a mechanism, connected to an end of the mast, cooperative with the mast, for engaging a component assembly to be raised by the mast, a television camera, and a television monitor having an image-reference indication, the mechanism being connected to the mast movable with the mast; the method of positioning the mechanism to engage the component assembly appropriately for raising and lowering. It comprises: mounting the camera on the mechanism movable therewith, suspending the mast in the water of the pit with the mechanism extending from the end of the mast in the pit in position to engage the component assembly

  8. The emerging role of mast cells in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarido, Veronica; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Demieville, Jennifer; Thomson, Joanne; Stephenson, Kristen; Francis, Heather

    2017-08-01

    The depth of our knowledge regarding mast cells has widened exponentially in the last 20 years. Once thought to be only important for allergy-mediated events, mast cells are now recognized to be important regulators of a number of pathological processes. The revelation that mast cells can influence organs, tissues, and cells has increased interest in mast cell research during liver disease. The purpose of this review is to refresh the reader's knowledge of the development, type, and location of mast cells and to review recent work that demonstrates the role of hepatic mast cells during diseased states. This review focuses primarily on liver diseases and mast cells during autoimmune disease, hepatitis, fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and aging in the liver. Overall, these studies demonstrate the potential role of mast cells in disease progression.

  9. Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

  10. Measuring histamine and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Skov, Per S

    2014-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells are known for their capability to release both preformed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we describe how to stimulate and detect histamine released from basophils in whole blood, purified basophils, in vitro cultured mast cells, and in situ...... skin mast cells. We also give an example of an activation protocol for basophil and mast cell cytokine release and discuss approaches for cytokine detection....

  11. MRI, CT and TRUS imaging of seminal vesicle metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, P.; Blomqvist, L.; Norming, U.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of a testicular germ-cell metastasis in the seminal vesicle. Diagnostic imaging with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI was performed. This case emphasizes the role of MRI in the evaluation of patients with pathology in the pelvic region. (orig.)

  12. Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And Relevance In Infertile Males In Ilorin, Nigeria. EK Oghagbon, AAG Jimoh, SA Adebisi. Abstract. To determine if there was a bearing of body mass index (BMI) on male infertility, a cross-sectional study of males of infertile couples, attending our infertility clinic was ...

  13. Primary malignancy of seminal vesicle: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Ramamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of seminal vesicle malignancy (primitive neuro ectodermal tumor in a 40-year-old male patient. He was treated with enbloc resection of the tumor and ureteric reimplantation. In view of the rarity of this entity, management of these tumors should be individualized.

  14. Seminal vesicle abscess causing unilateral hydroureteronephrosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Imperatore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle abscess (SVA is a rare urologic entity. It mainly occurs in subjects with predisposing factors and may be associated with other urogenital infections. We describe the case of a diabetic subject with SVA associated with funiculitis, epididymitis and obstructive pyelonephritis. Treatment consisted of laparotomic surgical drainage of the abscess and ureteral stent placement.

  15. Proteomic analysis of heparin-binding proteins from human seminal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (MALDI TOF/MS) for protein analysis of human HBPs. We resolved 70 ... Thus, the combined effects of seminal plasma components support the survival of ...... The BBXB motif of RANTES is the principal site for heparin binding and controls ...

  16. Ultrasound-guided seminal vesicle biopsies in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, LFA; Duisterwinkel, FJ; Groenier, K; Mensink, HJA

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of prostatic adenocarcinoma into the seminal vesicles (SV) is generally accepted as an index of poor prognosis. The pre-operative identification of SV invasion is an important element in staging since it may alter subsequent treatment decisions. We studied the possibility of diagnosing SV

  17. Intermedin inhibits norepinephrine-induced contraction of rat seminal vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Wong

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the inhibitory action of IMD on NE-induced seminal vesicle contraction was mediated via the ADM receptor(s and the nitric oxide production pathway, partially by the IMD receptor, but not by the CGRP receptor and the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  18. H-mode pedestal characteristics on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, A; Counsell, G F; Arends, E; Meyer, H; Taylor, D; Valovic, M; Walsh, M; Wilson, H

    2004-01-01

    The H-mode pedestal characteristics on the mega ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) are measured in a variety of disconnected double null discharges and the effect of edge localized modes (ELMs) on the pedestal is presented. The edge density pedestal width in spatial co-ordinates is similar on both the inboard and outboard sides. Neutral penetration may be able to explain the density pedestal width but it alone cannot explain the characteristics of the temperature pedestal. The data from MAST can be used to improve temperature pedestal width scalings by extending the ranges in pedestal collisionality, magnetic field, elongation and aspect ratio studied by other machines. Convective transport is found to dominate energy losses during ELMs and the fractional loss of pedestal energy during an ELM on MAST correlates better with SOL ion transit time than with pedestal collisionality

  19. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, MDTA High Mast lighting, High Mast Lighting along I 95, Maryland Transportation Authority High Mast Lighting poles, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset current as of 2011. MDTA High Mast lighting, High Mast Lighting along I 95, Maryland Transportation Authority High Mast...

  20. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hannah; Hickey, Lee; Richard, Cecile; Mace, Emma; Kelly, Alison; Borrell, Andrew; Franckowiak, Jerome; Fox, Glen

    2016-03-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.). Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH) population (ND24260 × 'Flagship') comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT) markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical) and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL) were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/) was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L.), and sorghum [ (L.) Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  1. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.

  2. Vibrational Based Inspection Of A Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination of accep......The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination...

  3. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  4. High-Density Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, A.G.; Han, J.; Lester, L.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anisotropic, smooth etching of the group-III nitrides has been reported at relatively high rates in high-density plasma etch systems. However, such etch results are often obtained under high de-bias and/or high plasma flux conditions where plasma induced damage can be significant. Despite the fact that the group-III nitrides have higher bonding energies than more conventional III-V compounds, plasma-induced etch damage is still a concern. Attempts to minimize such damage by reducing the ion energy or increasing the chemical activity in the plasma often result in a loss of etch rate or anisotropy which significantly limits critical dimensions and reduces the utility of the process for device applications requiring vertical etch profiles. It is therefore necessary to develop plasma etch processes which couple anisotropy for critical dimension and sidewall profile control and high etch rates with low-damage for optimum device performance. In this study we report changes in sheet resistance and contact resistance for n- and p-type GaN samples exposed to an Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, plasma-induced damage was more sensitive to ion bombardment energies as compared to plasma flux. In addition, p-GaN was typically more sensitive to plasma-induced damage as compared to n-GaN

  5. Mast Cells Synthesize, Store, and Release Nerve Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A.; Buriani, A.; dal Toso, R.; Fabris, M.; Romanello, S.; Aloe, L.; Levi-Montalcini, R.

    1994-04-01

    Mast cells and nerve growth factor (NGF) have both been reported to be involved in neuroimmune interactions and tissue inflammation. In many peripheral tissues, mast cells interact with the innervating fibers. Changes in the behaviors of both of these elements occur after tissue injury/inflammation. As such conditions are typically associated with rapid mast cell activation and NGF accumulation in inflammatory exudates, we hypothesized that mast cells may be capable of producing NGF. Here we report that (i) NGF mRNA is expressed in adult rat peritoneal mast cells; (ii) anti-NGF antibodies clearly stain vesicular compartments of purified mast cells and mast cells in histological sections of adult rodent mesenchymal tissues; and (iii) medium conditioned by peritoneal mast cells contains biologically active NGF. Mast cells thus represent a newly recognized source of NGF. The known actions of NGF on peripheral nerve fibers and immune cells suggest that mast cell-derived NGF may control adaptive/reactive responses of the nervous and immune systems toward noxious tissue perturbations. Conversely, alterations in normal mast cell behaviors may provoke maladaptive neuroimmune tissue responses whose consequences could have profound implications in inflammatory disease states, including those of an autoimmune nature.

  6. Mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate provoked mast cell degranulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Ramachandran, Roshni; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    inflammation and dural mast cell degranulation is supported by the effectiveness of prednisolone on glyceryl trinitrate-induced delayed headache. METHODS: Using a newly developed rat model mimicking the human glyceryl trinitrate headache model, we have investigated the occurrence of dural mast cell...... glyceryl trinitrate-induced mast cell degranulation whereas the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist olcegepant and the substance P receptor antagonist L-733,060 did not affect mast cell degranulation. However, topical application of two different nitric oxide donors did not cause mast cell...... degranulation ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Direct application of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on dural mast cells does not cause mast cell degranulation ex vivo. In vivo application of the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate leads to a prominent level of degranulation via a yet unknown mechanism. This effect can...

  7. Elevated seminal plasma estradiol and epigenetic inactivation of ESR1 and ESR2 is associated with CP/CPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheim, Nils; Ellem, Stuart; Dansranjavin, Temuujin; Hagenkötter, Christina; Berg, Elena; Schambeck, Rupert; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Pilatz, Adrian; Risbridger, Gail; Weidner, Wolfgang; Wagenlehner, Florian; Schagdarsurengin, Undraga

    2018-04-13

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is associated with urinary tract symptoms and hormonal imbalances amongst others. The heterogeneous clinical presentation, unexplored molecular background and lack of prostate biopsies complicate therapy. Here, using liquid biopsies, we performed a comprehensive translational study on men diagnosed with CP/CPPS type III ( n = 50; median age 39.8, range 23-65) and age-matched controls ( n = 61; median age 36.8, range 20-69), considering biochemical parameters of blood and ejaculates, and epigenetic regulation of the estrogen receptor genes ( ESR1 and ESR2 ) in leukocytes isolated from blood (systemic regulation) and in somatic cells isolated from ejaculates (local regulation). We found elevated 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) levels in seminal plasma, but not in blood plasma, that was significantly associated with CP/CPPS and impaired urinary tract symptoms. In ejaculated somatic cells of CP/CPPS patients we found that ESR1 and ESR2 were both significantly higher methylated in CpG-promoters and expressionally down-regulated in comparison to controls. Mast cells are reported to contribute to CP/CPPS and are estrogen responsive. Consistent with this, we found that E 2 -treatment of human mast cell lines (HMC-1 and LAD2) resulted in altered cytokine and chemokine expression. Interestingly, in HMC-1 cells, possessing epigenetically inactivated ESR1 and ESR2, E 2 -treatment led to a reduced transcription of a number of inflammatory genes. Overall, these data suggest that elevated local E 2 levels associate with an epigenetic down-regulation of the estrogen receptors and have a prominent role in CP/CPPS. Investigating E 2 levels in semen could therefore serve as a promising biomarker to select patients for estrogen targeted therapy.

  8. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp-up, models are not able to...

  9. Overview of physics results from MAST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, B.; Akers, R. J.; Alladio, F.; Allan, S.; Appel, L. C.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N. C.; N. Ben Ayed,; Breizman, B. N.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Connor, J. W.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Cowley, S. C.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; De Bock, M.; Delchambre, E.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R. O.; Denner, P.; Driscoll, M. D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Elmore, S.; Field, A. R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Gibson, K. J.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Harrison, J.; Hastie, R. J.; Hawkes, N. C.; Hender, T. C.; Hnat, B.; Howell, D. F.; Hua, M. D.; Hubbard, A.; Huysmans, G.; Keeling, D.; Kim, Y. C.; Kirk, A.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Maddison, G. P.; Maingi, R.; Manhood, S. J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McCone, J.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A. W.; Muir, D. G.; Nardon, E.; Naylor, G.; O' Brien, M. R.; O' Gorman, T.; Palenik, J.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S. D.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Suttrop, W.; Sykes, A.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R. G. L.; Voss, G.; Walsh, M. J.; Warder, S. E. V.; Wilson, H. R.; Windridge, M.; Wisse, M.; Zoletnik, S.

    2011-01-01

    Major developments on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have enabled important advances in support of ITER and the physics basis of a spherical tokamak (ST) based component test facility (CTF), as well as providing new insight into underlying tokamak physics. For example, L-H transition studies

  10. Mast cells and angiogenesis in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed A; Seliet, Iman A; Ehsan, Nermin A; Megahed, Mohamed A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of mast cells and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a mediator of angiogenesis to promote wound healing in surgical and pathological scars. The study was carried out on 40 patients who presented with active scar lesions. They were subdivided into 4 groups. They included granulation tissue (10 cases), surgical scar (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (10 cases), and keloid scar (10 cases). Also 10 healthy volunteers of the same age and sex were selected as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken from the patients and the control group. Skin biopsies from clinically assessed studied groups were processed for routine histology and embedded in paraffin. Four sections were prepared from each paraffin block. The first section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. The second and third sections were processed for immunostaining of mast cells that contain chymase (MCCs) and mast cells that contain tryptase (MCTs). The fourth section was processed for immunostaining of VEGF. MCCs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue, and surgical, hypertrophic and keloid scars. MCTs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue and keloid, whereas moderate expression was exhibited in hypertrophic and surgical scars. VEGF expression was absent in normal tissue, mild in keloid, surgical and hypertrophic scars, and moderate in keloids and granulation tissue. Mast cell expression variation among different scar types signals the pathological evolution of the lesion, and hence may guide the need for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp-up, models are not able...

  12. Partial Support of MAST Academy Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-25

    Another very positive aspect of the student-mentor relationship occured when young women served their internship with a woman scientist or the... siences has indirectly led to the initiation of similar programs in other academic areas. APPENDIX A JOB DESCRIPTIONS FOR MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH PROGRAM

  13. Are mast cells instrumental for fibrotic diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eOvered-Sayer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal lung disorder of unknown etiology characterised by accumulation of lung fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition, ultimately leading to compromised tissue architecture and lung function capacity. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course; however the median survival after diagnosis is only 3-5 years. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry has made many attempts to find effective treatments for IPF, but the disease has so far defied all attempts at therapeutic intervention. Clinical trial failures may arise for many reasons, including disease heterogeneity, lack of readily measurable clinical end points other than overall survival, and, perhaps most of all, a lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the progression of IPF.The precise link between inflammation and fibrosis remains unclear, but it appears that immune cells can promote fibrosis by releasing fibrogenic factors. So far, however, therapeutic approaches targeting macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes have failed to alter disease pathogenesis. A new cell to garner research interest in fibrosis is the mast cell. Increased numbers of mast cells have long been known to be present in pulmonary fibrosis and clinically correlations between mast cells and fibrosis have been reported. More recent data suggests that mast cells may contribute to the fibrotic process by stimulating fibroblasts resident in the lung, thus driving the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss the mast cell and its physiological role in tissue repair and remodelling, as well as its pathological role in fibrotic diseases such as IPF, where the process of tissue repair and remodelling is thought to be dysregulated.

  14. Generation, isolation, and maintenance of human mast cells and mast cell lines derived from peripheral blood or cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Kuehn, Hye Sun

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-mediated mast cell activation is a pivotal step in the initiation of allergic disorders including anaphylaxis and atopy. To date, studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms regulating these responses, and studies designed to identify potential ways to prevent them, have primarily been...... conducted in rodent mast cells. However, to understand how these responses pertain to human disease, and to investigate and develop novel therapies for the treatment of human mast cell-driven disease, human mast cell models may have greater relevance. Recently, a number of systems have been developed...... to allow investigators to readily obtain sufficient quantities of human mast cells to conduct these studies. These mast cells release the appropriate suite of inflammatory mediators in response to known mast cell activators including antigen. These systems have also been employed to examine the signaling...

  15. Responses of seminal wheat seedling roots to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Carlos; Else, Mark A; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this paper are to develop our understanding of the ways by which soil water deficits influence early wheat root growth responses, particularly how seminal roots respond to soil drying and the extent to which information on differences in soil water content are conveyed to the shoot and their impact on shoot behaviour. To achieve this, wheat seedlings have been grown, individually for around 25 days after germination in segmented soil columns within vertical plastic compartments. Roots were exposed to different soil volumetric moisture contents (SVMC) within the two compartments. Experiments where the soil in the lower compartment was allowed to dry to different extents, while the upper was maintained close to field capacity, showed that wheat seedlings allocated proportionally more root dry matter to the lower drier soil compartment. The total production of root, irrespective of the upper or lower SVMC, was similar and there were no detected effects on leaf growth rate or gas exchange. The response of seminal roots to proportionally increase their allocation of dry matter, to the drier soil was unexpected with such plasticity of roots system development traditionally linked to heterogeneous nutrient distribution than accessing soil water. In experiments where the upper soil compartment was allowed to dry, root growth slowed and leaf growth and gas exchange declined. Subsequent experiments used root growth rates to determine when seminal root tips first came into contact with drying soil, with the intentions of determining how the observed root growth rates were maintained as an explanation for the observed changes in root allocation. Measurements of seminal root ABA and ethylene from roots within the drying soil are interpreted with respect to what is known about the physiological control of root growth in drying soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  17. Glycoprotein fucosylation is increased in seminal plasma of subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olejnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fucose, the monosaccharide frequent in N- and O-glycans, is a part of Lewis-type antigens that are known to mediate direct sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Such interaction was found to be inhibited in vitroby fucose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as neoglycoproteins. The objective of this study was to screen seminal plasma proteins of infertile/subfertile men for the content and density of fucosylated glycoepitopes, and compare them to samples of fertile normozoospermic subjects. Seminal proteins were separated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with fucose-specific Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL. Twelve electrophoretic bands were selected for quantitative densitometric analysis. It was found that the content, and especially the density of fucosylated glycans, were higher in glycoproteins present in seminal plasma of subfertile men. No profound differences in fucosylation density were found among the groups of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, and oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men. According to the antibody probing, AAL-reactive bands can be attributed to male reproductive tract glycoproteins, including prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, glycodelin and chorionic gonadotropin. Fibronectin, α1 -acid glycoprotein, α1 -antitrypsin, immunoglobulin G and antithrombin III may also contribute to this high fucosylation. It is suggested that the abundant fucosylated glycans in the sperm environment could interfere with the sperm surface and disturb the normal course of the fertilization cascade.

  18. Relationship between substances in seminal plasma and Acrobeads Test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kazuhiko; Tsujimura, Akira; Okamoto, Yoshio; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Takada, Shingo; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    To asses the effects of seminal plasma on sperm function. Retrospective case-control study. University hospital. One hundred fourteen infertile men. Acrobeads Test scores (0-4) and measurement of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble IL-6 receptor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-beta I, superoxide dismutase, calcitonin, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels in seminal plasma. Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the concentrations of substances as a nonparametric test for differences among Acrobeads Test scores and a multivariable logistic regression model to find independent risk factors associated with abnormal Acrobeads Test results. The Acrobeads Test score was 0 for 7 samples, 1 for 20 samples, 2 for 18 samples, 3 for 28 samples, and 4 for 41 samples. Age, abstinence period, and semen parameters, except for sperm motility and percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology, had no effect on the Acrobeads Test results. Concentrations of IGF-I and MIF were significantly higher in patients with abnormal Acrobeads Test results. Multivariate analysis indicated that MIF and IGF-I were significantly associated with abnormal Acrobeads Test results (scores 0 to 1). Although further studies are needed, IGF-I and MIF in seminal plasma may have negative effects on sperm function.

  19. A Study on Assessment of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    molecules, immune response receptors and other surface molecules, which ... treatment and that inhibiting mast cell function may inhibit tumor growth. Keywords: Mast .... Discussion. Mast cells have ... suggests that degranulation is critical in the ability of mast cells to enhance tumor ... Deeper understanding of mast cell ...

  20. The enigmatic role of mast cells in dominant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Victor C; Pino-Lagos, Karina; Elgueta, Raul; Noelle, Randolph J

    2009-08-01

    The role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral tolerance has been studied extensively in transplantation research. Recently, mast cells have been shown to play an indispensable role in allograft tolerance. The purpose of this review is to inform the reader on the current standings of the role of mast cells in dominant tolerance with an emphasis on the interaction of mast cells with Treg. Mast cells are required to sustain peripheral tolerance via Treg. Treg can stabilize mast cells degranulation by contact-dependent mechanisms through the interaction of OX40 and its ligand OX40L, and by production of soluble factors, such as interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. Conversely, the activation and subsequent degranulation of mast cells break peripheral tolerance. Both mast cells and Treg are needed to create a local immunosuppressive environment in the transplant. Treg are not only necessary to suppress effector T-cell responses but also to stabilize mast cells. Mast cells in return could contribute to the immunosuppressive state by release of transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-10 and specific proteases. However, the molecular basis for mast cells control of Treg suppression in organ transplantation is still unresolved.

  1. Mast cells: potential positive and negative roles in tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Thomas; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    Mast cells are immune cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues. Upon activation by diverse mechanisms, mast cells can secrete a broad array of biologically active products that either are stored in the cytoplasmic granules of the cells (e.g., histamine, heparin, various proteases) or are produced de novo upon cell stimulation (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors). Mast cells are best known for their effector functions during anaphylaxis and acute IgE-associated allergic reactions, but they also have been implicated in a wide variety of processes that maintain health or contribute to disease. There has been particular interest in the possible roles of mast cells in tumor biology. In vitro studies have shown that mast cells have the potential to influence many aspects of tumor biology, including tumor development, tumor-induced angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling, and the shaping of adaptive immune responses to tumors. Yet, the actual contributions of mast cells to tumor biology in vivo remain controversial. Here, we review some basic features of mast cell biology with a special emphasis on those relevant to their potential roles in tumors. We discuss how using in vivo tumor models in combination with models in which mast cell function can be modulated has implicated mast cells in the regulation of host responses to tumors. Finally, we summarize data from studies of human tumors that suggest either beneficial or detrimental roles for mast cells in tumors. ©2013 AACR.

  2. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  3. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 2-substituted-2,3,4,9-tetrahydrospiro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives as first-in-class mast cell stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jatinder; Shah, Ramanpreet; Singh, Dhandeep; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2018-05-01

    Mast cell degranulation plays a momentous role in myriad diseases like asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis, and conjunctivitis as well as anaphylactic shock; hence, there is an unmet need for developing new mast cells stabilizers. The reported mast cell stabilizers have a heterocyclic moiety and an acidic group. Furthermore, the role of tryptophan in suppression of mast cell activation is established. Hence, we prepared constrained analogs of tryptophan, which are derivatives of 2,3,4,9-tetrahydrospiro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and evaluated them for ex vivo inhibition of compound 48/80-induced mast degranulation activity. By comparing IC 50 (μM) values with that of the standard drug sodium cromoglycate (IC 50  = 0.489 ± 0.003 μM), compounds with bulky groups like heptyl (compound 9; IC 50  = 0.389 ± 0.015 μM) and octyl (compound 10; IC 50  = 0.354 ± 0.023 μM) were found to be of similar potency as sodium cromoglycate. Furthermore, the polar group-containing compounds like the chloropropyl (compound 16; IC 50  = 0.382 ± 0.083 μM) and benzoyl derivative (compound 14; IC 50  = 00.469 ± 0.032 μM) were also found to be of similar potency as sodium cromoglycate. This is a seminal study of spiro-β-carboline mast cell stabilization having a wider scope in mast cell research; yet, the mechanism of action remains elusive. © 2018 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  4. Two-dimensional nanoparticle self-assembly using plasma-induced Ostwald ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J; Photopoulos, P; Tsoukalas, D; Tserepi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a novel Ag nanoparticle self-assembly process based on plasma-induced two-dimensional Ostwald ripening is demonstrated. Ag nanoparticles are deposited on p-doped Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering process. With the assistance of O 2 /Ar plasma treatment, different sizes and patterns of Ag nanoparticles are formed, due to the Ostwald ripening. The evolution of plasma-induced nanoparticle ripening is studied and a clear increase in particle size and a decrease in particle density are observed with increasing plasma treatment. From the experiments, it is concluded that the initial nanoparticle density and the plasma gas mixture (Ar/O 2 ratio) are important factors that affect the ripening process. The proposed plasma-directed Ag nanoparticle self-assembly provides a rapid method of tailoring the nanoparticle distribution on substrates, with potential applications in the fields of solar cells, biosensors, and catalysis.

  5. Mechanism of solid-state plasma-induced dewetting for formation of copper and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Ho; Choe, Han Joo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook; Lee, Jung-Joong

    2013-09-01

    Cu and Au nanoparticles were fabricated by plasma treatment on Cu and Au films at 653 K. The nanoparticles were formed by dewetting the metallic films using plasma. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that the plasma-induced dewetting of the Cu and Au films proceeded through heterogeneous hole nucleation and growth along the grain boundaries to lower the surface energy. The amount of energy transferred to surface atoms by one Ar ion was calculated to be 16.1 eV, which was sufficient for displacing Cu and Au atoms. Compared to thermally activated dewetting, more uniform particles could be obtained by plasma-induced dewetting because a much larger number of holes with smaller sizes was generated. The plasma dewetting process is less sensitive to the oxidation of metallic films compared to the annealing process. As a result, Cu nanoparticles could be fabricated at 653 K, whereas the thermally activated dewetting was not possible.

  6. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN p-n Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHUL, RANDY J.; ZHANG, LEI; BACA, ALBERT G.; WILLISON, CHRISTI LEE; HAN, JUNG; PEARTON, S.J.; REN, F.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-induced etch damage can degrade the electrical and optical performance of III-V nitride electronic and photonic devices. We have investigated the etch-induced damage of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch system on the electrical performance of mesa-isolated GaN pn-junction diodes. GaN p-i-n mesa diodes were formed by Cl 2 /BCl 3 /Ar ICP etching under different plasma conditions. The reverse leakage current in the mesa diodes showed a strong relationship to chamber pressure, ion energy, and plasma flux. Plasma induced damage was minimized at moderate flux conditions (≤ 500 W), pressures ≥2 mTorr, and at ion energies below approximately -275 V

  7. EBW simulation for MAST and NSTX experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Pavlo, P.; Taylor, G.; Shevchenko, V.; Valovic, M.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2005-01-01

    The interpretation of EBW emission from spherical tokamaks is nontrivial. We report on a 3D simulation model of this process that incorporates Gaussian beams for the antenna, a full wave solution of EBW-X and EBW-X-O conversions using adaptive finite elements, and EBW ray tracing to determine the radiative temperature. This model is then used to interpret the experimental results from MAST and NSTX. EBW for ELM free H-modes in MAST suggests that the magnetic equilibrium determined by the EFIT code does not adequately represent the B-field within the transport barrier. Using the EBW signal for the reconstruction of the radial profile of the magnetic field, we determine a new equilibrium and see that the EBW simulation now yields better agreement with experimental results. EBW simulations yield excellent results for the time development of the plasma temperature as measured by the EBW radiometer on NSTX

  8. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  9. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Swetha; Chitturi, Raviteja; Anumula, Vamsikrishna; Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology. PMID:28435394

  10. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate a simple method for counting mast cells, thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome (BPS, formerly interstitial cystitis, a syndrome of pelvic pain perceived to be related to the urinary bladder and accompanied by other urinary symptoms, e. g....... frequency and nocturia), as > 28 mast cells/mm(2) is defined as mastocytosis and correlated with clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS The current enzymatic staining method (naphtolesterase) on 10 mu m sections for quantifying mast cells is complicated. In the present study, 61 patients had detrusor...... sections between, respectively. Mast cells were counted according to a well-defined procedure. RESULTS The old and the new methods, on 10 and 3 mu m sections, showed a good correlation between mast cell counts. When using tryptase staining and 3 mu m sections, the mast cell number correlated well...

  11. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  12. Malicious Activity Simulation Tool (MAST) and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    development considerations assesses whether an application is capable of operating in an IPV6 environment as well as how well it maintains its...configuration files. MAST, as a desktop application, likely does not need to provide any additional protection to its resources beyond what is ...from ASD STIG Mitigation APP3980 Medium The designer will ensure the application is compliant with IPv6 multicast addressing and features an IPv6

  13. Signal transduction and chemotaxis in mast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Polakovičová, Iva; Kawakami, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 778, jaro (2016), s. 11-23 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mast cell * IgE receptor * KIT receptor * Signal transduction * Chemotaxis * Plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2016

  14. Mast cell chemotaxis - chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 119 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Grant - others:ECST(XE) BM1007; AV ČR(CZ) MC200520901 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mast cell * IgE receptor * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Quantitation of sperm bindable IgA and IgG in seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, S E; Lynch, D M

    1986-05-01

    Seminal fluid and serum from 95 infertile males were assayed for sperm bindable immunoglobulins using an indirect ELISA with whole target sperm. The ELISA method was compared to seminal fluid and serum immobilization and agglutination assays (functional assays). In this infertile group, the ELISA assay was positive in 22% of seminal fluids (greater than 1.2 fg IgA/sperm and greater than 0.3 fg IgG/sperm). The seminal fluid antibodies were IgA and had an accompanying elevated IgG component in 78% of patients. There was a 96% correlation between negative seminal fluid functional assays and negative ELISA, and a 95% correlation between positive seminal fluid functional assays and positive ELISA. Positive serum sperm antibody tests were found in 71% of the infertile males with positive seminal fluid sperm antibodies, but 29% of the infertile males with strongly positive IgA seminal fluid sperm antibodies showed normal levels of serum sperm antibodies by either ELISA or functional assays. The ELISA method gives reproducible quantitation of sperm antibodies in seminal fluid and correlates well with accepted functional assays. Comparisons with serum sperm antibody assays suggests that seminal fluid sperm antibody analysis complements the serum analysis of sperm antibodies.

  16. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  17. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  18. Mast cells in the sheep, hedgehog and rat forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHALOUDI, HELEN C.; PAPADOPOULOS, GEORGIOS C.

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to reveal the distribution of various mast cell types in the forebrain of the adult sheep, hedgehog and rat. Based on their histochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics, mast cells were categorised as (1) connective tissue-type mast cells, staining metachromatically purple with the toluidine blue method, or pale red with the Alcian blue/safranin method, (2) mucosal-type or immature mast cells staining blue with the Alcian blue/safranin method and (3) serotonin immunopositive mast cells. All 3 types of brain mast cells in all species studied were located in both white and grey matter, often associated with intraparenchymal blood vessels. Their distribution pattern exhibited interspecies differences, while their number varied considerably not only between species but also between individuals of each species. A distributional left-right asymmetry, with more cells present on the left side, was observed in all species studied but it was most prominent in the sheep brain. In the sheep, mast cells were abundantly distributed in forebrain areas, while in the hedgehog and the rat forebrain, mast cells were less widely distributed and were relatively or substantially fewer in number respectively. A limited number of brain mast cells, in all 3 species, but primarily in the rat, were found to react both immunocytochemically to 5-HT antibody and histochemically with Alcian blue/safranin staining. PMID:10634696

  19. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  20. Biomarkers for evaluation of mast cell and basophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, Kenji; Nakashima, Chisa; Nonomura, Yumi; Otsuka, Atsushi; Cardamone, Chiara; Parente, Roberta; De Feo, Giulia; Triggiani, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells and basophils play a pathogenetic role in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. These cells have different development, anatomical location and life span but share many similarities in mechanisms of activation and type of mediators. Mediators secreted by mast cells and basophils correlate with clinical severity in asthma, chronic urticaria, anaphylaxis, and other diseases. Therefore, effective biomarkers to measure mast cell and basophil activation in vivo could potentially have high diagnostic and prognostic values. An ideal biomarker should be specific for mast cells or basophils, easily and reproducibly detectable in blood or biological fluids and should be metabolically stable. Markers of mast cell and basophil include molecules secreted by stimulated cells and surface molecules expressed upon activation. Some markers, such as histamine and lipid mediators are common to mast cells and basophils whereas others, such as tryptase and other proteases, are relatively specific for mast cells. The best surface markers of activation expressed on mast cells and basophils are CD63 and CD203. While these mediators and surface molecules have been associated to a variety of diseases, none of them fulfills requirements for an optimal biomarker and search for better indicators of mast cell/basophil activation in vivo is ongoing. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mast Cell Interactions and Crosstalk in Regulating Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Tania E; Bryce, Paul J; Hulse, Kathryn E

    2018-04-17

    This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms.

  2. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigby, Stuart; Perry, Jennifer C; Kim, Yon-Hee; Sirot, Laura K

    2016-03-01

    Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. Resource availability and the number of competitors during development can also strongly influence sperm production. However, despite the key role of seminal proteins in mediating reproductive processes, it is unclear whether seminal protein investment is dependent on the developmental environment.We manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila melanogaster by rearing flies at low and high density. As expected, this resulted in large and small (i.e. high and low condition) adult phenotypes, respectively.As predicted, large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex peptide (SP) and ovulin, and were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females. However, there was only a weak and non-significant trend for large males to transfer more absolute quantities of SP at mating, and thus, small males ejaculated proportionally more of their stored accessory gland SP resources.Males transferred more receptivity-inhibiting SP to large females. Despite this, large females remated more quickly than small females and thus responded to their developmental environment over and above the quantity of SP they received.The results are consistent with two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, flies might respond to condition-dependent reproductive opportunities, with (i) small males investing heavily in ejaculates when mating opportunities arise and large males strategically partitioning SP resources and (ii) small females remating at reduced rates because they have higher mating costs or need to replenish sperm less often.Second, flies may be primed by their larval environment to deal with similar adult population densities, with (i) males perceiving high density as signalling increased competition, leading small males to invest proportionally more SP resources at mating and (ii) females perceiving high density as signalling abundant

  3. Mannan-binding proteins from boar seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra; Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2004), s. 167-182 ISSN 0165-0378. [Congress of the European Society for Reproductive & Developmental Immunology /4./. Rhodes, 04.06.2003-06.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MŠk VS96141; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * mannan-binding proteins * oviductal epithelium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  4. Small round blue cell tumor of seminal vesicle in a young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. De Paula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle tumor is a rare disease with unclear origin. Generally, it is presented as a pelvic mass that can be detected by sonography and digital rectal exam. The authors report a 25-year-old patient with a pelvic mass which the magnetic resonance and surgical specimen reveal a seminal vesicle tumor. Immunohistochemical findings favored a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the seminal vesicle. Herein, the treatment, histological and histochemical findings of this entity are discussed.

  5. Interrelation between human fertility and seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Zaki, K.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Abdel-Azis, A.

    1986-01-01

    In adult fertile men (32), men with oligospermia (43) and men with azoospermia (31) seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins (PG) and Zn were determined. The PGs were determined by radioimmunoassay. In oligospermia the seminal plasma levels of PGE phospholipids, triglycerides and Zn were significantly increased, while the PGF/sub 2α/ level was unchanged. In azoospermia the seminal plasma total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased, PGE revealed an insignificant decrease only

  6. DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF CD59 FROM HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A REZAIE

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. CD59 is one of the complement regulatory proteins (CRPs which exert inhibitory function by blocking the formation of C5b-9 complex or Membrane Attacks complex (MAC. Regarding the therapeutic role of CD59 in treatment of pathological effects in uncontrolled activation of complements system and its efficiency to overcome the hyper-acute rejection, CD59 was suggested for maintenance of transplanted organ. In this study We determined and isolated CD59 from seminal plasma. Methods. Six normospermic sample according to WHO standards were chosen. Plasma of samples was separated and to remove the postasomes, the seminal plama was ultra centrifuged. CD59 was detected by Dot-Blot using CD59 mAb (MEM43. The molecular weight and purity of protein was detected by SOS-PAGE method follwed by Westerm Blot. Results. Protein was present in the 6.5 ml and 15ml of gel fitration fractions. Molecular weight based on marker size in these two fractions was 65 and 21KD respectively. Discussion. CD59 had previously beem purified by lysis of erythrocyte cell membrane. Because of use of detergent and preservative agents, this method decreased physiologic effects of the protein. In this study the isolation was performed from prostasome granules" without using of any detergent and preservative agents.

  7. FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA CALIDAD SEMINAL EN TOROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Lozano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad seminal de los toros se puede ver afectada por múltiples causas tanto de origen infeccioso o no infeccioso. El entendimiento adecuado de estas causas es de gran importancia ya que de este modo se pueden tomar los correctivos necesarios ya sea para tratar al toro, o en otros casos para descartarlo del sistema productivo del cual haga parte. No se debe olvidar como la presencia física del toro se puede dar a partir de un banco de germoplasma (semen congelado, el cual puede tener problemas de calidad no inherentes al proceso de criopreservación sino a factores infecciosos o no infecciosos previos a la congelación. Los problemas de calidad seminal se verán reflejados en los diferentes parámetros reproductivos del sistema productivo, lo que a su véz será de gran relevancia al hacer un balance de pérdidas y ganancias de una ganadería tanto de ganado de carne como de leche.

  8. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the mouse seminal vesicle: actions on chloride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; O, W S; Tang, Fai

    2014-08-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) may regulate seminal vesicle fluid secretion, and this may affect sperm quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADM on chloride secretion in the mouse seminal vesicle. The presence of ADM in mouse seminal vesicle was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on chloride secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole-mount preparation of mouse seminal vesicle in an Ussing chamber. The effects of specific ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists were investigated. Whether the ADM effect depended on the cAMP- and/or calcium-activated chloride channel was also studied using specific chloride channel blockers. The results showed that ADM was present in seminal vesicle epithelial cells. The major molecular species was precursor in the mouse seminal vesicle. ADM increased short-circuit current through the calcium-activated chloride channel in mouse seminal vesicle, and CGRP receptor was involved. We conclude that ADM may regulate chloride and fluid secretion from the seminal vesicle, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the sperm and, hence, fertility. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xiang Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P<0.05 except for UA (P=0.214. There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance.

  10. Mechanism of mast cell adhesion to human tenocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Nassab, Paulina; Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; McCormack, Robert G; Scott, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells and fibroblasts are two key players involved in many fibrotic and degenerative disorders. In the present study we examined the nature of binding interactions between human mast cells and tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes). In the mast cell-fibroblast co-culture model, mast cells were shown to spontaneously bind to tenocytes, in a process that was partially mediated by α5β1 integrin receptors. The same receptors on mast cells significantly mediated binding of these cells to tissue culture plates in the presence of tenocyte-conditioned media; the tenocyte-derived fibronectin in the media was shown to also play a major role in these binding activities. Upon binding to tenocytes or tissue culture plates, mast cells acquired an elongated phenotype, which was dependent on α5β1 integrin and tenocyte fibronectin. Additionally, tenocyte-derived fibronectin significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the adhesion molecule, THY1, by mast cells. Our data suggests that α5β1 integrin mediates binding of mast cells to human tenocyte and to tenocyte-derived ECM proteins, in particular fibronectin. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Contribution of engineered nanomaterials physicochemical properties to mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica M.; Mendoza, Ryan; Raghavendra, Achyut J.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M.

    2017-03-01

    The rapid development of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has grown dramatically in the last decade, with increased use in consumer products, industrial materials, and nanomedicines. However, due to increased manufacturing, there is concern that human and environmental exposures may lead to adverse immune outcomes. Mast cells, central to the innate immune response, are one of the earliest sensors of environmental insult and have been shown to play a role in ENM-mediated immune responses. Our laboratory previously determined that mast cells are activated via a non-FcɛRI mediated response following silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) exposure, which was dependent upon key physicochemical properties. Using bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we tested the hypothesis that ENM physicochemical properties influence mast cell degranulation. Exposure to 13 physicochemically distinct ENMs caused a range of mast degranulation responses, with smaller sized Ag NPs (5 nm and 20 nm) causing the most dramatic response. Mast cell responses were dependent on ENMs physicochemical properties such as size, apparent surface area, and zeta potential. Surprisingly, minimal ENM cellular association by mast cells was not correlated with mast cell degranulation. This study suggests that a subset of ENMs may elicit an allergic response and contribute to the exacerbation of allergic diseases.

  12. Mast cell synapses and exosomes: membrane contacts for information exchange.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll-Portillo, A.; Surviladze, Z.; Cambi, A.; Lidke, D.S.; Wilson, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to their central role in allergy, mast cells are involved in a wide variety of cellular interactions during homeostasis and disease. In this review, we discuss the ability of mast cells to extend their mechanisms for intercellular communication beyond the release of soluble mediators.

  13. e Ciências Afins (MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Granato

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MAST is a science and technology museum located in the grounds and architectural complex belonging to the former Observatório Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. This complex, concluded in 1921, comprises of 16 buildings, and was listed by the Artistic and Historic National (1986 and State (1987 Heritage. This complex features three pavilions sheltering the equatorial telescopes, typical examples of Architecture and Engineering buildings for Astronomic purposes. Two of these pavilions, all of which are under the care of MAST, shelter the 21 cm and 32 cm telescopes, plus a third, part of the National Observatory, which houses the 46 cm equatorial telescope. The present study is the result of the work undertaken by MAST to preserve and restore the historical buildings under its responsibility. Thanks to a partnership set up with the Vitae Foundation, it has been possible to develop restoration work covering all aspects of the pavilions (moving metal dome, building, scientific instrument, as well as the area’s museography, with a view to informing visitors about the restoration work undertaken. The project, based on the historical research on the complex, was carried out by a multidisciplinary team over two years. Each stage of the work was comprehensively photographed, including the intervention project design, which was based on architectural surveys and the diagnosis of the complex’s state of repair, plus the restoration per se. This is a groundbreaking initiative in Latin America and will serve as an example for future actions to be taken on historical buildings, especially those built for scientific and technological purposes.

  14. Overview of physics results from MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.C.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Connor, J.W.; Conway, N.J.; Cox, M.; Cowley, S.C.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; Alladio, F.; Barratt, N.C.; Breizman, B.N.; Cecconello, M.

    2011-01-01

    Major developments on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have enabled important advances in support of ITER and the physics basis of a spherical tokamak (ST) based component test facility (CTF), as well as providing new insight into underlying tokamak physics. For example, L-H transition studies benefit from high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of pedestal profile evolution (temperature, density and radial electric field) and in support of pedestal stability studies the edge current density profile has been inferred from motional Stark effect measurements. The influence of the q-profile and E x B flow shear on transport has been studied in MAST and equilibrium flow shear has been included in gyro-kinetic codes, improving comparisons with the experimental data. H-modes exhibit a weaker q and stronger collisionality dependence of heat diffusivity than implied by IPB98(y,2) scaling, which may have important implications for the design of an ST-based CTF. ELM mitigation, an important issue for ITER, has been demonstrated by applying resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) using both internal and external coils, but full stabilization of type-I ELMs has not been observed. Modelling shows the importance of including the plasma response to the RMP fields. MAST plasmas with q > 1 and weak central magnetic shear regularly exhibit a long-lived saturated ideal internal mode. Measured plasma braking in the presence of this mode compares well with neo-classical toroidal viscosity theory. In support of basic physics understanding, high resolution Thomson scattering measurements are providing new insight into sawtooth crash dynamics and neo-classical tearing mode critical island widths. Retarding field analyser measurements show elevated ion temperatures in the scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas and, in the presence of type-I ELMs, ions with energy greater than 500 eV are detected 20 cm outside the separatrix. Disruption mitigation by massive gas injection has

  15. Overview of physics results from MAST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, H.; Akers, R.J.; Alladio, F.; Appel, L.C.; Axon, K.B.; Ben Ayed, N.; Boerner, P.; Buttery, R.J.; Carolan, P.G.; Ciric, D.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.; Coyler, G.; Conner, J.W.; Conway, N.J.; Cowley, S.; Cox, M.; Counsell, G.F.; Cunningham, G.; Darke, A.; deBock, M.; deTemmerman, G.; Dendy, R.O.; Dowling, J.; Dnestrovskij, A.Yu.; Dnestrovskij, Yu.N.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Field, A.R.; Foster, A.; Garzotti, L.; Gibbon, K.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hawkes, N.C.; Harrison, J.; Helander, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M.J.; Howell, D.F.; Duc Hua, M.; Hubbard, A.; Istenic, M.; Joiner, N.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Koslowski, H.R.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M.; Lisgo, S.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G.P.; Maingi, R.; Mancuso, A.; Manhood, S.J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.J.; McCone, J.; Michael, C.; Micozzi, P.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A.W.; Muir, D.G.; Nardon, E.; Naylor, G.; O’Brien, M.R.; O’Gorman, T.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Price, M.N.; Rachlew, E.; Reiter, D.; Roach, C.M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Sharapov, S.E.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Smith, H.; Staebler, G.E.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, S.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Thyagaraja, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.R.; Urban, Jakub; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.G.L.; Volpe, F.; Voss, F.; Walsh, M.J.; Warder, S.E.V.; Watkins, R.; Wilson, H.R.; Windridge, M.; Wisse, M.; Zabolotski, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Zolotukhin, O.; MAST, Mast.Teams.; NBI, NBI.Teams.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2009), s. 104017-104017 ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/22nd./. Geneva, 13.10.2008-18.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Overdense plasma * MAST * Tokamaks * Diagnostics * Elektron Bernstein waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.270, year: 2009 http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0029-5515/49/10/104017

  16. Overview of recent physics results from MAST.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirk, A.; Adámek, Jiří; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Arese Lucini, F.; Barnes, M.; Barrett, T.; Ben Ayed, N.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Browning, P.K.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Cardnell, S.; Carr, M.; Casson, F.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, I.T.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Conroy, S.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W.A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Dickinson, D.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Evans, M.; Farley, T.; Fedorczak, N.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, I.; Fox, M.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gi, K.; Gibson, K.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gracias, W.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Horáček, Jan; Howard, J.; Howell, D.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Inomoto, M.; Imazawa, R.; Jones, O.; Kadowaki, K.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Kogan, L.; Komm, Michael; Lai, W.; Leddy, J.; Leggate, H.; Hollocombe, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lukin, V.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Madsen, J.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A.W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O’Brien, M.; O’Gorman, T.; O’Mullane, M.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; Ono, Y.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ricci, P.; Riva, F.; Roach, C.; Romanelli, M.; Ryan, D.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Stanier, A.; Storrs, J.; Summers, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamain, P.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Tani, K.; Taylor, D.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Van Wyk, F.; Walkden, N.; Watanabe, T.; Wilson, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Yamada, T.; Young, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 102007. ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/26./. Kyoto, 17.10.2016-22.10.2016] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : MAST upgrade * DBS system * edge and core turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa65e0/meta

  17. Mast-sipping in EPR trademark plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Jan; Schienbein, Marcel; Geier, Roland

    2010-01-01

    For more than 20 years, AREVA applies and develops different sipping techniques to identify fuel assemblies with leaking fuel rods. For the EPR trademark reactors a Mast Sipping System with newest developments will be implemented considering radiation protection and latest standards requirements. The innovative EPR trademark Sipping System differs from previous systems in many ways. One of the main innovations is that all the necessary processes of the Sipping system have been fully digitized. Second, several ALARA design modifications have been implemented to meet the current radiation protection requirements. An additional implementable multilingual assistance program facilitates the handling of the system and helps to prevent incorrect operation. (orig.)

  18. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes.

  19. A practical method to evaluate radiofrequency exposure of mast workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in telecommunication transmitter masts is a challenging task. For conventional field strength measurements using manually operated instruments, it is difficult to document the locations of measurements while climbing up a mast. Logging RF dosemeters worn by the workers, on the other hand, do not give any information about the location of the exposure. In this study, a practical method was developed and applied to assess mast workers' exposure to RF fields and the corresponding location. This method uses a logging dosemeter for personal RF exposure evaluation and two logging barometers to determine the corresponding height of the worker's position on the mast. The procedure is not intended to be used for compliance assessments, but to indicate locations where stricter assessments are needed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by making measurements in a TV and radio transmitting mast. (authors)

  20. Mast cell function modulating IgE-mediated allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Pawankar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases, such as atopic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and urticaria, are prevalent and increasing in frequency. Mast cells are known to play a central role in the immediate phase reaction of allergic diseases through the IgE-mediated release of a variety of chemical mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins. In contrast, T lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils are thought to be responsible for inducing the late phase response. However, whether the mast cell can be simplistically assigned a role in the immediate phase allergic response and whether mast cells are necessary for the ongoing allergic response, including the development of hyperresponsiveness, remains to be completely studied. In the present article, the author will discuss the integrated roles of mast cells in IgE-mediated allergic inflammation, with specific emphasis on the roles of mast cell-derived cytokines in the late phase allergic response and chronic allergic inflammation.

  1. Stereological quantification of mast cells in human synovium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Herlin, T

    1999-01-01

    Mast cells participate in both the acute allergic reaction as well as in chronic inflammatory diseases. Earlier studies have revealed divergent results regarding the quantification of mast cells in the human synovium. The aim of the present study was therefore to quantify these cells in the human...... synovium, using stereological techniques. Different methods of staining and quantification have previously been used for mast cell quantification in human synovium. Stereological techniques provide precise and unbiased information on the number of cell profiles in two-dimensional tissue sections of......, in this case, human synovium. In 10 patients suffering from osteoarthritis a median of 3.6 mast cells/mm2 synovial membrane was found. The total number of cells (synoviocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, leukocytes) present was 395.9 cells/mm2 (median). The mast cells constituted 0.8% of all the cell profiles...

  2. Mast cells and eosinophils in invasive breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Rose-Marie; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Nevanlinna, Heli; Carvalho, Ricardo; Salonen, Laura; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory cells in the tumour stroma has gained increasing interest recently. Thus, we aimed to study the frequency and prognostic impact of stromal mast cells and tumour infiltrating eosinophils in invasive breast carcinomas. Tissue microarrays containing 234 cases of invasive breast cancer were prepared and analysed for the presence of stromal mast cells and eosinophils. Tumour infiltrating eosinophils were counted on hematoxylin-eosin slides. Immunostaining for tryptase was done and the total number of mast cells were counted and correlated to the proliferation marker Ki 67, positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, clinical parameters and clinical outcome. Stromal mast cells were found to correlate to low grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. There was a total lack of eosinophils in breast cancer tumours. A high number of mast cells in the tumours correlated to low-grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. Eosinophils are not tumour infiltrating in breast cancers

  3. Regulation of basophil and mast cell development by transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Sasaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Basophils and mast cells play important roles in host defense against parasitic infections and allergic responses. Several progenitor populations, either shared or specific, for basophils and/or mast cells have been identified, thus elucidating the developmental pathways of these cells. Multiple transcription factors essential for their development and the relationships between them have been also revealed. For example, IRF8 induces GATA2 expression to promote the generation of both basophils and mast cells. The STAT5-GATA2 axis induces C/EBPα and MITF expression, facilitating the differentiation into basophils and mast cells, respectively. In addition, C/EBPα and MITF mutually suppress each other's expression. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of how transcription factors regulate the development of basophils and mast cells.

  4. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  5. Suspected seminal vesiculitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Velguth, Karen E; Backues, Kay A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) underwent routine transrectal stimulation for semen collection as part of an artificial insemination program. The procedure consisted of a preinsemination semen collection followed by two consecutive days of semen collections for artificial insemination. The second day's sample contained large numbers of inflammatory cells, intracellular bacteria, and phagocytized sperm. Semen was submitted for culture and sensitivity. Culture revealed Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus intermedius, Kocuria roseus, and an unidentified gram-positive organism. Empirical antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim sulfa was initiated and then changed to enrofloxacin based on sensitivity panel results for a total of 28 days of treatment. Diagnostic semen collections were performed during treatment and 2 wk posttreatment to determine the success of therapy. Posttreatment collections revealed resolution of the inflammation. The origin of the infection was suspected to be the seminal vesicles.

  6. Overview of recent physics results from MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A.; Adamek, J.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Arese Lucini, F.; Barnes, M.; Barrett, T.; Ben Ayed, N.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Browning, P. K.; Brunner, J.; Cahyna, P.; Cardnell, S.; Carr, M.; Casson, F.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, I. T.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Conroy, S.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W. A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Dickinson, D.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Evans, M.; Farley, T.; Fedorczak, N.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, I.; Fox, M.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gi, K.; Gibson, K.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gracias, W.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Horacek, J.; Howard, J.; Howell, D.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Inomoto, M.; Imazawa, R.; Jones, O.; Kadowaki, K.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Kogan, L.; Komm, M.; Lai, W.; Leddy, J.; Leggate, H.; Hollocombe, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lukin, V.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Madsen, J.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A. W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O'Brien, M.; O'Gorman, T.; O'Mullane, M.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; Ono, Y.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ricci, P.; Riva, F.; Roach, C.; Romanelli, M.; Ryan, D.; Saarelma, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Stanier, A.; Storrs, J.; Summers, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamain, P.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Tani, K.; Taylor, D.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Van Wyk, F.; Walkden, N.; Watanabe, T.; Wilson, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Yamada, T.; Young, J.; Zoletnik, S.; the MAST Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-10-01

    New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp-up, models are not able to correctly predict the current diffusion. Experiments have been performed looking at edge and core turbulence. At the edge, detailed studies have revealed how filament characteristics are responsible for determining the near and far scrape off layer density profiles. In the core the intrinsic rotation and electron scale turbulence have been measured. The role that the fast ion gradient has on redistributing fast ions through fishbone modes has led to a redesign of the neutral beam injector on MAST Upgrade. In H-mode the turbulence at the pedestal top has been shown to be consistent with being due to electron temperature gradient modes. A reconnection process appears to occur during edge localized modes (ELMs) and the number of filaments released determines the power profile at the divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations can mitigate ELMs provided the edge peeling response is maximised and the core kink response minimised. The mitigation of intrinsic error fields with toroidal mode number n  >  1 has been shown to be important for plasma performance.

  7. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  8. MAST's Integrated Data Access Management system: IDAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.G.; Appel, L.; Conway, N.J.; Kirk, A.; Martin, R.; Meyer, H.; Storrs, J.; Taylor, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Waterhouse, J.

    2008-01-01

    A new Integrated Data Access Management system, IDAM, has been created to address specific data management issues of the MAST spherical Tokamak. For example, this system enables access to numerous file formats, both legacy and modern (IDA, Ufile, netCDF, HDF5, MDSPlus, PPF, JPF). It adds data quality values at the signal level, and automatically corrects for problems in data: in timings, calibrations, and labelling. It also builds new signals from signal components. The IDAM data server uses a hybrid XML-relational database to record how data are accessed, whether locally or remotely, and how alias and generic signal names are mapped to true names. Also, XML documents are used to encode the details of data corrections, as well as definitions of composite signals and error models. The simple, user friendly, API and accessor function library, written in C on Linux, is available for applications in C, C++, IDL and Fortran-90/95/2003 with good performance: a MAST plasma current trace (28 kbytes of data), requested using a generic name and with data corrections applied, is delivered over a 100 Mbit/s network in ∼13 ms

  9. Characterization of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization: focus on OH radical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Honda, Ryosuke; Hokari, Yutaro; Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) is used medically for plasma-induced cell permeabilization. However, how plasma irradiation specifically triggers permeabilization remains unclear. In an attempt to identify the dominant factor( s ), the distribution of plasma-produced reactive species was investigated, primarily focusing on OH radicals. A stronger plasma discharge, which produced more OH radicals in the gas phase, also produced more OH radicals in the liquid phase (OH aq ), enhancing the cell membrane permeability. In addition, plasma irradiation-induced enhancement of cell membrane permeability decreased markedly with increased solution thickness (<1 mm), and the plasma-produced OH aq decayed in solution (diffusion length on the order of several hundred micrometers). Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of OH aq corresponded with the distribution of the permeabilized cells by plasma irradiation, while the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species in solution (detected by iodine-starch reaction) exhibited a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that OH aq, among the plasma-produced oxidizing species, represents the dominant factor in plasma-induced cell permeabilization. These results enhance the current understanding of the mechanism of APP as a cell-permeabilization tool. (paper)

  10. Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-β, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients. Methods: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, MTT, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to assess lymphocyte activation with PHA. Results: The plasma of lung cancer patients suppressed proliferation, CD69 expression, and perforin and granzyme B production in lymphocytes upon activation by PHA, effects that were partially of fully reversed by Gl-PS. Conclusion: Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation by phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially by Gl-PS, an observation suggesting the potential of Gl-PS in cancer therapy.

  11. [Anatomo-functional changes in the prostate and seminal vesicles with aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, F; Mastromarino, G; Colombo, F; Canclini, L; Fenice, O

    1993-10-01

    The anatomo-functional modifications of the prostate and the seminal pathways during the genital apparatus aging, (prostatic hyperplasia and hypotrophy of the seminal pathways and testis), are caused by hormonal modifications (inconstant increase of the gonadotropins LH-FSH, decrease of the peripheric utilization of testosterone, alterations of the adrenal secretion), by anatomical involutions (degenerations of the glandular, stromal and vascular components).

  12. Calidad seminal y toxicidad de metales pesados y plaguicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La función reproductiva masculina se ha visto deteriorada significativamente en los últimos 50 años y dicha alteración podría estar relacionada con la exposición a diferentes tóxicos y contaminantes ocupacionales y ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir el impacto de la exposición humana a metales pesados y plaguicidas sobre la función reproductiva masculina. La mayoría de los plaguicidas y metales pesados se consideran tóxicos reproductivos y podrían afectar negativamente al sistema reproductivo masculino debido al efecto alterador sobre el eje hipotálamo-pituitario-gonadal, o directamente afectando a la espermatogénesis, dando lugar a una alteración de la calidad seminal. Los efectos negativos de estos compuestos se han relacionado con los principales parámetros espermáticos (concentración, morfología y movilidad normal, volumen seminal y recuento total espermático, alteración del ADN espermático, así como con cambios en los niveles de hormonas reproductivas. El uso de algunas de estas sustancias ya está prohibido mientras que se continúa comercializando con otras. Sería recomendable una legislación más severa que impida cualquier exposición a este tipo de tóxicos debido a su confirmado efecto perjudicial sobre la salud reproductiva masculina.

  13. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horup Larsen, Margit; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B.

    2011-01-01

    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system.Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining...... was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA–G in hyperplastic prostatic...... tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma....

  14. Histamine and TNF-α release by rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im S.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in the vaginal smears of patients infected with T. vaginalis. In this study, we investigated whether T. vaginalis could induce mast cells to migrate and to produce TNF-α and histamine. Rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC, a primary mast cell, were used for the study. T. vaginalis induced an increase in chemotactic migration of the mast cells toward excretory and secretory product (ESP of T. vaginalis, and the mast cells activated with T. vaginalis showed an increased release of histamine and TNF-α. Therefore, mast cells may be involved in the inflammatory response caused by T. vaginalis.

  15. Male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bedbugs, Cimex lectularius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition. Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.

  16. Widespread immunological functions of mast cells: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Feyerabend, Thorsten B

    2012-07-27

    Immunological functions of mast cells are currently considered to be much broader than the original role of mast cells in IgE-driven allergic disease. The spectrum of proposed mast cell functions includes areas as diverse as the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, protective immunity against viral, microbial, and parasitic pathogens, autoimmunity, tolerance to graft rejection, promotion of or protection from cancer, wound healing, angiogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and others. The vast majority of in vivo mast cell data have been based on mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice. However, work in new mouse mutants with unperturbed Kit function, which have a surprisingly normal immune system, has failed to corroborate some key immunological aspects, formerly attributed to mast cells. Here, we consider the implications of these recent developments for the state of the field as well as for future work, aiming at deciphering the physiological functions of mast cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mast cells in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Activators and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2017-12-05

    Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid. The mast cell-derived mediators may impede the functions of different types of cells present in atherosclerotic lesions, and also compromise the structural and functional integrity of the intimal extracellular matrix. In the adventitial layer of atherosclerotic coronary arteries, mast cells locate next to peptidergic sensory nerve fibers, which, by releasing neuropeptides may activate mast cells to release vasoactive compounds capable of triggering local vasoconstriction. The concerted actions of arterial mast cells have the potential to contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and ultimately to destabilization and rupture of an advanced atherosclerotic plaque with ensuing atherothrombotic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elaeocarpusin Inhibits Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jong Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are major effector cells for allergic responses that act by releasing inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, different strategies have been pursued to develop anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory candidates by regulating the function of mast cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of elaeocarpusin (EL on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. We isolated EL from Elaeocarpus sylvestris L. (Elaeocarpaceae, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. For this study, various sources of mast cells and mouse anaphylaxis models were used. EL suppressed the induction of markers for mast cell degranulation, such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase, by reducing intracellular calcium levels. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-4, was significantly decreased in activated mast cells by EL. This inhibitory effect was related to inhibition of the phosphorylation of Fyn, Lyn, Syk, and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. To confirm the effect of EL in vivo, immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA and ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA models were induced. EL reduced the PCA reaction in a dose dependent manner. In addition, EL attenuated ASA reactions such as hypothemia, histamine release, and IgE production. Our results suggest that EL is a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts via the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

  19. Mast cells in the human lung at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Donald

    1992-12-01

    Mast cell densities in the lung were measured in five native highlanders of La Paz (3600 m) and in one lowlander dying from high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) at 3440 m. Two of the highlanders were mestizos with normal pulmonary arteries and the others were Aymara Indians with muscular remodelling of their pulmonary vasculature. The aim of the investigation was to determine if accumulation of mast cells in the lung at high altitude (HA) is related to alveolar hypoxia alone, to a combination of hypoxia and muscularization of the pulmonary arterial tree, or to oedema of the lung. The lungs of four lowlanders were used as normoxic controls. The results showed that the mast cell density of the two Mestizos was in the normal range of lowlanders (0.6-8.8 cells/mm2). In the Aymara Indians the mast cell counts were raised (25.6-26.0 cells/mm2). In the lowlander dying from HAPO the mast cell count was greatly raised to 70.1 cells/mm2 lung tissue. The results show that in native highlanders an accumulation of mast cells in the lung is not related to hypoxia alone but to a combination of hypoxia and muscular remodelling of the pulmonary arteries. However, the most potent cause of increased mast cell density in the lung at high altitude appears to be high-altitude pulmonary oedema.

  20. Mast cell-neural interactions contribute to pain and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kalpna; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus. Mechanisms underlying mast cell differentiation, activation, and intercellular interactions with inflammatory, vascular, and neural systems are deeply influenced by their microenvironment, imparting enormous heterogeneity and complexity in understanding their contribution to pain and pruritus. Neurogenic inflammation is central to both pain and pruritus, but specific mediators released by mast cells to promote this process may vary depending upon their location, stimuli, underlying pathology, gender, and species. Therefore, in this review, we present the contribution of mast cells in pathological conditions, including distressing pruritus exacerbated by psychologic stress and experienced by the majority of patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis and in different pain syndromes due to mastocytosis, sickle cell disease, and cancer. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  2. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  3. Quantification and localization of mast cells in periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahita, V N; Manjunatha, B S; Shah, R; Astekar, M; Purohit, S; Kovvuru, S

    2015-01-01

    Periapical lesions occur in response to chronic irritation in periapical tissue, generally resulting from an infected root canal. Specific etiological agents of induction, participating cell population and growth factors associated with maintenance and resolution of periapical lesions are incompletely understood. Among the cells found in periapical lesions, mast cells have been implicated in the inflammatory mechanism. Quantifications and the possible role played by mast cells in the periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. Hence, this study is to emphasize the presence (localization) and quantification of mast cells in periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. A total of 30 cases and out of which 15 of periapical granuloma and 15 radicular cyst, each along with the case details from the previously diagnosed cases in the department of oral pathology were selected for the study. The gender distribution showed male 8 (53.3%) and females 7 (46.7%) in periapical granuloma cases and male 10 (66.7%) and females 5 (33.3%) in radicular cyst cases. The statistical analysis used was unpaired t-test. Mean mast cell count in periapical granuloma subepithelial and deeper connective tissue, was 12.40 (0.99%) and 7.13 (0.83%), respectively. The mean mast cell counts in subepithelial and deeper connective tissue of radicular cyst were 17.64 (1.59%) and 12.06 (1.33%) respectively, which was statistically significant. No statistical significant difference was noted among males and females. Mast cells were more in number in radicular cyst. Based on the concept that mast cells play a critical role in the induction of inflammation, it is logical to use therapeutic agents to alter mast cell function and secretion, to thwart inflammation at its earliest phases. These findings may suggest the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions.

  4. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I.G.; Akers, R.J.; Allan, A.; Allan, S.Y.; Appel, L.C.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N.C.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bradley, J.W.; Canik, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Cecconelo, M.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.J.; Cox, M.; Crowley, B.J.; Cowley, S.C.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darke, A.; De Bock, M.F.M.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R.O.; Denner, P.; Dickinson, D.; Dnestrovsky, A.Y.; Dnestrovsky, Y.; Driscoll, M.D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Dura, P.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Fundameski, W.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gibson, K.J.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Harrison, J.; Havlíčková, E.; Hawkes, N.C.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hender, T.C.; Highcock, E.; Higgins, D.; Hill, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M.J.; Horáček, Jan; Howell, D.F.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaveeva, E.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Kočan, M.; Lake, R.J.; Lehnen, M.; Leggate, H.J.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M.K.; Lisgo, S.W.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G.P.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.J.; McClements, K.G.; McMillan, B.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Molchanov, P.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A.W.; Muir, D.G.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.H.; O’Brien, M.R.; O’Gorman, T.; Pamela, S.; Parra, F.I.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S.D.; Price, M.N.; Roach, C.M.; Robinson, J.R.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Seidl, J.; Sharapov, S.E.; Schekochihin, A.A.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, G. J.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.R.; Valovič, M.; Vann, R.G.L.; Verwichte, E.; Voskoboynikov, P.; Voss, G.; Warder, S.E.V.; Wilson, H. R.; Wodniak, I.; Zoletnik, S.; Zagórski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2013), s. 104008-104008 ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/24./. San Diego, 08.10.2012-13.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER * DEMO * MAST * spherical tokamak * JET Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.243, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/53/10/104008/pdf/0029-5515_53_10_104008.pdf

  5. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...threatening anaphylaxis. We have identified a novel multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that produce large amounts of IL-9, IL

  6. Idiopathic Mast Cell Activation Syndrome With Associated Salicylate Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenauer, Tobias; Raithel, Martin; Götze, Thomas; Siebenlist, Gregor; Rückel, Aline; Baenkler, Hanns-Wolf; Hartmann, Arndt; Haller, Florian; Hoerning, André

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic mast cell activation syndrome can be a rare cause for chronic abdominal pain in children. It remains a diagnosis by exclusion that can be particularly challenging due to the vast variety of possible clinical manifestations. We present a 13-year-old boy who suffered from a multitude of unspecific complaints over a long period of time. In this case, an assessment of mast cell-derived metabolites and immunohistochemical analysis of bioptic specimen was worthwhile. After ruling out, primary (oncologic) and secondary causes for mast cell activation, pharmacologic treatment adapted to the patient's salicylate intolerance resulted in a major relief of symptoms.

  7. Investigations of plasma induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, K.M., E-mail: praveenkmiiucnn@gmail.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nano Science and Nanotechnology (IIUCNN), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Centre de Recherche C.Huygens, LIMATB (Laboratoired’Ingénierie des Matériaux de Bretagne), Université De Bretagne-Sud, Rue stMaudé – BP 92116, Cedex Lorient 56321 Lorient (France); Thomas, Sabu [International and Inter University Centre for Nano Science and Nanotechnology (IIUCNN), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Grohens, Yves [Centre de Recherche C.Huygens, LIMATB (Laboratoired’Ingénierie des Matériaux de Bretagne), Université De Bretagne-Sud, Rue stMaudé – BP 92116, Cedex Lorient 56321 Lorient (France); Mozetič, Miran; Junkar, Ita; Primc, Gregor [Department of Surface Engineering, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamovacesta 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Gorjanc, Marija [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 12, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Plasma induced changes on the morphology of coir fibres (Viewed and Analysed using scanning electron microscopy, Jeol JSM 7600 FEG). The O{sub 2} plasma treated fibre possessed increased hydrophilicity due to the chemical and physical changes induced by plasma. - Highlights: • Plasma-induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres were investigated. • The morphological study using SEM analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after plasma treatment. • The water absorption studies show an increase of water absorption from 39% to around 100%. • The topographic measurements done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed etching of fibre wall, and this is responsible for higher water absorption. • XPS analysis reveals that the oxygen content measured for samples treated at 50 Pa increased from initial 18 at% to about 32 at%. - Abstract: The development of lignocellulosic natural-fibre-reinforced polymers composites are constrained by two limitations: the upper temperature at which the fibre can be processed and the significant differences between the surface energy of the fibre and the polymer matrix. Since the fibres and matrices are chemically different, strong adhesion at their interface is needed for the effective transfer of stress and bond distribution throughout the interface. The present study investigated the plasma induced effects on the surface properties of natural coir fibres. Weakly ionized oxygen plasma was created in two different discharge chambers by an inductively coupled radiofrequency (RF) discharge. The water absorption studies showed an increase of water sorption from 39% to 100%. The morphological study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after the plasma treatment. The topographic measurements and phase imaging done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated difference in topographic

  8. Mast cell degranulation breaks peripheral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, V C; Wasiuk, A; Bennett, K A; Benson, M J; Elgueta, R; Waldschmidt, T J; Noelle, R J

    2009-10-01

    Mast cells (MC) have been shown to mediate regulatory T-cell (T(reg))-dependent, peripheral allograft tolerance in both skin and cardiac transplants. Furthermore, T(reg) have been implicated in mitigating IgE-mediated MC degranulation, establishing a dynamic, reciprocal relationship between MC and T(reg) in controlling inflammation. In an allograft tolerance model, it is now shown that intragraft or systemic MC degranulation results in the transient loss of T(reg) suppressor activities with the acute, T-cell dependent rejection of established, tolerant allografts. Upon degranulation, MC mediators can be found in the skin, T(reg) rapidly leave the graft, MC accumulate in the regional lymph node and the T(reg) are impaired in the expression of suppressor molecules. Such a dramatic reversal of T(reg) function and tissue distribution by MC degranulation underscores how allergy may causes the transient breakdown of peripheral tolerance and episodes of acute T-cell inflammation.

  9. Mini-mast CSI testbed user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Sharon E.; Pappa, Richard S.; Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Miserentino, Robert; Bailey, James P.; Cooper, Paul A.; Williams, Boyd L., Jr.; Bruner, Anne M.

    1992-01-01

    The Mini-Mast testbed is a 20 m generic truss highly representative of future deployable trusses for space applications. It is fully instrumented for system identification and active vibrations control experiments and is used as a ground testbed at NASA-Langley. The facility has actuators and feedback sensors linked via fiber optic cables to the Advanced Real Time Simulation (ARTS) system, where user defined control laws are incorporated into generic controls software. The object of the facility is to conduct comprehensive active vibration control experiments on a dynamically realistic large space structure. A primary goal is to understand the practical effects of simplifying theoretical assumptions. This User's Guide describes the hardware and its primary components, the dynamic characteristics of the test article, the control law implementation process, and the necessary safeguards employed to protect the test article. Suggestions for a strawman controls experiment are also included.

  10. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  11. Chronic bacterial seminal vesiculitis as a potential disease entity in men with chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hwan; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Choo, Gwoan-Youb; Chung, Yeun-Goo; Seong, Do-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ho; Choe, Won-Sik; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Hyun, In Young; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate bacterial infection in the seminal vesicles by bacteriological examination and radionuclide imaging in men with chronic prostatitis. The study included 50 patients with chronic prostatitis who showed hot uptake in seminal vesicles on Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging and eight patients who did not show hot uptake. The evaluation included the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and four-glass test. In all participants, transperineal aspiration of seminal vesicle fluid under the guidance of transrectal ultrasonography and bacteriological examination was carried out. Of the 50 patients who showed hot uptake in the seminal vesicles on the isotope study, microorganisms were isolated from the seminal vesicle fluid in 17 patients (positive predictive value, 34%). The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli in 13 patients (26%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in two patients (4%), Enterococcus faecalis in one patient (2%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in one patient (2%). No microorganisms were isolated in the eight patients who did not show hot uptake in the seminal vesicles (negative predictive value, 100%). However, there were no significant differences in National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total scores and subscores between the study groups. Chronic bacterial seminal vesiculitis might simultaneously affect a considerable portion of patients with chronic prostatitis, although the clinical implication of the disease remains to be further investigated. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Effect of climate on the seminal characteristics of boars in a region of humid tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Restrepo, Guillermo; Trujillo Aramburo, Luis Emilio; Buritica Henao, Maria Elizabet; Sierra Perez, Carlos Ignacio; Correa Londono, Guillermo; Gonzalez Boto, Oscar Domingo

    2004-01-01

    In a region of humid tropical forest, ten boars of from 12 to 24 months of age were selected to evaluate the effect of climatic variables measured on the day of semen collection and for each of preceding 45 days. On seminal characteristics, the variability of each characteristic was separated into an intra individual component and an interindividual component, using maximum likelihood estimators (PROC VARCOMP of SAS). In order to relate the seminal characteristics with the climatic variables, morphological abnormalities were grouped according to the affected spermatic region, into head. Midsection and main section abnormalities; the other characteristics were evaluated without any modification. Possible correlations between seminal characteristics and climatic variables were evaluated. In a total of 298 ejaculates collected weekly during a period of 30 weeks, except for total volume and morphological abnormalities. The seminal characteristics presented low or moderate intra and interindividual variation and were similar to those found in other latitudes, with a tendency to present greater seminal volumes and concentrations maximum temperature minimum temperature. Range among temperatures. Relative humidity and precipitation of the day of the semen collection and on each of the preceding 45 days had low effects on the seminal characteristics. It is possible that the boars in warm humid tropical areas develop a high level of adaptation that permits an adequate testicular thermoregulation that favors the spermatogenic function of the seminiferous tubules in a way that does not perceptibly affect production the seminal quality

  13. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  14. Study on THz wave generation from air plasma induced by quasi-square Airy beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijing; Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Guangtong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) wave has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential applications. The intense THz waves generated from air plasma induced by two-color femtosecond laser are widely used due to its high generation efficiency and broad frequency bandwidth. The parameters of the laser change the distribution of the air plasma, and then affect the generation of THz wave. In this research, we investigate the THz wave generation from air plasma induced by quasi-square Airy beam. Unlike the common Gauss beam, the quasi-square Airy beam has ability to autofocus and to increase the maximum intensity at the focus. By using the spatial light modulator (SLM), we can change the parameters of phase map to control the shape of the Airy beam. We obtain the two-color laser field by a 100-um-thick BBO crystal, then use a Golay detector to record THz wave energy. By comparing terahertz generation at different modulation depths, we find that terahertz energy produced by quasi-square Airy beam is up to 3.1 times stronger than that of Gauss beam with identical laser energy. In order to understand the influence of quasi-square Airy beam on the BBO crystal, we record THz wave energy by changing the azimuthal angle of BBO crystal with Gauss beam and Airy beam at different modulation depths. We find that the trend of terahertz energy with respect to the azimuthal angle of the BBO crystal keeps the same for different laser beams. We believe that the quasi-square Airy beam or other auto focusing beam can significantly improve the efficiency of terahertz wave generation and pave the way for its applications.

  15. MiOXSYS: a novel method of measuring oxidation reduction potential in semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Du Plessis, Stefan; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-09-01

    To measure oxidative reduction potential (ORP) in semen and seminal plasma and to establish their reference levels. ORP levels were measured in semen and seminal plasma. Tertiary hospital. Twenty-six controls and 33 infertile men. None. Static ORP (sORP) and capacitance ORP (cORP) were measured in semen and seminal plasma at time 0 and 120 minutes. Correlation of ORP was assessed between [1] semen and seminal plasma and [2] time 0 and 120 minutes. The association with sperm parameters was studied in (a) controls and (b) infertile patients, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to establish the sORP cutoff. Semen sORP and cORP levels were associated with seminal plasma levels at time 0 and time 120 minutes. In controls and infertile patients, an inverse relationship of sORP levels was established with concentration and total sperm count in semen as well as seminal plasma at time 0 and 120 minutes. Classification of subjects based on sperm motility showed that subjects with abnormal motility present with poor concentration, total count, morphology, and elevated levels of semen and seminal plasma sORP at time 120 minutes. The sORP cutoff of 1.48 in semen and 2.09 in seminal plasma based on motility was able to distinguish subjects with normal semen quality from those with abnormal semen quality. The MiOXSYS System can reliably measure ORP levels in semen and seminal plasma. ORP levels are not affected by semen age, making this new technology easy to employ in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Review of the related literature and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle tumors are very rare malignancies which are not diagnosed in daily clinical oncology practice. Primary malignant tumors in seminal vesicle are difficult to define due to the lack of specific symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Another obstacle of proper diagnosis is the frequent invasion of tumors of the surrounding organs, especially the prostate, rectum and bladder which is difficult to differentiate. Very often seminal vesicle tumors are difficult to detect. Digital rectal examination as well as transrectal ultrasound scan (US could reveal a bulky mass in the retrovesical space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are the main diagnostic methods which could help to reveal pathologic masses in the region of seminal vesicles. Levels of prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and tumor markers specific for colorectal cancer are negative in seminal vesicle tumors.The world experience of treating seminal vesicle tumors is very limited. There is paucity of data regarding appropriate choice of surgical approach and further treatment strategy and most of the time the treatment is individualized and based on very scarce information. At the same time surgical approach may vary significantly from vesiculectomy to pelvic exenteration. Possibility of using any regimens of adjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy is highly debatable. However, aggressive surgical approach with radical tumor removal followed by extended lymphodissection shows the most favorable results in survival of patients suffering from seminal vesicle cancer.Squamous cell carcinoma of the seminal vesicles is presumed to be an extremely rare disease as there are only 3 reports of it in the world literature. We report a case of patient B. suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the right seminal vesicle whom we conducted an aggressive surgical approach – prostatovesiculectomy followed by resection of the

  17. Real time neutral beam power control on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homfray, David A., E-mail: david.homfray@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Benn, A.; Ciric, D.; Day, I.; Dunkley, V.; Keeling, D.; Khilar, S.; King, D.; King, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Kurutz, U. [Department of Experimental Plasma Physics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Payne, D.; Simmonds, M.; Stevenson, P.; Tame, C. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Real time power control of neutral beam provides an excellent tool for many different plasma physics studies. Power control at a better resolution than the level of a single injector is usually achieved by modulating individual power supplies. However, the short beam slowing down time on MAST is such that the plasma would be sensitive to modulating the neutral beam using this 100% on-off pulse-width modulation method. A novel alternative method of power control has been demonstrated, where the arc current, and hence beam current, has been controlled in real time allowing variations in neutral beam power. This has been demonstrated in a MAST plasma with almost no loss of transmission as a consequence of the optical properties of the high perveance MAST neutral beam system. This paper will detail the methodology, experiment and results and discuss the full implementation of this method that will allow MAST to control the beam power in real time.

  18. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  19. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  20. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34"+/CD117"+/CD13"+multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  1. Mast Cell Inhibition Improves Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, Beatrijs; van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Dickinson, Michael G.; Takens, Janny; van Albada, Mirjam; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Boersma, B.

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive angioproliferative disease with high morbidity and mortality. Although the histopathology is well described, its pathogenesis is largely unknown. We previously identified the increased presence of mast cells and their markers in a

  2. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of seminal vesicles: Is there a role for relatively aggressive treatment modalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 50 year old white man received an incidental ultrasound diagnosis of hypoechoic mass interesting the right seminal vesicle. A CT scan showed the presence of a 7.8 cm roundish cyst, originating from the right seminal vesicle. He had been followed by the removal of the right seminal vesicle and both the cystic lesion. The histological findings of the specimen documented the presence of small round cells compatible with Ewing’s sarcoma/PPNET. The patient received also adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation treatment. After 10 years, the follow-up is still negative.

  3. Rabbit seminal plasma proteome: The importance of the genetic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Crespo, Lucía; Fernández-Serrano, Paula; Vicente, José S; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Viudes-de-Castro, María Pilar

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to characterise rabbit seminal plasma proteins (SP proteins) focusing on the influence of the genetic origin and seasonality. In addition, β-NGF protein quantity in SP was determined. Semen samples were recovered from January to December 2014 using 6 males belonging to genotype A and six from genotype R. For each genotype, one pooled sample at the beginning, middle and end of each season was selected to develop the experiment. A total of 24 pools (3 for each season and genetic line) were analysed. SP proteins of the two experimental groups were recovered and subjected to in-solution digestion nano LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The resulting library included 402 identified proteins validated with ≥95% Confidence (unused Score ≥ 1.3). These data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006308. Only 6 proteins were specifically implicated in reproductive processes according to Gene Ontology annotation. Twenty-three proteins were differentially expressed between genotypes, 11 over-expressed in genotype A and 12 in genotype R. Regarding the effect of season on rabbit SP proteome, results showed that there is no clear pattern of protein variation throughout the year. Similar β-NGF relative quantity was observed between seasons and genotypes. In conclusion, this study generates the largest library of SP proteins reported to date in rabbits and provides evidence that genotype is related to a specific abundance of SP proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Controversial role of mast cells in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria R; Marone, Giancarlo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Borriello, Francesco; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumor initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment can promote tumor development. Mast cells, widely distributed throughout all tissues, are a stromal component of many solid and haematologic tumors. Mast cells can be found in human and mouse models of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, primary cutaneous lymphomas, haemangiomas and Merkel cell carcinoma. However, human and animal studies addressing potential functions of mast cells and their mediators in skin cancers have provided conflicting results. In several studies, mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, whereas in others, they play an anti-tumorigenic role. Other studies have failed to demonstrate a clear role for tumor-associated mast cells. Many unanswered questions need to be addressed before we understand whether tumor-associated mast cells are adversaries, allies or simply innocent bystanders in different types and subtypes of skin cancers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mast cells in rheumatoid arthritis: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellese, Felice; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Marone, Gianni; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; de Paulis, Amato; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2017-06-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident cells of the innate immunity, implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are present in synovia and their activation has been linked to the potentiation of inflammation in the course of RA. However, recent investigations questioned the role of mast cells in arthritis. In particular, animal models generated conflicting results, so that many of their pro-inflammatory, i.e. pro-arthritogenic functions, even though supported by robust experimental evidence, have been labelled as redundant. At the same time, a growing body of evidence suggests that mast cells can act as tunable immunomodulatory cells. These characteristics, not yet fully understood in the context of RA, could partially explain the inconsistent results obtained with experimental models, which do not account for the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions exerted in more chronic heterogeneous conditions such as RA. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge on mast cell involvement in RA, including the intriguing hypothesis of mast cells acting as subtle immunomodulatory cells and the emerging concept of synovial mast cells as potential biomarkers for patient stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  7. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  8. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC.Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology.These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  9. Thrombomodulin inhibits the activation of eosinophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeen, Ziaurahman; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Onishi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Yasuma, Taro; Urawa, Masahito; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils and mast cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Activation of both cells leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in the airway of asthmatic patients. Recently, we have shown that inhaled thrombomodulin inhibits allergic bronchial asthma in a mouse model. In the present study, we hypothesize that thrombomodulin can inhibit the activation of eosinophils and mast cells. The effect of thrombomodulin on the activation and release of inflammatory mediators from eosinophils and mast cells was evaluated. Thrombomodulin inhibited the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis, upregulation of CD11b and degranulation of eosinophils. Treatment with thrombomodulin also significantly suppressed the degranulation and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in eosinophils and mast cells. Mice treated with a low-dose of inhaled thrombomodulin have decreased number of eosinophils and activated mast cells and Th2 cytokines in the lungs compared to untreated mice. The results of this study suggest that thrombomodulin may modulate allergic responses by inhibiting the activation of both eosinophils and mast cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiopoietin1 inhibits mast cell activation and protects against anaphylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Yao

    Full Text Available Since morbidity and mortality rates of anaphylaxis diseases have been increasing year by year, how to prevent and manage these diseases effectively has become an important issue. Mast cells play a central regulatory role in allergic diseases. Angiopoietin1 (Ang-1 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting vascular permeability, leukocyte migration and cytokine production. However, Ang-1's function in mast cell activation and anaphylaxis diseases is unknown. The results of our study suggest that Ang-1 decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production of mast cells by suppressing IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Ang-1 also strongly inhibited compound 48/80 induced and FcεRI-mediated mast cells degranulation by decreasing intracellular calcium levels in vitro. In vivo lentivirus-mediated delivery of Ang-1 in mice exhibited alleviated leakage in IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA. Furthermore, exogenous Ang-1 intervention treatment prevented mice from compound 48/80-induced mesentery mast cell degranulation, attenuated increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, relieved lung injury, and improved survival in anaphylaxis shock. The results of our study reveal, for the first time, the important role of Ang-1 in the activation of mast cells, and identify a therapeutic effect of Ang-1 on anaphylaxis diseases.

  11. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...... yielded the following results: (1) in atopic dermatitis lesional skin an increased number of mast cell profiles was found as compared with nonlesional skin, (2) comparing atopic dermatitis skin with normal skin, a significantly increased number of mast cell profiles per millimetre squared was found...

  12. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagundes, B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  13. Subthreshold IKK activation modulates the effector functions of primary mast cells and allows specific targeting of transformed mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drube, Sebastian; Beyer, Mandy; Rothe, Mandy; Rabenhorst, Anja; Göpfert, Christiane; Meininger, Isabel; Diamanti, Michaela A.; Stegner, David; Häfner, Norman; Böttcher, Martin; Reinecke, Kirstin; Herdegen, Thomas; Greten, Florian R.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Hartmann, Karin; Krämer, Oliver H.; Kamradt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell differentiation and proliferation depends on IL-3. IL-3 induces the activation of MAP-kinases and STATs and consequently induces proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of IL-3 signaling pathways also contribute to inflammation and tumorigenesis. We show here that IL-3 induces a SFK- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the inhibitor of κB kinases 2 (IKK2) which results in mast cell proliferation and survival but does not induce IκBα-degradation and NFκB activation. Therefore we propose the term “subthreshold IKK activation”. This subthreshold IKK activation also primes mast cells for enhanced responsiveness to IL-33R signaling. Consequently, co-stimulation with IL-3 and IL-33 increases IKK activation and massively enhances cytokine production induced by IL-33. We further reveal that in neoplastic mast cells expressing constitutively active Ras, subthreshold IKK activation is associated with uncontrolled proliferation. Consequently, pharmacological IKK inhibition reduces tumor growth selectively by inducing apoptosis in vivo. Together, subthreshold IKK activation is crucial to mediate the full IL-33-induced effector functions in primary mast cells and to mediate uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic mast cells. Thus, IKK2 is a new molecularly defined target structure. PMID:25749030

  14. The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-04-01

    The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage.

  15. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, Cécile; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chetaille, Bruno; Hilgers, Werner; Denoux, Yves; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Bertucci, François

    2011-01-01

    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up

  16. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauvin, Cécile; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chetaille, Bruno; Hilgers, Werner; Denoux, Yves; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Bertucci, François

    2011-07-29

    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up.

  17. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiramand Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation We report a case of a 59-year-old man with tumour detected by rectal symptoms and ultrasonography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested an origin in the right seminal vesicle. Transperineal biopsy of the tumour revealed leiomyosarcoma. A radical vesiculo-prostactectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed a grade 2 leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. He developed distant metastases 29 months after diagnosis, and received chemotherapy. Metastatic disease was controlled by second-line gemcitabine-docetaxel combination. Fifty-one months after diagnosis of the primary tumour, and 22 months after the first metastases, the patient is alive with excellent performance status, and multiple asymptomatic stable lung and liver lesions. Conclusions We report the eighth case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle and the first one with a so long follow-up.

  18. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.P. Skandhan

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Gold level in sediment (spermatozoa) of normal was almost same as observed in its seminal plasma ... showed, gold was not detected in semen by Direct Couple ... Diffraction Analysis, revealed presence of gold throughout.

  19. Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid can protect the sperm of other males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    a different male. This study therefore provides strong evidence that seminal fluid does not kill rival sperm, and instead can actually protect them. This study also tested whether chemicals in the female reproductive tract harm sperm as in another Drosophila species, but found no evidence of this. # 3...... physiology. # 2. Seminal fluid is well-studied in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which it has been suggested to 'incapacitate' the sperm of rival males (e.g. by killing them) and thereby provide an advantage in sperm competition. This hypothesis has been tested several times over many years......, but different studies have yielded conflicting conclusions. Here, I use fluorescent staining to directly measure the effects of D. melanogaster seminal fluid on the survival of sperm from the same male or from a rival. The results suggest that seminal fluid improves sperm survival, even if the sperm are from...

  20. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.Y.; Appel, L.C.; Ben Ayed, N.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.J.; Cox, M.; Abel, I.G.; Barnes, M.; Allan, A.; Barratt, N.C.; Asunta, O.; Bradley, J.W.; Canik, J.; Cahyna, P.; Cecconello, M.

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the pedestal highlights the potential roles of micro-tearing modes and kinetic ballooning modes for the pedestal formation. Mitigation of edge localized modes (ELM) using resonant magnetic perturbation has been demonstrated for toroidal mode numbers n = 3, 4, 6 with an ELM frequency increase by up to a factor of 9, compatible with pellet fuelling. The peak heat flux of mitigated and natural ELMs follows the same linear trend with ELM energy loss and the first ELM-resolved T i measurements in the divertor region are shown. Measurements of flow shear and turbulence dynamics during L–H transitions show filaments erupting from the plasma edge whilst the full flow shear is still present. Off-axis neutral beam injection helps to strongly reduce the redistribution of fast-ions due to fishbone modes when compared to on-axis injection. Low-k ion-scale turbulence has been measured in L-mode and compared to global gyro-kinetic simulations. A statistical analysis of principal turbulence time scales shows them to be of comparable magnitude and reasonably correlated with turbulence decorrelation time. T e inside the island of a neoclassical tearing mode allow the analysis of the island evolution without assuming specific models for the heat flux. Other results include the discrepancy of the current profile evolution during the current ramp-up with solutions of the poloidal field diffusion equation, studies of the anomalous Doppler resonance compressional Alfvén eigenmodes, disruption mitigation studies and modelling of the new divertor design for MAST Upgrade. The novel 3D electron Bernstein synthetic imaging shows promising first data sensitive to the edge current profile and flows

  1. Differential expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloni, Marianna; Coltrinari, Giulia; Paoli, Donatella; Pallotti, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2017-09-01

    Various microRNAs from the miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d clusters have recently been proposed as markers for testicular germ cell tumours. Upregulation of these miRNAs has been found in both the tissue and serum of testicular cancer patients, but they have never been studied in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the differences in the expression of miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d between the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients, and to identify new potential testicular cancer markers in seminal plasma. We investigated the serum and seminal plasma of 28 pre-orchiectomy patients subsequently diagnosed with testicular cancer, the seminal plasma of another 20 patients 30 days post-orchiectomy and a control group consisting of 28 cancer-free subjects attending our centre for an andrological check-up. Serum microRNA expression was analysed using RT-qPCR. TaqMan Array Card 3.0 platform was used for microRNA profiling in the seminal plasma of cancer patients. Results for both miR-371-3 and the miR-302 cluster in the serum of testicular cancer patients were in line with literature reports, while miR-371and miR-372 expression in seminal plasma showed the opposite trend to serum. On array analysis, 37 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the seminal plasma of cancer patients, and the upregulated miR-142 and the downregulated miR-34b were validated using RT-qPCR. Our study investigated the expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma of patients with testicular cancer for the first time. Unlike in serum, miR-371-3 cannot be considered as markers in seminal plasma, whereas miR-142 levels in seminal plasma may be a potential marker for testicular cancer.

  2. Painful orgasm in an adolescent after seminal-sparing cystoprostatectomy: a puzzling symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorenzo; Castagnetti, Marco; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2015-01-01

    An 18-year-old boy, followed up after seminal-sparing cystectomy for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma, presented complaining of recurrent episodes of left scrotal/inguinal pain arising after orgasms. Full work-up ruled out disease recurrence, but showed enlarged seminal vesicles. Ligation of the vas deferens was unsuccessful. The patient was started on α-blockers to reduce vas contractions with improvement of symptoms. The possible pathophysiology and treatments of this symptom are discussed. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. The outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via coitus interruptus versus masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahyah, M Kamarul; Murad, Z Ahmad; Ghazali, I; Roszaman, R; Noraziana, A W; Mokhtar, A; Omar, M H

    2010-03-01

    A one year study was carried out to determine the outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via masturbation and coitus interruptus in 151 patients who were undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and patients who came for seminal analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of volume, concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology from specimens collected via coitus interruptus compared to specimens collected via masturbation. Pregnancy outcomes were also comparable.

  4. Effect of heterologous seminal plasma and semen extenders on motility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Mataveia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ram seminal plasma increases the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix. The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of ram seminal plasma to that of bull seminal plasma, dog prostatic fluid, protein-free TALP, TrilEq (Triladyl with 0.5 mℓ of Equex STM paste added to each 100 mℓ and heat-treated skim milk on longevity and percentages of progressively motile and aberrantly motile frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Three ejaculates from each of 6 rams were extended in TrilEq, pooled and frozen in straws as a single batch per ram. One hundred and eight straws (3 straws from each ram for each fluid were thawed in random order. Once thawed, a straw was emptied into a tube with 0.85mℓ of the appropriate fluid at 37 °C and kept at that temperature for 6 h. Motility was assessed at x200 magnification immediately (time zero and 2, 4 and 6 h after thawing. Progressive motility decreased from each time to the next (P < 0.05 and was 39.0% (0 h, 26.0% (2 h, 19.6% (4 h and 12.6% (6 h; SEM 1.24, n=108 for each group. Ram seminal plasma resulted in higher progressive motility than bull seminal plasma, lower than milk, and similar to the other fluids. Ram seminal plasma resulted in lower aberrant motility than protein-free TALP and similar aberrant motility to other fluids. The effect of ram seminal plasma and dog prostatic fluid was very similar. The effect of ram seminal plasma on the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix is not due an exceptionally beneficial effect on the motility of spermatozoa.

  5. Radical prostatectomy, sparing of the seminal vesicles, and painful orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogorovich, Andrea; Nilsson, Andreas E; Tyritzis, Stavros I; Carlsson, Stefan; Jonsson, Martin; Haendler, Leif; Nyberg, Tommy; Steineck, Gunnar; Wiklund, N Peter

    2013-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction has been widely investigated as the major factor responsible for sexual bother in patients after radical prostatectomy (RP); painful orgasm (PO) is one element of this bother, but little is known about its prevalence and its effects on sexual health. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of PO and to identify potential risk factors. A total of 1,411 consecutive patients underwent open (radical retropubic prostatectomy) or robot-assisted laparoscopic RP between 2002 and 2006. The patients were asked to complete a study-specific questionnaire. Of a total of 145 questions, 5 dealt with the orgasmic characteristics. The questionnaire was also administered to a comparison group of 442 persons, matched for age and area of residency. The response rate was 91% (1,288 patients). A total of 143 (11%) patients reported PO. Among the 834 men being able to have an orgasm, the prevalence was 18% vs. 6% in the comparison group (relative risk [RR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.5). When analyzed as independent variables, bilateral seminal vesicle (SV)-sparing approach (RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.0-5.3, P = 0.045) and age <60 years were significantly related to the presence of PO (95% CI 0.5-0.9, P = 0.019). After adjustment for age, bilateral SV-sparing still remained a significant predictor for occurrence of PO. We found that PO occurs significantly more often in patients undergoing bilateral SV-sparing RP when compared with age-matched comparison population. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Quantification of Prostate and Seminal Vesicle Interfraction Variation During IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Steven J.; Dong Lei; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Choi, Seungtaek; O'Daniel, Jennifer; Tucker, Susan L.; Wang He; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction variability in prostate and seminal vesicle (SV) positions during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using an integrated computed tomography (CT)-linear accelerator system and to assess the impact of rectal and bladder volume changes. Methods and Materials: We studied 15 patients who had undergone IMRT for prostate carcinoma. Patients had one pretreatment planning CT scan followed by three in-room CT scans per week using a CT-on-rails system. The prostate, bladder, rectum, and pelvic bony anatomy were contoured in 369 CT scans. Using the planning CT scan as a reference, the volumetric and positional changes were analyzed in the subsequent CT scans. Results: For all 15 patients, the mean systematic internal prostate and SV variation was 0.1 ± 4.1 mm and 1.2 ± 7.3 mm in the anteroposterior axis, -0.5 ± 2.9 mm and -0.7 ± 4.5 mm in the superoinferior axis, and 0.2 ± 0.9 mm and -0.9 ± 1.9 mm in the lateral axis, respectively. The mean magnitude of the three-dimensional displacement vector was 4.6 ± 3.5 mm for the prostate and 7.6 ± 4.7 mm for the SVs. The rectal and bladder volume changes during treatment correlated with the anterior and superior displacement of the prostate and SVs. Conclusion: The dominant prostate and SV variations occurred in the anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. The systematic prostate and SV variation between the treatment planning CT and daily therapy as a result of the rectal and bladder volume changes emphasizes the need for daily directed target localization and/or immobilization techniques

  7. Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland which affects approximately 10% of men. Despite its frequency, diagnosing prostatitis and monitoring patient response to treatment remains frustrating. As the prostate contributes a substantial percentage of proteins to seminal plasma, we hypothesized that a protein biomarker of prostatitis might be found by comparing the seminal plasma proteome of patients with and without prostatitis. Results Using mass spectrometry, we identified 1708 proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 prostatitis patients. Comparing this list to a previously published list of seminal plasma proteins in the pooled seminal plasma of 5 healthy, fertile controls yielded 1464 proteins in common, 413 found only in the control group, and 254 found only in the prostatitis group. Applying a set of criteria to this dataset, we generated a high-confidence list of 59 candidate prostatitis biomarkers, 33 of which were significantly increased in prostatitis as compared to control, and 26 of which were decreased. The candidates were analyzed using Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to delineate their subcellular localizations and functions. Conclusions Thus, in this study, we identified 59 putative biomarkers in seminal plasma that need further validation for diagnosis and monitoring of prostatitis. PMID:22309592

  8. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  9. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  10. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Islam, Najmul; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Ahmad, Sohail

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on semen profiles and biochemical levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Prospective study. Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Sixty normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 60 men undergoing infertility screening. High-performance liquid chromatography assay procedure for quantitation of vitamin A and E in seminal plasma. Biochemical parameters in seminal plasma, namely lipids, fructose, and vitamin C, were estimated by standard spectrophotometric procedures. Before and after the treatment, seminal plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxide, fructose, and antioxidant vitamin levels were measured. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility. Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. Treatment with M. pruriens increased sperm concentration and motility in all the infertile study groups. Oligozoospermic patients recovered sperm concentration significantly, but sperm motility was not restored to normal levels in asthenozoospermic men. Furthermore, in the seminal plasma of all the infertile groups, the levels of lipids, antioxidant vitamins, and corrected fructose were recovered after a decrease in lipid peroxides after treatment. The present study is likely to open new vistas on the possible role of M. pruriens seed powder as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

  11. Relationship between seminal plasma levels of anandamide congeners palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Akwasi Atakora; Marczylo, Timothy Hywel; Elson, Janine; Taylor, Anthony Henry; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin Chi

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether changes in seminal plasma concentrations of the endogenous lipid signaling molecules palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) have significant effects on sperm quality. Biochemical and physiological studies of human seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Academic tertiary care medical center. Ninety men attending an infertility clinic for semen analysis. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA extracted from seminal plasma were quantified by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry. Patient sperm from semen with normal parameters were exposed in vitro to PEA or OEA to determine effects on sperm motility, viability, and mitochondrial activity. The relationship between seminal plasma concentrations of PEA and OEA and sperm quality and the effect of these compounds on sperm motility, viability, and mitochondria activity in vitro. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA concentrations in seminal plasma were lower in men with asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozospermia compared with men with normal semen parameters. Palmitoylethanolamide and OEA rapidly and significantly improved sperm motility and maintained viability without affecting mitochondria activity in vitro. Maintenance of normal PEA and OEA tone in human seminal plasma may be necessary for the preservation of normal sperm function and male fertility. Exocannabinoids found in Cannabis, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, could compete with these endocannabinoids upsetting their finely balanced, normal functioning and resulting in male reproductive failure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  13. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Nielsen, Mette Weidinger; Svendsen, Signe Goul; Lindhard, Anette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2011-12-01

    One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre-eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF COPPER IN BOVINE SEMINAL PLASMA AND SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kňažická

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between copper (Cu concentration of bovine seminal plasma and spermatozoa motility. Semen samples were collected from 13 breeding bulls. The motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA system. The mean value for the percentage of motile spermatozoa (MOT was 92.46±3.99% and the progressive motility of the spermatozoa (PROG as 90.23±4.02%. The seminal plasma Cu concentrations were analyzed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The total Cu concentration of the seminal plasma was 4.28±1.47 μM/L. The correlation analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between MOT and seminal plasma Cu concentration (rp=-0.781; P<0.01 as well as between PROG and Cu content in the seminal plasma (rp=-0.726; P<0.01. The data obtained from this study clearly indicated that concentration of copper in seminal plasma negatively affects the spermatozoa motility parameters and subsequently might cause reproductive alteration in male sexual functions.

  15. Histamine release from rodent and human mast cells induced by protoporphyrin and ultraviolet light: studies of the mechanism of mast-cell activation in erythropoietic protoporphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, R.A.; Bailey, C.S.; Barrett, K.E.; Wasserman, S.I.; Gigli, I.

    1990-01-01

    We report that protoporphyrin (PP) and ultraviolet light (UVA) induces histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, mouse bone marrow mast cells and human cutaneous mast cells in a dose- and temperature-dependent manner. The mast-cell activation was associated with loss of membrane integrity and inhibited by the hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase. Histamine release was independent of extracellular calcium in the rodent mast cells, but was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium in human cells. These findings indicate that PP and UVA induce mast-cell-mediator release by a process that may involve hydrogen peroxide formation. There appear to be differences in response to PP and UVA between rodent and human mast cells. (author)

  16. Histamine release from rodent and human mast cells induced by protoporphyrin and ultraviolet light: studies of the mechanism of mast-cell activation in erythropoietic protoporphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, R.A.; Bailey, C.S.; Barrett, K.E.; Wasserman, S.I.; Gigli, I. (California Univ., San Diego, CA (USA). Dept. of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    We report that protoporphyrin (PP) and ultraviolet light (UVA) induces histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, mouse bone marrow mast cells and human cutaneous mast cells in a dose- and temperature-dependent manner. The mast-cell activation was associated with loss of membrane integrity and inhibited by the hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase. Histamine release was independent of extracellular calcium in the rodent mast cells, but was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium in human cells. These findings indicate that PP and UVA induce mast-cell-mediator release by a process that may involve hydrogen peroxide formation. There appear to be differences in response to PP and UVA between rodent and human mast cells. (author).

  17. Characterization and modulation of canine mast cell derived eicosanoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; London, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells play an important role in both innate and acquired immunity as well as several pathological conditions including allergy, arthritis and neoplasia. They influence these processes by producing a variety of mediators including cytokines, chemokines and eicosanoids. Very little is currently known about the spectrum of inflammatory mediators, particularly eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotrienes), produced by canine mast cells. This is important since modulating mast cell derived eicosanoids may help in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spectrum of eicosanoids produced by normal canine mast cells and to evaluate the effects of cytokines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory mediators (NSAIDS) on eicosanoid production and release. Canine bone marrow derived cultured mast cells (cBMCMCs) expressed COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX and synthesized and released PGD2, PGE2, LTB4, and LTC4 following activation by a variety of stimuli. The selective COX-2 NSAIDs carprofen (Rimadyl®) and deracoxib (Deramaxx®) inhibited PGD2 and PGE2 production but only slightly inhibited LTB4 and LTC4. The mixed COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor piroxicam blocked PGD2 and PGE2 production, but upregulated LTC4 following treatment while tepoxilan (Zubrin®), a pan COX/LOX inhibitor, markedly reduced the production of all eicosanoids. The LOX inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) prevented LTB4/LTC4 release and BMBMC degranulation. Pre-incubation of cBMCMCs with IL-4 and SCF sensitized these cells to degranulation in response to substance P. In conclusion, canine BMCMCs produce an array of eicosanoids similar to those produced by mast cells from other species. Tepoxilan appeared to be the most effective NSAID for blocking eicosanoid production and thus may be useful for modulating mast cell mediated responses in dogs. PMID:20036014

  18. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  19. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  20. Sources and methods to reconstruct past masting patterns in European oak species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2012-01-01

    The irregular occurrence of good seed years in forest trees is known in many parts of the world. Mast year frequency in the past few decades can be examined through field observational studies; however, masting patterns in the more distant past are equally important in gaining a better understanding of long-term forest ecology. Past masting patterns can be studied through the examination of historical written sources. These pose considerable challenges, because data in them were usually not recorded with the aim of providing information about masting. Several studies examined masting in the deeper past, however, authors hardly ever considered the methodological implications of using and combining various source types. This paper provides a critical overview of the types of archival written that are available for the reconstruction of past masting patterns for European oak species and proposes a method to unify and evaluate different types of data. Available sources cover approximately eight centuries and can be put into two basic categories: direct observations on the amount of acorns and references to sums of money received in exchange for access to acorns. Because archival sources are highly different in origin and quality, the optimal solution for creating databases for past masting data is a three-point scale: zero mast, moderate mast, good mast. When larger amounts of data are available in a unified three-point-scale database, they can be used to test hypotheses about past masting frequencies, the driving forces of masting or regional masting patterns.

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  2. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  3. Kadar Prostaglandin F2? pada Cairan Vesikula Seminalis dan Produk Sel Monolayer Vesikula Seminalis Sapi Bali (CONCENTRATIONS OF PROSTAGLANDIN F2? IN SEMINAL VESICLE FLUID AND PRODUCT OF SEMINAL VESICLE MONOLAYER CELLS OF BALI CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration of prostaglandin F2 ? (PGF2? in seminal vesicle fluid and seminal vesicle monolayer cell cultures of Bali cattle was determined. The seminal vesicle fluid was aspirated and the epithelial cells of the seminal vesicles were cultured in tissue culture medium (TCM 199 growth medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS and 10% oestrus mares serum (EMS with a density of 1.9 x 106 cells / ml medium. Following an incubation at 38.50 C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 6 days and the level of PGF2 ? in the original seminal vesicle fluid and in the cell culture medium were determined by radioimmunoassay techniques (RIA. The results showed that the level of PGF2 ? in the non-extracted monolayer culture of seminal vesicle (1287,50 ± 3,39 pg/ml was significantly higher than that of detected in non-extracted seminal vesicle fluid (1,23 ± 0,79 pg/ml. In contrast, after extraction the level of PGF2 ? in seminal vesicle monolayer cell cultures (218,33 ± 2,87 pg/ml significantly decreased as compared to seminal vesicle fluid (1750,83 ± 2,71 pg/ml. In conclusion the highest level of PGF2 ? was found in the extract of seminal vesicle fluid.

  4. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannou, Anastasios D; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable.

  5. Mast Cells Regulate Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Ana; Leal, Ermelindo C; Kafanas, Antonios; Auster, Michael E; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Ostrovsky, Yana; Tecilazich, Francesco; Baltzis, Dimitrios; Zheng, Yongjun; Carvalho, Eugénia; Zabolotny, Janice M; Weng, Zuyi; Petra, Anastasia; Patel, Arti; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Veves, Aristidis

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes that lacks effective treatment. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to wound healing, but their role in diabetes skin complications is poorly understood. Here we show that the number of degranulated MCs is increased in unwounded forearm and foot skin of patients with diabetes and in unwounded dorsal skin of diabetic mice (P diabetic mice. Pretreatment with the MC degranulation inhibitor disodium cromoglycate rescues diabetes-associated wound-healing impairment in mice and shifts macrophages to the regenerative M2 phenotype (P diabetic mice deficient in MCs have delayed wound healing compared with their wild-type (WT) controls, implying that some MC mediator is needed for proper healing. MCs are a major source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse skin, but the level of VEGF is reduced in diabetic mouse skin, and its release from human MCs is reduced in hyperglycemic conditions. Topical treatment with the MC trigger substance P does not affect wound healing in MC-deficient mice, but improves it in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of nondegranulated MCs in unwounded skin is required for proper wound healing, and therapies inhibiting MC degranulation could improve wound healing in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. MHD stability analysis of ELMs in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarelma, S; Hender, T C; Kirk, A; Meyer, H; Wilson, H R; Team, MAST

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, edge stability analyses of the MAST tokamak plasmas are presented. The analyses show that the experimental equilibrium prior to an edge localized mode (ELM) is unstable against very narrow peeling modes with low growth rate. When the edge pressure gradient becomes steeper, wider peeling-ballooning modes with larger growth rate become unstable. These modes are the likely triggers of ELMs. In the analyses the required pressure increase for destabilization is sensitive to how the X-point is modelled in the equilibrium reconstruction. A 'sharp' X-point approximation is more stable against the peeling-ballooning modes than a 'round' one. An experimental ELM-free single null plasma is significantly more stable against the peeling-ballooning modes than the double null plasma, but this is unlikely to be directly due to the single null geometry but rather due to the different plasma profiles. Sheared toroidal rotation is able to stabilize the peeling-ballooning modes. This suggests the following model for the ELM triggering: the rotation shear keeps the edge stable until the pressure gradient has sufficiently exceeded the stability boundary for the static plasma. When the mode becomes unstable, it starts to grow, ties the flux surfaces together and flattens the rotation profile. This further destabilizes the edge plasma leading to an ELM crash

  7. Effect of plasma-induced surface charging on catalytic processes: application to CO2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Kristof M.; Huygh, Stijn; Bogaerts, Annemie; Neyts, Erik C.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the nature and effect of the multitude of plasma-surface interactions in plasma catalysis is a crucial requirement for further process development and improvement. A particularly intriguing and rather unique property of a plasma-catalytic setup is the ability of the plasma to modify the electronic structure, and hence chemical properties, of the catalyst through charging, i.e. the absorption of excess electrons. In this work, we develop a quantum chemical model based on density functional theory to study excess negative surface charges in a heterogeneous catalyst exposed to a plasma. This method is specifically applied to investigate plasma-catalytic CO2 activation on supported M/Al2O3 (M = Ti, Ni, Cu) single atom catalysts. We find that (1) the presence of a negative surface charge dramatically improves the reductive power of the catalyst, strongly promoting the splitting of CO2 to CO and oxygen, and (2) the relative activity of the investigated transition metals is also changed upon charging, suggesting that controlled surface charging is a powerful additional parameter to tune catalyst activity and selectivity. These results strongly point to plasma-induced surface charging of the catalyst as an important factor contributing to the plasma-catalyst synergistic effects frequently reported for plasma catalysis.

  8. Non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Xiaolong [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, Zhejiang (China); Zhou Ming Hua [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, Zhejiang (China); Lei Lecheng [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: lclei@zju.edu.cn

    2007-03-22

    TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst (P-25) (50 mg L{sup -1}) was tentatively introduced into pulsed high-voltage discharge process for non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of the representative mode organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP), including other compounds phenol and methyl red in water. The experimental results showed that rate constant of 4-CP degradation, energy efficiency for 4-CP removal and TOC removal with TiO{sub 2} were obviously increased. Pulsed high-voltage discharge process with TiO{sub 2} had a promoted effect for the degradation of these pollutants under a broad range of liquid conductivity. Furthermore, the apparent formation rates of chemically active species (e.g., ozone and hydrogen peroxide) were increased, the hydrogen peroxide formation rate from 1.10 x 10{sup -6} to 1.50 x 10{sup -6} M s{sup -1}, the ozone formation rate from 1.99 x 10{sup -8} to 2.35 x 10{sup -8} M s{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, this process had no influence on the photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}. The introduction of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst into pulsed discharge plasma process in the utilizing of ultraviolet radiation and electric field in pulsed discharge plasma process enhanced the yields of chemically active species, which were available for highly efficient removal and mineralization of organic pollutants.

  9. Non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiao Long; Zhou, Ming Hua; Lei, Le Cheng

    2007-03-22

    TiO(2) photocatalyst (P-25) (50mgL(-1)) was tentatively introduced into pulsed high-voltage discharge process for non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of the representative mode organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP), including other compounds phenol and methyl red in water. The experimental results showed that rate constant of 4-CP degradation, energy efficiency for 4-CP removal and TOC removal with TiO(2) were obviously increased. Pulsed high-voltage discharge process with TiO(2) had a promoted effect for the degradation of these pollutants under a broad range of liquid conductivity. Furthermore, the apparent formation rates of chemically active species (e.g., ozone and hydrogen peroxide) were increased, the hydrogen peroxide formation rate from 1.10x10(-6) to 1.50x10(-6)Ms(-1), the ozone formation rate from 1.99x10(-8) to 2.35x10(-8)Ms(-1), respectively. In addition, this process had no influence on the photocatalytic properties of TiO(2). The introduction of TiO(2) photocatalyst into pulsed discharge plasma process in the utilizing of ultraviolet radiation and electric field in pulsed discharge plasma process enhanced the yields of chemically active species, which were available for highly efficient removal and mineralization of organic pollutants.

  10. Low-temperature plasma-induced antiproliferative effects on multi-cellular tumor spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewa, Joseph-Marie; Yousfi, Mohammed; Eichwald, Olivier; Merbahi, Nofel; Frongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications of low-temperature plasmas are of growing interest, especially in the field of plasma-induced anti-tumor effects. The present work is aimed at investigating the regionalized antiproliferative effects of low-temperature plasmas on a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics the 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. We report that a low-temperature plasma jet, using helium flow in open air, inhibits HCT116 colon carcinoma MCTS growth in a dose-dependent manner. This growth inhibition is associated with the loss of Ki67, and the regionalized accumulation of DNA damage detected by histone H2AX phosphorylation. This regionalized genotoxic effect leads to massive cell death and loss of the MCTS proliferative region. The use of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and plasma-conditioned media demonstrate that the ROS generated in the media after exposure to low-temperature plasma play a major role in these observed effects. These findings strengthen the interest in the use of MCTS for the evaluation of antiproliferative strategies, and open new perspectives for studies dedicated to demonstrate the potential of low-temperature plasma in cancer therapy

  11. Low-temperature plasma-induced antiproliferative effects on multi-cellular tumor spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Joseph-Marie; Yousfi, Mohammed; Frongia, Céline; Eichwald, Olivier; Ducommun, Bernard; Merbahi, Nofel; Lobjois, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Biomedical applications of low-temperature plasmas are of growing interest, especially in the field of plasma-induced anti-tumor effects. The present work is aimed at investigating the regionalized antiproliferative effects of low-temperature plasmas on a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics the 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. We report that a low-temperature plasma jet, using helium flow in open air, inhibits HCT116 colon carcinoma MCTS growth in a dose-dependent manner. This growth inhibition is associated with the loss of Ki67, and the regionalized accumulation of DNA damage detected by histone H2AX phosphorylation. This regionalized genotoxic effect leads to massive cell death and loss of the MCTS proliferative region. The use of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and plasma-conditioned media demonstrate that the ROS generated in the media after exposure to low-temperature plasma play a major role in these observed effects. These findings strengthen the interest in the use of MCTS for the evaluation of antiproliferative strategies, and open new perspectives for studies dedicated to demonstrate the potential of low-temperature plasma in cancer therapy.

  12. Investigations of plasma induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, K. M.; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves; Mozetič, Miran; Junkar, Ita; Primc, Gregor; Gorjanc, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The development of lignocellulosic natural-fibre-reinforced polymers composites are constrained by two limitations: the upper temperature at which the fibre can be processed and the significant differences between the surface energy of the fibre and the polymer matrix. Since the fibres and matrices are chemically different, strong adhesion at their interface is needed for the effective transfer of stress and bond distribution throughout the interface. The present study investigated the plasma induced effects on the surface properties of natural coir fibres. Weakly ionized oxygen plasma was created in two different discharge chambers by an inductively coupled radiofrequency (RF) discharge. The water absorption studies showed an increase of water sorption from 39% to 100%. The morphological study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after the plasma treatment. The topographic measurements and phase imaging done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated difference in topographic features and etching of coir wall, which points to the removal of the first layer of coir fibre. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the oxygen content measured for samples treated at 50 Pa increased from initial 18% to about 32%.

  13. Synthesis of surfactant-free electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles by plasma-induced liquid chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J; Maguire, P; Mariotti, D; Němcová, L; Graham, W G

    2013-01-01

    Plasma-induced non-equilibrium liquid chemistry is used to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) without using any reducing or capping agents. The morphology and optical properties of the synthesized AuNPs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Plasma processing parameters affect the particle shape and size and the rate of the AuNP synthesis process. Particles of different shapes (e.g. spherical, triangular, hexagonal, pentagonal, etc) are synthesized in aqueous solutions. In particular, the size of the AuNPs can be tuned from 5 nm to several hundred nanometres by varying the initial gold precursor (HAuCl 4 ) concentration from 2.5 μM to 1 mM. In order to reveal details of the basic plasma–liquid interactions that lead to AuNP synthesis, we have measured the solution pH, conductivity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration of the liquid after plasma processing, and conclude that H 2 O 2 plays the role of the reducing agent which converts Au +3 ions to Au 0 atoms, leading to nucleation growth of the AuNPs. (paper)

  14. Synthesis of surfactant-free electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles by plasma-induced liquid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J.; Němcová, L.; Maguire, P.; Graham, W. G.; Mariotti, D.

    2013-06-01

    Plasma-induced non-equilibrium liquid chemistry is used to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) without using any reducing or capping agents. The morphology and optical properties of the synthesized AuNPs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma processing parameters affect the particle shape and size and the rate of the AuNP synthesis process. Particles of different shapes (e.g. spherical, triangular, hexagonal, pentagonal, etc) are synthesized in aqueous solutions. In particular, the size of the AuNPs can be tuned from 5 nm to several hundred nanometres by varying the initial gold precursor (HAuCl4) concentration from 2.5 μM to 1 mM. In order to reveal details of the basic plasma-liquid interactions that lead to AuNP synthesis, we have measured the solution pH, conductivity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration of the liquid after plasma processing, and conclude that H2O2 plays the role of the reducing agent which converts Au+3 ions to Au0 atoms, leading to nucleation growth of the AuNPs.

  15. Non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaolong; Zhou Ming Hua; Lei Lecheng

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalyst (P-25) (50 mg L -1 ) was tentatively introduced into pulsed high-voltage discharge process for non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of the representative mode organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP), including other compounds phenol and methyl red in water. The experimental results showed that rate constant of 4-CP degradation, energy efficiency for 4-CP removal and TOC removal with TiO 2 were obviously increased. Pulsed high-voltage discharge process with TiO 2 had a promoted effect for the degradation of these pollutants under a broad range of liquid conductivity. Furthermore, the apparent formation rates of chemically active species (e.g., ozone and hydrogen peroxide) were increased, the hydrogen peroxide formation rate from 1.10 x 10 -6 to 1.50 x 10 -6 M s -1 , the ozone formation rate from 1.99 x 10 -8 to 2.35 x 10 -8 M s -1 , respectively. In addition, this process had no influence on the photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 . The introduction of TiO 2 photocatalyst into pulsed discharge plasma process in the utilizing of ultraviolet radiation and electric field in pulsed discharge plasma process enhanced the yields of chemically active species, which were available for highly efficient removal and mineralization of organic pollutants

  16. Software for fast cameras and image handling on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid progress in fast imaging gives new opportunities for fusion research. The data obtained by fast cameras play an important and ever-increasing role in analysis and understanding of plasma phenomena. The fast cameras produce a huge amount of data which creates considerable problems for acquisition, analysis, and storage. We use a number of fast cameras on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). They cover several spectral ranges: broadband visible, infra-red and narrow band filtered for spectroscopic studies. These cameras are controlled by programs developed in-house. The programs provide full camera configuration and image acquisition in the MAST shot cycle. Despite the great variety of image sources, all images should be stored in a single format. This simplifies development of data handling tools and hence the data analysis. A universal file format has been developed for MAST images which supports storage in both raw and compressed forms, using either lossless or lossy compression. A number of access and conversion routines have been developed for all languages used on MAST. Two movie-style display tools have been developed-Windows native and Qt based for Linux. The camera control programs run as autonomous data acquisition units with full camera configuration set and stored locally. This allows easy porting of the code to other data acquisition systems. The software developed for MAST fast cameras has been adapted for several other tokamaks where it is in regular use

  17. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  18. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balica Nicolae Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  19. Dysregulation of Aldosterone Secretion in Mast Cell-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Hadrien-Gaël; Wils, Julien; Renouf, Sylvie; Arabo, Arnaud; Duparc, Céline; Boutelet, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Hervé; Louiset, Estelle

    2017-12-01

    Resident adrenal mast cells have been shown to activate aldosterone secretion in rat and man. Especially, mast cell proliferation has been observed in adrenal tissues from patients with aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma. In the present study, we show that the activity of adrenal mast cells is stimulated by low-sodium diet and correlates with aldosterone synthesis in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We have also investigated the regulation of aldosterone secretion in mast cell-deficient C57BL/6 Kit W-sh/W-sh mice in comparison with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Kit W-sh/W-sh mice submitted to normal sodium diet had basal plasma aldosterone levels similar to those observed in wild-type animals. Conversely, low-sodium diet unexpectedly induced an exaggerated aldosterone response, which seemed to result from an increase in adrenal renin and angiotensin type 1 receptor expression. Severe hyperaldosteronism was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure and marked hypokalemia, which favored polyuria. Adrenal renin and angiotensin type 1 receptor overexpression may represent a compensatory mechanism aimed at activating aldosterone production in the absence of mast cells. Finally, C57BL/6 Kit W-sh/W-sh mice represent an unexpected animal model of primary aldosteronism, which has the particularity to be triggered by sodium restriction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Benzoxazole derivatives suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Ah; Park, Minhwa; Kim, Yu-Hee; Choo, Hea-Young Park; Lee, Kyung Ho

    2018-05-01

    Mast cells are central regulators of allergic inflammation that function by releasing various proallergic inflammatory mediators, including histamine, eicosanoids and proinflammatory cytokines. Occasionally, bacterial infections may initiate or worsen allergic inflammation. A number of studies have indicated that activation of lipoxygenase in mast cells positive regulates allergic inflammatory responses by generating leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the effects of benzoxazole derivatives on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, production of histamine and surface expression of co‑stimulatory molecules on bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were studied. The benzoxazole derivatives significantly reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑13, tumor necrosis factor‑α, perilipin (PLIN) 2, and PLIN3 in BMMCs treated with LPS. Furthermore, histamine production was suppressed in BMMCs treated with LPS, or treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin. Benzoxazole derivatives marginally affected the surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)80 and CD86 on BMMCs in the presence of LPS, although LPS alone did not increase the expression of those proteins. Therefore, benzoxazole derivatives inhibited the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in mast cells and may be potential candidate anti‑allergic agents to suppress mast cell activation.

  1. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  2. Mast cell dynamics in the house rat (Rattus rattus) ovary during estrus cycle, pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batth, B K; Parshad, R K

    2000-02-01

    The distribution of mast cells in various ovarian compartments was studied during different stages of the reproductive cycles in Rattus rattus. Two types of mast cell populations were recognized with light microscopy i.e., light purple and deep purple, the latter also includes deeply stained cells with extruded granules. Mast cells identified by electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural features during granule formation and release of their content. Significantly higher numbers of mast cells per unit area of ovary were seen at estrus and diestrus. Numbers of mast cells also remained high during pregnancy with possible involvement of mast cell products in vascularization of corpora lutea. A positive correlation existed between mast cell counts and embryo number during pregnancy. However, numbers of mast cells declined significantly after parturition.

  3. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  4. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K Kiso

    Full Text Available Asian elephants (Elephas maximus have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65% expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8% and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%, in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹ compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05. Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05. We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

  6. Seminal fluid enhances competitiveness of territorial males' sperm in a fish with alternative male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Federica; Locatello, Lisa; Rasotto, Maria B

    2018-05-29

    The most common adaptation to sperm competition in males is represented by an increase in the sperm number and/or quality released at mating, to raise their probability of egg fertilization. However, rapidly mounting evidence highlights that seminal fluid may directly influence the competitive fertilization success of a male by affecting either own and/or rival sperm performances. In the black goby, Gobius niger , an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics and high sperm competition level, sneaker males' ejaculates contain less seminal fluid and more sperm, that are also of better quality, than those of territorial males. However, territorial males, gain a higher paternity success inside natural nests. Here, we ask whether the seminal fluid can contribute to territorial males' reproductive success by enhancing their sperm performances and/or by decreasing those of sneaker males. Using sperm and seminal fluid manipulation and in vitro fertilization tests, we found that own seminal fluid influences the velocity and fertilization ability of sperm only in territorial males, making them as faster as those of sneakers and with similar fertilization rate. Moreover, both sneaker and territorial males' sperm remain unaffected by the seminal fluid of rival males. Thus, black goby males respond to the different level of sperm competition faced by differently allocating in sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate, with sneakers primarily investing in sperm of intrinsic high quality and territorial males relying on the effect of seminal fluid to increase the lower intrinsic quality of their sperm. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Overview of recent experimental results on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.; Akers, R.J.; Ahn, J-W.

    2003-01-01

    The low aspect ratio of MAST allows differentiation between different forms of the H-mode threshold scaling. With optimised fuelling (inboard puffing) and magnetic configuration (connected DND) the H-mode power threshold data lie somewhat above ( ∼ x1.7) recent scaling laws. Slight magnetic configuration changes (of the order of the ion Larmor radius) around a connected DND significantly influence H-mode access. H-mode confinement in discharges with low frequency ELMs is generally consistent with the IPB98(y,2) scaling. Strong indications of both particle and energy internal transport barriers have been seen. Normalised beta values β N > 5 have been obtained, approaching the ideal n = 1 no wall external kink stability limit. Sawtooth triggered NTMs (3/2, 2/1) have been observed; numerical modelling of the island evolution reproduces mode behaviour well and confirms the significance of stabilising field curvature effects. Divertor power loading studies, including transient effects (e.g. due to ELMs), show a strong bias of power efflux to the outboard targets where it is more easily handled. ELM energy losses ΔW ELM are less than 4% of the stored energy in all regimes explored so far, but ELM effluxes extending 30cm outside the outboard separatrix have been measured. Toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing resulted in significant broadening of the Dα profile on the biased components and a reduction in the total power to the unbiased components. Halo current magnitudes and asymmetries are generally small compared with conventional tokamaks; recent measurements show that the plasma behaves more as a voltage source than a current source. Initial neutral beam current drive experiments indicate non-inductively driven current values (I NBI ∼ 0.3I p ) comparable with code predictions. (author)

  8. Kefiran suppresses antigen-induced mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Tadahide; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage produced by kefir grains in the Caucasian countries. Kefiran produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in kefir grains is an exopolysaccharide having a repeating structure with glucose and galactose residues in the chain sequence and has been suggested to exert many health-promoting effects such as immunomodulatory, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic activities. Here we investigated the effects of kefiran on mast cell activation induced by antigen. Pretreatment with kefiran significantly inhibited antigen-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, degranulation, and tumor necrosis factor-α production in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) after antigen stimulation was also suppressed by pretreatment of BMMCs with kefiran. These findings indicate that kefiran suppresses mast cell degranulation and cytokine production by inhibiting the Akt and ERKs pathways, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect for kefiran.

  9. An Expertise Engine: MAST in the 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston Peek, Joshua Eli; Smith, Arfon M.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2018-06-01

    The original Hubble Space Telescope archive showed how encapsulating expertise in science-ready data products could accelerate the pace of scientific advancement, and enable extremely productive archival research. In the 2000s, MAST and the Hubble Legacy Archive showed how taking these products to the next level further democratized astronomy, with archival science overtaking PI science as the dominant output of MAST missions. We argue that these data products fundamentally act as a vector for expertise, allowing novice users access to the detailed and advanced techniques of experts. In the 2020s we will see an explosion of data volume, data precision, and data complexity which will demand an even more powerful and sophisticated expertise engine. We’ll discuss how MAST plans to rise to meet that challenge.

  10. Mast cell mediator tryptase levels after inhalation or intravenous administration of high doses pharmaceutically prepared heroin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, E. J.; van Zanten, A. P.; van den Brink, W.; van Ree, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids like morphine and heroin induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. The release of mast cell mediators like histamine and tryptase may lead to allergic symptoms. In this study it was investigated whether mast cell mediator release also occurs in vivo in addicted patients who

  11. A study of Association of Mast Cell Count in Different Grades of Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belgaumi UI

    2017 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Original Article ... Many studies suggest that mast cells may either promote tumour growth in some types of cancer or may act in an .... Mast cells attracted in the tumour microenvironment by stem cell factor ... mast cells in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Initial Effects of Reproduction Cutting Treatments on Residual Hard Mast Production in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2003-01-01

    We compared indices of total hard mast production (oak and hickory combined) in 20, second-growth, pine-hardwood stands under five treatments to determine the effects of different reproduction treatments on mast production in the Ouachita Mountains. We evaluated mast production in mature unharvested controls and stands under four reproduction cutting methods (single-...

  13. Temperature dependence on plasma-induced damage and chemical reactions in GaN etching processes using chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zecheng; Ishikawa, Kenji; Imamura, Masato; Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Kondo, Hiroki; Oda, Osamu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Plasma-induced damage (PID) on GaN was optimally reduced by high-temperature chlorine plasma etching. Energetic ion bombardments primarily induced PID involving stoichiometry, surface roughness, and photoluminescence (PL) degradation. Chemical reactions under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chlorine radical exposure at temperatures higher than 400 °C can be controlled by taking into account the synergism of simultaneous photon and radical irradiations to effectively reduce PID.

  14. Familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Molderings

    Full Text Available Systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD comprises disorders characterized by an enhanced release of mast cell mediators accompanied by accumulation of dysfunctional mast cells. Demonstration of familial clustering would be an important step towards defining the genetic contribution to the risk of systemic MCAD. The present study aimed to quantify familial aggregation for MCAD and to investigate the variability of clinical and molecular findings (e.g. somatic mutations in KIT among affected family members in three selected pedigrees. Our data suggest that systemic MCAD pedigrees include more systemic MCAD cases than would be expected by chance, i.e., compared with the prevalence of MCAD in the general population. The prevalence of MCAD suspected by symptom self-report in first-degree relatives of patients with MCAD amounted to approximately 46%, compared to prevalence in the general German population of about 17% (p<0.0001. In three families with a high familial loading of MCAD, the subtype of MCAD and the severity of mediator-related symptoms varied between family members. In addition, genetic alterations detected in KIT were variable, and included mutations at position 816 of the amino acid sequence. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for common familial occurrence of MCAD. Our findings observed in the three pedigrees together with recent reports in the literature suggest that, in familial cases (i.e., in the majority of MCAD, mutated disease-related operator and/or regulator genes could be responsible for the development of somatic mutations in KIT and other proteins important for the regulation of mast cell activity. Accordingly, the immunohistochemically different subtypes of MCAD (i.e. mast cell activation syndrome and systemic mastocytosis should be more accurately regarded as varying presentations of a common generic root process of mast cell dysfunction, than as distinct diseases.

  15. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially

  16. An XML-based configuration system for MAST PCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrs, J.; McArdle, G.

    2008-01-01

    MAST PCS, a port of General Atomics' generic Plasma Control System, is a large software system comprising many source files in C and IDL. Application parameters can affect multiple source files in complex ways, making code development and maintenance difficult. The MAST PCS configuration system aims to make the task of the application developer easier, through the use of XML-based configuration files and a configuration tool which processes them. It is presented here as an example of a useful technique with wide application

  17. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  18. SL15: A seminal plasma-derived lectin from the sperm of llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Renato; Sequeira, Sabrina; Argañaraz, Martin E; Apichela, Silvana A

    2017-07-01

    The oviductal sperm reservoir of South American camelids is formed when sperm bind to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on the surface of oviductal epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the GalNAc-binding proteins on llama sperm, and to establish their origin. Sperm-adsorbed proteins were extracted with 0.5 M KCl in Hepes-balanced salts. Sperm-adsorbed and seminal plasma proteins were then subjected to ligand blotting for their GalNAc affinity, and the labeled bands were identified by mass spectrometry. Three proteins were identified in seminal plasma versus only one in the sperm-adsorbed population; SL15, a seminal lectin, was common to both. SL15 is a homologue of Zymogen granule protein 16, homolog B-like, which belongs to the Jacalin-related lectin family. This lectin is likely presented to sperm via seminal plasma since epididymal sperm are not capable of binding GalNAc, whereas ejaculated sperm does, and its transcript was enriched predominantly in the prostate and bulbourethral glands. This is the first report of a seminal lectin in South American camelids that originates in the male reproductive tract, and is probably involved in sperm reservoir formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Abdul-Rasheed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men.Methods: The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43 and azoospermia (n=35. 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results: Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000 in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied.Conclusion: Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur.

  20. Relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and sexual activity in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H; Kawa, G; Yoshida, K; Takayasu, K; Kinoshita, H; Matsuda, T

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and the frequency of sex and sexual function in middle-aged men is not clear. This study included 81 patients who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Volume of the seminal vesicles was examined using a volume analyser from computed tomography. Sexual function was subjectively evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and Erection Hardness Score. The frequency of sex was surveyed using our original questionnaire. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 67.7 ± 5.3 years. There was no relationship between the volume of seminal vesicles and age of the patients. Volume of the seminal vesicles in patients who answered that they had sexual activity at least once a year was significantly larger than in those who answered no sexual activity for several years (P middle-aged men, volume of the seminal vesicles was significantly larger in those who had a sexual frequency once every 3 months than in those who had a sexual frequency once every 6 months or once a year (P middle-aged men is correlated with sexual activity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...... at the site of each biopsy. After fixation and plastic embedding, the biopsies were cut into 2 microns serial sections. Ten sections, 30 microns apart, from each biopsy were examined and stained alternately with either toluidine blue or Giemsa stain and mast cell profile numbers were determined. The study...

  2. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Jung, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit

  3. IgE by itself affects mature rat mast cell preformed and de novo-synthesized mediator release and amplifies mast cell migratory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słodka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE binds to high affinity receptor FcεRI numerously expressed on mast cells. Recent findings have revealed that IgE by itself may regulate various aspects of mast cell biology, however, detailed data is still limited. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Here, we have examined the influence of IgE alone, used at different concentrations, on mast cell activity and releasability. For the study we have employed in vivo differentiated mature tissue mast cells isolated from rat peritoneal cavity. Mast cells were exposed to IgE alone and then the release of preformed and de novo-synthesized mediators, surface FcεRI expression and mast cell migratory response were assessed. IgE by itself was found to up-regulate FcεRI expression and activate mast cells to degranulation, as well as de novo synthesis and release of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TNF. We have provided evidence that IgE alone also amplified spontaneous and CCL5- or TNF-induced migration of mast cells. Importantly, IgE was effective only at concentrations ≥ 3 µg/mL. A molecular basis investigation using an array of specific inhibitors showed that Src kinases, PLC/PLA2, MAP kinases (ERK and p38 and PI3K were entirely or partially involved in IgE-induced mast cell response. Furthermore, IgE alone stimulated the phosphorylation of MAP kinases and PI3K in rat mast cells. CONCLUSION: Our results clearly demonstrated that IgE by itself, at higher concentrations, influences mast cell activity and releasability. As there are different conditions when the IgE level is raised it might be supposed that in vivo IgE is one of the important factors modulating mast cell biology within tissues.

  4. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  5. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  6. Potential Application of Quantitative Prostate-specific Antigen Analysis in Forensic Examination of Seminal Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to use quantitative analysis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA in the seminal stain examination and to explore the practical value of this analysis in forensic science. For a comprehensive analysis, vaginal swabs from 48 rape cases were tested both by a PSA fluorescence analyzer (i-CHROMA Reader and by a conventional PSA strip test. To confirm the results of these PSA tests, seminal DNA was tested following differential extraction. Compared to the PSA strip test, the PSA rapid quantitative fluorescence analyzer provided the more accurate and sensitive results. More importantly, individualized schemes based on quantitative PSA results of samples can be developed to improve the quality and procedural efficiency in the forensic seminal inspection of samples prior to DNA analysis.

  7. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mast cells are important modifiers of autoimmune disease: With so much evidence, why is there controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ann Brown

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that mast cells are active participants in events that mediate tissue damage in autoimmune disease. Disease-associated increases in mast cell numbers accompanied by mast cell degranulation and elaboration of numerous mast cell mediators at sites of inflammation are commonly observed in many human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bullous pemphigoid. In animal models, treatment with mast cell stabilizing drugs or mast cell ablation can result in diminished disease. A variety of receptors including those engaged by antibody, complement, pathogens and intrinsic danger signals are implicated in mast cell activation in disease. Similar to their role as first responders in infection settings, mast cells likely orchestrate early recruitment of immune cells, including neutrophils, to the sites of autoimmune destruction. This co-localization promotes cellular crosstalk and activation and results in the amplification of the local inflammatory response thereby promoting and sustaining tissue damage. Despite the evidence, there is still a debate regarding the relative role of mast cells in these processes. However, by definition, mast cells can only act as accessory cells to the self-reactive T and/or antibody driven autoimmune responses. Thus, when evaluating mast cell involvement using existing and somewhat imperfect animal models of disease, their importance is sometimes obscured. However, these potent immune cells are undoubtedly major contributors to autoimmunity and should be considered as important targets for therapeutic disease intervention.

  9. Mast Cell Targeted Chimeric Toxin Can Be Developed as an Adjunctive Therapy in Colon Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of colitis with colorectal cancer has become increasingly clear with mast cells being identified as important inflammatory cells in the process. In view of the relationship between mast cells and cancer, we studied the effect and mechanisms of mast cells in the development of colon cancer. Functional and mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo and in vivo studies of cell interactions between mast cells and CT26 cells. Further evidence was reversely obtained in studies of mast cell targeted Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin. Experiments revealed mast cells could induce colon tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer progression was found to be related to the density of mast cells in colonic submucosa. The activation of MAPK, Rho-GTPase, and STAT pathways in colon cancer cells was triggered by mast cells during cell-to-cell interaction. Lastly, using an Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin we constructed, we confirmed the promoting effect of mast cells in development of colon cancer. Mast cells are a promoting factor of colon cancer and thus also a potential therapeutic target. The Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin targeting mast cells could effectively prevent colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, these data may demonstrate a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of tumors.

  10. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  11. Formation of transport barriers in the MAST spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H; Field, A R; Akers, R J; Brickley, C; Conway, N J; Patel, A; Carolan, P G; Challis, C; Counsell, G F; Cunningham, G; Helander, P; Kirk, A; Lloyd, B; Maingi, R; Tournianski, M R; Walsh, M J

    2004-01-01

    In the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) plasmas have been generated with internal (ITB) or edge (ETB) transport barriers. ITBs were achieved in both the electron and the ion energy channel. In the presence of an ITB in the ion energy channel, transport analysis shows that the ion thermal diffusivity, χ i , is reduced to almost neoclassical values while the ITB persists. The widely tested criteria for ITB formation ρ t * =ρ s αlnT/αR>ρ ITB * ∼0.014 (ρ s : Larmor radius at sound speed) obtained from dimensional analysis of JET discharges is easily exceeded on MAST. Even without the evidence of an ρ T * >0.014 often applies, showing that this criterion in its current form is not generally applicable. ETBs are most easily formed in MAST if in a double null divertor configuration the discharge is vertically balanced, so that both X-points are almost on the same flux surface (CDND), and if the plasma is refuelled from the high field side mid-plane. The H-mode threshold power, P thr = 0.5 MW, in connected double null diverted (CDND) is only about half of that in a similar disconnected discharge with the ion ∇ B drift towards the X-point on the last closed flux surface (LDND). P thr scales between lower double null diverted (LDND) and the single null diverted configuration with the plasma surface area on MAST

  12. design, construction and evaluation of a meteorological mobile mast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vincent

    in such a way that it can be collapsed like the electronic - controlled car radio antenna. It is made up ... Data obtained from the sensors are stored in a data logger at the base of the mast. ... also prevent back-tension and winding of the bar into.

  13. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells. ... SW Kang, JE Jeong, CH Kim, SH Choi, SH Chae, SA Jun, HJ Cha, JH Kim, YM Lee, YS ... beta 4, ring finger protein, high-mobility group, calmodulin 2, RAN binding protein, ...

  14. Observations with a mid-plane reciprocating probe in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Counsell, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    A fast reciprocating probe has recently been installed on MAST. It has been used to measure the outboard, mid-plane scrape off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas, and to study the intermittent fluctuations in the SOL in L-mode and ELMy H-mode discharges. In this paper, the system and the experiments are introduced

  15. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribatti, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.ribatti@uniba.it

    2016-03-15

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34{sup +}/CD117{sup +}/CD13{sup +}multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  16. Influence of the Meteorology Mast on a Cup Anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin O. L.; Pedersen, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The actuator disc model is applied on lattice-type meteorological masts to estimate the influence of the tower on the accuracy of the measured wind speed. Combining the results with corrections for the boom, on which the anemometer is mounted, good agreement is found for measurements made on the ...

  17. Relevance of mast cell-nerve interactions in intestinal nociception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Sophie A.; Stanisor, Oana I.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.; van den Wijngaard, René M.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-talk between the immune- and nervous-system is considered an important biological process in health and disease. Because mast cells are often strategically placed between nerves and surrounding (immune)cells they may function as important intermediate cells. This review summarizes the current

  18. Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Benedicte Y.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells may be regarded as prototypes of innate immune cells that can be controlled by neuronal mediators. Their activation has been implicated in many types of neuro-inflammatory responses, and related disturbances of gut motility, via direct or indirect mechanisms that involve several

  19. Design, construction and evaluation of a meteorological mobile mast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 30 metre meteorological mobile mast has been designed and constructed for upper air profile measurements. The parameters to be measured are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity. The sensors for each parameter to be measured are constructed with locally available materials.

  20. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  1. Purinergic Signaling in Mast Cell Degranulation and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Guo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are responsible for the majority of allergic conditions. It was originally thought that almost all allergic events were mediated directly only via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. However, recent evidence showed that many other receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, are also directly involved in mast cell degranulation, the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serine proteases, leukotrienes, heparin, and serotonin. These mediators are responsible for the symptoms in allergic conditions such as allergic asthma. In recent years, it has been realized that purinergic signaling, induced via the activation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors, as well as by ATP-gated P2X receptors, plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on their own and synergistically with allergens. All three classes of receptors, adenosine, P2X and P2Y are involved in tracheal mucus secretion. This review will summarize the currently available knowledge on the role of purinergic signaling in mast cell degranulation and its most relevant disease, asthma.

  2. In Vitro Desensitization of Human Skin Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Gomez, Gregorio; Macey, Matthew; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Desensitization is a clinical procedure whereby incremental doses of a drug are administered over several hours to a sensitive patient until a therapeutic dose and clinical tolerance are achieved. Clinical tolerance may occur in part by attenuating the mast cell response. In the present study, primary human skin mast cells were used to establish and characterize an in vitro model of desensitization. Mast cells in culture were armed with allergen-specific (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylacety and Der p2) and non-specific IgE antibodies, and then desensitized by incremental exposures to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacety-BSA. This desensitization procedure abrogated the subsequent degranulation response to the desensitizing allergen, to an unrelated allergen, and to IgG anti-FcεRI, but not to C5a, substance P, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore. Desensitized cells regained their FcεRI-dependent degranulation capability by 24–48 h after free allergen had been removed. Therefore, sensitized human skin mast cells are reversibly desensitized in vitro by exposure to incremental doses of that allergen, which also cross-desensitizes them to an unrelated allergen. PMID:22009002

  3. Efecto del plasma seminal sobre el estado redox del semen equino criopreservado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Pizarro L.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el efecto del plasma seminal sobre la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO y la peroxidación lipídica de semen equino criopreservado y su asociación con parámetros de calidad seminal. Materiales y métodos. El semen de cinco caballos de la raza criollo colombiano (dos eyaculados cada uno, fue criopreservado mediante un protocolo de congelación rápida, empleando un diluyente leche-yema de huevo, suplementado con 0%, 10% y 20% de plasma seminal equino. En muestras de semen fresco y criopreservado se evaluó la generación de ERO y la peroxidación lipídica por espectrofluorimetría, y los parámetros de calidad seminal de movilidad progresiva, vitalidad e integridad de membrana, mediante microscopia de contraste de fase. Para el análisis estadístico se ajustaron modelos mixtos y se realizaron análisis de regresión y correlación. Resultados. Se hallaron promedios post-descongelación de movilidad progresiva, vitalidad e integridad de membrana de 37.8%±20.2, 50.6% ± 14.6 y 37.8% ± 15.5, respectivamente. Para el semen fresco y criopreservado suplementado con 0%, 10% y 20% de plasma seminal, los promedios de producción de ERO (URF fueron de 13.34±10.7, 16.15 ± 13.5, 17.32 ± 16 y 22.98 ± 19.4, respectivamente; mostrando un incremento estadísticamente significativo (p≤0.05 en la producción de ERO por efecto de la criopreservación y la suplementación con plasma seminal. Los promedios de peroxidación lipídica (nmolMDA/ml para estos mismos tratamientos, fueron de 0.41 ± 0.25, 0.72±0.37, 0.51 ± 0.29 y 0.47±0.26, respectivamente; mostrando una reducción significativa (p≤0.05 de la peroxidación lipídica del semen suplementado con 10% y 20% de plasma seminal, respecto al semen no suplementado (0%. Conclusiones. El plasma seminal reduce la peroxidación lipídica del semen equino criopreservado.

  4. Introducing a prognostic score for pretherapeutic assessment of seminal vesicle invasion in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, Laurent; Porcher, Raphaeel; Anastasiadis, Aristotelis G.; Levrel, Olivier; Saint, Fabian; Taille, Alexandre de la; Vordos, Dimitrios; Cicco, Antony; Hoznek, Andras; Chopin, Dominique; Abbou, Clement-Claude; Lagrange, Jean-Leon

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To identify prostate cancer patients who will have the most likely benefit from sparing the seminal vesicles during 3D conformal radiation therapy. Methods and materials: From 1988 to 2001, 532 patients underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Primary endpoint was the pathological evidence of seminal vesicle invasion. Variables for univariate and multivariate analyses were age, prostate weight, clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason score, number and site of positive prostate sextant biopsies. Multivariate logistic regression with backward stepwise variable selection was used to identify a set of independent predictors of seminal vesicle invasion, and the variable selection procedure was validated by non-parametric bootstrap. Results: Seminal vesicle invasion was reported in 14% of the cases. In univariate analysis, all variables except age and prostate weight were predictors of seminal vesicle invasion. In multivariate analysis, only the number of positive biopsies (P<0.0001), Gleason score (P<0.007) and PSA (P<0.0001) were predictors for seminal vesicles invasion. Based on the multivariate model, we were able to develop a prognostic score for seminal vesicle invasion, which allowed us to discriminate two patient groups: A group with low risk of seminal vesicles invasion (5.7%), and the second with a higher risk of seminal vesicles invasion (32.7%). Conclusions: Using the number of positive biopsies, Gleason score and PSA, it is possible to identify patients with low risk of seminal vesicles invasion. In this population, seminal vesicles might be excluded as a target volume in radiation therapy of prostate cancer

  5. New Kepler Data Products At MAST For Stellar Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Shiao, B.; Tseng, S.; Million, C.; Thompson, R.; Seibert, M.; Abney, F.; Donaldson, T.; Dower, T.; Fraquelli, D. A.; Handy, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Levay, K.; Matuskey, J.; McLean, B.; Quick, L.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.; White, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has collected high-precision, time-series photometry of over 200,000 stars. The reduced lightcurves, target pixel files, and a variety of catalog metadata are already available at MAST. We present new data products and services at MAST that will further aid researchers as Kepler begins its transition to a legacy mission, particularly in the realm of stellar astrophysics. New photometric catalogs to accompany the Kepler targets have arrived at MAST within the past year, and several more will be coming in the relative future. These include the second half of the Kepler INT survey (U,g,r,i,H_alpha; available now), an improved GALEX source catalog (NUV and FUV; available now), PanSTARRS (g,r,i,z; available soon), and WISE (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns; planned). We expect searches for variability will become one of the most active areas of archive use, so MAST is including a wide range of variability statistics as part of the archive database. In addition to being searchable through database queries and web forms, each Preview page will now include a summary of these variability indices for each of the target's lightcurves within a Quarter. Along with updated NUV and FUV fluxes, a new tool at MAST called gPhoton will allow users to create time-series lightcurves, including animated movies and intensity images, from any set of GALEX photons with arbitrary aperture and bin sizes. We show some examples of the ways GALEX UV lightcurves generated with gPhoton can be used in conjunction with the Kepler data. Finally, MAST has released an initial version of its Data Discovery Portal. This one-stop, interactive web application gives users the ability to search and access data from any of MAST's missions (HST, GALEX, Kepler, FUSE, IUE, JWST, etc.), as well as any data available through the Virtual Observatory. It includes filtering options, access to interactive displays, an accompanying AstroViewer with data footprints on-sky, the ability to upload your own

  6. Effect of methylmercury on histamine release from rat mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graevskaya, Elizabeth E.; Rubin, Andrew B. [Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Department of Biophysics, 119899, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yasutake, Akira; Aramaki, Ryoji [National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058-18 Hama, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is well known as a significant environmental hazard, particularly as a modulator of the immune system. As it is acknowledged that the critical effector cells in the host response participating in various biological responses are mast cells, we tried to define the possible contribution of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-evoked effects. We investigated the effects of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by non-immunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. Using the cells prepared from methylmercury-intoxicated rats through a 5-day treatment of MeHgCl (10 mg/kg/day), we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187- and 48/80-induced histamine release, which was enhanced with time after treatment. Similar suppression was observed in the ionophore-stimulated release, when cells were prepared from rat with a single treatment of MeHgCl (20 mg/kg). It should be noted that when cells from the control rat were pre-incubated with methylmercury in vitro at a 10{sup -8} M concentration for 10 min, A23187 and compound 48/80-stimulated histamine release was significantly enhanced. However, when the pre-incubation period was prolonged to 30 min, the release was suppressed. An increase in the methylmercury concentration to 10{sup -6} M also suppressed the histamine release. These results show that methylmercury treatment can modify mast cell function depending on concentration and time, and might provide an insight into the role of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-stimulated effects. (orig.)

  7. Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaserse, G., E-mail: giovanni.artaserse@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE sulla Fusione, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops.

  8. Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaserse, G.; Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R.; McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops

  9. Induction of Microglial Activation by Mediators Released from Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain and play a pivotal role in immune surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS. Brain mast cells are activated in CNS disorders and induce the release of several mediators. Thus, brain mast cells, rather than microglia, are the “first responders” due to injury. However, the functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain uninvestigated. Methods: Conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells induces microglial activation similar to co-culture of microglia with HMC-1 cells. Primary cultured microglia were examined by flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy. TNF- alpha and IL-6 were measured with commercial ELISA kits. Cell signalling was analysed by Western blotting. Results: In the present study, we found that the conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells stimulated microglial activation and the subsequent production of the pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6. Co-culture of microglia and HMC-1 cells with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH for 24, 48 and 72 hours increased TNF-α and IL-6 production. Antagonists of histamine receptor 1 (H1R, H4R, proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 reduced HMC-1-induced pro-inflammatory factor production and MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Conclusions: These results imply that activated mast cells trigger microglial activation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS inflammation-related diseases.

  10. Zinc sulfate treatment of secondary male infertility associated with positive serum and seminal plasma anti-sperm antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar M. Jawad

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, infertile men with elevated level of ASA and poor basic parameters of seminal fluid characters can be treated with zinc sulfate protocol with great chance for decreasing the level of serum and seminal plasma ASA, and alleviating the serious side effects associated with corticosteroids.

  11. Clinical Significance and Expression of PAF and TNF-alpha in Seminal Plasma of Leukocytospermic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Discuss the changes and roles of PAF in the reproductive tract infection by observing the expression of platelet activating factor (PAF and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α in seminal plasma of patients with leukocytospermia. Methods. The seminal plasma was obtained from 22 cases of leukocytospermia and 15 cases of normal males; the peroxidase dyeing method was adopted for seminal plasma white blood count; the ELISA was adopted to test PAF and TNF-α concentration in seminal plasma. Result. PAF concentration ( ng/mL of leukocytospermia group was significantly lower than the normal group ( ng/mL, while TNF-α ( ng/mL was significantly higher than that of normal group ( ng/mL. There was negative correlation between PAF and TNF-α , (, ; the same situation existed in PAF and WBC (, ; but TNF-α was positively correlated to WBC (, . Conclusion. (1 Low expression of PAF and high expression of TNF-α in leukocytospermia affect the sperm motility, which is one of the reasons that leads to infertility. (2 Lower expression of PAF has its particularity during the reproductive tract infection.

  12. Effects of Silodosin and Tamsulosin on the Seminal Vesicle Contractile Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tokumasa; Takeya, Mitsue; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Matsuoka, Kei

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying ejaculation dysfunction caused by α1A-adrenocetor (AR) antagonists, the effects of α1A-AR antagonists on the contractile responses of the seminal vesicle were investigated. Isolated seminal vesicles from guinea pigs were cannulated and pressurized, and the changes in the intraluminal pressure were recorded. Periodic applications of electrical stimulation (ES) caused biphasic increase in the intraluminal pressure, that is, initial and subsequent contractions. The effects of silodosin and tamsulosin, α1A-AR antagonists, on the contractile responses were examined. The ES-induced biphasic contractions were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Silodosin and tamsulosin suppressed the initial contractions in a dose-dependent manner, while also exerting various inhibitory effects on the subsequent contractions. Increases in the intraluminal pressure facilitated spontaneous phasic contractions. The spontaneous contractions were not affected by TTX or α1A-AR antagonists, but were abolished by nifedipine. The initial contractions triggered by neuronal excitations were suppressed by silodosin and tamsulosin, suggesting that the ejaculation dysfunction may be attributed to the α1A-AR antagonist-mediated suppression of nerve-evoked contractions in the seminal vesicle. The subsequent contractions may be induced by mechanical stimulation associated with the initial, nerve-evoked contractions. Alternatively, other transmitters may be involved to various degrees in the neuromuscular transmission of the seminal vesicle. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Socially cued seminal fluid gene expression mediates responses in ejaculate quality to sperm competition risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lovegrove, Maxine

    2017-08-30

    There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets ( Teleogryllus oceanicus ) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in part, to male adjustments in the protein composition of the seminal fluid. Seven seminal fluid protein genes were found to have an increased expression in males exposed to rival calls. Increased expression of these genes was correlated with increased sperm viability in whole ejaculates, and gene knockdown confirmed that at least one of these proteins promotes sperm viability. Our results lend support for recent theoretical models that predict complex responses in male allocation to seminal fluid composition in response to sperm competition risk. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Seminal fluid enhances sperm viability in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2008-01-01

    The seminal fluid that accompanies sperm in ejaculates has been shown or suggested to affect sperm competition and paternity success of insects by preventing female remating, inducing oviposition, and forming mating plugs. In Atta leafcutter ants, queens have multiple mates but never remate later...

  15. Semi-national surveillance of fungaemia in Denmark 2004-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, B

    2008-01-01

    A semi-national laboratory-based surveillance programme for fungaemia was initiated in 2003 that now covers c. 3.5 million inhabitants (64%) of the Danish population. In total, 1089 episodes of fungaemia were recorded during 2004-2006, corresponding to an annual incidence of 10.4/100 000 inhabita...

  16. Lack of detection of XMRV in seminal plasma from HIV-1 infected men in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Cornelissen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s. Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from HIV-1 infected men were examined as they have an increased probability of acquiring sexually transmitted pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the prevalence of XMRV in 93 seminal plasma samples of 54 HIV-1 infected men living in The Netherlands with a nested PCR amplification specifically targeting the XMRV gag gene. As a control for the presence and integrity of retrovirus particles, HIV-1 was amplified from the same samples with a PCR amplification targeting the env gene of the virus, or HIV-1 was quantified with a real-time PCR amplifying part of the pol gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although HIV-1 was amplified from 25% of the seminal plasma samples, no XMRV was detected, suggesting that either the prevalence of XMRV is very low in The Netherlands, or that XMRV is not naturally present in the seminal plasma.

  17. Mapping the ribonucleolytic active site of bovine seminal ribonuclease. The binding of pyrimidinyl phosphonucleotide inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dossi, K.; Tsirkone, V.G.; Hayes, J.M.; Matoušek, Josef; Poučková, P.; Souček, J.; Zadinová, M.; Zographos, S.E.; Leonidas, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 11 (2009), s. 4496-4508 ISSN 0223-5234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bovine seminal ribonuclease * antitumor agent Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2009

  18. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to understand the amount of gold in semen of normal and different infertile conditions. Gold was estimated in normal (n38) and pathological conditions (n86) by employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gold level observed in seminal plasma was as follows: in normozoospermia (n38) ...

  19. Wnt-β-Catenin Signaling Promotes the Maturation of Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Immature mast cells migrate into peripheral tissues from the bone marrow and undergo complete maturation. Interestingly, mast cells have characteristics similar to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, such as self-renewal and c-kit expression. In HSCs, Wnt signaling is involved in their maintenance and differentiation. On the other hand, the relation between Wnt signaling and mast cell differentiation is poorly understood. To study whether Wnt signals play a role in the maturation of mast cells, we studied the effect of Wnt proteins on mast cell maturation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs. The expression levels of CD81 protein and histidine decarboxylase mRNA and activity of mast cell-specific protease were all elevated in BMMCs treated with Wnt5a. In addition, Wnt5a induced the expression of Axin2 and TCF mRNA in BMMCs. These results showed that Wnt5a could promote the maturation of mast cells via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the differentiation of mast cells.

  20. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D 0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F 1 +/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D 0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter

  1. An autoradiographic study on the mechanism of mast cell hyperplasia evoked by a carcinogen, 20-methylcholanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Narashi

    1974-01-01

    A reactive increase of mast cells was studied by means of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. Mice were painted on the back skin with 20-methylcholanthrene twice a week for two to eight weeks. No labeled mast cells were found with flash labeling or fourty-eight hours' cumulative labeling immediately before the sacrifice at the end of varying periods of painting. Subsequently, a cumulative chase method was performed in order to obtain labeled mast cells. Mice were painted with 20-methylcholanthrene for thirty-one days. Twenty-four hours' cumulative labelings were performed 31 (i.e. at the beginning of painting), 21, 14, 7, 5 and 3 days before the sacrifice. In each of these labeling experiments, labeled mast cells were observed. From these results it was concluded that the increase of mast cells in response to an irritation is not due to the proliferation of mast cells themselves but to the proliferation of undifferentiated precursor cells and their differentiation into the mast cells. A histogram of the labeling indices of mast cells in the subepidermal, dermal and subcutaneous layers indicated that, in the early period of painting, a peak of labeling indices of mast cells appeared in the subcutaneous layer, and that, in the late period of painting, a peak of indices appeared in the subepidermal layer. This suggests that mast cells are produced in the subepidermal layer and migrate into the deep layers of the skin. (author)

  2. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter

  3. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  4. Effect of Seminal Vesicles and Dithiotritol (Dtt on Stability of Sperm Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Nasr-Esfahani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different studies have shown that there is no relation between sperm chromatin stability and fertilization rate in both IVF and ICSI patients. However, the relation between SDS tests, as a detergent, along with DTT as reducer of disulphide bridges has not been studied so far in ICSI patients. Since different concentrations of DTT can induce different degrees of sperm chromatin decondensation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of DTT on sperm chromatin decondensation in IVF and ICSI cases. Methods: During this study, 85 patients were divided into two groups according to their treatment procedure (IVF or ICSI.Semen samples of each patient was evaluated for sperm chromatin tests including SDS, SDS+EDTA & SDS+DTT for assessment of free thiole groups level (-SH, amount of non covalent bond between Zn and thioles(-SH Zn SH- and levels of disulfide bond (-S-S- in sperm chromatin, respectively. In this study, seminal fructose concentration, corrected seminal fructose level and true corrected fructose level as indicators of seminal vesicle function on sperm chromatin stability were assessed. Results: No correlation was observed between any of the above tests and rate of fertilization, both in IVF and ICSI cases. However, in IVF patients, a significant correlation was observed between SDS, SDS+DTT test and seminal fructose level, while in ICSI patients, only a significant correlation was observed between SDS+DTT and corrected or true fructose concentration. Conclusion: Since no correlation was observed between sperm chromatin test and fertilization rate, it is suggested that the chromatin status of these samples are adequate for fertilization to take place and extent of disulphide bridges has no effect on fertilization rate. However, the amount of disulphide bound present in sperms of ICSI and IVF patients are different, and this difference is related to seminal vesicle performance in these patients.

  5. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoszuk, Michael; Kanakubo, Emi; Chan, John K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors

  6. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakubo Emi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

  7. Filament structures at the plasma edge on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, A; Ayed, N Ben; Counsell, G; Dudson, B; Eich, T; Herrmann, A; Koch, B; Martin, R; Meakins, A; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Tallents, S; Walsh, M; Wilson, H R

    2006-01-01

    The boundary of the tokamak core plasma, or scrape-off layer, is normally characterized in terms of average parameters such as density, temperature and e-folding lengths suggesting diffusive losses. However, as is shown in this paper, localized filamentary structures play an important role in determining the radial efflux in both L mode and during edge localized modes (ELMs) on MAST. Understanding the size, poloidal and toroidal localization and the outward radial extent of these filaments is crucial in order to calculate their effect on power loading both on the first wall and the divertor target plates in future devices. The spatial and temporal evolution of filaments observed on MAST in L-mode and ELMs have been compared and contrasted in order to confront the predictions of various models that have been proposed to predict filament propagation and in particular ELM energy losses

  8. Conceptual design of a neutron camera for MAST Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiszflog, M., E-mail: matthias.weiszflog@physics.uu.se; Sangaroon, S.; Cecconello, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Klimek, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala (Sweden); Keeling, D.; Martin, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Turnyanskiy, M. [ITER Physics Department, EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrae 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    This paper presents two different conceptual designs of neutron cameras for Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) Upgrade. The first one consists of two horizontal cameras, one equatorial and one vertically down-shifted by 65 cm. The second design, viewing the plasma in a poloidal section, also consists of two cameras, one radial and the other one with a diagonal view. Design parameters for the different cameras were selected on the basis of neutron transport calculations and on a set of target measurement requirements taking into account the predicted neutron emissivities in the different MAST Upgrade operating scenarios. Based on a comparison of the cameras’ profile resolving power, the horizontal cameras are suggested as the best option.

  9. Disruption mitigation studies on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, A.J., E-mail: at546@york.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gibson, K.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Harrison, J.R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Helsington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kirk, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lisgo, S.W. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, St. Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Lehnen, M. [Institute for Energy Research - Plasma Physics, FZJ, Association EURATOM/FZJ, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Martin, R.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Disruptions pose a significant challenge in future devices where the increased stored energy can lead to unacceptably large transient heat loads on plasma facing components (PFCs). One means of mitigating disruptions is that of massive gas injection (MGI), which produces a radiative collapse of the plasma discharge through the injection of impurity gases. The MAST disruption mitigation system is capable of injecting up to 1.95 bar litres into the MAST vacuum vessel over a timescale of 1-2 ms, corresponding to a particle inventory of 5 x 10{sup 22}, around 100 times the plasma particle inventory. High speed infrared thermography, offering full divertor coverage, has shown a 60-70% reduction in divertor power loads during mitigation. A combination of high temporal (0.2 ms) and spatial resolution (1 cm) Thomson scattering and soft X-ray camera array data show evidence for a cooling front associated with the inward propagation of the injected impurities.

  10. Redox status evaluation in dogs affected by mast cell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, R; Pasquini, A; Meucci, V; Lippi, I; Rota, A; Guidi, G; Marchetti, V

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress status has been evaluated in depth in human medicine and its role in carcinogenesis has been clearly established. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate antioxidant concentrations and oxidative stress in dogs with mast cell tumours (MCTs) that had received no previous treatments, and to compare them to healthy controls. In 23 dogs with mast cell tumour and 10 healthy controls, oxidative status was assessed using the Reactive Oxygen Metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) test, antioxidant activity was measured by the Biological Antioxidant Potential (BAP) test, and α-tocopherol levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet analysis. At baseline, dogs with MCT had significantly higher d-ROMs (P defence barrier are altered in dogs with newly diagnosed MCT compared with control dogs. Future studies are needed in order to assess the prognostic role of oxidative stress and to evaluate the impact of different therapeutic approaches. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Insights in Anaphylaxis and Clonal Mast Cell Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González-de-Olano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of anaphylaxis among patients with clonal mast cell disorders (MCD is clearly higher comparing to the general population. Due to a lower frequency of symptoms outside of acute episodes, clonal MCD in the absence of skin lesions might sometimes be difficult to identify which may lead to underdiagnosis, and anaphylaxis is commonly the presenting symptom in these patients. Although the release of mast cell (MC mediators upon MC activation might present with a wide variety of symptoms, particular clinical features typically characterize MC mediator release episodes in patients with clonal MCD without skin involvement. Final diagnosis requires a bone marrow study, and it is recommended that this should be done in reference centers. In this article, we address the main triggers for anaphylaxis, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of patients with MC activation syndromes (MCASs, with special emphasis on clonal MCAS [systemic mastocytosis and mono(clonal MC activations syndromes].

  12. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  13. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2012-12-21

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  14. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel

    1990-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators from intestinal mast cells may serve as initiators of acute and delayed inflammation. Mast cell histamine release was measured in 19 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases using gut mast cells from enzymatically dispersed endoscopic forceps biopsy specimens...... of macroscopically inflamed and normal tissue. Mast cells and corresponding basophils were challenged with anti-IgE, anti-IgG, subclass anti-IgG4, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and results were compared with those from nine patient control subjects. The mast cell count in patients with ulcerative...... colitis was increased compared with that in control subjects and patients with Crohn's disease, and the mast cell count obtained from inflamed tissue was greater than that of normal tissue. The study also shows the heterogeneity of the responsiveness of the histamine releasing cells to various...

  15. Nature beyond Linearity: Meteorological Variability and Jensen's Inequality Can Explain Mast Seeding Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernández-Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast seeding, the extremely variable and synchronized production of fruits, is a common reproductive behavior in plants. Weather is centrally involved in driving masting. Yet, it is often claimed that it cannot be the sole proximate cause of masting because weather is less variable than fruit production and because the shape of their distributions differ. We used computer simulations to demonstrate that the assumption that weather cannot be the main driver of masting was only valid for linear relationships between weather and fruit production. Non-linear relationships between interannual variability in weather and crop size, however, can account for the differences in their variability and the shape of their distributions because of Jensen's inequality. Exponential relationships with weather can increase the variability of fruit production, and sigmoidal relationships can produce bimodal distributions. These results challenge the idea that meteorological variability cannot be the main proximate driver of mast seeding, returning meteorological variability to the forefront of masting research.

  16. Communication between mast cells and rat submucosal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anna; Althaus, Mike; Diener, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Histamine is a mast cell mediator released e.g. during food allergy. The aim of the project was to identify the effect of histamine on rat submucosal neurons and the mechanisms involved. Cultured submucosal neurons from rat colon express H1, H2 and H3 receptors as shown by immunocytochemical staining confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from submucosal homogenates as starting material. Histamine evoked a biphasic rise of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in cultured submucosal neurons, consisting in a release of intracellularly stored Ca(2+) followed by an influx from the extracellular space. Although agonists of all three receptor subtypes evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, experiments with antagonists revealed that mainly H1 (and to a lesser degree H2) receptors mediate the response to histamine. In coculture experiments with RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell equivalent, compound 48/80, evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of neighbouring neurons. Like the response to native histamine, the neuronal response to the mast cell degranulator was strongly inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine and reduced by the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. In rats sensitized against ovalbumin, exposure to the antigen induced a rise in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa-submucosa preparations without a significant increase in paracellular fluorescein fluxes. Pyrilamine strongly inhibited the increase in I sc, a weaker inhibition was observed after blockade of protease receptors or 5-lipoxygenase. Consequently, H1 receptors on submucosal neurons seem to play a pivotal role in the communication between mast cells and the enteric nervous system.

  17. Control and acquisition for MAST Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; McArdle, G.; O'Gorman, T.; Walsh, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The MAST (mega-amp spherical tokamak) Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics have been radically upgraded and expanded. Eight 30 Hz 1.6 J Nd:YAG lasers have been combined to produce a sampling rate of 240 Hz. The scattered signals are acquired by two spectrometer systems: core and edge. The core system has been built anew: collection optics, polychromators, digitizers, and control computers. It allows measurement of electron temperature and density at 130 spatial points with ∼10 mm resolution across the plasma. The Nd:YAG scattered light signals are registered in 650 channels as polychromator outputs; each channel is registered on two ADCs: at 1 GHz rate in a short interval around each laser pulse and at 100 kHz for background data. The fast ADCs are combined in 26 data acquisition units. Each unit is assembled in a 6 U PXI chassis with embedded controller and six 4-channel 1 GHz ADC cards. Some chassis contain a 96-channel slow ADC card with Ethernet control. The Ruby TS has been rebuilt with a new spectrometer and CCD camera to provide higher spatial resolution - 512 points; the laser has been modified to add double pulse capability. A new control and acquisition system has been developed; it has modular design allowing flexibility and seamless expansion. The system supports event-triggered and real-time operation (will be added in a later stage). A smart trigger device has been developed for TS timing and synchronisation. It provides complex pulse sequences for laser firing with resynchronisation on a number of digital and analogue inputs including plasma events. This device also triggers TS acquisition. The system is integrated by a TS master process running on the dedicated computer; it is represented as a standard MAST data acquisition unit. The Ruby TS is also implemented as a standard MAST unit linked with the Nd:YAG TS by MAST system services.

  18. Formation of transport barriers in the MAST spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Field, A R [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Akers, R J [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brickley, C [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conway, N J [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Patel, A [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Carolan, P G [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Challis, C [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Counsell, G F [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cunningham, G [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Helander, P [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kirk, A [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lloyd, B [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maingi, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tournianski, M R [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Walsh, M J [Walsh Scientific Ltd, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3EB (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    In the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) plasmas have been generated with internal (ITB) or edge (ETB) transport barriers. ITBs were achieved in both the electron and the ion energy channel. In the presence of an ITB in the ion energy channel, transport analysis shows that the ion thermal diffusivity, {chi}{sub i}, is reduced to almost neoclassical values while the ITB persists. The widely tested criteria for ITB formation {rho}{sub t}{sup *}={rho}{sub s}{alpha}lnT/{alpha}R>{rho}{sub ITB}{sup *}{approx}0.014 ({rho}{sub s}: Larmor radius at sound speed) obtained from dimensional analysis of JET discharges is easily exceeded on MAST. Even without the evidence of an {rho}{sub T}{sup *}>0.014 often applies, showing that this criterion in its current form is not generally applicable. ETBs are most easily formed in MAST if in a double null divertor configuration the discharge is vertically balanced, so that both X-points are almost on the same flux surface (CDND), and if the plasma is refuelled from the high field side mid-plane. The H-mode threshold power, P{sub thr} = 0.5 MW, in connected double null diverted (CDND) is only about half of that in a similar disconnected discharge with the ion {nabla} B drift towards the X-point on the last closed flux surface (LDND). P{sub thr} scales between lower double null diverted (LDND) and the single null diverted configuration with the plasma surface area on MAST.

  19. Stability at high performance in the MAST spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, R.J.; Akers, R.; Arends, E. =

    2003-01-01

    The development of reliable H-modes on MAST, together with advances in heating power and a range of powerful diagnostics, has provided a platform to enable MAST to address some of he most important issues of tokamak stability. In particular the high β potential of the ST is highlighted with stable operation at β N ∼5-6 , β T ∼ 16% and β p as high as 1.9, confirmed by a range of profile diagnostics. Calculations indicate that β N levels are in the vicinity of no-wall stability limits. Studies have provided the first identification of the Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) in the ST, using its behaviour to quantitatively validate predictions of NTM theory, previously only applied to conventional tokamaks. Experiments have demonstrated that sawteeth play a strong role in triggering NTMs - by avoiding large sawteeth much higher β N can, and has, been reached. Further studies have confirmed the NTM's significance, with large islands observed using the 300 point Thomson diagnostic, and locking of large n=1 modes frequently leading to disruptions. H-mode plasmas are also limited by ELMs, with confinement degraded as ELM frequency rises. However, unlike the conventional tokamak, the ELMs in high performing regimes on MAST (H IPB98Y2 ∼1) appear to be type III in nature. Modelling identifies instability to peeling modes, consistent with a type III interpretation, and shows considerable scope to raise pressure gradients (despite n=∞ ballooning theory predictions of instability) before ballooning type modes (perhaps associated with type I ELMs) occur. Finally sawteeth are shown not to remove the q=1 surface in the ST - other promising models are being explored. Thus research on MAST is not only demonstrating stable operation at high performance levels, and developing methods to control instabilities; it is also providing detailed tests of the stability physics and models applicable to conventional tokamaks, such as ITER. (author)

  20. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, J; Wienecke, J; Kongsgaard, M; Behzad, H; Abraham, T; Langberg, H; Scott, A

    2013-12-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided in two groups: running group (n = 12); sedentary control group (n = 12). The running-group was exposed to the HIUR exercise protocol for 7 weeks. The calcaneal tendons of both hind limbs were dissected. The right tendon was used for histologic analysis using Bonar score, immunohistochemistry, and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM). The left tendon was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. An increased tendon cell density in the runners were observed compared to the controls (P = 0.05). Further, the intensity of immunostaining of protein kinase B, P = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further that these changes are associated with an increased mast cell density. © 2013 The Authors. Scand J Med Sci Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Further characterization of protein kinase C in mouse mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Ishizaka, T.

    1986-01-01

    Bridging of cell-bound IgE antibody molecules on colony stimulating factor dependent mouse mast cell line (PT-18) cells by multivalent antigen induces the mobilization and uptake of Ca 2+ monitored by Quin-2 and the production of diacylglycerol. Exposure of the sensitized cells to antigen also induces a substantial increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the plasma membrane (340 units to 1375 units: 1 unit = 1 pmol of 32 P incorporated into Histone H-1/min/10 7 cells), within 30 seconds. There is also an increase in 3 H phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate ( 3 H-PDB) binding which parallels the increase in PKC activity both in kinetics and antigen dose dependency. Determination of K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ for PKC revealed no difference between the cytosolic and membranous forms of PKC. Partial purification of PKC from the membrane of sensitized mast cells which had been labeled with 32 P and stimulated with DNP-HSA revealed a protein of 80-84,000 molecular weight, which migrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis just above an authentic standard of PKC purified from rat brain. Treatment of the PKC from mouse mast cell membrane with alkaline phosphatase resulted in a reduction of phosphorylating activity and bindability of 3 H-PDB. In conclusion, the authors speculate that activation of mouse mast cells by cross-linking IgE results in the phosphorylation of a silent-pool of PKC converting it from an inactive state to an activated form

  2. Field aligned flows driven by neutral puffing at MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, I.; Frerichs, H.; Silburn, S.; Feng, Y.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Schmitz, O.

    2018-06-01

    Neutral deuterium gas puffing at the high field side of the mega ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is shown to drive carbon impurity flows that are aligned with the trajectory of the magnetic field lines in the plasma scrape-off-layer. These impurity flows were directly imaged with emissions from C2+ ions at MAST by coherence imaging spectroscopy and were qualitatively reproduced in deuterium plasmas by modeling with the EMC3-EIRENE plasma edge fluid and kinetic neutral transport code. A reduced one-dimensional momentum and particle balance shows that a localized increase in the static plasma pressure in front of the neutral gas puff yields an acceleration of the plasma due to local ionization. Perpendicular particle transport yields a decay from which a parallel length scale can be determined. Parameter scans in EMC3-EIRENE were carried out to determine the sensitivity of the deuterium plasma flow phenomena to local fueling and diffusion parameters and it is found that these flows robustly form across a wide variety of plasma conditions. Finally, efforts to couple this behavior in the background plasma directly to the impurity flows observed experimentally in MAST using a trace impurity model are discussed. These results provide insight into the fueling and exhaust features at this pivotal point of the radial and parallel particle flux balance, which is a major part of the plasma fueling and exhaust characteristics in a magnetically confined fusion device.

  3. Exhaust, ELM and halo physics using the MAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G. F.

    2002-01-01

    Scalings for the SOL width on MAST extend the parameter range of conventional devices but confirm a negative dependence on power flow across the separatrix. In L-mode and at ELM peaks, >95% of power to the targets arrives to the outboard side. Peak heat flux densities rise by a factor 2∼6 during ELMs and are accompanied by a shift in the strike-point location but by little change in the target heat flux width. Energy loss per ELM as a percentage of pedestal energy and pedestal collisionality appear uncorrelated, possibly because ELMs on MAST are dominated by convective transport. Modelling shows that parallel gradients in the magnitude of the magnetic field in MAST may drive strong upstream flows. Broadening of the target heat flux width by divertor biasing is being explored as a means of reducing target power loading in next-step devices and has facilitated halo current measurements using series resistors. Halo currents are always less than 30% of plasma current and the product of toroidal peaking factor and halo current fraction is ∼50% of the ITER design limit. Varying the series resistance demonstrates that the VDE behaves more as a voltage source than a current source. (author)

  4. Ab initio modeling of the motional Stark effect on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bock, M. F. M.; Conway, N. J.; Walsh, M. J.; Carolan, P. G.; Hawkes, N. C.

    2008-01-01

    A multichord motional Stark effect (MSE) system has recently been built on the MAST tokamak. In MAST the π and σ lines of the MSE spectrum overlap due to the low magnetic field typical for present day spherical tokamaks. Also, the field curvature results in a large change in the pitch angle over the observation volume. The measured polarization angle does not relate to one local pitch angle but to an integration over all pitch angles in the observation volume. The velocity distribution of the neutral beam further complicates the measurement. To take into account volume effects and velocity distribution, an ab initio code was written that simulates the MSE spectrum on MAST. The code is modular and can easily be adjusted for other tokamaks. The code returns the intensity, polarized fraction, and polarization angle as a function of wavelength. Results of the code are presented, showing the effect on depolarization and wavelength dependence of the polarization angle. The code is used to optimize the design and calibration of the MSE diagnostic.

  5. Exhaust, ELM and Halo physics using the MAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G.F.; Ahn, J-W.; Kirk, A.; Helander, P.; Martin, R.; Tabasso, A.; Wilson, H.R.; Cohen, R.H.; Ryutov, D.D.; Yang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The scrape-off layer (Sol) and divertor target plasma of a large spherical tokamak (ST) is characterised in detail for the first time. Scalings for the SOL heat flux width in MAST are developed and compared to conventional tokamaks. Modelling reveals the significance of the mirror force to the ST SOL. Core energy losses, including during ELMs, in MAST arrive predominantly (>80%) to the outboard targets in all geometries. Convective transport dominates energy losses during ELMs and MHD analysis suggests ELMs in MAST are Type III even at auxiliary heating powers well above the L-H threshold. ELMs are associated with a poloidally and/or toroidally localised radial efflux at ∼1 km/s well into the far SOL but not with any broadening of the target heat flux width. Toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing experiments have been conducted in an attempt to broaden the target heat flux width, with promising results. During vertical displacement events, the maximum product of the toroidal peaking factor and halo current fraction remains below 0.3, around half the ITER design limit. Evidence is presented that the resistance of the halo current path may have an impact on the distribution of halo current. (author)

  6. Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Daniel J; Collaco, Christopher R; Brooks, Edward G

    2014-08-01

    Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. We hypothesized that acrolein would induce oxidative stress and degranulation in airway mast cells. Our results indicate that acrolein at 1 ppm initiated degranulation and promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introduction of antioxidants to the system significantly reduced both ROS generation and degranulation. At higher levels of exposure (above 100 ppm), RBL-2H3 cells displayed signs of severe toxicity. This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  7. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zebrowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP.

  8. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Kongsgaard Madsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats...... = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density...... (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further...

  9. Anaphylatoxin C3a induced mediator release from mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrscher, R.; Hugli, T.E.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigated the biochemical and functional consequences of the binding of highly purified human C3a to isolated rat serosal mast cells. C3a caused a dose-dependent (1-30 μM), noncytotoxic release of up to 64% (+/- 7 SEM) of the mast cell histamine content. C3a (10μM) increased 45 Ca ++ uptake 8.2- fold (+/- 2.2 SEM) above unstimulated control values within 10 minutes. Arachidonyl-diacylglycerol and arachidonyl-monoacylglycerol levels increased significantly within 2 minutes after C3a (10 μM) stimulation. Turnover of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine were increased within 15 minutes. In contrast to antigen, C3a stimulation (10 μM) was not enhanced by exogenous phosphatidylserine, and was not inhibited by ethanol (100 μmM). C3a suppressed arachidonic acid (AA) release to 38% (+/- 9 SEM) below baseline, and did not cause PGD 2 formation. C3a and the desarginine form of C3a caused identical responses in all experiments. These studies indicate that C3a stimulation activates mast cell preformed mediator release in a manner very similar to antigen-IgE stimulation, but C3a suppresses free AA levels and does not stimulate PGD 2 synthesis

  10. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    within these tissues, mast cell activation by antigen may also be amplified by SCF. Thus, KIT inhibitors may have potential application in multiple conditions linked to mast cells including systemic mastocytosis, anaphylaxis, and asthma. In this review, we discuss the role of KIT in the context of mast...... cells in these disease states and how recent advances in the development of inhibitors of KIT activity and function may offer novel therapies for the treatment of these disorders....

  11. Multiple co morbid conditions in patient with Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    conditions in patient \\\\·ith Mast Cell Activation Syndron1e Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM.ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Maj Sofia...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Multiple co-n1orhid conditions in patient \\Vith Mast Cell Activation Syndrotne Sofia M. Szari.MD. and James...Defense. !NTR()D{JCT!ON: Mast cell activation disorders {MCAD) have been associated \\Vilh Connective Tissue Disorders (CTD) and orthostatic

  12. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  13. PROTECTION, UTILIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH MAST STREET LIGHT IN RURAL AREA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagawati Chandra , Miss Anjali Karsh

    2017-01-01

    High Mast Light gives the several cost effective advantages and cost is a major issue for rural area general services. This project illustrates the theoretical basis and the analytical development of the high mast lighting poles. In the late 1960"s, studies were conducted to investigate the impact that high-mast lighting gives on traffic performance, driver visibility, and illumination costs. It was found that increasing the height of the lighting offered a noticeable advantage in that it pr...

  14. A study on mast cell variation in neoplastic and non neoplastic disease of uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mainali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mast cells are heterogeneous group of immune cells involved in multiple biological events. The significance of mast cells in uterine tumor surveillance has been studied with conflicting results. The presence of mast cell in tumor has been described as evidence of a host immunologic anti tumor response and if they are abundant the prognosis is good. However in other studies, with the help of different granules of mast cell, it is said to be very closely related with angiogenesis and tumor invasion. The study aims to analyze the histomorphologic changes with special reference to mast cells in different neoplastic and non neoplastic disease of uterine cervix, and also the relationship of the mast cell population with degree of anaplasia and mitotic figures.Materials and methods: Cervical biopsies received in the department of Pathology for HPE were stained with H& E stain and toludine blue for the identification of mast cellResult: Out of a total of 100 cases, 82 were non neoplastic cases with the mean mast cell count of 83.73 and mean age of patient being 44.30 year. Eighteen neoplastic cases were included which had mean mast cell count of 13.5 and mean age of 49.5 year.Conclusion: Mast cell was found to be highest in non Neoplastic lesion with increase count in polypoidal cervicitis. There was a statistical significance variation between mast cell count in neoplastic and non Neoplastic disease of the cervix. However,role of age in mast cell count was least significant.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11594 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 658-662

  15. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding proteins from goat seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazure Claude

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A family of proteins designated BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30 kDa (collectively called BSP proteins for Bovine Seminal Plasma proteins constitute the major protein fraction in the bull seminal plasma. These proteins interact with choline phospholipids on the sperm surface and play a role in the membrane stabilization (decapacitation and destabilization (capacitation process. Homologous proteins have been isolated from boar and stallion seminal plasma. In the current study we report the isolation and preliminary characterization of homologous proteins from goat seminal plasma. Frozen semen (-80°C was thawed and centrifuged to remove sperm. The proteins in the supernatant were precipitated by the addition of cold ethanol. The precipitates were dissolved in ammonium bicarbonate and lyophilised. The lyophilised proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column, which was previously equilibrated with the same buffer. The column was successively washed with phosphate buffer, with phosphate buffer saline and with 0.5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline to remove unadsorbed proteins, and the adsorbed proteins were eluted with 5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline. Analysis of pooled, dialysed and lyophilised gelatin-agarose adsorbed protein fraction by SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of four protein bands that were designated GSP-14 kDa, GSP-15 kDa, GSP-20 kDa and GSP-22 kDa (GSP, Goat Seminal Plasma proteins. Heparin-affinity chromatography was then used for the separation of GSP-20 and -22 kDa from GSP-14 and -15 kDa. Finally, HPLC separation permitted further isolation of each one from the other. Amino acid sequence analysis of these proteins indicated that they are homologous to BSP proteins. In addition, these BSP homologs bind to hen's egg-yolk low-density lipoproteins. These results together with our previous data indicate that BSP family proteins are ubiquitous in mammalian seminal plasma, exist in

  16. Relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality in a subfertile population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T. Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearson′s correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. Results : Zn-C was low in 23 (15% samples, while in 32 (21% of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The number of subnormal samples was high in the low-zinc groups compared with the normal-zinc groups, 15 vs. 8 (P > 0.05 for Zn-C and 28 vs. 4 (P < 0.001 for Zn-T. Zn-C was significantly high in the asthenozoospermics compared with the normal motile group; 138.11 μg/mL (83.92 vs. 110.69 11 μg/mL (54.59 (P < 0.05. Zn-T was significantly low in samples with hyperviscosity compared with samples with normal viscosity; 220.06 μg (144.09 vs. 336.34 μg (236.33 (P < 0.05. Conversely, Zn-T was high in samples with low viability compared with those with normal viability; 437.67 μg (283.88 vs. 305.15 μg (221.19 (P < 0.05. Weak correlations were found between Zn and some semen parameters. However, the correlation was negative between pH and Zn-C (r = -0.193, P < 0.05 as well as Zn-T (r = -0.280, P < 0.01. On the other hand, correlations were positive between Zn-T and sperm count (r = 0.211, P < 0.05. Conclusion : Count, motility, viability, pH and viscosity are

  17. Tumor microvessel density–associated mast cells in canine nodal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mast cells are associated in angiogenesis in various human and animal neoplasms. However, association of mast cells with tumor microvessel density in canine lymphoma was not previously documented. The objective of the study is to determine if mast cells are increased in canine nodal lymphomas and to evaluate their correlation with tumor microvessel density and grading of lymphomas. Methods: Nodal lymphomas from 33 dogs were studied and compared with nonneoplastic lymph nodes from 6 dogs as control. Mast cell count was made on Toluidine blue stained sections. Immunohistochemistry using antibody against Factor VIII was employed to visualize and determine microvessel density. Results: The mast cell count in lymphoma (2.95 ± 2.4 was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that in the control (0.83 ± 0.3 and was positively correlated with tumor microvessel density (r = 0.44, p = 0.009. Significant difference was not observed in mast cell count and tumor microvessel density among different gradings of lymphomas. Conclusions: Mast cells are associated with tumor microvessel density in canine nodal lymphoma with no significant difference among gradings of lymphomas. Mast cells may play an important role in development of canine nodal lymphomas. Further detailed investigation on the role of mast cells as important part of tumor microenvironment in canine nodal lymphomas is recommended.

  18. Scaling Issues in the Determination of Wind loads on Lattice Masts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Srouji, Robin G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment on teleco......The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment...

  19. Macrophages and mast cells in dystrophic masseter muscle: a light and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Mikkelsen, H

    1988-01-01

    Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle, the num......Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle...

  20. Tumor microvessel density–associated mast cells in canine nodal lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth; Whittington, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mast cells are associated in angiogenesis in various human and animal neoplasms. However, association of mast cells with tumor microvessel density in canine lymphoma was not previously documented. The objective of the study is to determine if mast cells are increased in canine nodal lymphomas and to evaluate their correlation with tumor microvessel density and grading of lymphomas. Methods: Nodal lymphomas from 33 dogs were studied and compared with nonneoplastic lymph nodes from 6 dogs as control. Mast cell count was made on Toluidine blue stained sections. Immunohistochemistry using antibody against Factor VIII was employed to visualize and determine microvessel density. Results: The mast cell count in lymphoma (2.95 ± 2.4) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the control (0.83 ± 0.3) and was positively correlated with tumor microvessel density (r = 0.44, p = 0.009). Significant difference was not observed in mast cell count and tumor microvessel density among different gradings of lymphomas. Conclusions: Mast cells are associated with tumor microvessel density in canine nodal lymphoma with no significant difference among gradings of lymphomas. Mast cells may play an important role in development of canine nodal lymphomas. Further detailed investigation on the role of mast cells as important part of tumor microenvironment in canine nodal lymphomas is recommended. PMID:26770752

  1. The relationship of mast cells and angiogenesis with prognosis in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldur, M.E.; Kocarslan, S.; Dincoglu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of mast cell count and angiogenesis on the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, and included 64 cases with diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma between 2002 and 2012. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin sections using the standard streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. CD31 antibodies were used to identify microvessels in tumoural tissues. The microvessel density was calculated using a serological method. The mean vascular density was equivalent to the vascular surface area (in mm) per unit tissue volume (in mm) (MVD=mm). Mast cells tryptase antibody was used to evaluate the mast cell count in tumoural and non-tumoural tissues. The relationship between mast cell count and microvessel density was evaluated and compared with stage, grade, tumour diameter, and age. Results: The mast cell count in the tumoral tissue of renal cell carcinoma was significantly higher compared with non-neoplastic renal tissue (p 0.05). The intratumoural mast cell count in clear cell renal carcinoma was significantly higher compared with non-clear variety (p=0.001). No significant relationship was found between microvessel density, age, stage, diameter, or grade of the tumour and tumoral mast cell count (p>0.05). Conclusion: No significant association was found between the number of mast cells in tumoral tissue and microvessel density. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the effect of mast cells on angiogenesis in renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  2. CD25 is expressed by canine cutaneous mast cell tumors but not by cutaneous connective tissue mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

    2012-11-01

    Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) of different histological grades have distinct biological behaviors. However, little is known about underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to tumor development and increasing malignancy with higher tumor grade. Recent studies have identified the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) subunits CD25 and CD2 as markers that distinguish nonneoplastic from neoplastic mast cells in human systemic mastocytosis. In this study, their potential as a marker for canine MCT and their possible impact on MCT carcinogenesis were evaluated. mRNA expression levels of both genes were compared between grade 1 (n = 12) and grade 3 (n = 8) MCT, and protein expression levels of CD25 were compared in 90 MCT of different tumor grades. mRNA expression levels of both CD25 and CD2 were upregulated in grade 3 MCT. In contrast, CD25 protein was expressed by fewer tumor cells and at decreased levels in grade 3 tumors, while most grade 1 MCT had strong CD25 protein expression. Moreover, CD25 was not expressed by nonneoplastic, resting cutaneous mast cells, while few presumably activated mast cells in tissue samples from dogs with allergic dermatitis had weak CD25 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that CD25 may play a critical role in early MCT development and may be a stimulatory factor in grade 1 MCT, while grade 3 MCT seem to be less dependent on CD25. Because of the low number of CD25-positive tumor cells in high-grade tumors, the usefulness of CD25 as a tumor marker is, however, questionable.

  3. Identifying seminal papers in the Australasian Journal on Ageing 1982-2011: a Delphi consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lynne; Richardson, Kristy; Sims, Jane; Wells, Yvonne; Naganathan, Vasi; Brooke, Elizabeth; Lindley, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify seminal Australasian Journal on Ageing papers published over 30 years through a Delphi consensus process. The main data collection was a three-round Delphi consensus study with 38 past and current members of the Australasian Journal on Ageing Editorial Board, Editorial Team and Management Committee. Three papers were agreed as top-ranking. One of the top-ranking articles was also highly cited. One article was published in the 1990 s, two in 2001. While it is difficult to judge how well the top-ranking papers represent seminal papers arising over 30 years, these papers do represent three different research strengths in Australasia, they do span three different disciplines, and they do reflect some of the diversity that characterises ageing research in Australasia over 30 years. © 2013 ACOTA.

  4. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Asssessment of the effect of selected components of equine seminal plasma on semen freezability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Mráčková

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected components of seminal plasma in equine semen were evaluated. Levels of enzymes, electrolytes, microelements and some other components were observed. The aim of this study was to fi nd some important differences between the levels of these components and the total sperm motility after freezing and thawing (freezability of the semen. Total of 32 ejaculates from 7 stallions were collected, assessed and prepared in 0,5 ml straws for freezing. After thawing, the sperm motility was analyzed and ejaculates were divided into two groups: “good” freezable and “poor” freezable. The only statistically significant difference between groups of „good“ and „poor“ freezable ejaculates was in the concentration of vitamin E in the seminal plasma. In the group of „good“ freezable ejaculates, the level of vitamin E was significantly lower (p≤0,05 than in the group of “poor” freezable ejaculates.

  6. NÍVEIS DE TESTOSTERONA NA SALIVA E NO PLASMA SEMINAL DE REPRODUTORES SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Schwarz Gaggini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were evaluated testosterone levels in saliva and seminal plasma and correlate these informations with libido and sperm production of two lines of boars. The hormonal analysis was done using ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay and test F and Sperman correlation of SAS program was used for statistical analysis. There was no difference (P>0.05 between boar lines and testosterone levels in saliva and seminal plasma, collection length, semen volume and concentration and sperm motility and viability. Boars used in this study had libido, semen production and sperm cells considered normal and there was no difference between the lines. The results obtained can be classified as normal parameters expected in this situation.

  7. Aggregated forms of bull seminal plasma proteins and their heparin-binding activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Ryšlavá, H.; Liberda, J.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 616-630 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : bull seminal plasma proteins * heparin-binding proteins * aggregated forms of proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  8. Deformation of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles Relative to Intraprostatic Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Mutanga, Theodore F.; Incrocci, Luca; Kirkels, Wim J.; Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the residual geometric uncertainties after on-line corrections with intraprostatic fiducial markers, this study analyzed the deformation of the prostate and, in particular, the seminal vesicles relative to such markers. Patients and Methods: A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and three repeat CT scans were obtained for 21 prostate cancer patients who had had three to four cylindrical gold markers placed. The prostate and whole seminal vesicles (clinical target volume [CTV]) were delineated on each scan at a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. Rigid body transformations (translation and rotation) mapping the markers onto the planning scan positions were obtained. The translation only (T only ) or both translation and rotation were applied to the delineated CTVs. Next, the residue CTV surface displacements were determined using nonrigid registration of the delineated contours. For translation and rotation of the CTV, the residues represented deformation; for T only , the residues stemmed from deformation and rotation. T only represented the residues for most currently applied on-line protocols. The patient and population statistics of the CTV surface displacements were calculated. The intraobserver delineation variation was similarly quantified using repeat delineations for all patients and corrected for. Results: The largest CTV deformations were observed at the anterior and posterior side of the seminal vesicles (population average standard deviation ≤3 mm). Prostate deformation was small (standard deviation ≤1 mm). The increase in these deviations when neglecting rotation (T only ) was small. Conclusion: Although prostate deformation with respect to implanted fiducial markers was small, the corresponding deformation of the seminal vesicles was considerable. Adding marker-based rotational corrections to on-line translation corrections provided a limited reduction in the estimated planning margins

  9. Measurement of seminal fluid 5 α dihydrotestosterone levels during investigations of sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massart, C.; Le Lannou, D.; Savoure, M.; Allannic, H.; Nicol, M.

    1981-01-01

    Two androgens (testosterone, 5 α dihydrotestosterone) were measured by radioimmunoassay in the seminal liquid. A statistic comparison of the results has been applied to samples taken from sterile men and classed chiefly according to sperm count. Different groups were explored: normospermia; oligospermia; various azoospermias. No significant differences testosterone were found between the groups. Levels of DHT are lower in oligospermia, and such more in azoospermia. The signification of the results is discussed [fr

  10. Seminal characteristics and sexual behavior in men of different age groups: is there an aging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Panayiotis M; Kaskar, Khalied; Correa, Juan R; Sikka, Suresh C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the seminal characteristics as well as the sexual behavior of men of various age groups to establish the presence of an aging effect on those characteristics. Semen samples were collected from men (n = 792) undergoing in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination in cases of female factor infertility only. Samples were collected using a seminal collection device at intercourse and evaluated manually according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Men were divided into four groups according to their ages: (i) 20-30, (ii) 31-40, (iii) 41-50 and (iv) 51-60 years, and their seminal characteristics and responses to a sexual behavior questionnaire were compared. The data showed statistically significant differences in the seminal characteristics tested, most notably in the sperm concentration, motility, grade of motility, hypo-osmotic swelling and normal sperm morphology. Furthermore, the decline in normal sperm morphology with age was more pronounced when using strict criteria rather than WHO standards. There were also differences in total sperm count, total motile sperm and total functional sperm fraction (assessed by both WHO and strict criteria). Significant differences were also observed in the sexual behavior patterns in older men in terms of the number of years they have been trying to conceive, sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction. The data clearly illustrate an aging effect on semen characteristics and sexual behavior in men as they age. It is suggested that the aging effect be taken into consideration when proposing normal standard values for semen characteristics in routine semen analysis as outlined by WHO standards.

  11. D-fructose-binding proteins in bull seminal plasma: Isolation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Kraus, Marek; Ryšlavá, H.; Vlasáková, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2001), s. 113-119 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : bull seminal plasma * non-heparin-binding and heparin-binding proteins * D-fructose-binding proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  12. Characteristics of seminal plasma and cryopreservation of anoa (Bubalus sp. semen obtained by electroejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of anoa, which is an endemic fauna to Indonesia, was getting decrease caused by the illegal hunting and deforestation. Anoa is included in endangered species by IUCN, and Appendix I by CITES. The experiment aimed to characterize the seminal plasma contents and to cryopreserve the anoa semen for artificial insemination application in captivity. The experiment was carried out in Taman Safari Indonesia (Bogor. Semen was collected from 2 anesthetized males (4-10 years by electroejaculation. Seminal plasma gained by centrifugation of ejaculate (3000 rpm, 20 minutes, and then was evaluated the biochemical contents. Other ejaculates were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically, and then extended in Tris and Na-citrate media to a total concentration of 100 billion cells mL-1. Extended semen was stored at 4oC, and evaluated the motility and viability every 12 h. Frozen semen was made in Tris medium added with 5% of glycerol. The seminal plasma of anoa contained total lipid, Na, Ca and Mg higher than the buffalo, but its total protein, K and Cl were lower. Electrophoresis of seminal plasma using by SDS-PAGE method showed 10 bands of proteins (17-148 kDa. The motility and viability of chilled-extended semen in Tris and Na-citrate media were not significantly different (P > 0.05 during 72 h of evaluation. Extended semen in both of media may applicable for AI program for 24-48 h. Post thawing motility of frozen semen was still low, 26.00 ± 9.62%. Therefore, it is necessary to improve each stages of semen processing, so the motility will increased and resulted high pregnancy in AI program.

  13. Growth/differentiation factor-I5 is an abundant cytokine in human seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Slabáková, Eva; Ovesná, P.; Malenovská, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Hampl, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2010), s. 2962-2971 ISSN 0268-1161 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : seminal plasma * growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15/MIC-1) * FOXP3 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.357, year: 2010

  14. Localization of porcine seminal plasma (PSP) proteins in the boar reproductive tract and spermatozoa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2008), s. 40-48 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : porcine seminal plasma proteins * boar reproductive tract * spermatozoa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2008

  15. CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM ON THE SEMINAL VESICLE AND TESTIS WEIGHT OF ADULT RATS (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, F. E.; Martinez, M.; Cagnon, V. H. A.; Mello Junior, W.; Padovani, C. R.; Garcia, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of experimental chronic alcoholism on the accessory sexual glands weight and testes weight were studied. Male adult albino rats received only sugar cane brandy at 30 Gay Lussac (v/v), while the controls received tap water. After periods of 60, 120, 180 and 240 days, rats from each group were anesthetized, weighed and sacrificed. Alterations in mean daily solid food intake and liquid, mean daily weight gain, mean prostate weight, mean seminal vesicle and coagulating gland weights and t...

  16. Comparison of Mast Cells and Inflammatory Cells within Periapical Lesions and Comparison of Degranulated Mast Cells Between Fibrous and Inflamed Area in Radicular Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromany, Aseem; Sood, Rahul; Akifuddin, Syed; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Khan, Nadia; Singla, Kapil

    2014-12-01

    The role of mast cells as the key effector of allergic inflammation, anaphylactic inflammatory reactions and in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, is well-known. The present study is adopted to compare mast cells and inflammatory cells within periapical granuloma and cysts and localize the mast cells and quantify their number in the periapical cysts so as to propose a role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Biopsy specimens of 30 periapical lesions were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and immunohistochemical Mast Cell Tryptase from Bio SB (IHC detection system kit) antibody. The tryptase positive mast cells and mononuclear inflammatory cells were counted in 10 consecutive high power fields (100X) using the binocular microscope from Motic attached to a computer with Motic Advanced Images 3.2 software. Comparative microscopic analysis indicated that periapical cyst shows more percentage of mast cells and less percentage of inflammatory cell than periapical granuloma (comparison of mean and standard deviation of total number of mast cells and inflammatory cells, mast cells 3.15±1.39 in the granuloma group and 4.43±1.91in the cyst group, inflammatory cells, 67.11±1.2 in the granuloma group and 52.66±0.8 in the cyst group). Numerous degranulated mast cells were observed in the fibrous wall than the inflammatory infiltrate of the periapical cysts. The mean and standard deviation of degranulated mast cells between the inflammatory and fibrous zone within the cyst group, being 0.95±1.10 and1.68±1.34 respectively. The values varied significantly between the two zones. The number of inflammatory cells in the cyst group is less than periapical granuloma and total number of mast cells in the cyst group is more as compared to periapical granuloma. The degranulated cells were quantified and they were higher in the fibrous area of the cysts than the inflammatory zone. This study could support the fact that the various mediators released on

  17. Purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of β-microseminoprotein from human seminal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Roske, Yvette; Singh, Nagendra; Heinemann, Udo; Singh, Tej P.; Yadav, Savita

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary X-ray data of β-microseminoprotein isolated from human seminal plasma at 2.4 Å resolution are reported. β-Microseminoprotein (β-MSP) is a small cysteine-rich protein with a molecular mass of 10 kDa. It was first isolated from human seminal plasma and has subsequently been identified from several species. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of β-MSP proteins suggests that the protein is a rapidly evolving protein. The function of β-MSP is poorly understood. Furthermore, no crystal structure has been reported of any β-MSP; therefore, determination of the crystal structure of β-MSP is the foremost task in order to understand the function of this protein completely. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of β-MSP from human seminal plasma are described. The protein was purified using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography and the purified protein was crystallized using 0.1 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.0 and 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 3 22 and contained three β-MSP molecules in the asymmetric unit. X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution

  18. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 percent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 percent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 percent and 0.06 percent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 percent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium (p less than 0.05), and the mean stromal TLI was also increased (0.16 percent, p less than 0.1). The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 percent (range 0.14 to 3.90 percent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium (p less than 0.001) or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia (p less than 0.05). Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium (mean TLI 0.02 percent) may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas

  19. Proliferative activity of benign human prostate, prostatic adenocarcinoma and seminal vesicle evaluated by thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sufrin, G.; Martin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The thymidine labeling index (TLI) was measured in vitro in the epithelium and stroma of benign prostate glands and seminal vesicles and in the epithelium of prostatic adenocarcinomas. The mean epithelial TLI of normal peripheral (posterior) prostatic zone was 0.12 per cent, and that of the normal central (deep) zone was 0.11 per cent. Mean normal stromal TLI's were 0.08 per cent and 0.06 per cent, respectively. The mean TLI of epithelium in nodular hyperplasia was 0.31 per cent, which differs significantly from normal epithelium, and the mean stromal TLI was also increased. The mean TLI of prostatic adenocarcinomas was 0.90 per cent (range 0.14 to 3.90 per cent) which was significantly higher than for either normal epithelium or epithelium of nodular hyperplasia. Trends of increasing TLI with increasing histologic grades and increasing nuclear size and numbers of nucleoli were not significant. The data support participation of both epithelial and stromal proliferation in nodular hyperplasia, and indicate a low basal proliferative rate in normal prostatic glands. The low TLI's of prostatic adenocarcinomas relative to other malignancies are consistent with their frequently slowly progressive course. The very low proliferative rate of seminal vesicular epithelium may account for the rarity of seminal vesicular carcinomas

  20. Impact of long-term and short-term therapies on seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Elia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was: i to evaluate the prevalence of male partners of subfertile couples being treated with long/short term therapies for non andrological diseases; ii to study their seminal profile for the possible effects of their treatments on spermatogenesis and/or epididymal maturation. Methods: The study group was made up of 723 subjects, aged between 25 and 47 years. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines (1999. The Superimposed Image Analysis System (SIAS, which is based on the computerized superimposition of spermatozoa images, was used to assess sperm motility parameters. Results: The prevalence of subjects taking pharmacological treatments was 22.7% (164/723. The prevalence was 3.7% (27/723 for the Short-Term Group and 18.9% (137/723 for the Long-Term Group. The subjects of each group were also subdivided into subgroups according to the treatments being received. Regarding the seminal profile, we did not observe a significant difference between the Long-Term, Short-Term or the Control Group. However, regarding the subgroups, we found a significant decrease in sperm number and progressive motility percentage in the subjects receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs compared with the other subgroups and the Control Group. Conclusions: In the management of infertile couples, the potential negative impact on seminal parameters of any drugs being taken as Long-Term Therapy should be considered. The pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified.

  1. Repurposing Hsp104 to Antagonize Seminal Amyloid and Counter HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M; Bart, Stephen M; Holmes, Veronica M; Weissman, Drew; Shorter, James

    2015-08-20

    Naturally occurring proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2) form amyloid fibrils in seminal fluid, which capture HIV virions and promote infection. For example, PAP248-286 fibrils, termed SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), can potentiate HIV infection by several orders of magnitude. Here, we design three disruptive technologies to rapidly antagonize seminal amyloid by repurposing Hsp104, an amyloid-remodeling nanomachine from yeast. First, Hsp104 and an enhanced engineered variant, Hsp104(A503V), directly remodel SEVI and PAP85-120 fibrils into non-amyloid forms. Second, we elucidate catalytically inactive Hsp104 scaffolds that do not remodel amyloid structure, but cluster SEVI, PAP85-120, and SEM1(45-107) fibrils into larger assemblies. Third, we modify Hsp104 to interact with the chambered protease ClpP, which enables coupled remodeling and degradation to irreversibly clear SEVI and PAP85-120 fibrils. Each strategy diminished the ability of seminal amyloid to promote HIV infection, and could have therapeutic utility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D; Piffer, Renata C; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antônio C M; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Pupo, André S

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg(-1), ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca(2+) transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg(-1) increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 microM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 microM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl(2). In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 microM inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca(2+) may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  3. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.; Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de; Pereira, Oduvaldo C.M.; Pupo, Andre S.

    2009-01-01

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg -1 , ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca 2+ transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg -1 reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg -1 increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 μM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 μM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl 2 . In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 μM inhibited intracellular Ca 2+ transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca 2+ may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  4. Flexible Vesiculovasoscopy Using a Microoptical System in a Human Cadaver Model: An Experimental Approach for Atraumatic Endoscopy of the Seminal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Daniel; Maas, Moritz; Hein, Simon; Adams, Fabian; Schoenthaler, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Diemer, Thorsten; Weidner, Wolfgang; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-08-01

    The most common pathologies of the seminal tract are persistent hematospermia, seminal vesicle stones, and seminal duct obstruction. Endoscopic diagnostic work-up of the seminal tract is impeded by complex anatomy and lack of technical equipment. To date, there is no standardized endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability and feasibility of a flexible microoptical device for atraumatic endoscopy of the seminal tract in a male human cadaver. The transurethral endoscopic examination was performed on a male cadaver. No premortal interventions or diseases of the genitourinary tract had been reported. The seminal orifice was identified via cystoscopy and accessed by the Seldinger technique using a hydrophilic guidewire and ureteral catheter. Retrograde endoscopic inspection of the distal seminal tract was performed using a miniaturized flexible endoscope. An antegrade endoscopic inspection of the seminal tract was carried out via high scrotal access to the vas deferens. Structures of the seminal tract, such as the ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, and distal portion of the ductus deferentes, were visualized using the miniaturized endoscope. Image quality allowed identification of anatomical structures and characterization of tissue properties. The technical limitations we observed involved the system's maneuverability. Initial results of this novel endoscopic approach to the seminal tract using a flexible microoptical system are encouraging. However, considerable anatomical limitations of the targeted organs necessitate further refinements of the technical equipment. This approach might improve diagnostics and treatment of genitourinary diseases. Future surgical techniques may include intraseminal laser therapy or endoocclusion to monitor fertility in men.

  5. Mast cells play no role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus induced by intestinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Farro, Giovanna; Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Némethova, Andrea; de Vries, Annick; Liston, Adrian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Rodewald, Hans-Reimwer; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI). However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3(Cre/+) , devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) and Cpa3(Cre/+) mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3(Cre/+) mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3(Cre/+) mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3(+/+) ). Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast cell inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to shorten POI.

  6. Mast cells play no role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus induced by intestinal manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal manipulation (IM during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI. However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3(Cre/+ , devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. DESIGN: The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. Kit(W-sh/W-sh and Cpa3(Cre/+ mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. RESULTS: Kit(W-sh/W-sh mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3(Cre/+ mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3(Cre/+ mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3(+/+ . Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast

  7. Distorted secretory granule composition in mast cells with multiple protease deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Mirjana; Calounova, Gabriela; Eriksson, Inger; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Tchougounova, Elena; Kjellén, Lena; Pejler, Gunnar

    2013-10-01

    Mast cells are characterized by an abundance of secretory granules densely packed with inflammatory mediators such as bioactive amines, cytokines, serglycin proteoglycans with negatively charged glycosaminoglycan side chains of either heparin or chondroitin sulfate type, and large amounts of positively charged proteases. Despite the large biological impact of mast cell granules and their contents on various pathologies, the mechanisms that regulate granule composition are incompletely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that granule composition is dependent on a dynamic electrostatic interrelationship between different granule compounds. As a tool to evaluate this possibility, we generated mice in which mast cells are multideficient in a panel of positively charged proteases: the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4, the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6, and carboxypeptidase A3. Through a posttranslational effect, mast cells from these mice additionally lack mouse mast cell protease-5 protein. Mast cells from mice deficient in individual proteases showed normal morphology. In contrast, mast cells with combined protease deficiency displayed a profound distortion of granule integrity, as seen both by conventional morphological criteria and by transmission electron microscopy. An assessment of granule content revealed that the distorted granule integrity in multiprotease-deficient mast cells was associated with a profound reduction of highly negatively charged heparin, whereas no reduction in chondroitin sulfate storage was observed. Taken together with previous findings showing that the storage of basic proteases conversely is regulated by anionic proteoglycans, these data suggest that secretory granule composition in mast cells is dependent on a dynamic interrelationship between granule compounds of opposite electrical charge.

  8. Calcium Imaging of Nerve-Mast Cell Signaling in the Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Buhner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is suggested that an altered microenvironment in the gut wall alters communication along a mast cell nerve axis. We aimed to record for the first time signaling between mast cells and neurons in intact human submucous preparations.Methods: We used the Ca2+ sensitive dye Fluo-4 AM to simultaneously image changes in intracellular calcium [Ca+2]i (%ΔF/F in neurons and mast cells. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges (25/75%.Results: We recorded nerve responses in 29 samples upon selective activation of 223 mast cells by IgE receptor cross linking with the antibody mAb22E7. Mast cells responded to mAb22E7 with a median [Ca+2]i increase of 20% (11/39 peaking 90 s (64/144 after the application. Only very few neurons responded and the median percentage of responding neuronal area was 0% (0/5.9. Mast cell activation remained in the presence of the fast sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin. Specific neuronal activation by transmural electrical field stimulation (EFS in 34 samples evoked instantaneously [Ca+2]i signals in submucous neurons. This was followed by a [Ca+2]i peak response of 8%ΔF/F (4/15 in 33% of 168 mast cells in the field of view. The mast cell response was abolished by the nerve blocker tetrododoxin, reduced by the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide receptor 1 antagonist BIBN-4096 and the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide receptor antagonist PG97-269, but not by blockade of the neurokinin receptors 1–3.Conclusion: The findings revealed bidirectional signaling between mast cells and submucous neurons in human gut. In our macroscopically normal preparations a nerve to mast cell signaling was very prominent whereas a mast cell to nerve signaling was rather rare.

  9. Mast cells and exosomes in hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappan, A; Thompson, M; Savage, A R; Silverman, M L; Chan, W S; Sung, B; Summers, B; Montelione, K C; Benedict, P; Groh, B; Vicencio, A G; Peinado, H; Worgall, S; Silver, R B

    2016-06-01

    Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is a frequent sequela of premature birth and oxygen toxicity is a major associated risk factor. Impaired alveolarization, scarring, and inflammation are hallmarks of CLD. Mast cell hyperplasia is a feature of CLD but the role of mast cells in its pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that mast cell hyperplasia is a consequence of neonatal hyperoxia and contributes to CLD. Additionally, mast cell products may have diagnostic and prognostic value in preterm infants predisposed to CLD. To model CLD, neonatal wild-type and mast cell-deficient mice were placed in an O2 chamber delivering hyperoxic gas mixture [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2 ) of 0.8] (HO) for 2 wk and then returned to room air (RA) for an additional 3 wk. Age-matched controls were kept in RA (FiO2 of 0.21). Lungs from HO mice had increased numbers of mast cells, alveolar simplification and enlargement, and increased lung compliance. Mast cell deficiency proved protective by preserving air space integrity and lung compliance. The mast cell mediators β-hexosaminidase (β-hex), histamine, and elastase increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of HO wild-type mice. Tracheal aspirate fluids (TAs) from oxygenated and mechanically ventilated preterm infants were analyzed for mast cell products. In TAs from infants with confirmed cases of CLD, β-hex was elevated over time and correlated with FiO2 Mast cell exosomes were also present in the TAs. Collectively, these data show that mast cells play a significant role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and their products could serve as potential biomarkers in evolving CLD. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes alters mast cell phenotype, mediator and osteopontin secretion in a listeriolysin-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Jobbings

    Full Text Available Whilst mast cells participate in the immune defence against the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, there is conflicting evidence regarding the ability of L. monocytogenes to infect mast cells. It is known that the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin (LLO is important for mast cell activation, degranulation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mast cells, however, are a potential source of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators including osteopontin, which contributes to the clearing of L. monocytogenes infections in vivo, although its source is unknown. We therefore aimed to resolve the controversy of mast cell infection by L. monocytogenes and investigated the extent of mediator release in response to the bacterium. In this paper we show that the infection of bone marrow-derived mast cells by L. monocytogenes is inefficient and LLO-independent. LLO, however, is required for calcium-independent mast cell degranulation as well as for the transient and selective downregulation of cell surface CD117 (c-kit on mast cells. We demonstrate that in addition to the key pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, mast cells release a wide range of other mediators in response to L. monocytogenes. Osteopontin, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 are released in a MyD88-dependent manner. The wide range of mediators released by mast cells in response to L. monocytogenes may play an important role in the recruitment and activation of a variety of immune cells in vivo. The cocktail of mediators, however, is unlikely to skew the immune response to a particular effector response. We propose that mast cells provide a hitherto unreported source of osteopontin, and may provide an important role in co-ordinating the immune response during Listeria infection.

  11. Giardia lamblia: identification of molecules that contribute to direct mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Gomez-García, Argelia; Matadamas-Martínez, Félix; Alvarado-Torres, Juan A; Meza-Cervantez, Patricia; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

    2018-06-02

    Mast cells play a central role in the early clearance of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. In a previous study, we reported that G. lamblia live trophozoites or trophozoite-derived total soluble extract induced direct activation (IgE-independent) of mast cells and release of IL-6 and TNF-α. To identify the Giardia molecules and the mast cell receptors involved in this activation, trophozoite-derived total soluble proteins separated into three fractions (F1-F3) were evaluated for its ability to activate mast cells in vitro. F2 activated mast cells in a greater extent than F1 and F3. Furthermore, F2 induced the release of IL-6 and TNF-α by mast cells. TLR2 and TLR4 expression increased slightly after mast cell stimulation with either F2 or total soluble extract; however, these receptors were not involved in F2 or total soluble extract-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Proteins present in F2 as unique and high-intensity bands identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, include molecules with important biological activities such as enolase and arginine deiminase (ADI). Recombinant ADI and enolase were tested for their ability to activate mast cells, but only ADI induced a significant release of IL-6 and TNF-α. ADI product, citrulline but not ammonium, also induced mast cell release of TNF-α. Interestingly, recombinant ADI still stimulated the secretion of TNF-α by mast cells in a arginine-free medium, although in a lower extend that in the presence of arginine, indicating that either ADI itself can stimulate mast cells or through its metabolic product, citrulline.

  12. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, Anders; Baines, Katherine J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  13. Functional morphology of the female reproductive system of a crab with highly extensible seminal receptacles and extreme sperm storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Nahuel E; Spivak, Eduardo D; Luppi, Tomas A

    2017-07-01

    We studied the functional morphology of the female reproductive system of the purple stone crab Danielethus crenulatus. The most remarkable feature is the relative storage capacity and extensibility of the seminal receptacles. These receptacles are a pair of simple sacs that lack internal structures dividing the internal lumen. Differences in seminal receptacle size and contents are accompanied by conspicuous changes in receptacle lining at a tissue level. Full seminal receptacles contain discrete sperm masses formed by hardened fluid and densely packed spermatophores. Different sperm masses are likely from different mates and their stratified disposition within the seminal receptacles is compatible with rival sperm displacement and last sperm precedence. Additionally, the anatomical structure of the vulva and vagina suggest active female control over copula. We discuss our results in the general context of sperm storage in brachyurans and the implications for the mating system of this species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  15. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  16. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  17. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Dissecting components of population-level variation in seed production and the evolution of masting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Koenig; D. Kelly; V. L. Sork; R. P. Duncan; J. S. Elkinton; M.S. Peltonen; R. D. Westfall

    2003-01-01

    Mast-fruiting or masting behavior is the cumulative result of the reproductive patterns of individuals within a population and thus involves components of individual variability, between-individual synchrony, and endogenous cycles of temporal autocorrelation. Extending prior work by Herrera, we explore the interrelationships of these components using data on individual...

  19. Variable Acorn Crops: Responses of White-Tailed Deer and Other Mast Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. McShea; Georg Schwede

    1993-01-01

    We examined movements and behavior of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) relative to the acorn mast-fall from 1986 through 1989 in a mature deciduous forest in Front Royal, Virginia. Ten white-tailed deer with radiotransmitters increased their home range to incorporate acorn-producing areas during mast-fall. Consumption of acorns by...

  20. The role of colonic mast cells and myenteric plexitis in patients with diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Cadei, Moris; Manenti, Stefania; Lorenzi, Luisa; Titi, Amin; Salerni, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Gut mast cells represent an important cell population involved in intestinal homeostasis and inflammatory processes. However, their possible role has not to date been investigated in colonic diverticular disease. This study aims to evaluate colonic mast cells in patients undergoing surgery for diverticular disease. Surgical resection samples from 27 patients undergoing surgery for diverticular disease (12 emergency procedures for severe disease and 15 elective procedures) were evaluated. The number of mast cells was assessed in the various layers by means of a specific antibody (tryptase) and compared with those evaluated in ten controls. In patients with mast cells degranulation, double immunohistochemistry, also assessing nerve fibres, was carried out. In addition, the presence of myenteric plexitis was sought. Compared with controls, the number of mast cells in diverticular patients was significantly increased, both as an overall figure and in the various layers of the large bowel. In patients in whom mast cells degranulation was present, these were always closed to nerve fibres. No differences were found between the two subgroups of patients with respect to the number and distribution of mast cells; however, all patients undergoing emergency surgery (but none of those undergoing elective procedures) had myenteric plexitis, represented by lymphocytic infiltration in 67 % and eosinophilic infiltration in 33 % of cases. Patients with diverticular disease display an increase of mast cells in the large bowel. The presence of myenteric plexitis in those with complicated, severe disease, suggest that this could represent a histopathologic marker of more aggressive disease.

  1. Modeling Pharmacological Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation as a Therapy for Insulinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Soucek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Myc, a pleiotropic transcription factor that is deregulated and/or overexpressed in most human cancers, instructs multiple extracellular programs that are required to sustain the complex microenvironment needed for tumor maintenance, including remodeling of tumor stroma, angiogenesis, and inflammation. We previously showed in a model of pancreatic β-cell tumorigenesis that acute Myc activation in vivo triggers rapid recruitment of mast cells to the tumor site and that this is absolutely required for angiogenesis and macroscopic tumor expansion. More-over, systemic inhibition of mast cell degranulation with sodium cromoglycate induced death of tumor and endothelial cells in established tumors. Hence, mast cells are required both to establish and to maintain the tumors. Whereas this intimates that selective inhibition of mast cell function could be therapeutically efficacious, cromoglycate is not a practical drug for systemic delivery in humans, and no other systemic inhibitor of mast cell degranulation has hitherto been available. PCI-32765 is a novel inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk that blocks mast cell degranulation and is currently in clinical trial as a therapy for B-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma. Here, we show that systemic treatment of insulinoma-bearing mice with PCI-32765 efficiently inhibits Btk, blocks mast cell degranulation, and triggers collapse of tumor vasculature and tumor regression. These data reinforce the notion that mast cell function is required for maintenance of certain tumor types and indicate that the Btk inhibitor PCI-32765 may be useful in treating such diseases.

  2. The Mastocytosis Society survey on mast cell disorders: patient experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Susan; Russell, Nancy; Jennings, Blair; Slee, Valerie; Sterling, Lisa; Castells, Mariana; Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Mast cell diseases include mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes, some of which have been shown to involve clonal defects in mast cells that result in abnormal cellular proliferation or activation. Numerous clinical studies of mastocytosis have been published, but no population-based comprehensive surveys of patients in the United States have been identified. Few mast cell disease specialty centers exist in the United States, and awareness of these mast cell disorders is limited among nonspecialists. Accordingly, information concerning the experiences of the overall estimated population of these patients has been lacking. To identify the experiences and perceptions of patients with mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndromes, and related disorders, The Mastocytosis Society (TMS), a US based patient advocacy, research, and education organization, conducted a survey of its members and other people known or suspected to be part of this patient population. A Web-based survey was publicized through clinics that treat these patients and through TMS's newsletter, Web site, and online blogs. Both online and paper copies of the questionnaire were provided, together with required statements of consent. The first results are presented for 420 patients. These results include demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, allergies, provoking factors of mast cell symptoms, and disease impact. Patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes have provided clinical specialists, collaborators, and other patients with information to enable them to explore and deepen their understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people coping with these disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage lines. 77.807-2 Section 77.807-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-2 Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. The booms and masts of equipment operated on the surface of any...

  4. Critical role of mast cell chymase in mouse abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, J; Zhang, J; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2009-01-01

    Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown.......Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown....

  5. Changing the threshold-Signals and mechanisms of mast cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halova, Ivana; Rönnberg, Elin; Draberova, Lubica; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Nilsson, Gunnar P; Draber, Petr

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells play a key role in allergy and other inflammatory diseases involving engagement of multivalent antigen with IgE bound to high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRIs). Aggregation of FcεRIs on mast cells initiates a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to degranulation, secretion of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, and cytokine and chemokine production contributing to the inflammatory response. Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, bacterial and viral products, as well as some other biological products and drugs, induces mast cell transition from the basal state into a primed one, which leads to enhanced response to IgE-antigen complexes. Mast cell priming changes the threshold for antigen-mediated activation by various mechanisms, depending on the priming agent used, which alone usually do not induce mast cell degranulation. In this review, we describe the priming processes induced in mast cells by various cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukins-4, -6 and -33), chemokines, other agents acting through G protein-coupled receptors (adenosine, prostaglandin E 2 , sphingosine-1-phosphate, and β-2-adrenergic receptor agonists), toll-like receptors, and various drugs affecting the cytoskeleton. We will review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms behind priming of mast cells leading to degranulation and cytokine production and discuss the biological effects of mast cell priming induced by several cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Neuropeptide Substance P Mediates Adventitial Mast Cell Activation and Induces Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Advanced Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Ilze; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Bot, Martine; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; de Groot, Paul; Veldhuizen, Roel W.; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although we and others have recently shown that mast cells play an important role in plaque progression and destabilization, the nature of the actual trigger for (peri) vascular mast cell activation during atherosclerosis is still unresolved. Objective: In this study, we confirm that

  7. Changes in mast cells during acute radiation sickness(a morphometric study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsenko, A.V.; Shikhodyrov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the morphometric parameters of rat mast cells during acute radiation sickness have been studied. The most significant deviation of the quantitative indices of mast cells from the control values were noted at the height of the bone-marrow, at the terminal stage of the intestinal, and during the first few hours of the cerebral forms of acute radiation sickness

  8. Mast cell numbers in airway smooth muscle and PC(20)AMP in asthma and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, J. J. W.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Rutgers, S. R.; Zeinstra-Smith, M.; Postma, D. S.; Timens, W.

    Introduction: Most patients with asthma and many patients with COPD show bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine (BHRAMP). BHRAMP may be caused by release of mast cell histamine, which induces smooth muscle contraction. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether mast cell numbers in airway smooth

  9. Proteome analysis identifies L1CAM/CD171 and DPP4/CD26 as novel markers of human skin mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwandtner, M; Paulitschke, V; Mildner, M; Brunner, P M; Hacker, S; Eisenwort, G; Sperr, W R; Valent, P; Gerner, C; Tschachler, E

    2017-01-01

    The function of skin mast cells has been well documented in IgE-mediated allergic reactions, whereas other mast cell functions are poorly defined. This study aimed at identifying novel mast cell proteins by proteome analysis of primary human skin mast cells. The proteome of skin mast cells was compared to other cell types and analyzed using bioinformatics. The expression and function of two proteins hitherto not described in skin mast cells was investigated in isolated mast cells as well as in mast cells in situ. Within the mast cell proteome, we identified 49 highly expressed proteins previously not described in mast cells; 21 of these proteins were found to be selectively expressed in mast cells. Two proteins, the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, were further studied. L1 was found to be highly expressed in mast cells in normal, psoriasis, and mastocytosis skin. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 was found to be expressed in mast cells in normal, psoriasis, and mastocytosis skin as well as in bone marrow mast cells in patients with systemic mastocytosis. In normal skin, mast cells were identified as a major source of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 and we also found that skin mast cells and fibroblasts secrete an active form of this enzyme. In a systematic proteomics approach we identified two novel mast cell proteins potentially relevant to skin homeostasis: neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mast cells in cutaneous tumors: innocent bystander or maestro conductor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Asok; Richards, Joanna E; Massaro, Joseph; Mahalingam, Meera

    2014-07-01

    Evidence favoring a critical role for mast cells (MC) in cutaneous malignancies is conflicting. Using the immunohistochemical stain tryptase, MC counts were performed in the following tumor categories: epithelial (basal cell carcinoma [BCC]: nodular [N], n = 10, infiltrative [I], n = 10; squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]: well differentiated [W], n = 9, moderate/poorly differentiated [MP], n = 15); melanocytic (intradermal nevus, n = 10, malignant melanoma in situ [MMIS], n = 8, invasive melanoma, n = 15); vascular (hemangioma [HEM], n = 11, Kaposi's sarcoma [KS], n = 14, angiosarcoma [AS] n = 8); and fibrohistiocytic (dermatofibroma [DF], n = 7, atypical fibroxanthoma [AFX], n = 5, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans [DFSP], n = 5). MC (intra- and peritumoral) were expressed as cells per 10 high-power fields. Mean MC counts were: BCCN 166.30; BCCI 130; SCCW 167.22; SCCMP 133.80; nevus 156.40; MMIS 93; MM radial growth phase 73.86; MM vertical growth phase 82.13; HEM 165.18; KS 120.57; AS 168.13; DF 247.86; AFX 280.20; and DFSP 83.60. Using a one-way analysis of variance, statistically significant differences were observed in the following pairs: AFX and DF vs. DFSP, nevus vs. melanoma, AS and HEM vs. Our findings appear to point towards a dichotomous role for mast cells in fibrohistiocytic and vascular neoplasms and argue against their preferential recruitment in epithelial malignancies and malignant melanoma. The value of mast cell counts as a prognostic index appears to be limited in most cutaneous malignancies. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Aspects of mast building and the fine structure of “amphipod silk” glands in Dyopedos bispinis (Amphipoda, Dulichiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neretin, N.Y.; Zhadan, A.E.; Tzetlin, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the biology of Dyopedos bispinis, a mast-building amphipod that is abundant near the N. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station. To examine the peculiarities of mast building in Dyopedos bispinis, we studied the social structure of individuals inhabiting the masts

  12. Desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Poaceae (Poales Post-seminal development of Poaceae species (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tiemi Nakamura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existência de um padrão do desenvolvimento pós-seminal em Poaceae. Para tanto, foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae. Procurou-se também comparar as estruturas da plântula de Poaceae com as demais monocotiledôneas. As espécies estudadas são plantas perenes, rizomatosas, cespitosas e apresentam cariopses de tamanhos diferentes. Apresentam sementes albuminosas; embrião lateral, diferenciado, com raiz endógena (adventícia; cotilédone dividido em hiperfilo (escutelo, bainha reduzida e hipofilo (coleóptilo; coleorriza (raiz primária reduzida e mesocótilo (eixo localizado entre o escutelo e coleóptilo. A presença de epiblasto (folha embrionária foi observada em Olyra humilis, Chloris elata e Eragrostis solida. O desenvolvimento pós-seminal é semelhante nas espécies estudadas e forma um padrão em Poaceae. Primeiramente, observa-se a emissão da coleorriza, que cresce no sentido geotrópico positivo, seguida do coleóptilo e plúmula que crescem em sentido contrário, a partir do desenvolvimento do mesocótilo. As primeiras folhas são semelhantes às folhas definitivas (metafilos das espécies, exceto em Olyra humilis, que são modificadas em catafilos e podem ser interpretadas como caráter basal em Bambusoideae. Raiz primária reduzida (coleorriza e hipofilo modificado em coleóptilo são considerados caracteres derivados em Poaceae, quando comparados com as demais monocotiledôneas.This work has aimed to verify the existence of a pattern of the post-seminal development in Poaceae. Thus, Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae have been studied. Besides, it was compared the structures of

  13. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Rachel K.; Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro; Gosse, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  14. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Rachel K., E-mail: rachel.palmer@maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro [Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Gosse, Julie A., E-mail: julie.gosse@umit.maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  15. On the functioning of folded dipole antennas on conducting masts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mcnamara, DA

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available dimensions (e.g., d/X) in order to maximize forward gain, or to determine the number and directions of the unwanted pattern maxima there might be once the antenna is mounted in place. Manuscript received July 23, 1991; revised March 15, 1993. D... as the forward gain is concerned. The levels of the pattern maxima decrease for increasing separation. The forward gain curves eventually converge to the gain of a folded dipole in free space (i.e., without a conducting mast present...

  16. Molecular targets on mast cells and basophils for novel therapies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harvima, I.T.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráber, Petr; Friedman, S.; Polakovičová, Iva; Gibbs, B.F.; Blank, U.; Nilsson, G.; Maurer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2014), s. 530-544 ISSN 0091-6749 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell activation * mast cells and basophils * treatment of allergic diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  17. A Comparative Study of virtual and operational met mast data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Dr Ö Emre; Ahmet, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Performance of wind assessment studies depend on the adequacy and duration of the wind data. For a reasonable wind assessment, at least one full year wind data is needed so that, all the variations throughout the year are represented. On the other hand, it is always a question of time and cost how to get the wind data. On-site measurements are the most common way of obtaining wind data but it is the most expensive and time consuming as well. Apart from onsite data, there are also reanalysis long term data sources like MERRA, NCAR, etc. Time and spatial resolution of these long term data are lower compared to on-site measurements but in cases where on-site measurements are not available, they are also utilized. On top of on-site and reanalysis wind data, weather forecasting models like WRF, MM5 are available. Although, these models mainly are used for forecasting services, flexibility of the models makes them suitable for preliminary resource assessment purposes. In this study, comparisons of annual energy production estimations are computed using virtual and on-site met mast data separately for a specific time range. The widely used weather research and forecasting model (WRF) is used to provide virtual met mast data. Once WRF simulations are completed, interpolation routines are employed in order to extract data for a specific location. The on-site met mast is located inside a wind farm project area which is under development. Project site is located in the south of Turkey. There are four different met masts, three of them recording wind data presently. On-site measurements together with WRF results are used to obtain energy yields for the project area. The performance of both methodologies is compared. It has been observed that WRF can as well serve as a preliminary model in cases where no other data source is available but the model has to be implemented with great care depending on the project site conditions

  18. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  19. [3H]Serotonin release: an improved method to measure mast cell degranulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazingue, C.; Dessaint, J.-P.; Capron, A.

    1978-01-01

    A method based on the release of tritium-labelled serotonin by activated mast cells in rodents is described. Mast cells incorporate labelled serotonin selectively and released the label after activation by non-specific stimulators (compound 48/80, polymyxin B sulphate, ATP, bovine chymotrypsin and L-α-lysophosphatidylcholine) or anaphylactic antibody and the corresponding antigen. These two types of activation were investigated in comparison with the toluidine blue microscopic rat mast cell degranulation test, and a methodological study of the release of [ 3 H] serotonin is described. The measurement of labelled serotonin release provides a simple and quick assay of mast cell degranulation compared to the time required for the classical rat mast cell degranulation technique and achieves a greater sensitivity. (Auth.)

  20. Detection of mast cell secretion by using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Ren; Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Juqiang

    2016-10-01

    Acupuncture can cause a remarkable increase in degranulation of the mast cells, which has attracted the interest of researchers since the 1980s. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) could obtain biochemical information with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, SERS was used to detect the degree of degranulation of mast cells according to different incubate time. Mast cells was incubated with culture medium for 0 h, 12 h and 24 h, then centrifuge the culture medium, decant the supernatant, and discard the mast cell. SERS was performed to obtain the biochemical fingerprinting signatures of the centrifuged medium. The spectra data are then analyzed by spectral peaks attribution and the principal component analysis (PCA). The measured Raman spectra of the two groups were separated well by PCA. It indicated that mast cells had secreted some substances into cultured medium though degranulation did not happen.

  1. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligman, L.H.; Murphy, G.F. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm)doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermic in association with the UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity. (Author).

  2. Anti-Allergic Drugs Tranilast and Ketotifen Dose-Dependently Exert Mast Cell-Stabilizing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-allergic drugs, such as tranilast and ketotifen, inhibit the release of chemokines from mast cells. However, we know little about their direct effects on the exocytotic process of mast cells. Since exocytosis in mast cells can be monitored electrophysiologically by changes in the whole-cell membrane capacitance (Cm, the absence of such changes by these drugs indicates their mast cell-stabilizing properties. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique in rat peritoneal mast cells, we examined the effects of tranilast and ketotifen on the Cm during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Relatively lower concentrations of tranilast (100, 250 µM and ketotifen (1, 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, higher concentrations of tranilast (500 µM, 1 mM and ketotifen (50, 100 µM almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm, and washed out the trapping of the dye on the surface of the mast cells. Compared to tranilast, ketotifen required much lower doses to similarly inhibit the degranulation of mast cells or the increase in the Cm. Conclusions: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that tranilast and ketotifen dose-dependently inhibit the process of exocytosis, and that ketotifen is more potent than tranilast in stabilizing mast cells. The mast cell-stabilizing properties of these drugs may be attributed to their ability to counteract the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  3. Beyond The Prime Directive: The MAST Discovery Portal and High Level Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Abney, Faith; Donaldson, Tom; Dower, Theresa; Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Levay, Karen; Matuskey, Jacob; McLean, Brian; Quick, Lee; Rogers, Anthony; Shiao, Bernie; Thompson, Randy; Tseng, Shui-Ay; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) is a NASA-funded archive for a wide range of astronomical missions, primarily supporting space-based UV and optical telescopes. What is less well-known is that MAST provides much more than just a final resting place for primary data products and documentation from these missions. The MAST Discovery Portal is our new search interface that integrates all the missions that MAST supports into a single interface, allowing users to discover (and retrieve) data from other missions that overlap with your targets of interest. In addition to searching MAST, the Portal allows users to search the Virtual Observatory, granting access to data from thousands of collections registered with the VO, including large missions spanning the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., Chandra, SDSS, Spitzer, 2MASS, WISE). The Portal features table import/export, coordinate-based cross-matching, dynamic chart plotting, and the AstroView sky viewer with footprint overlays. We highlight some of these capabilities with science-driven examples. MAST also accepts High Level Science Products (HLSPs) from the community. These HLSPs are user-generated data products that can be related to a MAST-supported mission. MAST provides a permanent archive for these data with linked references, and integrates it within MAST infrastructure and services. We highlight some of the most recent HLSPs MAST has released, including the HST Frontier Fields, GALEX All-Sky Diffuse Radiation Mapping, a survey of the intergalactic medium with HST-COS, and one of the most complete line lists ever derived for a white dwarf using FUSE AND HST-STIS. These HLSPs generate substantial interest from the community, and are an excellent way to increase visibility and ensure the longevity of your data.

  4. Influence of MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Lucjusz

    2012-07-01

    Mast cells, owing to diversity of secreted mediators, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. Together with basophils, mast cells constitute a central pathogenetic element of anaphylactic (IgE-dependent) and anaphylactoid (IgE-independent) reactions. In severe cases, generalized degranulation of mast cells may cause symptoms of anaphylactic shock. The influence of the classical, iodine-based contrast media on mastocyte degranulation has been fully described. Our objective was to determine the influence of the gadolinium-based MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells and to compare the activity of ionic and non-ionic preparations of contrast media. To determine the intensity of mast cell degranulation, we used an experimental model based on mastocytes isolated from rat peritoneal fluid. Purified suspensions of mast cells were incubated with various concentrations of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA, and solutions of PEG 600 which served as a non-toxic osmotic stimulus. The intensity of mast cell activation was presented as mean percentage of histamine released from cells after incubation. The obtained results demonstrate that both ionic and non-ionic preparations of the MRI contrast media are able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. It was also proved that the non-ionic MRI contrast media stimulate mast cells markedly more weakly than ionic contrast media at identical concentration. The aforementioned results may suggest a more profitable safety profile of the non-ionic contrast preparations. We may also conclude that triggering of mast cell degranulation after incubation with the solutions of MRI contrast media results from non-specific osmotic stimulation and direct toxicity of free ionic residues.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of the Mast Cells between Oral and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadnia Sarvi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It has been mentioned that mast cells may help to tumor invasion. According to different aggressive behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to cutaneous SCC (CSCC, the aim of this study was to compare mast cells count between OSCC and CSCC to understand the role of them in different biologic behavior of these two tumors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of 90 samples including 30 cases of OSCC, 30 cases of CSCC, 15 cases of normal skin and 15 cases of normal oral mucosa (as control groups. Number of mast cells was counted under light microscope in 10 successive fields in invasive front of OSCCs and CSCCs at 400X magnification and mean mast cells count/mm2 were calculated and compared between studied groups using one way ANOVA statistical test. FINDINGS: Mean mast cells count in CSCC, OSCC, normal skin and normal oral mucosa groups were 20.31±14.67, 10.41±8.01, 5.10±8.67 and 4.87±2.68, respectively. There were significant differences in mast cell count between CSCC and normal skin groups (p<0.001 and between CSCC and OSCC groups (p=0.002. This difference wasn’t significant between OSCC and normal oral mucosa groups (p=0.337. CONCLUSION: Lower level of mast cells in OSCCs may reflect less need for activation of mast cells in order to increase angiogenesis in OSCCs .Increase in mast cell density in CSCCs suggests a possible role for mast cell in tumor progression of CSCCs.

  6. Evaluation of mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha Santos Netto, Juliana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; de Queiroz Chaves Lourenço, Simone

    2012-09-01

    Several cell types are associated with the development of cystic and tumoral odontogenic lesions. Among inflammatory cells, mast cells can be associated with their pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Tissue sections were submitted to toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry with antibody anti-tryptase (clone G3). Mast cells were quantitated using Image-Pro Plus software to obtain the mean number of mast cells in three regions: epithelial, superficial portion of the fibrous wall and deep portion of the fibrous wall from 20 periapical cysts, 20 dentigerous cysts (six non-inflamed and 14 inflamed) and 20 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (four non-inflamed and 16 inflamed). The mean number of mast cells detected per lesion by immunohistochemistry (4.1) was higher than by histochemistry (1.5) (Pcysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors showed a higher mean number of mast cells than non-inflamed lesions in all regions. The deep region from all cysts showed the highest mean number of degranulated mast cells, except for non-inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumors analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining detected higher number of mast cells than histochemistry. The higher number of mast cells observed in inflamed lesions could indicate the participation of these cells in the inflammatory response in odontogenic lesions. The prevalence of degranulated mast cells in the deep region suggests intense activity of these cells, possibly related to growth of cystic lesions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Exposure to tobacco-derived materials induces overproduction of secreted proteinases in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-Howard, Andrea; Turner, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells reside at interfaces with the environment, including the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. This localization exposes mast cells to inhaled, or ingested, environmental challenges. In the airways of smokers, resident immune cells will be in contact with the condensed components of cigarette smoke. Mast cells are of particular interest due to their ability to promote airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell-secreted tryptase and increased numbers of degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers. Since mast cell-secreted proteinases (MCPTs), including tryptases, contribute to pathological airway remodeling, we investigated the relationship between mast cell proteinases and smoke exposure. We exposed a mast cell line to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We show that CSC exposure increases MCPT levels in mast cells using an assay for tryptase-type MCPT activity. We hypothesized that this increase in MCPT activity reflects a CSC-induced increase in the cytosolic pool of proteinase molecules, via stimulation of MCPT transcription. Transcript array data suggested that mRNA changes in response to CSC were limited in number and peaked after 3 h of CSC exposure. However, we noted marked transcriptional regulation of several MCPT genes. CSC-induced changes in the mRNA levels for MCPTs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke up-regulates MCPT levels in mast cells at both the protein and the mRNA level. We suggest that the pathological airway remodeling that has been described in clinical studies of smoke inhalation may be attributable to MCPT overproduction in vivo

  8. Influence of MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Lucjusz

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells, owing to diversity of secreted mediators, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. Together with basophils, mast cells constitute a central pathogenetic element of anaphylactic (IgE-dependent) and anaphylactoid (IgE-independent) reactions. In severe cases, generalized degranulation of mast cells may cause symptoms of anaphylactic shock. The influence of the classical, iodine-based contrast media on mastocyte degranulation has been fully described. Our objective was to determine the influence of the gadolinium-based MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells and to compare the activity of ionic and non-ionic preparations of contrast media. To determine the intensity of mast cell degranulation, we used an experimental model based on mastocytes isolated from rat peritoneal fluid. Purified suspensions of mast cells were incubated with various concentrations of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA, and solutions of PEG 600 which served as a non-toxic osmotic stimulus. The intensity of mast cell activation was presented as mean percentage of histamine released from cells after incubation. The obtained results demonstrate that both ionic and non-ionic preparations of the MRI contrast media are able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. It was also proved that the non-ionic MRI contrast media stimulate mast cells markedly more weakly than ionic contrast media at identical concentration. The aforementioned results may suggest a more profitable safety profile of the non-ionic contrast preparations. We may also conclude that triggering of mast cell degranulation after incubation with the solutions of MRI contrast media results from non-specific osmotic stimulation and direct toxicity of free ionic residues

  9. The chemokine receptor CCR1 is identified in mast cell-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Qiao, Longwei; Peng, Xia; Cui, Zelin; Yin, Yue; Liao, Huanjin; Jiang, Min; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells of the immune system, and mast cell-derived exosomes carrying RNAs play a role in immune regulation. However, the molecular function of mast cell-derived exosomes is currently unknown, and here, we identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mast cells and exosomes. We isolated mast cells derived exosomes through differential centrifugation and screened the DEGs from mast cell-derived exosomes, using the GSE25330 array dataset downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Biochemical pathways were analyzed by Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway on the online tool DAVID. DEGs-associated protein-protein interaction networks (PPIs) were constructed using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. The genes identified from these bioinformatics analyses were verified by qRT-PCR and Western blot in mast cells and exosomes. We identified 2121 DEGs (843 up and 1278 down-regulated genes) in HMC-1 cell-derived exosomes and HMC-1 cells. The up-regulated DEGs were classified into two significant modules. The chemokine receptor CCR1 was screened as a hub gene and enriched in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway in module one. Seven genes, including CCR1, CD9, KIT, TGFBR1, TLR9, TPSAB1 and TPSB2 were screened and validated through qRT-PCR analysis. We have achieved a comprehensive view of the pivotal genes and pathways in mast cells and exosomes and identified CCR1 as a hub gene in mast cell-derived exosomes. Our results provide novel clues with respect to the biological processes through which mast cell-derived exosomes modulate immune responses.

  10. 3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content ∼ 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content ∼ 100-fold, and augment ∼ their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing 35 S-labeled haparin relative to 35 S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment

  11. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cell Precursors from Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen K Meurer

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC or mucosal (MMC type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM. The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC. These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research.

  12. Role of mast cell- and non-mast cell-derived inflammatory mediators in immunologic induction of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.C. Albuquerque

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously discovered a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission in mammal autonomic ganglia caused by immunological activation of ganglionic mast cells. Subsequent to mast cell activation, lipid and peptide mediators are released which may modulate synaptic function. In this study we determined whether some mast cell-derived mediators, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2; 1.0 µM, platelet aggregating factor (PAF; 0.3 µM and U44619 (a thromboxane analogue; 1.0 µM, and also endothelin-1 (ET-1; 0.5 µM induce synaptic potentiation in the guinea pig superior cervical ganglion (SCG, and compared their effects on synaptic transmission with those induced by a sensitizing antigen, ovalbumin (OVA; 10 µg/ml. The experiments were carried out on SCGs isolated from adult male guinea pigs (200-250 g actively sensitized to OVA, maintained in oxygenated Locke solution at 37oC. Synaptic potentiation was measured through alterations of the integral of the post-ganglionic compound action potential (CAP. All agents tested caused long-term (LTP; duration ³30 min or short-term (STP; <30 min potentiation of synaptic efficacy, as measured by the increase in the integral of the post-ganglionic CAP. The magnitude of mediator-induced potentiation was never the same as the antigen-induced long-term potentiation (A-LTP. The agent that best mimicked the antigen was PGD2, which induced a 75% increase in CAP integral for LTP (antigen: 94% and a 34% increase for STP (antigen: 91%. PAF-, U44619-, and ET-1-induced increases in CAP integral ranged for LTP from 34 to 47%, and for STP from 0 to 26%. These results suggest that the agents investigated may participate in the induction of A-LTP

  13. On the physics of runaway particles in JET and MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Akers, R.J.; Gimblett, C.G.; Tournianski, M.R.; Byrom, C.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Andersson, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the physics of runaway particles observed in MAST and JET. During internal reconnection events in MAST, it is observed that the ion distribution function, as measured by a neutral-particle analyser, develops a high-energy tail, which subsequently decays on the time scale of collisional slowing down. These observations are explained in terms of runaway ion acceleration in the electric field induced by the reconnection - a phenomenon predicted theoretically by Furth and Rutherford in 1972 but not commonly noted in tokamaks. In JET, long-lived post-disruption currents carried by runaway electrons have been observed to decay on a time scale of 1-2 s. A relativistic kinetic theory is developed to explain this decay as a consequence of the combined action of Coulomb collisions and synchrotron radiation emission. It is also pointed out that substantial electron-positron pair production should occur in such discharges, which have also been made more recently on JT-60U. In fact, tokamaks may be the largest positron repositories made by man. (author)

  14. Mast Cells and Nerve Signal Conduction in Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve and mast cells are densely distributed around acupoints in connective tissue. To explore the internal relations between them in acupuncture effect, we examined dorsal root potential (DRP response to acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36 under sodium cromoglicate (DSCG, a mast cell stabilizer intervention in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. We used single unit nerve recording techniques to collect nerve signals from DRP afferent nerves for a 45-minute period that includes 4 stages, that is, base, drug absorption, acupuncture, and recovery stages. We analyzed the recorded signals from time-domain and frequency-domain perspectives. The results showed that once acupuncture needle was inserted, twisting needle excited more nerves discharges than those at base discharges in ACU (from 35.1 ± 7.2 to 47 ± 9.2 Hz, P=0.004, and there existed the same trend in Saline + ACU group (from 23.8 ± 2.6 to 29.8 ± 4.2 Hz, P=0.059. There was no change of nerve discharges under twisting needle with injection of DSCG (from 34.8 ± 5.3 to 34.7 ± 4.4 Hz, P=0.480. We conclude that acupuncture manipulation promotes neural signal production and DSCG could partly inhibit nerve discharges.

  15. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  16. The calibration of the MAST neutron yield monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, Keith; Loughlin, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Several neutron detectors have been installed on MAST to monitor the temporal production of neutrons during neutral beam injection. This paper describes the detectors, their calibration and applications of the data. The main neutron diagnostic is a guarded fission chamber, with processing electronics that allow data collection in three modes of operation, and covers the whole range of neutron production rate to be expected from current operations and future upgrades. The scalar mode of operation is calibrated with a 252 Cf source inside the vacuum vessel and then MCNP modelling is used to relate this calibration to an extended plasma source. Plasma neutron data are used to extend the calibration to the Campbell and ion-current modes, with final uncertainties of approximately 8% in each case. Corroborative evidence for the accuracy of the calibration, obtained from neutron activation, indicates that the method is satisfactory. The neutron data are used routinely to keep track of the radio-activation of key components of the MAST tokamak

  17. Root type matters: measurements of water uptake by seminal, crown and lateral roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Roots play a key role in water acquisition and are a significant component of plant adaptation to different environmental conditions. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of root water uptake in mature maize. We used neutron radiography to image the spatial distribution of maize roots and trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil that was kept homogeneously wet throughout the experiment. When the plants were five weeks-old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions. The transport of D2O was simulated using a diffusion-convection numerical model. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The model was initially developed and tested with two weeks-old maize (Ahmed et. al. 2015), for which we found that water was mainly taken up by lateral roots and the water uptake of the seminal roots was negligible. Here, we used this method to measure root water uptake in a mature maize root system. The root architecture of five weeks-old maize consisted of primary and seminal roots with long laterals and crown (nodal) roots that emerged from the above ground part of the plant two weeks after planting. The crown roots were thicker than the seminal roots and had fewer and shorter laterals. Surprisingly, we found that the water was mainly taken up by the crown roots and their laterals, while the lateral roots of seminal roots, which were the main location of water uptake of younger plants, stopped to take up water. Interestingly, we also found that in contrast to the seminal roots, the crown roots were able to take up water also from their distal segments. We conclude that for the two weeks

  18. The effects of rival seminal plasma on sperm velocity in the alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jason A; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2017-04-01

    Sperm competition is prevalent and intense in many animal mating systems, and is a major force driving evolution of such mating systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seminal plasma on sperm velocity of male Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha), which possesses a mating system with male alternative reproductive tactics and intense sperm competition. Male Chinook salmon either adopt a small, precocious sneaking tactic (jack) or a large, dominant tactic (hooknose). To test whether the seminal plasma can effect sperm velocity amongst sperm competitors, two experiments were done whereby males were paired based upon the alternative tactic each male adopted, with the first experiment consisting of jack-hooknose pairs (N = 16) and the second experiment consisting of jack-jack and hooknose-hooknose pairs (N = 12 and 14, respectively). Within each pair, milt of each male was manipulated such that seminal plasma was removed and swapped between the males in each pair and sperm velocity was measured. Jack seminal plasma caused a significant decrease (∼11.9%) in hooknose sperm velocity while causing a significant increase in jack sperm velocity (∼7%), while alternatively, hooknose seminal plasma had no affect on sperm velocity of jack or other hooknose males. This study shows that rival seminal plasma may affect the outcome of sperm competition between males; males adopting a sneaking tactic, that spawn in a disadvantageous mating position, may be able to compensate for this deficit by being more competitive through the effects of their seminal plasma on their competitor's sperm velocity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Seminal plasma enhances cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Sutherland

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2, cytokines interleukin (IL -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway.

  20. Relationships between seminal plasma metals/metalloids and semen quality, sperm apoptosis and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Peng; Feng, Wei; Liu, Chong; Yang, Pan; Chen, Ying-Jun; Sun, Li; Sun, Yang; Yue, Jing; Gu, Long-Jie; Zeng, Qiang; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between environmental exposure to metals/metalloids and semen quality, sperm apoptosis and DNA integrity using the metal/metalloids levels in seminal plasma as biomarkers. We determined 18 metals/metalloids in seminal plasma using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry among 746 men recruited from a reproductive medicine center. Associations of these metals/metalloids with semen quality (n = 746), sperm apoptosis (n = 331) and DNA integrity (n = 404) were evaluated using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. After accounting for multiple comparisons and confounders, seminal plasma arsenic (As) quartiles were negatively associated with progressive and total sperm motility using multivariable linear regression analysis, which were in accordance with the trends for increased odds ratios (ORs) for below-reference semen quality parameters in the logistic models. We also found inverse correlations between cadmium (Cd) quartiles and progressive and total sperm motility, whereas positive correlations between zinc (Zn) quartiles and sperm concentration, between copper (Cu) and As quartiles and the percentage of tail DNA, between As and selenium (Se) quartiles and tail extent and tail distributed moment, and between tin (Sn) categories and the percentage of necrotic spermatozoa (all P trend <0.05). These relationships remained after the simultaneous consideration of various elements. Our results indicate that environmental exposure to As, Cd, Cu, Se and Sn may impair male reproductive health, whereas Zn may be beneficial to sperm concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mast cell gastritis: Children complaining of chronic abdominal pain with histologically normal gastric mucosal biopsies except for increase in mast cells, proposing a new entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourpak Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells reside within the connective tissue of a variety of tissues and all vascularized organs. Since 1996, few studies have been performed on mast cell density in gastrointestinal biopsies, mainly in adult age group. We recently studied mast cell density in pediatric age group on rather larger number of cases in a referral children hospital. Mast cell density was 12.6 ± 0.87 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-81 in our study. Since we frequently encounter cases with rather normal gastric biopsies with no H.pylori, which mainly complain of chronic abdominal pain, we gathered those cases with mast cell density more than 30/0.25 mm2. from 895 gastric biopsies and wanted to study their clinical and endoscopic findings and propose a new entity. Methods Between April 2005 and May 2008, 895 children (2, were chosen and a questionnaire was filled for each patient including clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results Over a 3 year period of study, of 895 selected children, 86 patients fulfilled the entrance criteria. The major complaint of patients was recurrent abdominal pain. The mean mast cell density was 45.59 ± 13.81 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 30-93. Among our cases, about 67.4% (n = 58 had 30 to 49, 23.3% (n = 20 had 50 to 69, 8.1% (n = 7 had 70 to 89 and 1.2% (n = 1 had 93 mast cells/0.25 mm2 in their specimens Discussion In 29% of our cases, neither endoscopic nor pathologic change was detected and only increase in mast cell number was reported and in others endoscopic and histopathological findings were negligible except increase in mast cells. In updated Sydney system (classification and grading of gastritis, no term is introduced which is in concordance with this group but we think that increased density of mast cells in these cases should not be overlooked and it may contribute to clinical manifestations in some way. We hope that

  2. Assessment of a Radioimmunological Method to Measure Transferrin in Seminal Plasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallea Sanchez, L.; Estevez Gandara, A.; Navaroli Fernandez, F.; Machado Curbelo, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A specific antiserum against human transferrin was obtained. It was titrated and used to develop a radioimmunological method to measure transferrin in seminal plasm, since the concentration of that protein could be a useful marker of testicular function in the clinical management of male infertility. The method showed good precision, accurateness and sensitivity, when it was assessed by standard statistical methods and accordingly it seems to be adequate for the intended purposes. The assessment of its value in the diagnosis and therapy of male infertility, will be the subject of future work. (author). 14 refs

  3. Correlation of biochemical constituents of seminal plasma with semen quality in Teddy goat (Capra hircus) bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, S; Ahmad, M; Ahmad, I; Zubair, M; Umar, Z; Qureshi, A S; Manzoor, A; Murtaza, A; Shaukat, A

    2018-04-01

    This study was planned to determine the relationship between semen quality parameters and the levels of biochemical constituents of seminal plasma of Teddy (Capra hircus) buck semen. For this purpose, semen ejaculates were collected from five mature healthy Teddy bucks. All the experimental bucks were kept under natural environmental conditions. Semen was collected twice in a week for the duration of 6 weeks by Artificial Vagina (AV) in the breeding season (February-April). Two successive ejaculates of single buck were pooled at time of collection, and a total of 60 semen samples were processed for semen analysis. Sperm per cent motility, sperm concentration, dead sperm percentage, morphological abnormal spermatozoa, plasma membrane integrity were correlated with biochemical constituents of seminal plasma. The mean per cent motility (89.18% ± 0.37%), sperm concentration (1.86 ± 0.04 × 10 9 /ml), dead sperm percentage (8.08% ± 0.29%), morphological abnormal spermatozoa (6.05% ± 0.29%) and plasma membrane integrity (88.22% ± 0.34%) were recorded. The seminal plasma contained Na + (144.12 ± 1.59 mEq/L), K + (27.38 ± 0.49 mEq/L), Cl - (65.73 ± 0.45 mEq/L), Ca ++ (9.34 ± 0.22 mg/dl), P (19.32 ± 0.97 mg/dl), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 26.48 ± 1.30 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 168.47 ± 5.18 IU/L), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 215.98 ± 6.06 IU/L), albumin (1.90 ± 0.10 g/dl), globulins (2.08 ± 0.11 g/dl) and total protein (3.98 ± 0.20 g/dl). The collected data were analysed by applying Pearson's correlation coefficients. Dead sperm percentage had negative correlation with sodium (r = -.278, p correlated with plasma membrane integrity (r = -.292, p correlated with biochemical constituents, but opposite trends were found in case of dead sperm percentage. The seminal biochemical constituents dynamically interact with each other. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Giant seminal vesicle cyst with ipsilateral hypoplastic kidney: Report of a case with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a congenital seminal vesicle cyst with ipsilateral hypoplastic kidney in a 51 year-old Indian man presenting with features of bladder outlet obstruction. Abdominal and pelvic Ultrasonography (USG, computed tomography revealed a retrovesical cystic mass measuring 10cm x 9cm with indentations over the left infero-lateral wall of the urinary bladder. On USG and radionuclide renal scanning the ipsilateral kidney was not found, which was located only on the CT scan. The cyst and the hypoplastic kidney was excised with an uneventful recovery.

  5. Syntaxin binding protein 1 is not required for allergic inflammation via IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengli Wu

    Full Text Available Mast cells play a central role in both innate and acquired immunity. When activated by IgE-dependent FcεRI cross-linking, mast cells rapidly initiate a signaling cascade and undergo an extensive release of their granule contents, including inflammatory mediators. Some SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion factor attachment protein receptor proteins and SM (Sec1/Munc18 family proteins are involved in mast cell degranulation. However, the function of syntaxin binding protein 1 (STXBP1, a member of SM family, in mast cell degranulation is currently unknown. In this study, we examined the role of STXBP1 in IgE-dependent mast cell activation. Liver-derived mast cells (LMCs from wild-type and STXBP1-deficient mice were cultured in vitro for the study of mast cell maturation, degranulation, cytokine and chemokine production, as well as MAPK, IκB-NFκB, and NFAT signaling pathways. In addition, in vivo models of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and late-phase IgE-dependent inflammation were conducted in mast cell deficient W(sh mice that had been reconstituted with wild-type or STXBP1-deficient mast cells. Our findings indicate that STXBP1 is not required for any of these important functional mechanisms in mast cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that STXBP1 is dispensable during IgE-mediated mast cell activation and in IgE-dependent allergic inflammatory reactions.

  6. Cre-mediated cell ablation contests mast cell contribution in models of antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Weiser, Anne; Tietz, Annette; Stassen, Michael; Harris, Nicola; Kopf, Manfred; Radermacher, Peter; Möller, Peter; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2011-11-23

    Immunological functions of mast cells remain poorly understood. Studies in Kit mutant mice suggest key roles for mast cells in certain antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. However, Kit mutations affect multiple cell types of both immune and nonimmune origin. Here, we show that targeted insertion of Cre-recombinase into the mast cell carboxypeptidase A3 locus deleted mast cells in connective and mucosal tissues by a genotoxic Trp53-dependent mechanism. Cre-mediated mast cell eradication (Cre-Master) mice had, with the exception of a lack of mast cells and reduced basophils, a normal immune system. Cre-Master mice were refractory to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, and this defect was rescued by mast cell reconstitution. This mast cell-deficient strain was fully susceptible to antibody-induced autoimmune arthritis and to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Differences comparing Kit mutant mast cell deficiency models to selectively mast cell-deficient mice call for a systematic re-evaluation of immunological functions of mast cells beyond allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Åbrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell–derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell–deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

  8. Th17 cell-mediated immune responses promote mast cell proliferation by triggering stem cell factor in keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung-Ah; Park, Minhwa; Kim, Yu-Hee; Woo, So-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Although mast cells are traditionally thought to function as effector cells in allergic responses, they have increasingly been recognized as important regulators of various immune responses. Mast cells mature locally; thus, tissue-specific influences are important for promoting mast cell accumulation and survival in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we determined the effects of keratinocytes on mast cell accumulation during Th17-mediated skin inflammation. We observed increases in dermal mast cells in imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis in mice accompanied by the expression of epidermal stem cell factor (SCF), a critical mast cell growth factor. Similar to mouse epidermal keratinocytes, SCF was highly expressed in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following stimulation with IL−17. Further, keratinocytes promoted mast cell proliferation following stimulation with IL−17 in vitro. However, the effects of keratinocytes on mast cells were significantly diminished in the presence of anti−CD117 (stem cell factor receptor) blocking antibodies. Taken together, our results revealed that the Th17-mediated inflammatory environment promotes mast cell accumulation through keratinocyte-derived SCF. - Highlights: • Psoriasis-like skin inflammation increase dermal mast cells. • Keratinocyte produce stem cell factor in psoriasis-like skin inflammation. • Keratinocyte promote mast cell proliferation by stem cell factor dependent manner

  9. Distribution of sperm-free 131I-labelled seminal plasma in the genital tract of estrous sheep, following cervical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig

    1984-01-01

    In 10 fertile sheep with synchronized estrus comparative studies with 131 I-labelled sperma and sperma-free seminal plasma were performed. 2, 4, and 22 hours after cervical application and insemination resp., the distribution of sperma and seminal plasma in different parts of the genital tract was determined. Considerable amounts of seminal plasma were revealed in vagina, cervix and uterus decreasing proportionally with both the course of the genital tract and the post-application time. Only low amounts of seminal plasma could be detected in the oviducts, while sizeable amounts diffused into the peritoneum. The levels of 131 I-labelled iodine in the thyroid were low 2 hours after application but rose to constantly higher level. The reservoirs for seminal plasma and sperma could be revealed after 22 hours. There was no marked cervical barrier to seminal plasma in sheep with synchronized estrus

  10. Interplay between mast cells, enterochromaffin cells, and sensory signaling in the aging human bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Daly, D M; Adam, I J; Kitsanta, P; Hill, C J; Wild, J; Shorthouse, A; Grundy, D; Jiang, W

    2016-10-01

    Advanced age is associated with a reduction in clinical visceral pain perception. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous studies have suggested that an abnormal interplay between mast cells, enterochromaffin (EC) cells, and afferent nerves contribute to nociception in gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate how aging affects afferent sensitivity and neuro-immune association in the human bowel. Mechanical and chemical sensitivity of human bowel afferents were examined by ex vivo afferent nerve recordings. Age-related changes in the density of mast cells, EC cells, sensory nerve terminals, and mast cell-nerve micro-anatomical association were investigated by histological and immune staining. Human afferents could be broadly classified into subpopulations displaying mechanical and chemical sensitivity, adaptation, chemo-sensitization, and recruitment. Interestingly human bowel afferent nerve sensitivity was attenuated with age. The density of substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) nerve varicosities was also reduced with age. In contrast, the density of ileal and colonic mucosal mast cells was increased with age, as was ileal EC cell number. An increased proportion of mast cells was found in close apposition to SP-IR nerves. Afferent sensitivity in human bowel was reduced with advancing age. Augmentation of mast cells and EC cell numbers and the mast cell-nerve association suggest a compensatory mechanism for sensory neurodegeneration. © 2016 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mast cells are dispensable in a genetic mouse model of chronic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulcova, Jitka; Meyer, Michael; Guiducci, Eva; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Werner, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, affect a large percentage of the population, but the role of different immune cells in the pathogenesis of these disorders is largely unknown. Recently, we found that mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fgfr1) and Fgfr2 (K5-R1/R2 mice) in the epidermis have a severe impairment in the epidermal barrier, which leads to the development of a chronic inflammatory skin disease that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis. Using Fgfr1-/Fgfr2-deficient mice, we analyzed the consequences of the loss of mast cells. Mast cells accumulated and degranulated in the skin of young Fgfr1-/Fgfr2-deficient mice, most likely as a consequence of increased expression of the mast cell chemokine Ccl2. The increase in mast cells occurred before the development of histological abnormalities, indicating a functional role of these cells in the inflammatory skin phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we mated the Fgfr1-/Fgfr2-deficient mice with mast cell-deficient CreMaster mice. Surprisingly, loss of mast cells did not or only mildly affect keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness, epidermal barrier function, accumulation and activation of different immune cells, or expression of different proinflammatory cytokines in the skin. These results reveal that mast cells are dispensable for the development of chronic inflammation in response to a defect in the epidermal barrier. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular mechanism of mast cell–mediated innate defense against endothelin and snake venom sarafotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lars A.; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Wunderlin, Markus; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2007-01-01

    Mast cells are protective against snake venom sarafotoxins that belong to the endothelin (ET) peptide family. The molecular mechanism underlying this recently recognized innate defense pathway is unknown, but secretory granule proteases have been invoked. To specifically disrupt a single protease function without affecting expression of other proteases, we have generated a mouse mutant selectively lacking mast cell carboxypeptidase A (Mc-cpa) activity. Using this mutant, we have now identified Mc-cpa as the essential protective mast cell enzyme. Mass spectrometry of peptide substrates after cleavage by normal or mutant mast cells showed that removal of a single amino acid, the C-terminal tryptophan, from ET and sarafotoxin by Mc-cpa is the principle molecular mechanism underlying this very rapid mast cell response. Mast cell proteases can also cleave ET and sarafotoxin internally, but such “nicking” is not protective because intramolecular disulfide bridges maintain peptide function. We conclude that mast cells attack ET and sarafotoxin exactly at the structure required for toxicity, and hence sarafotoxins could not “evade” Mc-cpa's substrate specificity without loss of toxicity. PMID:17923505

  13. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  14. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell mediated brain injury after ICH in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrogen inhalation was neuroprotective in several brain injury models. Its mechanisms are believed to be related to anti-oxidative stress. We investigated the potential neurovascular protective effect of hydrogen inhalation especially effect on mast cell activation in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING Animal research laboratory SUBJECTS 171, 8 weeks old male CD-1 mice were used. INTERVENTIONS Collagenase-induced ICH model in 8 weeks old, male, CD-1 mice was used. Hydrogen was administrated via spontaneous inhalation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neurological deficits were investigated at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. Mast cell activation was evaluated by Western blot and immuno-staining. The effects of hydrogen inhalation on mast cell activation were confirmed in an autologous blood injection model ICH. MEASURMENT AND MAIN RESULTS At 24 and 72 hours post-ICH, animals showed BBB disruption, brain edema, neurological deficits, accompanied with phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, indicating mast cell activation. Hydrogen treatment diminished phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, decreased accumulation and degranulation of mast cells, attenuated BBB disruption and improved neurobehavioral function. CONCLUSION Activation of mast cells following ICH contributed to increase of BBB permeability and brain edema. Hydrogen inhalation preserved BBB disruption by prevention of mast cell activation after ICH. PMID:23388512

  15. Effect of Scour on the Natural Frequency Responses of the Meteorological Mast in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Tseng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological mast (met mast for the Taiwan Power Company’s offshore wind farm is located in Taiwan Strait near Changhua County. The p–y curve method recommended in the current offshore foundation design codes does not account for the local scour around the pile foundation; it overestimates the lateral pile deformation and underestimates the foundation stiffness. This paper presents a method to correct the initial modulus of subgrade reaction and modify the ultimate lateral resistance caused by the local scour. The natural frequency of the met mast structure is also determined by a numerical model and verified with the measured data in situ. A comprehensive parameter study is performed to analyze the effect of scour on the dynamic responses of the met mast. Two types of foundation model, a coupled-springs foundation model and a distributed-springs foundation model, are considered in the dynamic analysis of the met mast. The results demonstrate that using a distributed-springs foundation model provides a relatively accurate estimate of the natural frequencies of the met mast structure. Furthermore, the scour exerted significant effects on certain modes of the vibration responses. The natural frequencies of the met mast structure can be reduced by approximately 14% due to scour, particularly in the horizontal bending modes. This paper also provides a preliminary strategy for structural monitoring and analysis to detect scour damage on offshore wind turbines with monopile foundations.

  16. [Inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human mast cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-jiang; Wang, Hu; Li, Li; Sui, He-huan; Huang, Jia-jun

    2015-06-01

    This study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The cytotoxicity of kaempferol to HMC-1 mast cells were analyzed by using MTT assay and then the administration concentrations of kaempferol were established. Histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA assay in activated HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with various concentrations of kaempferol (10, 20 and 40 µmol.L-1). Western blot was used to test the protein expression of p-IKKβ, IκBα, p-IκBα and nucleus NF-κB of LPS-induced HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with different concentrations of kaempferol. The optimal concentrations of kaempferol were defined as the range from 5 µmol.L-1 to 40 µmol.L-1. Kaempferol significantly decreased the release of histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α of activated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol, the protein expression of p-IKKβ, p-IKBa and nucleus NF-κB (p65) markedly reduced in LPS-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol markedly inhibit mast cell-mediated inflammatory response. At the same time, kaempferol can inhibit the activation of IKKβ, block the phosphorylation of IκBα, prevent NF-KB entering into the nucleus, and then decrease the release of inflammatory mediators.

  17. Copper Regulates Maturation and Expression of an MITF:Tryptase Axis in Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu Frisk, Jun Mei; Kjellén, Lena; Kaler, Stephen G; Pejler, Gunnar; Öhrvik, Helena

    2017-12-15

    Copper has previously been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, but the impact of this metal on mast cells is poorly understood. In this article, we address this issue and show that copper starvation of mast cells causes increased granule maturation, as indicated by higher proteoglycan content, stronger metachromatic staining, and altered ultrastructure in comparison with nontreated cells, whereas copper overload has the opposite effects. In contrast, copper status did not impact storage of histamine in mast cells, nor did alterations in copper levels affect the ability of mast cells to degranulate in response to IgER cross-linking. A striking finding was decreased tryptase content in mast cells with copper overload, whereas copper starvation increased tryptase content. These effects were associated with corresponding shifts in tryptase mRNA levels, suggesting that copper affects tryptase gene regulation. Mechanistically, we found that alterations in copper status affected the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a transcription factor critical for driving tryptase expression. We also found evidence supporting the concept that the effects on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor are dependent on copper-mediated modulation of MAPK signaling. Finally, we show that, in MEDNIK syndrome, a condition associated with low copper levels and a hyperallergenic skin phenotype, including pruritis and dermatitis, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells is increased. Taken together, our findings reveal a hitherto unrecognized role for copper in the regulation of mast cell gene expression and maturation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Meningeal mast cell-T cell crosstalk regulates T cell encephalitogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russi, Abigail E; Walker-Caulfield, Margaret E; Guo, Yong; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Brown, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    GM-CSF is a cytokine produced by T helper (Th) cells that plays an essential role in orchestrating neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Yet where and how Th cells acquire GM-CSF expression is unknown. In this study we identify mast cells in the meninges, tripartite tissues surrounding the brain and spinal cord, as important contributors to antigen-specific Th cell accumulation and GM-CSF expression. In the absence of mast cells, Th cells do not accumulate in the meninges nor produce GM-CSF. Mast cell-T cell co-culture experiments and selective mast cell reconstitution of the meninges of mast cell-deficient mice reveal that resident meningeal mast cells are an early source of caspase-1-dependent IL-1β that licenses Th cells to produce GM-CSF and become encephalitogenic. We also provide evidence of mast cell-T cell co-localization in the meninges and CNS of recently diagnosed acute MS patients indicating similar interactions may occur in human demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental changes of mast cell populations in the cerebral meninges of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaloudi, Helen; Batzios, Christos; Chiotelli, Maria; Papadopoulos, Georgios C

    2007-10-01

    It is known that both the dura and the pia mater attract and support the differentiation of mast cells. The present study shows that unevenly distributed mast cells in the cerebral meninges of the rat can be found in perivascular sites and vessel ramification points, but can also be unrelated to the meningeal vasculature. It also documents changes in the number, localization and staining preferences of the mast cells in the two meninges of the developing and mature rat brain. Quantitative examination of all types of histochemically differentiated meningeal mast cells reveals no major (although some exist) differences between right and left side subpopulations, but strongly suggests a different origin and fate of the dural and the pial mast cells. The number of dural mast cells, already high from postnatal day 0, although declining from postnatal day 21 onwards, remains conspicuous up to postnatal day 180. In contrast, pial mast cells are comparatively very few in the first day of the postnatal life, and despite a transient significant increase in the following two weeks, they reach almost zero levels from postnatal day 21.

  20. Mast Cell Subsets and Their Functional Modulation by the Acanthocheilonema viteae Product ES-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimity H. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by filarial nematodes, exhibits therapeutic potential in mouse models of allergic inflammation, at least in part by inducing the desensitisation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell responses. However, in addition to their pathogenic roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases, mast cells are important in fighting infection, wound healing, and resolving inflammation, reflecting that mast cells exhibit a phenotypic and functional plasticity. We have therefore characterised the differential functional responses to antigen (via FcεRI and LPS and their modulation by ES-62 of the mature peritoneal-derived mast cells (PDMC; serosal and those of the connective tissue-like mast cells (CTMC and the mucosal-like mast cells derived from bone marrow progenitors (BMMC as a first step to produce disease tissue-targeted therapeutics based on ES-62 action. All three mast cell populations were rendered hyporesponsive by ES-62 and whilst the mechanisms underlying such desensitisation have not been fully delineated, they reflect a downregulation of calcium and PKCα signalling. ES-62 also downregulated MyD88 and PKCδ in mucosal-type BMMC but not PDMC, the additional signals targeted in mucosal-type BMMC likely reflecting that these cells respond to antigen and LPS by degranulation and cytokine secretion whereas PDMC predominantly respond in a degranulation-based manner.

  1. Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słodka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  2. Mast Cell, the Neglected Member of the Tumor Microenvironment: Role in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-López, Angélica; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Cortes-Muñoz, Daniel; Muñoz-Cruz, Samira

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells are unique tissue-resident immune cells that secrete a diverse array of biologically active compounds that can stimulate, modulate, or suppress the immune response. Although mounting evidence supports that mast cells are consistently infiltrating tumors, their role as either a driving or an opposite force for cancer progression is still controversial. Particularly, in breast cancer, their function is still under discussion. While some studies have shown a protective role, recent evidence indicates that mast cells enhance blood and lymphatic vessel formation. Interestingly, one of the most important components of the mast cell cargo, the serine protease tryptase, is a potent angiogenic factor, and elevated serum tryptase levels correlate with bad prognosis in breast cancer patients. Likewise, histamine is known to induce tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. In agreement, mast cell depletion reduces the size of mammary tumors and metastasis in murine models that spontaneously develop breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the evidence supporting protumoral and antitumoral roles of mast cells, emphasizing recent findings placing mast cells as important drivers of tumor progression, as well as the potential use of these cells or their mediators as therapeutic targets.

  3. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  4. Type 1 diabetes in NOD mice unaffected by mast cell deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Dario A; Fu, Wenxian; Schonefeldt, Susann; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Lampi, Yulia; Liston, Adrian; Mathis, Diane; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2014-11-01

    Mast cells have been invoked as important players in immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on in vitro studies, or in vivo through the use of Kit mutant mice, mast cells have been suggested to play immunological roles in direct antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, in the regulation of T-cell and dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes, and in Th1 versus Th2 polarization, all of which could significantly impact the immune response against self-antigens in autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Until now, the role of mast cells in the onset and incidence of T1D has only been indirectly tested through the use of low-specificity mast cell inhibitors and activators, and published studies reported contrasting results. Our three laboratories have generated independently two strains of mast cell-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, NOD.Cpa3(Cre/+) (Heidelberg) and NOD.Kit(W-sh/W-sh) (Leuven and Boston), to address the effects of mast cell deficiency on the development of T1D in the NOD strain. Our collective data demonstrate that both incidence and progression of T1D in NOD mice are independent of mast cells. Moreover, analysis of pancreatic lymph node cells indicated that lack of mast cells has no discernible effect on the autoimmune response, which involves both innate and adaptive immune components. Our results demonstrate that mast cells are not involved in T1D in the NOD strain, making their role in this process nonessential and excluding them as potential therapeutic targets. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  6. Morfologia de sementes e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Bromeliaceae Seed and post-seminal development morphology on Bromeliaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Regina Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar as sementes, fornecendo informações sobre o tipo e o tempo médio de germinação e de formação de plântulas, além de descrever a morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de seis espécies de Bromeliaceae. Os resultados mostram germinação do tipo epígea e plântulas criptocotiledonares para todas as espécies. As porcentagens máximas de germinação obtidas, acima de 80%, indicam alta qualidade fisiológica das sementes. O tempo médio de germinação e de formação de plântulas foi de 4-15 e 8-18 dias, respectivamente. As sementes são filiformes a elípticas, lisas ou com apêndices plumosos. Os caracteres morfológicos mais relevantes para a diferenciação entre gêneros e subfamílias de Bromeliaceae referem-se à forma e ao tipo de apêndices das sementes, e na forma e tamanho da bainha cotiledonar, hipocótilo e raiz primária das plântulas, subsidiando estudos taxonômicos, ecológicos e na área de tecnologia de sementes.The aim of this study was to characterize the seeds, providing information about germination type and seedling rate, in addition to describe the post-seminal development morphology of the six species of Bromeliaceae. The results showed that the germination is epigeal with cryptocotylar seedlings. Maximum germination percentage was over 80%, for all species, indicating high physiological quality of the seeds. Germination and seedling rate was 4-15 and 8-18 days, respectively. Seeds are filiform to elliptical, smooth or with flight apparatus. The most relevant morphological characters for distinguishing among genera and subfamilies are shape and appendices of the seeds, form and size of the cotyledonal sheath, hypocotyl and primary root, providing information on taxonomic, ecological and seed technology studies.

  7. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers—An Explorative Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Neuhaus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7, and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2 in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  8. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers-An Explorative Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schiffer, Eric; Mannello, Ferdinando; Horn, Lars-Christian; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2017-05-04

    Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7), and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  9. A proton NMR study of the effect of Mucuna pruriens on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Bansal, Navneeta; Jaiswer, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narain

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this study was to employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on the metabolic profile of seminal plasma of infertile patients. A total of 180 infertile patients were administered M. pruriens seed powder for a period of three months. Age-matched healthy men comprised the control (n=50) group in the study. Lactate, alanine, choline, citrate, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine were measured in seminal plasma by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. To evaluate the degree of infertility and extent of hormonal imbalance induced by this milieu, separate sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide in seminal plasma and LH, FSH, T, and PRL hormone concentration in serum were measured using standard laboratory methods and RIA, respectively, in the same subjects. M. pruriens therapy rectifies the perturbed alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine and phenylalanine content in seminal plasma and improves the semen quality of post-treated infertile men with compared to pre-treated. Concomitantly, clinical variables in seminal plasma and blood serum were also improved over post therapy in infertile men. On the basis of these observations, it may be proposed that M. pruriens seed powder not only reactivates the enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also rejuvenates the harmonic balance of male reproductive hormones in infertile men. These findings open more opportunities for infertility treatment and management by improving semen quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New magnetic real time shape control for MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pangione, L., E-mail: luigi.pangione@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association – Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McArdle, G.; Storrs, J. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association – Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► New magnetic shape control system has been implemented. ► It has been intensively tested in a simulation environment. ► A tool chain to produce LTI model and simulate its behaviour has been implemented. ► Experimental results are shown. -- Abstract: The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) real time plasma position controller is based on an optical linear camera placed on the mid plane of the vessel. This solution has the advantage of being a direct observation of the D{sub α} emissions coming from the interaction between the boundary of the plasma and neutral gas, but, on the other hand, it restricts the control to the outer radius of the plasma only. A complete chain of tools has been set up to implement, test and simulate a new real time magnetic plasma shape controller based on the rtEFIT code. The complete working path consists of three elements: a linear static relationship between control parameters and current demands, a linear state space model needed to represent the plasma dynamic response in closed loop simulations, and the possibility to run simulations inside the Plasma Control System (PCS). The linear relationship has been calculated using the FIESTA code, which is developed using Matlab at CCFE. The linear state space model was generated using the CREATE-L code developed by the CREATE Consortium. It has already been successfully used to model JET, FTU and TCV tokamaks. Using this working path many simulations have been carried out allowing fine tuning of the control gains before the real experiment. The simulation testing includes the plasma shape control law as implemented in PCS itself, so intensive debugging has been possible prior to operation. Successful control using rtEFIT was established in the second dedicated experiment during the MAST 2011–12 campaign. This work is a stepping stone towards divertor control which is ultimately intended for application to the super-X divertor in the MAST Upgrade experiment.

  11. Identification of mast cells in buffy coat preparations from dogs with inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayatte, S M; McManus, P M; Miller, W H; Scott, D W

    1995-02-01

    In 100 dogs with 4 inflammatory dermatologic diseases, buffy coat preparations from EDTA-treated blood samples were examined cytologically. Fifty-four dogs had atopy, 26 had flea-bite hypersensitivity, 17 had sarcoptic mange, and 3 had food allergy. Twenty-eight dogs had 2 or more concurrent skin diseases; most of these had secondary pyoderma. Dogs did not have mast cell tumors. Thirteen samples contained 1 or more mast cells/4 slides reviewed. This study revealed that dogs with inflammatory skin diseases can have a few to many mast cells evident on cytologic examination of buffy coat preparations.

  12. Use of Neural Networks for Damage Assessment in a Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with the Backpropagation Algorithm for detecting location and size of a damage in a civil engineering structure is investigated. The structure considered is a 20 m high steel lattice mast subjected to wind excita...... as well as full-scale tests where the mast is identified by an ARMA-model. The results show that a neural network trained with simulated data is capable for detecting location of a damage in a steel lattice mast when the network is subjected to experimental data.·...

  13. Diagnostic method for measuring plasma-induced voltages on the PBX-M [Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified] stabilizing shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Okabayashi, M.; Schweitzer, S.

    1990-07-01

    The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified (PBX-M) has a close-fitting conducting, passive plate, stabilizing shell which nearly surrounds highly indented, bean-shaped plasmas. The proximity of this electrically isolated shell to a large fraction of the plasma surface allows measurements similar to previous work on other tokamaks using floating probes and limiters. Measurements were performed to characterize the plasma-induced voltages on the PBX-M passive plate stabilizing shell during high-β plasmas. Voltage differences were measured between the respective passive plate toroidal and poloidal gaps, the respective passive plates and the vessel, and an outer poloidal graphite limiter and its passive plate. The calibration and qualification testing procedures are discussed. The initial measurements found that the largest voltages were observed at plasma start-up and at the plasma current disruption and exhibited characteristics depending on operating conditions. The highest voltages observed have been at disruption and were less than 2 kV. 9 refs., 5 figs

  14. Hemocompatibility and oxygenation performance of polysulfone membranes grafted with polyethylene glycol and heparin by plasma-induced surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Huang, Xin; Fan, Wenling; Yu, Wenkui; Zhang, Zhibing; Li, Lei; Mao, Chun

    2017-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and heparin (Hep) were grafted onto polysulfone (PSF) membrane by plasma-induced surface modification to prepare PSF-PEG-Hep membranes used for artificial lung. The effects of plasma treatment parameters, including power, gas type, gas flow rate, and treatment time, were investigated, and different PEG chains were bonded covalently onto the surface in the postplasma grafting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, PEG grafting degree, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, critical water permeability pressure, and scanning electron microscopy. Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests showed significant improvement in the hemocompatibility of PSF-PEG-Hep membranes compared to pristine PSF membrane. Gas exchange tests through PSF-PEG6000-Hep membrane showed that when the flow rate of porcine blood reached 5.0 L/min, the permeation fluxes of O 2 and CO 2 reached 192.6 and 166.9 mL/min, respectively, which were close to the gas exchange capacity of a commercial membrane oxygenator. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1737-1746, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The impact of BMI on sperm parameters and the metabolite changes of seminal plasma concomitantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Yiqiu; Chen, Minjian; Teng, Mengying; Lu, Chuncheng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2017-07-25

    The development of male infertility increased rapidly worldwide, which coinciding with the epidemic of obesity. However, the impact of weight abnormalities on sperm quality is still contestable. To assess the correlation between BMI and sperm parameters, we searched relevant articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Wanfang database published until June 2015 without language restriction. Otherwise, we also recruited some participants who attended fertility clinic as well as some general populations in this report. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis about BMI and sperm parameters containing total sperm count, concentration, semen volume and sperm motility (overall and progressive). Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma was performed to explore the mechanism from a new perspective. This study found standardized weighted mean differences (SMD) in sperm parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, and semen volume) of abnormal weight groups decreased to different degree compared to normal weight. Dose-response analysis found SMD of sperm count, sperm concentration and semen volume respectively fell 2.4%, 1.3% and 2.0% compared with normal weight for every 5-unit increase in BMI. Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma showed that spermidine and spermine were likely to play a vital role in the spermatogenesis progress. This systematic review with meta-analysis has confirmed there was a relationship between BMI and sperm quality, suggesting obesity may be a detrimental factor of male infertility.

  16. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves seminal antioxidant status and decreases sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Joan Carles; Cordobilla, Begoña; Nicolás, María; Fernández, Laura; Albero, Pilar; Gadea, Joaquín; Landeras, José

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on semen quality, fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and DNA fragmentation. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 74 subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the placebo group (n=32) or to the DHA group (n=42) to consume three 500-mg capsules of oil per day over 10 weeks. The placebo group received 1,500 mg/day of sunflower oil and the DHA group 1,500 mg/day of DHA-enriched oil. Seminal parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and vitality), total antioxidant capacity, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, and lipid composition were evaluated prior to the treatment and after 10 weeks. Finally, 57 subjects were included in the study with 25 in the placebo group and 32 in the DHA group. No differences were found in traditional sperm parameters or lipid composition of the sperm membrane after treatment. However, an increase in DHA and Omega-3 fatty acid content in seminal plasma, an improvement in antioxidant status, and a reduction in the percentage of spermatozoa with deoxyribonucleic acid damage were observed in the DHA group after 10 weeks of treatment.

  17. Morphological changes in the seminal receptacle during ovarian development in the speckled swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Fernando Jose; Raggi Pereira, Gerson Rodrigues; Sant'anna, Bruno Sampaio

    2014-08-01

    To understand sperm plug dissolution and spermatophore dehiscence in Portunidae, histological and ultrastructural changes in the seminal receptacle (SR) of Arenaeus cribrarius were investigated during ovarian development. In juvenile females the SR was filled with acid polysaccharides and the dorsal epithelium was stratified. Mated females with rudimentary ovaries showed a large SR filled by a glycoprotein sperm plug. This plug was present until the developing-ovary stage, when spermatophore dehiscence and intense holocrine secretions in the dorsal dense layer occurred. The plug was absent after the intermediate stage, and the SR became flaccid. The secretion produced moved the spermatophores into the ventral region. The modified dorsal epithelium in the transition between the dorsal and ventral regions released acid polysaccharides, which were found among the sperm, by exocytosis. The morphological changes of the SR in A. cribrarius, including the presence of the sperm plug, followed the macroscopic pattern observed in other members of Portunidae, such as blue crabs. However, in this species dissolution of the sperm plug was synchronized with ovarian development and occurred simultaneously with spermatophore dehiscence, showing the evolutionary relationship of the seminal receptacle and the female reproductive system to the storage of spermatophores and spermatozoa. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  18. Morfologia de sementes e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Physalis angulata L Seed morphology and post-seminal development of Physalis angulata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Luiza Mascarenhas de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Physalis angulata é conhecida como camapu, mullaca ou juá-de-capote e pertence à família Solanaceae. Esta espécie possui importância medicinal, pela presença dos vitaesteróides conhecidos como fisalinas e, atualmente, na alimentação. Essa espécie se propaga facilmente por sementes, motivo pelo qual ela é tida como infestante de outras culturas. Nesse sentido, a identificação da espécie ainda nos estágios iniciais de crescimento confunde com as demais infestantes, tornando difícil a sua caracterização taxonômica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente as sementes e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Physalis angulata. Os ensaios foram desenvolvidos no Laboratório de Germinação da Unidade Experimental Horto Florestal, Feira de Santana - BA. Para tanto foram realizadas análises morfométricas das sementes (4 repetições de 25 e analisadas suas características externas e internas com auxilio de microscópico estereoscópico. Para a descrição das plântulas da espécie foram utilizadas placas de petri contendo duas folhas de papel filtro (4 repetições de 20 sementes e umedecidos com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas em câmara de germinação à 35ºC (fotoperíodo de 12 horas até a emissão dos cotilédones. A metodologia para descrição do desenvolvimento pós-seminal foi realizada em condições de casa de vegetação e consistiu em avaliações realizadas cinco dias após a semeadura (emissão dos cotilédones e no intervalo de até 15 dias (emissão de eófilos e metáfilos no qual foram utilizados 2 repetições de 20 vasos. As sementes apresentaram em média 1,55 mm de comprimento, 1,26 mm de largura e 0,43 mm de espessura. O período de análise foi suficiente para caracterizar as sementes e plântulas da espécie, permitindo a adoção de critérios de anormalidade.Physalis angulata is also known as camapu, mullaca or juá-de-capote it belongs to the Solanaceae family

  19. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  20. Characterisation of detached plasmas on the MAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.R., E-mail: james.harrison@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lisgo, S.W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, St.Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Gibson, K.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dowling, J. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Divertor detachment is an attractive operating regime for the next generation of tokamak devices, as it offers a means of mitigating the steady-state heat flux to plasma facing components. In order to clarify the dominant physical mechanisms that govern detachment, high quality data from several diagnostics are required to constrain theoretical models. To that end, high spatial ({approx}3 mm) and temporal (5 kHz) resolution measurements have been made of the intensity of deuterium Balmer and carbon emission lines during the onset and evolution of detachment of the lower inner strike point in MAST L-mode discharges. Furthermore, spatially-resolved measurements of the shapes and intensities of high-n Balmer lines have been recorded to infer plasma conditions during the detached phase.

  1. Saturated ideal modes in advanced tokamak regimes in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, I.T.; Hua, M.-D.; Pinches, S.D.; Akers, R.J.; Field, A.R.; Hastie, R.J.; Michael, C.A.; Graves, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    MAST plasmas with a safety factor above unity and a profile with either weakly reversed shear or broad low-shear regions, regularly exhibit long-lived saturated ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The toroidal rotation is flattened in the presence of such perturbations and the fast ion losses are enhanced. These ideal modes, distinguished as such by the notable lack of islands or signs of reconnection, are driven unstable as the safety factor approaches unity. This could be of significance for advanced scenarios, or hybrid scenarios which aim to keep the safety factor just above rational surfaces associated with deleterious resistive MHD instabilities, especially in spherical tokamaks which are more susceptible to such ideal internal modes. The role of rotation, fast ions and ion diamagnetic effects in determining the marginal mode stability is discussed, as well as the role of instabilities with higher toroidal mode numbers as the safety factor evolves to lower values.

  2. STIM1-Directed Reorganization of Microtubules in Activated Mast Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Zuzana; Bugajev, Viktor; Dráberová, Eduarda; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Lubica; Janáček, Jiří; Dráber, Petr; Dráber, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 2 (2011), s. 913-923 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA ČR GA204/09/1777; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : STIM1 * bone marrow-derived mast cells * microtubules Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2011

  3. Primary tonsillar mast cell tumour in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekell, C C; Thomson, M J; Miller, R I; Mackie, J T

    2018-05-01

    A 6-year-old speyed female Bull Arab-cross dog was found to have a small tonsillar nodule. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated mast cell tumour (MCT). At initial staging, no evidence of concurrent cutaneous or visceral MCTs was found on a complete blood count, a single lateral thoracic radiograph, abdominal ultrasound or cytology of the spleen and regional lymph nodes. A diagnosis of primary tonsillar MCT was made. At 40 months postoperatively, the dog is alive with no evidence of gross tumour progression, in contrast to some previous reports of rapid disease progression and metastasis in dogs with primary oral MCTs. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of a primary MCT of the tonsil in dogs exist in the veterinary literature. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Stimulation of mast cells leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages in vitro by a mast cell granule-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of 125 I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in 14 C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages

  5. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNO-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF FERTILITY ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF KARAN FRIES BULL SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Raman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was detection, isolation, partial purification and immunobiochemical characterization of fertility associated protein in the seminal plasma of high prolific Karan fries bull. Seminal plasma of Karan Fries bull was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE for their polypeptide profile. PAGE analysis revealed major band of 55 kDa, and 26 kDa. Hyperimmune serum was raised in rabbit against crude seminal plasma protein. Single precipitin line was observed in DID test when each of the partially purified 26 kDa and 55 kDa proteins were reacted with hyperimmune serum. These proteins were also found to be immunoreactive against hyperimmune serum in Western blot technique.

  6. The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa M. Kratz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are known to mediate some events involved in successful fertilization. Although some studies on the glycosylation of seminal plasma proteins are available, the total glycan profile was rarely analyzed as a feature influencing fertilization potential. In this work we aimed to compare some glycosylation traits in seminal plasma glycoproteins of fertile and infertile men. The following findings emerge from our studies: (1 in human seminal plasma the presence and alterations of O-linked glycans were observed; (2 the expression of SNA-reactive sialic acid significantly differs between asthenozoospermia and both normozoospermic (fertile and infertile groups; (3 the expression of PHA-L-reactive highly branched N-glycans was significantly lower in oligozoospermic patients than in both normozoospermic groups. Indication of the appropriate lectins that would enable the possibly precise determination of the glycan profile seems to be a good supplement to mass spectrum analysis. Extension of the lectin panel is useful for the further research.

  7. Analysis of risk factors of involvement of seminal vesicles in patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine through preoperative serum PSA level, Gleason score on biopsy and percentage of fragments affected by tumor on biopsy, the probability of involvement of the seminal vesicles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the period between March 1991 to December 2002, we selected 899 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of localized prostate adenocarcinoma. The analyzed preoperative variables were PSA, percentage of positive fragments and Gleason score on the biopsy. Pre-operative PSA was divided in scales from 0 to 4.0 ng/mL, 4.1 to 10 ng/mL, 10.1 to 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL, Gleason score was categorized in scales from 2 to 6. 7 and 8 to 10, and the percentage of affected fragments was divided in 0 to 25%, 25.1% to 50%, 50.1% to 75%, and 75.1% to 100%. All these variables were correlated with the involvement of seminal vesicles in the surgical specimen. RESULTS: Of the 899 patients under study, approximately 11% (95% CI, [9% - 13%] had involvement of seminal vesicles. On the multivariate analysis, when PSA was < 4, the Gleason score was 2 to 6, and less than 25% of fragments were involved on the biopsy, only 3.6%, 7.6% and 6.2% of patients respectively, had involvement of seminal vesicles. On the multivariate analysis, we observed that PSA, Gleason score and the percentage of involved fragments were independent prognostic factors for invasion of seminal vesicles. CONCLUSION: The preoperative variables used in the present study allow the identification of men with minimal risk (lower than 5% if involvement of seminal vesicles.

  8. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a

  9. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases

  10. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Selvakumar, Govindhasamy P; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Ahmed, Mohammad E; Zaheer, Smita; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Iyer, Shankar S; Bhagavan, Sachin M; Beladakere-Ramaswamy, Swathi; Zaheer, Asgar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including AD. This

  11. Induction of mast cell accumulation by chymase via an enzymatic activity- and intercellular adhesion molecule-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Junling; Wang, Ling; Zhan, Mengmeng; Li, Shigang; Fang, Zeman; Xu, Ciyan; Zheng, Yanshan; He, Shaoheng

    2018-02-01

    Chymase is a unique, abundant secretory product of mast cells and a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils, monocytes and neutrophils, but little is known of its influence on mast cell accumulation. A mouse peritoneal inflammation model, cell migration assay and flowcytometry analysis, were used to investigate the role of chymase in recruiting mast cells. Chymase increased, by up to 5.4-fold, mast cell numbers in mouse peritoneum. Inhibitors of chymase, heat-inactivation of the enzyme, sodium cromoglycate and terfenadine, and pretreatment of mice with anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1, anti-L-selectin, anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 antibodies dramatically diminished the chymase-induced increase in mast cell accumulation. These findings indicate that this effect of chymase is dependent on its enzymatic activity and activation of adhesion molecules. In addition, chymase provoked a significant increase in 5-HT and eotaxin release (up to 1.8- and 2.2-fold, respectively) in mouse peritoneum. Since 5-HT, eotaxin and RANTES can induce marked mast cell accumulation, these indirect mechanisms may also contribute to chymase-induced mast cell accumulation. Moreover, chymase increased the trans-endothelium migration of mast cells in vitro indicating it also acts as a chemoattractant. The finding that mast cells accumulate in response to chymase implies further that chymase is a major pro-inflammatory mediator of mast cells. This effect of chymase, a major product of mast cell granules, suggests a novel self-amplification mechanism for mast cell accumulation in allergic inflammation. Mast cell stabilizers and inhibitors of chymase may have potential as a treatment of allergic disorders. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Mast cells infiltration and decreased E-cadherin expression in ketamine-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Increased mast cells in bladder wall and downregulated expression of E-cadherin junction protein in epithelial cells were probably associated with interstitial inflammation and fissures in mucosa. It implied that ketamine induced an interstitial cystitis.

  13. Radiation survey of mobile and wireless technology masts in public places in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoh, N. I.; Ogbanje, G. O.; Jonah, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Work was done to measure radiation exposure of the populace in Kaduna metropolis from radiation emitted from global satellite communication masts. Base stations were surveyed in residential, school and office areas. Parameters sampled include the electric field strength, magnetic field strength, power density and ionizing radiation dose rate of the 20 surveyed masts belonging to four service providers. The instruments deployed include the Rf- EMF strength meter Model 480836 used to measure the first three parameters and Radiation Monitor Radex RD 1503 used to determine the forth parameter. The result obtained in this work was compared with the limits set by international regulatory bodies. Our result shows that electromagnetic and ionizing radiation exposures from the surveyed masts are far below the standard limits. Based on this, the population in Kaduna metropolis is not subjected to any adverse health effects from the Global System of Mobile Communication/Universal Mobile Telecommunication System masts at the moment.

  14. A Role for Human Skin Mast Cells in Dengue Virus Infection and Systemic Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Andrea; Shirley, Devon; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Watson, Alan M; McHale, Cody; Hall, Alex; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Klimstra, William B; Gomez, Gregorio; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious global human disease and mortality. Skin immune cells are an important component of initial DENV infection and systemic spread. Here, we show that mast cells are a target of DENV in human skin and that DENV infection of skin mast cells induces degranulation and alters cytokine and growth factor expression profiles. Importantly, to our knowledge, we also demonstrate for the first time that DENV localizes within secretory granules in infected skin mast cells. In addition, DENV within extracellular granules was infectious in vitro and in vivo, trafficking through lymph to draining lymph nodes in mice. We demonstrate an important role for human skin mast cells in DENV infection and identify a novel mechanism for systemic spread of DENV infection from the initial peripheral mosquito injection site. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Interpretive modelling of scrape-off plasmas on the MAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, D2/2.01 Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom)], E-mail: james.harrison@ukaea.org.uk; Lisgo, S. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, D2/2.01 Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Counsell, G.F. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Gibson, K. [University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Dowling, J. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, D2/2.01 Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trojan, L. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reiter, D. [IPP, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Electrical currents in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of MAST are modelled using an interpretive Onion-Skin Model (OSM) constrained with experimental data from MAST diagnostics. The model was extended to include the effects of the magnetic mirror force, which has a strong influence on the particle and momentum balance in spherical tokamaks, such as MAST . These modifications serve to more accurately model the parallel electric fields present in the MAST SOL, which can alter plasma dynamics via the E x B drift. Simulations show that the electrical current at the divertor targets is predominantly thermoelectric, whereas Pfirsch-Schlueter currents have a greater contribution to the total current in the bulk of the SOL plasma.

  16. Fatigue Resistant Design Criteria for MD SHA Cantilevered Mast Arm Signal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The fatigue design of the mast arm structures and connections vary significantly based on the Category of Importance factor adopted and the load cases for fatigue design loads. Consideration should include the cost and size of the structures for both...

  17. Full-scale investigation of wind-induced vibrations of mast-arm traffic signal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Because of their inherent : fl : exibility and low damping ratios, cantilevered mast : - : arm : tra : ffi : c signal structures are suscepti : b : le to : wind : - : induced vibrations. : These vibrations : cause stru : ctural stresses and strains t...

  18. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; , van, Berkel T.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by

  19. Cutaneous mast cell maturation does not depend on an intact bone marrow microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charley, M.R.; Mikhael, A.; Sontheimer, R.D.; Gilliam, J.N.; Bennett, M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether the maturation of murine cutaneous mast cells from stem cells depends on an intact bone marrow microenvironment. Normal bone marrow cells (+/+) were infused into 2 groups of mast cell-deficient mice: WBB6F1-W/Wv mice and 89 Sr-pretreated W/Wv mice. 89 Sr is a long-lived bone-seeking radioisotope which provides continuous irradiation of the marrow and thereby ablates the marrow microenvironment. Skin biopsies revealed that the 89 Sr-pretreated mice and the controls had repopulated their skin with mast cells equally well. Natural killer cell function was significantly depressed in the 89 Sr-treated mice, confirming that the marrow microenvironment had been functionally altered. It appears that, although the precursors for cutaneous mast cells are marrow derived, they do not need an intact marrow microenvironment for maturation

  20. Energy metabolism in rat mast cells in relation to histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T

    1987-01-01

    1. The relation between the energy metabolism and the secretory activity of rat peritoneal mast cells has been studied by determination of the cellular content of ATP and the rate of lactate production reflecting the rate of ATP synthesis under various experimental conditions. Secretion...... and the cellular ATP content at the time of cell activation was demonstrated. This may indicate a direct link between ATP and the secretory mechanism. 3. The possibility of an increased utilization of ATP during histamine secretion was explored in mast cells exposed to metabolic inhibitors. Incubation of mast...... cells with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) decreased the ATP content of the cells, and a long-lasting and stable level of mast cell ATP was observed. This is explained by a small decrease in the rate of ATP-synthesis by 2-DG. In 2-DG-treated cells secretion of histamine in response to compound 48...

  1. Mast cell inhibition as a therapeutic approach in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Tracy A; Lindborg, Carter M; Bergbauer, Christian R; Wang, Haitao; Kaplan, Frederick S; Pignolo, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    Episodic flare-ups of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) are characterized clinically by severe, often posttraumatic, connective tissue swelling and intramuscular edema, followed histologically by an intense and highly angiogenic fibroproliferative reaction. This early inflammatory and angiogenic fibroproliferative response is accompanied by the presence of abundant mast cells far in excess of other reported myopathies. Using an injury-induced, constitutively-active transgenic mouse model of FOP we show that mast cell inhibition by cromolyn, but not aprepitant, results in a dramatic reduction of heterotopic ossification. Cromolyn, but not aprepitant, significantly decreases the total number of mast cells in FOP lesions. Furthermore, cromolyn specifically diminishes the number of degranulating and resting degranulated mast cells in pre-osseous lesions. This work demonstrates that consideration of FOP as a type of localized mastocytosis may offer new therapeutic interventions for treatment of this devastating condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.

  3. Controlling Mast Cell Activation and Homeostasis: Work Influenced by Bill Paul That Continues Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Caslin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are tissue resident, innate immune cells with heterogenous phenotypes tuned by cytokines and other microenvironmental stimuli. Playing a protective role in parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections, mast cells are also known for their role in the pathogenesis of allergy, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. Here, we review factors controlling mast cell activation, with a focus on receptor signaling and potential therapies for allergic disease. Specifically, we will discuss our work with FcεRI and FγR signaling, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1 treatment, and Stat5. We conclude with potential therapeutics for allergic disease. Much of these efforts have been influenced by the work of Bill Paul. With many mechanistic targets for mast cell activation and different classes of therapeutics being studied, there is reason to be hopeful for continued clinical progress in this area.

  4. Controlling Mast Cell Activation and Homeostasis: Work Influenced by Bill Paul That Continues Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslin, Heather L; Kiwanuka, Kasalina N; Haque, Tamara T; Taruselli, Marcela T; MacKnight, H Patrick; Paranjape, Anuya; Ryan, John J

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue resident, innate immune cells with heterogenous phenotypes tuned by cytokines and other microenvironmental stimuli. Playing a protective role in parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections, mast cells are also known for their role in the pathogenesis of allergy, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. Here, we review factors controlling mast cell activation, with a focus on receptor signaling and potential therapies for allergic disease. Specifically, we will discuss our work with FcεRI and FγR signaling, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1 treatment, and Stat5. We conclude with potential therapeutics for allergic disease. Much of these efforts have been influenced by the work of Bill Paul. With many mechanistic targets for mast cell activation and different classes of therapeutics being studied, there is reason to be hopeful for continued clinical progress in this area.

  5. Differential effect of plant lectins on mast cells of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Histamine release induced by plant lectins was studied with emphasis on the carbohydrate specificity, external calcium requirement, metal binding sites, and mast cell heterogeneity and on the importance of antibodies bound to the mast cell membrane to the lectin effect. Peritoneal mast cells were obtained by direct lavage of the rat peritoneal cavity and guinea pig intestine and hamster cheek pouch mast cells were obtained by dispersion with collagenase type IA. Histamine release was induced with concanavalin A (Con A, lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, mannose-specific Cymbosema roseum, Maackia amurensis, Parkia platycephala, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and demetallized Con A and C. brasiliensis, using 1-300 µg/ml lectin concentrations applied to Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells, peaking on 26.9, 21.0, 29.1, 24.9, 17.2, 10.7, 19.9, and 41.5%, respectively. This effect was inhibited in the absence of extracellular calcium. The lectins were also active on hamster cheek pouch mast cells (except demetallized Con A and on Rowett nude rat (animal free of immunoglobulins peritoneal mast cells (except for mannose-specific C. roseum, P. platycephala and WGA. No effect was observed in guinea pig intestine mast cells. Glucose-saturated Con A and C. brasiliensis also released histamine from Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. These results suggest that histamine release induced by lectins is influenced by the heterogeneity of mast cells and depends on extracellular calcium. The results also suggest that this histamine release might occur by alternative mechanisms, because the usual mechanism of lectins is related to their binding properties to metals from which depend the binding to sugars, which would be their sites to bind to immunoglobulins. In the present study, we show that the histamine release by lectins was also induced by demetallized lectins and by sugar-saturated lectins (which would avoid their binding to other sugars. Additionally, the lectins

  6. Effects of plasma-induced defects on electrical characteristics of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure before and after low-temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Takuma; Takeshita, Koji; Nakamura, Seiji; Okumura, Tsugunori

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the electrical characteristics of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure exposed to Ar plasma. In the near-surface region of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, we found that plasma-induced defects reduced the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and mobility at the AlGaN/GaN interface with increasing exposure time. The decrease in 2DEG density suggests that plasma-induced disordering partly extinguishes the piezo-polarization of the AlGaN layer, that the effective Schottky barrier height is increased by the introduction of negatively changed defects, or that the negatively charged defects induced during plasma exposure deactivate or compensate Si donors. In addition, we investigated the postannealing behavior of plasma-induced defects in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure as well as in the n-GaN layer under an applied bias voltage. - Highlights: • We have investigated the electrical characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. • Electrons under the AlGaN/GaN interface are decreased by plasma exposure. • Post-annealing treatment with gate bias recovers the degradation caused by defects

  7. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Defective bone repair in mast cell-deficient Cpa3Cre/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Ramirez-GarciaLuna

    Full Text Available In the adult skeleton, cells of the immune system interact with those of the skeleton during all phases of bone repair to influence the outcome. Mast cells are immune cells best known for their pathologic role in allergy, and may be involved in chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disorders. Potential roles for mast cells in tissue homeostasis, vascularization and repair remain enigmatic. Previous studies in combined mast cell- and Kit-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice (KitW-sh implicated mast cells in bone repair but KitW-sh mice suffer from additional Kit-dependent hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic deficiencies that could have confounded the outcome. The goal of the current study was to compare bone repair in normal wild type (WT and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, which lack mast cells in the absence of any other hematopoietic or non- hematopoietic deficiencies. Repair of a femoral window defect was characterized using micro CT imaging and histological analyses from the early inflammatory phase, through soft and hard callus formation, and finally the remodeling phase. The data indicate 1 mast cells appear in healing bone of WT mice but not Cpa3Cre/+ mice, beginning 14 days after surgery; 2 re-vascularization of repair tissue and deposition of mineralized bone was delayed and dis-organised in Cpa3Cre/+ mice compared with WT mice; 3 the defects in Cpa3Cre/+ mice were associated with little change in anabolic activity and biphasic alterations in osteoclast and macrophage activity. The outcome at 56 days postoperative was complete bridging of the defect in most WT mice and fibrous mal-union in most Cpa3Cre/+ mice. The results indicate that mast cells promote bone healing, possibly by recruiting vascular endothelial cells during the inflammatory phase and coordinating anabolic and catabolic activity during tissue remodeling. Taken together the data indicate that mast cells have a positive impact on bone repair.

  9. Defective bone repair in mast cell-deficient Cpa3Cre/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-GarciaLuna, Jose Luis; Chan, Daniel; Samberg, Robert; Abou-Rjeili, Mira; Wong, Timothy H; Li, Ailian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Henderson, Janet E; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    In the adult skeleton, cells of the immune system interact with those of the skeleton during all phases of bone repair to influence the outcome. Mast cells are immune cells best known for their pathologic role in allergy, and may be involved in chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disorders. Potential roles for mast cells in tissue homeostasis, vascularization and repair remain enigmatic. Previous studies in combined mast cell- and Kit-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice (KitW-sh) implicated mast cells in bone repair but KitW-sh mice suffer from additional Kit-dependent hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic deficiencies that could have confounded the outcome. The goal of the current study was to compare bone repair in normal wild type (WT) and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, which lack mast cells in the absence of any other hematopoietic or non- hematopoietic deficiencies. Repair of a femoral window defect was characterized using micro CT imaging and histological analyses from the early inflammatory phase, through soft and hard callus formation, and finally the remodeling phase. The data indicate 1) mast cells appear in healing bone of WT mice but not Cpa3Cre/+ mice, beginning 14 days after surgery; 2) re-vascularization of repair tissue and deposition of mineralized bone was delayed and dis-organised in Cpa3Cre/+ mice compared with WT mice; 3) the defects in Cpa3Cre/+ mice were associated with little change in anabolic activity and biphasic alterations in osteoclast and macrophage activity. The outcome at 56 days postoperative was complete bridging of the defect in most WT mice and fibrous mal-union in most Cpa3Cre/+ mice. The results indicate that mast cells promote bone healing, possibly by recruiting vascular endothelial cells during the inflammatory phase and coordinating anabolic and catabolic activity during tissue remodeling. Taken together the data indicate that mast cells have a positive impact on bone repair.

  10. Association of mast cell-derived VEGF and proteases in Dengue shock syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Furuta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17 between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity.

  11. Human lung mast cells modulate the functions of airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, H; Hollins, F; Moir, L M; Brightling, C E; Armour, C L; Hughes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Activated mast cell densities are increased on the airway smooth muscle in asthma where they may modulate muscle functions and thus contribute to airway inflammation, remodelling and airflow obstruction. To determine the effects of human lung mast cells on the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Freshly isolated human lung mast cells were stimulated with IgE/anti-IgE. Culture supernatants were collected after 2 and 24 h and the mast cells lysed. The supernatants/lysates were added to serum-deprived, subconfluent airway smooth muscle cells for up to 48 h. Released chemokines and extracellular matrix were measured by ELISA, proliferation was quantified by [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting, and intracellular signalling by phospho-arrays. Mast cell 2-h supernatants reduced CCL11 and increased CXCL8 and fibronectin production from both asthmatic and nonasthmatic muscle cells. Leupeptin reversed these effects. Mast cell 24-h supernatants and lysates reduced CCL11 release from both muscle cell types but increased CXCL8 release by nonasthmatic cells. The 24-h supernatants also reduced asthmatic, but not nonasthmatic, muscle cell DNA synthesis and asthmatic cell numbers over 5 days through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol (PI3)-kinase pathways. However, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, IL-4 and IL-13 were not involved in reducing the proliferation. Mast cell proteases and newly synthesized products differentially modulated the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Thus, mast cells may modulate their own recruitment and airway smooth muscle functions locally in asthma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are reduced in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beceiro, Carmen; Campos, Joaquín; Valcarcel, Maria-Angeles

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baseline serum tryptase concentrations are commonly used in clinical practice as a marker of the body's mast cell burden. This study aimed to investigate serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. METHODS: Serum tryptase concentrations were determined in 126 heavy drinkers (75...... test positivity) was not associated with serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are lower in heavy drinkers than in healthy controls....

  13. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  14. Mast cells are dispensable for normal and activin-promoted wound healing and skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, Maria; Martin, Caroline; Huber, Marcel; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Förster, Anja; Hartmann, Karin; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Hohl, Daniel; Werner, Sabine

    2013-12-15

    The growth and differentiation factor activin A is a key regulator of tissue repair, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis. However, the cellular targets, which mediate the different activin functions, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that activin increases the number of mature mast cells in mouse skin in vivo. To determine the relevance of this finding for wound healing and skin carcinogenesis, we mated activin transgenic mice with CreMaster mice, which are characterized by Cre recombinase-mediated mast cell eradication. Using single- and double-mutant mice, we show that loss of mast cells neither affected the stimulatory effect of overexpressed activin on granulation tissue formation and reepithelialization of skin wounds nor its protumorigenic activity in a model of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. Furthermore, mast cell deficiency did not alter wounding-induced inflammation and new tissue formation or chemically induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in mice with normal activin levels. These findings reveal that mast cells are not major targets of activin during wound healing and skin cancer development and also argue against nonredundant functions of mast cells in wound healing and skin carcinogenesis in general.

  15. Effect of sugammadex on rocuronium induced changes in pancreatic mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Yıldıray; Tumkaya, Levent; Bostan, Habib; Tomak, Yakup; Altuner, Durdu; Yilmaz, Adnan; Erdivanli, Başar; Bedir, Recep; Yalcin, Alper; Turan, Alparslan

    2015-08-01

    Mast cells play a vital role in hypersensitivity reactions. Rocuronium is known to cause mast cell mobilization, hypersensitivity, and pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sugammadex on pancreatic changes due to rocuronium. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six equal groups to receive either rocuronium 1 mg/kg intravenously (i.v., R group), rocuronium 1 mg/kg + sugammadex 16 mg/kg i.v. (RS16 group), rocuronium 1 mg/kg + sugammadex 96 mg/kg i.v. (RS96 group), sugammadex 16 mg/kg (S16), sugammadex 96 mg/kg i.v. (S96 group), or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group). Sugammadex was administered 5s later following rocuronium. In R group, mast count was higher, and the distribution rate of granules and nuclear changes were different compared with other groups. Distribution rate of granules in groups S16 and S96 were similar to the control group and lower compared with other groups. The amount of mast cells and granule density in groups RS16 and RS96 was lower compared with R group. The amount of mast cells in groups RS16 and RS96 was significantly lower compared with other treatment groups. These results suggest that sugammadex may have an inhibitory effect on mobilization and morphological changes in pancreatic mast cells induced by administration of rocuronium and sugammadex in rats. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  17. Mast cells are present in the choroid of