WorldWideScience

Sample records for semiconductor surface etching

  1. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Etch of Semiconductor Surface Channels by Running Gold Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Babak; Herzing, Andrew; Muramoto, Shin; Tersoff, Jerry

    2015-12-09

    We show that Au nanoparticles spontaneously move across the (001) surface of InP, InAs, and GaP when heated in the presence of water vapor. As they move, the particles etch crystallographically aligned grooves into the surface. We show that this process is a negative analogue of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires: the semiconductor dissolves into the catalyst and reacts with water vapor at the catalyst surface to create volatile oxides, depleting the dissolved cations and anions and thus sustaining the dissolution process. This VLS etching process provides a new tool for directed assembly of structures with sublithographic dimensions, as small as a few nanometers in diameter. Au particles above 100 nm in size do not exhibit this process but remain stationary, with oxide accumulating around the particles.

  2. Selective photochemical dry etching of compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.

    1988-01-01

    When laser-driven etching of a semiconductor requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers, the etching quantum yield will be sensitive to the electronic properties of a specific semiconductor material. The band-gap energy of the semiconductor determines the minimum photon energy needed for carrier-driven etching since sub-gap photons do not generate free carriers. However, only those free carriers that reach the reacting surface contribute to etching and the ultimate carrier flux to the surface is controlled by more subtle electronic properties than the lowest-energy band gap. For example, the initial depth of carrier generation and the probability of carrier recombination between the point of generation and the surface profoundly influence the etching quantum yield. Appropriate manipulation of process parameters can provide additional reaction control based on such secondary electronic properties. Applications to selective dry etching of GaAs and related materials are discussed

  3. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  4. Etching of semiconductor cubic crystals: Determination of the dissolution slowness surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    1990-03-01

    Equations of the representative surface of dissolution slowness for cubic crystals are determined in the framework of a tensorial approach of the orientation-dependent etching process. The independent dissolution constants are deduced from symmetry considerations. Using previous data on the chemical etching of germanium and gallium arsenide crystals, some possible polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness are proposed. A numerical and graphical simulation method is used to obtain the derived dissolution shapes. The influence of extrema in the dissolution slowness on the successive dissolution shapes is also examined. A graphical construction of limiting shapes of etched crystals appears possible using the tensorial representation of the dissolution slowness.

  5. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for selectively photochemically etching a semiconductor material. It comprises introducing at least one impurity into at least one selected region of a semiconductor material to be etched to increase a local impurity concentration in the at least one selected region relative to an impurity concentration in regions of the semiconductor material adjacent thereto, for reducing minority carrier lifetimes within the at least one selected region relative to the adjacent regions for thereby providing a photochemical etch-inhibiting mask at the at least one selected region; and etching the semiconductor material by subjecting the surface of the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction for selectively etching the regions of the semiconductor material adjacent the at least one selected region having the increase impurity concentration; wherein the step of introducing at least one impurity is performed so as not to produce damage to the at least one selected region before any etching is performed

  6. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  7. Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2012-12-25

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

  8. Selective, electrochemical etching of a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Bhat, Ishwara B.; Chow, Tat-Sing

    2018-03-20

    Methods for facilitating fabricating semiconductor structures are provided which include: providing a multilayer structure including a semiconductor layer, the semiconductor layer including a dopant and having an increased conductivity; selectively increasing, using electrochemical processing, porosity of the semiconductor layer, at least in part, the selectively increasing porosity utilizing the increased conductivity of the semiconductor layer; and removing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer with the selectively increased porosity from the multilayer structure. By way of example, the selectively increasing porosity may include selectively, anodically oxidizing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer of the multilayer structure.

  9. Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching provides a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10-nm size regime. For example, quantum dots (QDs) can be QSC-PEC-etched from epitaxial InGaN thin films using narrowband laser photoexcitation, and the QD sizes (and hence bandgaps and photoluminescence wavelengths) are determined by the photoexcitation wavelength.

  10. Overview of atomic layer etching in the semiconductor industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanarik, Keren J., E-mail: keren.kanarik@lamresearch.com; Lill, Thorsten; Hudson, Eric A.; Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Tan, Samantha; Marks, Jeffrey; Vahedi, Vahid; Gottscho, Richard A. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a technique for removing thin layers of material using sequential reaction steps that are self-limiting. ALE has been studied in the laboratory for more than 25 years. Today, it is being driven by the semiconductor industry as an alternative to continuous etching and is viewed as an essential counterpart to atomic layer deposition. As we enter the era of atomic-scale dimensions, there is need to unify the ALE field through increased effectiveness of collaboration between academia and industry, and to help enable the transition from lab to fab. With this in mind, this article provides defining criteria for ALE, along with clarification of some of the terminology and assumptions of this field. To increase understanding of the process, the mechanistic understanding is described for the silicon ALE case study, including the advantages of plasma-assisted processing. A historical overview spanning more than 25 years is provided for silicon, as well as ALE studies on oxides, III–V compounds, and other materials. Together, these processes encompass a variety of implementations, all following the same ALE principles. While the focus is on directional etching, isotropic ALE is also included. As part of this review, the authors also address the role of power pulsing as a predecessor to ALE and examine the outlook of ALE in the manufacturing of advanced semiconductor devices.

  11. Overview of atomic layer etching in the semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanarik, Keren J.; Lill, Thorsten; Hudson, Eric A.; Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Tan, Samantha; Marks, Jeffrey; Vahedi, Vahid; Gottscho, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a technique for removing thin layers of material using sequential reaction steps that are self-limiting. ALE has been studied in the laboratory for more than 25 years. Today, it is being driven by the semiconductor industry as an alternative to continuous etching and is viewed as an essential counterpart to atomic layer deposition. As we enter the era of atomic-scale dimensions, there is need to unify the ALE field through increased effectiveness of collaboration between academia and industry, and to help enable the transition from lab to fab. With this in mind, this article provides defining criteria for ALE, along with clarification of some of the terminology and assumptions of this field. To increase understanding of the process, the mechanistic understanding is described for the silicon ALE case study, including the advantages of plasma-assisted processing. A historical overview spanning more than 25 years is provided for silicon, as well as ALE studies on oxides, III–V compounds, and other materials. Together, these processes encompass a variety of implementations, all following the same ALE principles. While the focus is on directional etching, isotropic ALE is also included. As part of this review, the authors also address the role of power pulsing as a predecessor to ALE and examine the outlook of ALE in the manufacturing of advanced semiconductor devices

  12. Selective laser-induced photochemical dry etching of semiconductors controlled by ion-bombardment-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    When a photochemical dry etching process requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers in the chemical reaction, it is sensitive to the electronic properties of the semiconductor. For such solid-excitation-based dry etching processes, the balance between reaction and carrier recombination rates determines the practical utility of a particular reaction for device fabrication. The distance from the surface at which the photocarriers are generated by light adsorption is determined by the absorption coefficient. In the absence of an external bias potential, only those carriers formed within a diffusion length of the surface space-charge region will have an opportunity to drive the dry etching reaction. When the absorption coefficient is high, most of the photons generate carriers within a diffusion length from the surface space-charge region, and the etching rate is largely determined by the balance between the rate of the carrier-driven reaction and the surface recombination velocity. When the recombination rate of free carriers in the bulk of the semiconductor is high, the effective diffusion length is reduced and fewer of the carriers generated in the subsurface region ever reach the surface. An important effect of ion bombardment is the creation of many lattice defects that increase the rate of recombination of electrons and holes. When a sufficient number of defects, which act as recombination sites, are formed during ion implantation, the recombination of photogenerated carriers at these defects in the subsurface region can greatly reduce the number of carriers which can reach the surface and drive a photochemical etching reaction

  13. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface dam...

  14. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  15. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Lindhard, Jonas Michael; Hirsch, Jens; Lausch, Dominik; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Stamate, Eugen; Hansen, Ole

    2017-10-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface damage that causes significant recombination. Here, we present a process optimization strategy for bSi, where surface damage is reduced and surface passivation is improved while excellent light trapping and low reflectance are maintained. We demonstrate that reduction of the capacitively coupled plasma power, during reactive ion etching at non-cryogenic temperature (-20 °C), preserves the reflectivity below 1% and improves the effective minority carrier lifetime due to reduced ion energy. We investigate the effect of the etching process on the surface morphology, light trapping, reflectance, transmittance, and effective lifetime of bSi. Additional surface passivation using atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 significantly improves the effective lifetime. For n-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 12 ms for polished and 7.5 ms for bSi surfaces. For p-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 800 μs for both polished and bSi surfaces.

  16. Etching of semiconductors and metals by the photonic jet with shaped optical fiber tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Robin; Lecler, Sylvain; Zelgowski, Julien; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Mermet, Frédéric; Fontaine, Joël

    2017-10-01

    The etching of semiconductors and metals by a photonic jet (PJ) generated with a shaped optical fiber tip is studied. Etched marks with a diameter of 1 μm have been realized on silicon, stainless steel and titanium with a 35 kHz pulsed laser, emitting 100 ns pulses at 1064 nm. The selection criteria of the fiber and its tip are discussed. We show that a 100/140 silica fiber is a good compromise which takes into account the injection, the working distance and the energy coupled in the higher-order modes. The energy balance is performed on the basis of the known ablation threshold of the material. Finally, the dependence between the etching depth and the number of pulses is studied. Saturation is observed probably due to a redeposition of the etched material, showing that a higher pulse energy is required for deeper etchings.

  17. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  18. Etch Pit Studies of II-VI-Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials ZnSe, ZnCdSe, and ZnCdMgSe Grown on InP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semendy, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Etch pit density (EPD) determination studies have been conducted on II-VI semiconductor materials ZnSe, ZnCdSe, and ZnCdMgSe grown on InP surfaces for the first time by using various etching solutions under different...

  19. Feature scale modeling for etching and deposition processes in semiconductor manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyka, W.

    2000-04-01

    Simulation of etching and deposition processes as well as three-dimensional geometry generation are important issues in state of the art TCAD applications. Three-dimensional effects are gaining importance for semiconductor devices and for their interconnects. Therefore a strictly physically based simulation of their topography is required. Accurate investigation of single etching and deposition processes has become equally important as process integration. Within this context several aspects of three-dimensional topography simulation have been covered by this thesis and new and interesting results have been achieved in various areas. The algorithmic core of the cell-based structuring element surface propagation method has been optimized and has been eliminated from its position as factor which predominantly determines the required CPU time. In parallel with investigated optimization techniques and required by various process models, the implementation of the surface normal calculation and the special handling of voids and unconnected parts of the geometry has been completed in three dimensions. A process-step-based solid modeling tool which incorporates layout data as well as aerial image simulation has been supplied. It can be coupled with the topography simulation and includes simple geometrically based models for CMP and oxidation. In the presented combination, the tool makes use of the design information stored in the layout file, combines it with the manufacturing recipe, and hence is extremely helpful for the automatic generation of three-dimensional structures. Its usefulness has been proven with several interconnect examples. Regarding topography models, resist development not only turned out to be very helpful for predicting exposed and etched resist profiles within a rigorous lithography simulation, but, by means of benchmark examples, also demonstrated the extraordinary stability of the proposed cellular surface movement algorithm. With respect to

  20. Investigation of surface roughness on etched glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, Z.; Budai, J.; Farkas, B.; Toth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roughening the surface of solar cells is a common practice within the photovoltaic industry as it reduces reflectance, and thus enhances the performance of devices. In this work the relationship between reflectance characterized by the haze parameter, surface roughness and optical properties was investigated. To achieve this goal, model samples were prepared by hydrofluoric acid etching of glass for various times and measured by optical microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Our investigation showed that the surface reflectance was decreased not only by the roughening of the surface but also by the modification of the depth profile and lowering of the refractive index of the surface domain of the samples.

  1. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Pan, Ge-Bo, E-mail: gbpan2008@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN surface was etched by 0.3 M EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. - Highlights: • GaN surface was etched by EDTA-2Na. • GaN may be dissolved into EDTA-2Na by forming Ga–EDTA complex. • We propose the complexation dissolution mechanism for the first time. - Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 10{sup 9} per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga–EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  2. Surface Passivation of CdZnTe Detector by Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral resolution of room temperature nuclear radiation detectors such as CdZnTe is usually limited by the presence of conducting surface species that increase the surface leakage current. Studies have shown that the leakage current can be reduced by proper surface preparation. In this study, we try to optimize the performance of CdZnTe detector by etching the detector with hydrogen peroxide solution as function of concentration and etching time. The passivation effect that hydrogen peroxide introduces have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) measurement on both parallel strips and metal-semiconductor-metal configurations. The improvements on the spectral response of Fe-55 and 241Am due to hydrogen peroxide treatment are presented and discussed.

  3. Precise in situ etch depth control of multilayered III−V semiconductor samples with reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Kleinschmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS equipment is applied to monitor dry-etch processes (here specifically reactive ion etching (RIE of monocrystalline multilayered III–V semiconductors in situ. The related accuracy of etch depth control is better than 16 nm. Comparison with results of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS reveals a deviation of only about 4 nm in optimal cases. To illustrate the applicability of the reported method in every day settings for the first time the highly etch depth sensitive lithographic process to form a film lens on the waveguide ridge of a broad area laser (BAL is presented. This example elucidates the benefits of the method in semiconductor device fabrication and also suggests how to fulfill design requirements for the sample in order to make RAS control possible.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: TaN wet etch for application in dual-metal-gate integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2009-12-01

    Wet-etch etchants and the TaN film method for dual-metal-gate integration are investigated. Both HF/HN O3/H2O and NH4OH/H2O2 solutions can etch TaN effectively, but poor selectivity to the gate dielectric for the HF/HNO3/H2O solution due to HF being included in HF/HNO3/H2O, and the fact that TaN is difficult to etch in the NH4OH/H2O2 solution at the first stage due to the thin TaOxNy layer on the TaN surface, mean that they are difficult to individually apply to dual-metal-gate integration. A two-step wet etching strategy using the HF/HNO3/H2O solution first and the NH4OH/H2O2 solution later can fully remove thin TaN film with a photo-resist mask and has high selectivity to the HfSiON dielectric film underneath. High-k dielectric film surfaces are smooth after wet etching of the TaN metal gate and MOSCAPs show well-behaved C-V and Jg-Vg characteristics, which all prove that the wet etching of TaN has little impact on electrical performance and can be applied to dual-metal-gate integration technology for removing the first TaN metal gate in the PMOS region.

  5. Surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muzhi

    With more than 200 GW of accumulated installations in 2015, photovoltaics (PV) has become an important green energy harvesting method. The PV market is dominated by solar cells made from crystalline silicon wafers. The engineering of the wafer surfaces is critical to the solar cell cost reduction and performance enhancement. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the development of surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. It aims to develop a more efficient alkaline texturing method and more effective surface cleaning processes. Firstly, a rapid, isopropanol alcohol free texturing method is successfully demonstrated to shorten the process time and reduce the consumption of chemicals. This method utilizes the special chemical properties of triethylamine, which can form Si-N bonds with wafer surface atoms. Secondly, a room-temperature anisotropic emitter etch-back process is developed to improve the n+ emitter passivation. Using this method, 19.0% efficient screen-printed aluminium back surface field solar cells are developed that show an efficiency gain of 0.15% (absolute) compared with conventionally made solar cells. Finally, state-of-the-art silicon surface passivation results are achieved using hydrogen plasma etching as a dry alternative to the classical hydrofluoric acid wet-chemical process. The effective native oxide removal and the hydrogenation of the silicon surface are shown to be the reasons for the excellent level of surface passivation achieved with this novel method.

  6. Design of an oval-form cathode for the precision etching process of e-paper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pa, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    A newly designed oval-form cathode using electroetching for indium-tin-oxide (ITO) microstructure removal from the surface of e-paper polymer PET films is presented. Through ultra-precise microstructural etching, the semiconductor industry can effectively reclaim defective products, thereby reducing production costs. The design features for the ITO removal process and the tool design of oval-form cathodes are of significant interest. A smaller oval-form cathode minor axis, a higher cathode rotational speed, a higher concentration, or a higher electrolyte temperature corresponds to a higher ITO etching rate.

  7. Surface characterization after subaperture reactive ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Arnold, Thomas; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In usual ion beam etching processes using inert gas (Ar, Xe, Kr..) the material removal is determined by physical sputtering effects on the surface. The admixture of suitable gases (CF{sub 4}+O{sub 2}) into the glow discharge of the ion beam source leads to the generation of reactive particles, which are accelerated towards the substrate where they enhance the sputtering process by formation of volatile chemical reaction products. During the last two decades research in Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) has been done using a broad beam ion source which allows the treatment of smaller samples (diameter sample < diameter beam). Our goal was to apply a sub-aperture Kaufman-type ion source in combination with an applicative movement of the sample with respect to the source, which enables us to etch areas larger than the typical lateral dimensions of the ion beam. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the beam periphery plays a decisive role and has to be investigated. We use interferometry to characterize the final surface topography and XPS measurements to analyze the chemical composition of the samples after RIBE.

  8. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  9. Electronic properties of semiconductor surfaces and metal/semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallarida, M.

    2005-05-15

    This thesis reports investigations of the electronic properties of a semiconductor surface (silicon carbide), a reactive metal/semiconductor interface (manganese/silicon) and a non-reactive metal/semiconductor interface (aluminum-magnesium alloy/silicon). The (2 x 1) reconstruction of the 6H-SiC(0001) surface has been obtained by cleaving the sample along the (0001) direction. This reconstruction has not been observed up to now for this compound, and has been compared with those of similar elemental semiconductors of the fourth group of the periodic table. This comparison has been carried out by making use of photoemission spectroscopy, analyzing the core level shifts of both Si 2p and C 1s core levels in terms of charge transfer between atoms of both elements and in different chemical environments. From this comparison, a difference between the reconstruction on the Si-terminated and the C-terminated surface was established, due to the ionic nature of the Si-C bond. The growth of manganese films on Si(111) in the 1-5 ML thickness range has been studied by means of LEED, STM and photoemission spectroscopy. By the complementary use of these surface science techniques, two different phases have been observed for two thickness regimes (<1 ML and >1 ML), which exhibit a different electronic character. The two reconstructions, the (1 x 1)-phase and the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 -phase, are due to silicide formation, as observed in core level spectroscopy. The growth proceeds via island formation in the monolayer regime, while the thicker films show flat layers interrupted by deep holes. On the basis of STM investigations, this growth mode has been attributed to strain due to lattice mismatch between the substrate and the silicide. Co-deposition of Al and Mg onto a Si(111) substrate at low temperature (100K) resulted in the formation of thin alloy films. By varying the relative content of both elements, the thin films exhibited different electronic properties

  10. Effect of surface etching on condensing heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Sung Chul; Park, Jae Won; Jung, Jiyeon; Choi, Chonggun; Choi, Gyu Hong; Hwang, Seung Sik; Chung, Tae Yong; Shin, Donghoon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Jun [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This study conducted experiments on humid air condensation during heat transfer in an air preheating exchanger attached to a home condensing boiler to improve thermal efficiency. An etchant composed of sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate was used to create roughness on the heat exchanger surface made from STS430J1L. A counter flow heat exchanger was fabricated to test the performance of heat transfer. Results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficients of all specimens treated with etchant improved with respect to the original specimens (not treated with etchant), and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the 60 s etching specimen increased by up to 15%. However, the increasing rate of the heat transfer coefficient was disproportional to the etching time. When the etching time specifically increased above 60 s, the heat transfer coefficient decreased. This effect was assumed to be caused by surface characteristics such as contact angle. Furthermore, a smaller contact angle or higher hydrophilicity leads to higher heat transfer coefficient.

  11. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Weiying; Zhao Lei; Diao Hongwei; Zhang Jun; Wang Wenjing, E-mail: wjwangwj@126.com [Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells. (semiconductor technology)

  12. Rapid reagent-less on-line H2O2 quantification in alkaline semiconductor etching solution, Part 2: Nephelometry application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Roumen; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Valdez, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    A simple and rapid reagent less nephelometric method for on-line H 2 O 2 quantification in semiconductors etching solutions was developed, optimized, characterized and validated. The intensity of the light scattered by the oxygen gas suspension resulted from H 2 O 2 catalytic decomposition by immobilized MnO 2 was registered as analytical response. The influences of the light wave length, the agitation rate, the temperature and the catalyst surface area on the response amplitude were studied and optimization was done. The achieved linear concentration range from 10 to 150mmolL -1 at 0.9835 calibration curve correlation coefficient, precision from 3.65% to 0.95% and response time from 35 to 20s respectively, at sensitivity of 8.01µAmmol -1 L and LOD of 2.9mmolL -1 completely satisfy the semiconductor industry requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wet-chemical etching of atom probe tips for artefact free analyses of nanoscaled semiconductor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonyan, D; Fleischmann, C; Veloso, A; Franquet, A; Bogdanowicz, J; Morris, R J H; Vandervorst, W

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an innovative specimen preparation method employing the selectivity of a wet-chemical etching step to improve data quality and success rates in the atom probe analysis of contemporary semiconductor devices. Firstly, on the example of an SiGe fin embedded in SiO 2 we demonstrate how the selective removal of SiO 2 from the final APT specimen significantly improves accuracy and reliability of the reconstructed data. With the oxide removal, we eliminate the origin of shape artefacts, i.e. the formation of a non-hemispherical tip shape, that are typically observed in the reconstructed volume of complex systems. Secondly, using the same approach, we increase success rates to ∼90% for the damage-free, 3D site-specific localization of short (250 nm), vertical Si nanowires at the specimen apex. The impact of the abrupt emitter radius change that is introduced by this specimen preparation method is evaluated as being minor using field evaporation simulation and comparison of different reconstruction schemes. The Ge content within the SiGe fin as well as the 3D boron distribution in the Si NW as resolved by atom probe analysis are in good agreement with TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS analysis, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  15. The Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times on Bonding Performance and Surface Free Energy with Single-step Self-etch Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching times on shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free energy (SFE) with single-step self-etch adhesives. The three single-step self-etch adhesives used were: 1) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE), 2) Clearfil tri-S Bond (Kuraray Noritake Dental), and 3) G-Bond Plus (GC). Two no pre-etching groups, 1) untreated enamel and 2) enamel surfaces after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 seconds to remove the smear layer, were prepared. There were four pre-etching groups: 1) enamel surfaces were pre-etched with phosphoric acid (Etchant, 3M ESPE) for 3 seconds, 2) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 5 seconds, 3) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 10 seconds, and 4) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 15 seconds. Resin composite was bonded to the treated enamel surface to determine SBS. The SFEs of treated enamel surfaces were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the enamel surfaces and enamel-adhesive interface. The specimens with phosphoric acid pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFEs than the specimens without phosphoric acid pre-etching regardless of the adhesive system used. SBS and SFEs did not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds. There were no significant differences in SBS and SFEs between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The data suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of ground enamel improves the bonding performance of single-step self-etch adhesives, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds.

  16. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Jung, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  18. The effect of plasma etching on the surface topography of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, B.; Radmilović-Radjenović, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this letter the evolution of the surface topography of a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity caused by different plasma etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) is studied by the three-dimensional level set method. The initial rough surface is generated starting from an experimental power spectral density. The time dependence of the rms roughness is analyzed and the growth exponential factors β are determined for two etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) assuming that isotropic etching is a much more effective mechanism of smoothing. The obtained simulation results could be useful for optimizing the parameters of the etching processes needed to obtain high quality niobium surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavities.

  19. Effects of ion sputtering on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering has been combined with Auger spectroscopy to study the effects of ion beams on semiconductor surfaces. Observations on the mass dependence of ion selective sputtering of two component systems are presented. The effects of ion implantation are explained in terms of atomic dilution. Experimental data are presented that illustrate the super-position of selective sputtering and implantation effects on the surface composition. Sample reduction from electron and ion beam interaction is illustrated. Apparent sample changes which one might observe from the effects of residual gas contamination and electric fields are also discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Shallow surface etching of organic and inorganic compounds by electrospray droplet impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Yuji; Iijima, Yoshitoki; Asakawa, Daiki; Mori, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    The electrospray droplet impact (EDI) was applied to bradykinin, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), SiO 2 /Si, and indium phosphide (InP). It was found that bradykinin deposited on the stainless steel substrate was ionized/desorbed without the accumulation of radiation products. The film thickness desorbed by a single collisional event was found to be less than 10 monolayers. In the EDI mass spectra for PET, several fragment ions were observed but the XPS spectra did not change with prolonged cluster irradiation. The etching rate for SiO 2 by EDI was measured to be ∼0.2 nm/min. The surface roughness of InP etched by EDI was found to be one order of magnitude smaller than that etched by 3 keV Ar + for about the same etching depths. EDI is capable of shallow surface etching with little damage left on the etched surface.

  1. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  2. Reactive-ion etching of nylon fabric meshes using oxygen plasma for creating surface nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salapare, Hernando S.; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is employed to nylon 6,6 fabrics to achieve surface texturing and improved wettability. • FTIR spectra of the treated samples exhibited decreased transmittance of amide and carboxylic acid groups due to etching. • Etching is enhanced for higher power plasma treatments and for samples with larger mesh sizes. • Decreased crystallinity was achieved after plasma treatment. • Higher power induced higher negative DC self-bias voltage on the samples that favored anisotropic and aggressive etching. - Abstract: A facile one-step oxygen plasma irradiation in reactive ion etching (RIE) configuration is employed to nylon 6,6 fabrics with different mesh sizes to achieve surface nanostructures and improved wettability for textile and filtration applications. To observe the effects of power and irradiation time on the samples, the experiments were performed using constant irradiation time in varying power and using constant power in varying irradiation times. Results showed improved wettability after the plasma treatment. The FTIR spectra of all the treated samples exhibited decreased transmittance of the amide and carboxylic acid groups due to surface etching. The changes in the surface chemistry are supported by the SEM data wherein etching and surface nanostructures were observed for the plasma-treated samples. The etching of the surfaces is enhanced for higher power plasma treatments. The thermal analysis showed that the plasma treatment resulted in decreased crystallinity. Surface chemistry showed that the effects of the plasma treatment on the samples have no significant difference for all the mesh sizes. However, surface morphology showed that the sizes of the surface cracks are the same for all the mesh sizes but samples with larger mesh sizes exhibited enhanced etching as compared to the samples with smaller mesh sizes. Higher power induced higher negative DC self-bias voltage on the samples that

  3. Etching of GaAs substrates to create As-rich surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    during the manipulations of the substrate after the chemi- cal etching process. ... using the four techniques described in table 1 and for an. *Author for ... Etching of GaAs substrates to create As-rich surface. 563. Table 1. Treatment procedures used. Treatment. Techniques. 1st stage. 2nd stage. 3rd stage. 4th stage. 1. Treated ...

  4. Proportion quantitative analysis and etching of {110} planes on tungsten single crystal coating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Rende, E-mail: dallasbiam@163.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Corrosion and Protection for Aviation Material, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Tan, Chengwen; Yu, Xiaodong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Tungsten single crystal and poly crystal were treated by electrolytic etching in a 3% by weight solution of NaOH in distilled water. The method for determining the proportion of {110} planes and characteristic morphology on the coating surface after electrolytic etching were investigated using EBSD and auto-focusing microscope. Then the optimization of process parameters for electrolytic etching is achieved. In order to compare the effect of process parameters, three process parameters were selected for the tungsten single crystal electrolytic etching. Through analyzing the change of {110} planes' proportion, we found that when the coatings are etched with 1.4 amp/cm{sup 2} and 3 min, {110} planes can be exposed in the greatest degree that can reach 61.4% on tubular surfaces. The proposed approach greatly improves the proportion of {110} planes relative to the original surface. - Highlights: • Tungsten single/poly crystals treated by electrolytic etching in solution of NaOH. • The {110} planes have the lower surface free energy than {112}. • Some {112} planes etched firstly, the {110} planes exposed at last during etching. • {110} planes exposed to the greatest extent with 1.4 amp/cm{sup 2} and 3 min.

  5. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG and coarse grained (CG titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  6. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Denis V; Zemtsova, Elena G; Solokhin, Alexandr Yu; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Smirnov, Vladimir M

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions) and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  7. KMC Simulation of Surface Growth of Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we have studied the growth and equilibration of semiconductor surfaces consisting of monoatomic steps separated by flat terraces using kinetic Monte Carlo method. Atomistic processes such as diffusion on terraces, attachment/detachment particles to/from step edges, attachment of particles from an upper terrace to a bounding step, diffusion of particles along step edges are considered. A rate equation for each, these processes is written and the overall transition probabilities are calculated where processes are ordered to make the distinction between slow and fast processes Iractal The interaction of steps is also included in the calculation of rate equations. The growth of such a surface is simulated when there is a particle flux to the surface. The rough of the surface and its dependence on both temperature and kinetic parameters such edge diffusion barrier are investigated. The formation of islands on terraces is prohibited and the distribution of their number and sizes are investigated as a function of temperature and appropriate kinetic parameters. In the absence of a flux to the surface, the equilibration of the surface is investigated paying particular attention to the top of the profile when the initial surface is a periodic profile where parallel monoatomic steps separated by terraces. It is observed that during equilibration of the profile, the topmost step disintegrates quickly and leads to many islands on the top of the profile due to. collision and annihilation of step edges of opposite sign. The islands then quickly disintegrate due to the line tension effect and this scenario repeats itself until the surface completely flattens

  8. Nanoscale silver-assisted wet etching of crystalline silicon for anti-reflection surface textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Shuling; Chuwongin, Santhad; Zhou, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    We report here an electro-less metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) process as light management surface-texturing technique for single crystalline Si photovoltaics. Random Silver nanostructures were formed on top of the Si surface based on the thin film evaporation and annealing process. Significant reflection reduction was obtained from the fabricated Si sample, with approximately 2% reflection over a wide spectra range (300 to 1050 nm). The work demonstrates the potential of MacEtch process for anti-reflection surface texture fabrication of large area, high efficiency, and low cost thin film solar cell.

  9. Characterization of etch pit formation via the Everson-etching method on CdZnTe crystal surfaces from the bulk to the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, Lucile C.; Duff, Martine C.; Cadieux, James R.; Soundararajan, Raji; Shick, Charles R.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and mass spectrometry was employed to study CdZnTe crystal surface and used etchant solution following exposure of the CdZnTe crystal to the Everson etch solution. We discuss the results of these studies in relationship to the initial surface preparation methods, the performance of the crystals as radiation spectrometers, the observed etch pit densities, and the chemical mechanism of surface etching. Our results show that the surface features that are exposed to etchants result from interactions with the chemical components of the etchants as well as pre-existing mechanical polishing.

  10. Plasma treatment of porous GaAs surface formed by electrochemical etching method: Characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2008-12-01

    Porous GaAs samples were formed by electrochemical anodic etching of Zn doped p-type GaAs (100) wafers at different etching parameters (time, mode of applied voltage or current and electrolyte). The effect of etching parameters and plasma surface treatment on the optical properties of the prepared sample has been investigated by using room temperature photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopic measurements in the range (400-800 nm). The surface morphological changes were studied by using atomic force microscope. It has been found that etching parameters can be controlled to produce a considerably low optical reflectivity porous GaAs layer, attractive for use in solar cells. In addition, it has been observed that the deposition of plasma polymerized HMDSO thin film on porous GaAs surface can be utilized to produce a surface with novel optical properties interesting for solar cells and optoelectronic devices. (author)

  11. Plasma treatment of porous GaAs surface formed by electrochemical etching method: Characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.

    2010-01-01

    Porous GaAs samples were formed by electrochemical anodic etching of Zn doped p-type GaAs (100) wafers at different etching parameters (time, mode of applied voltage or current and electrolyte). The effect of etching parameters and plasma surface treatment on the optical properties of the prepared sample has been investigated by using room temperature photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopic measurements in the range (400-800 nm). The surface morphological changes were studied by using atomic force microscope. (author)

  12. Theory of quasiparticle surface states in semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybertsen, M.S.; Louie, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A first-principles theory of the quasiparticle surface-state energies on semiconductor surfaces is developed. The surface properties are calculated using a repeated-slab geometry. Many-body effects due to the electron-electron interaction are represented by the electron self-energy operator including the full surface Green's function and local fields and dynamical screening effects in the Coulomb interaction. Calculated surface-state energies for the prototypical Si(111):As and Ge(111):As surfaces are presented. The calculated energies and dispersions for the occupied surface states (resonances) are in excellent agreement with recent angle-resolved photoemission data. Predictions are made for the position of empty surface states on both surfaces which may be experimentally accessible. The resulting surface state gap at Gamma-bar for Si(111):As agrees with recent scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy measurements. Comparison of the present results to eigenvalues from the local-density-functional calculation reveals substantial corrections for the gaps between empty and occupied surface states. This correction is found to depend on the character of the surface states involved

  13. Fast Etching of Molding Compound by an Ar/O2/CF4 Plasma and Process Improvements for Semiconductor Package Decapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Gruber, D.; Schelen, J.B.J.; Funke, H.J.; Beenakker, C.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Decapsulation of a SOT23 semiconductor package with 23 um copper wire bonds is conducted with an especially designed microwave induced plasma system. It is found that a 30%-60% CF4 addition in the O2/CF4 etchant gas results in high molding compound etching rate. Si3N4 overetching which is

  14. III-V semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications: surface preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Dominic; Schaechner, Birgit; Calvet, Wofram; Kaiser, Bernhard; Jaegermann, Wolfram [TU Darmstadt, Fachbereich Materialwissenschaft, Fachgebiet Oberflaechenforschung (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    III-V semiconductors are promising reference systems for photoelectrochemical energy conversion. Therefore we have studied the influence of different acids and acidic solutions on the etching of p-doped gallium-arsenide and gallium-phosphide single crystal surfaces. From our experiments we conclude, that etching with HCl and subsequent annealing up to 450 C gives the best results for the removal of the carbonates and the oxides without affecting the quality of the sample. By treating the surfaces with ''piranha''-solution (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O/7:2:1), the creation of an oxide layer with well defined thickness can be achieved. For the creation of an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, Pt nanoparticles have been deposited from solution. These surfaces are then characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and AFM. Further electrochemical measurements try to correlate the effect of the surface cleaning and the Pt deposition on the photoactivity of the GaAs- and GaP-semiconductors.

  15. Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

  16. Dry Etching of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films: Effects on Morphology and Surface Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure.

  17. Terahertz plasmonics with semiconductor surfaces and antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Berrier, A.

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductors have a Drude-like behavior at terahertz (THz) frequencies similar to metals at optical frequencies. Narrow band gap semiconductors have a dielectric constant with a negative real component and a relatively small imaginary component. This permittivity is characteristic of noble metals

  18. Study of surface modifications for improved selected metal (II-VI) semiconductor based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Christopher James

    Metal-semiconductor contacts are of fundamental importance to the operation of all semiconductor devices. There are many competing theories of Schottky barrier formation but as yet no quantitative predictive model exists to adequately explain metal-semiconductor interfaces. The II-VI compound semiconductors CdTe, CdS and ZnSe have recently come to the fore with the advent of high efficiency photovoltaic cells and short wavelength light emitters. Major problems still exist however in forming metal contacts to these materials with the desired properties. This work presents results which make a significant contribution to the theory of metal/II-VI interface behaviour in terms of Schottky barriers to n-type CdTe, CdS and ZnSe.Predominantly aqueous based wet chemical etchants were applied to the surfaces of CdTe, CdS and ZnSe which were subsequently characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ionic nature of these II-VI compounds meant that they behaved as insoluble salts of strong bases and weak acids. Acid etchants induced a stoichiometric excess of semiconductor anion at the surface which appeared to be predominantly in the elemental or hydrogenated state. Alkaline etchants conversely induced a stoichiometric excess of semiconductor cation at the surface which appeared to be in an oxidised state.Metal contacts were vacuum-evaporated onto these etched surfaces and characterised by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques. The surface preparation was found to have a clear influence upon the electrical properties of Schottky barriers formed to etched surfaces. Reducing the native surface oxide produced near ideal Schottky diodes. An extended study of Au, Ag and Sb contacts to [mathematical formula] substrates again revealed the formation of several discrete Schottky barriers largely independent of the metal used; for [mathematical formula]. Deep levels measured within this study and those reported in the literature led to the conclusion that Fermi

  19. Simulation of the evolution of fused silica's surface defect during wet chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taixiang; Yang, Ke; Li, Heyang; Yan, Lianghong; Yuan, Xiaodong; Yan, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    Large high-power-laser facility is the basis for achieving inertial confinement fusion, one of whose missions is to make fusion energy usable in the near future. In the facility, fused silica optics plays an irreplaceable role to conduct extremely high-intensity laser to fusion capsule. But the surface defect of fused silica is a major obstacle limiting the output power of the large laser facility and likely resulting in the failure of ignition. To mitigate, or event to remove the surface defect, wet chemical etching has been developed as a practical way. However, how the surface defect evolves during wet chemical etching is still not clearly known so far. To address this problem, in this work, the three-dimensional model of surface defect is built and finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is developed to simulate the evolution of surface defect during etching. From the simulation, it is found that the surface defect will get smooth and result in the improvement of surface quality of fused silica after etching. Comparatively, surface defects (e.g. micro-crack, scratch, series of pinholes, etc.) of a typical fused silica at different etching time are experimentally measured. It can be seen that the simulation result agrees well with the result of experiment, indicating the FDTD method is valid for investigating the evolution of surface defect during etching. With the finding of FDTD simulation, one can optimize the treatment process of fused silica in practical etching or even to make the initial characterization of surface defect traceable.

  20. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Nicholas A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Smith, Barbara S. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: ketul.popat@colostate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Although clotting reductions were

  1. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Nicholas A.; Smith, Barbara S.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO 2 peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: ►Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. ►Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. ►Although clotting reductions were seen, protein adsorption remained similar.

  2. Planarization of the diamond film surface by using the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Planarization of the free-standing diamond film surface as smooth as possible could be obtained by using the hydrogen plasma etching with the diffusion of the carbon species into the metal alloy (Fe, Cr, Ni). For this process, we placed the free-standing diamond film between the metal alloy and the Mo substrate like a metal-diamond-molybdenum (MDM) sandwich. We set the sandwich-type MDM in a microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. The sandwich-type MDM was heated over ca. 1000 .deg. C by using the hydrogen plasma. We call this process as the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process. After etching the free-standing diamond film surface, we investigated surface roughness, morphologies, and the incorporated impurities on the etched diamond film surface. Finally, we suggest that the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process is an adequate etching technique for the fabrication of the diamond film surface applicable to electronic devices

  3. Surface Phenomena During Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Etching of SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasvoda, Ryan J; van de Steeg, Alex W; Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Hudson, Eric A; Agarwal, Sumit

    2017-09-13

    Surface phenomena during atomic layer etching (ALE) of SiO 2 were studied during sequential half-cycles of plasma-assisted fluorocarbon (CF x ) film deposition and Ar plasma activation of the CF x film using in situ surface infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Infrared spectra of the surface after the CF x deposition half-cycle from a C 4 F 8 /Ar plasma show that an atomically thin mixing layer is formed between the deposited CF x layer and the underlying SiO 2 film. Etching during the Ar plasma cycle is activated by Ar + bombardment of the CF x layer, which results in the simultaneous removal of surface CF x and the underlying SiO 2 film. The interfacial mixing layer in ALE is atomically thin due to the low ion energy during CF x deposition, which combined with an ultrathin CF x layer ensures an etch rate of a few monolayers per cycle. In situ ellipsometry shows that for a ∼4 Å thick CF x film, ∼3-4 Å of SiO 2 was etched per cycle. However, during the Ar plasma half-cycle, etching proceeds beyond complete removal of the surface CF x layer as F-containing radicals are slowly released into the plasma from the reactor walls. Buildup of CF x on reactor walls leads to a gradual increase in the etch per cycle.

  4. Catalytically-etched hexagonal boron nitride flakes and their surface activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Minwoo; Ye, Bora; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Eok-Soo; Kim, Hong Dae

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride flakes are etched at low temperature in air by catalysts. • The presence of transition metal oxides produces an etched structure in the flakes. • Etched surfaces become highly active due to vacancy defects formed in the flakes. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a ceramic compound which is thermally stable up to 1000 °C in air. Due to this, it is a very challenging task to etch h-BN under air atmosphere at low temperature. In this study, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily etched by oxidation at 350 °C under air atmosphere in the presence of transition metal (TM) oxide. After selecting Co, Cu, and Zn elements as TM precursors, we simply oxidized h-BN sheets impregnated with the TM precursors at 350 °C in air. As a result, microscopic analysis revealed that an etched structure was created on the surface of h-BN flakes regardless of catalyst type. And, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the air oxidation led to the formation of Co_3O_4, CuO, and ZnO from each precursor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a gradual weight loss in the temperature range where the weight of h-BN flakes increased by air oxidation. As a result of etching, pore volume and pore area of h-BN flakes were increased after catalytic oxidation in all cases. In addition, the surface of h-BN flakes became highly active when the h-BN samples were etched by Co_3O_4 and CuO catalysts. Based on these results, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily oxidized in the presence of a catalyst, resulting in an etched structure in the layered structure.

  5. Catalytically-etched hexagonal boron nitride flakes and their surface activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyun, E-mail: nanotube@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minwoo; Ye, Bora [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu Tae [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Jin [New Functional Components Research Team, Korea Institute of Footware & Leather Technology, 152 Danggamseo-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-100 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eok-Soo [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae, E-mail: hdkim@kitech.re.kr [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride flakes are etched at low temperature in air by catalysts. • The presence of transition metal oxides produces an etched structure in the flakes. • Etched surfaces become highly active due to vacancy defects formed in the flakes. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a ceramic compound which is thermally stable up to 1000 °C in air. Due to this, it is a very challenging task to etch h-BN under air atmosphere at low temperature. In this study, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily etched by oxidation at 350 °C under air atmosphere in the presence of transition metal (TM) oxide. After selecting Co, Cu, and Zn elements as TM precursors, we simply oxidized h-BN sheets impregnated with the TM precursors at 350 °C in air. As a result, microscopic analysis revealed that an etched structure was created on the surface of h-BN flakes regardless of catalyst type. And, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the air oxidation led to the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CuO, and ZnO from each precursor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a gradual weight loss in the temperature range where the weight of h-BN flakes increased by air oxidation. As a result of etching, pore volume and pore area of h-BN flakes were increased after catalytic oxidation in all cases. In addition, the surface of h-BN flakes became highly active when the h-BN samples were etched by Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CuO catalysts. Based on these results, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily oxidized in the presence of a catalyst, resulting in an etched structure in the layered structure.

  6. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  7. The interplay between surface charging and microscale roughness during plasma etching of polymeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos, George; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kokkoris, George

    2018-02-01

    The surface roughness developed during plasma etching of polymeric substrates is critical for a variety of applications related to the wetting behavior and the interaction of surfaces with cells. Toward the understanding and, ultimately, the manipulation of plasma induced surface roughness, the interplay between surface charging and microscale roughness of polymeric substrates is investigated by a modeling framework consisting of a surface charging module, a surface etching model, and a profile evolution module. The evolution of initially rough profiles during plasma etching is calculated by taking into account as well as by neglecting charging. It is revealed, on the one hand, that the surface charging contributes to the suppression of root mean square roughness and, on the other hand, that the decrease of the surface roughness induces a decrease of the charging potential. The effect of charging on roughness is intense when the etching yield depends solely on the ion energy, and it is mitigated when the etching yield additionally depends on the angle of ion incidence. The charging time, i.e., the time required for reaching a steady state charging potential, is found to depend on the thickness of the polymeric substrate, and it is calculated in the order of milliseconds.

  8. Vertically contacting ultrathin semiconductor nanomembranes by rolled-up metallic contacts incorporating selective etching techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Dominic J.; Bof Bufon, Carlos Cesar; Deneke, Christoph [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); TU Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Merging modern self-assembly techniques with well established top-down processing methods is paving the way for more sophisticated device generations in the future. Nanomembranes, composed of many different material classes, have already been shown to provide the necessary framework for a diverse range of structures and devices incorporating wrinkling, buckling, folding and rolling of thin films. In the past decade, an elegant symbiosis of bottom-up and top-down methods has emerged to fabricate hybrid layer systems incorporating the controlled release and rearrangement of inherently strained layers. Using selective III-V etchants in combination with inherently strained layers we are able to fabricate structures which allow us to contact through single and multi-material semiconductor nanomembrane creating many devices in parallel and on the original semiconductor substrate. We demonstrate this technique by creating hybrid superconducting junctions created by sandwiching the semiconductor nanomembrane between two superconducting contacts. Using solely optical lithography techniques we are able to form junctions with lateral dimensions of a few micrometers and a semiconductor barrier thickness of down to 5 nm.

  9. Tunneling spectroscopy on semiconductors with a low surface state density

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerhalter, Christof; Matthes, Thomas W.; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Lux-Steiner, Martha Christina

    1997-01-01

    A detailed study of tunneling spectroscopy concerning semiconductors with a low surface state density is presented. For this purpose, I V curves under dark conditions and under illumination were measured on the (0001) van der Waals surface of a p-type WS2 single crystal, which is known to be free of intrinsic surface states. The measurements are interpreted by an analytical one-dimensional metal-insulator-semiconductor model, which shows that the presence of the finite tunneling current has ...

  10. On the long standing question of nuclear track etch induction time: Surface-cap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Using a systematic set of experiments, nuclear track etch induction time measurements in a widely used CR-39 detector were completed for accessible track-forming particles (fission fragments, 5.2 MeV alpha particles and 5.9 MeV antiprotons). Results of the present work are compared with appropriately selected published results. The possibility of the use of etch induction time for charged particle identification is evaluated. Analysis of experimental results along with the use of well-established theoretical concepts yielded a model about delay in the start of chemical etching of nuclear tracks. The suggested model proposes the formation of a surface-cap (top segment) in each nuclear track consisting of chemically modified material with almost same or even higher resistance to chemical etching compared with bulk material of the track detector. Existing track formation models are reviewed very briefly, which provide one of the two bases of the proposed model. The other basis of the model is the general behavior of hot or energised material having a connection with an environment containing a number of species like ordinary air. Another reason for the delay in the start of etching is suggested as the absence of localization of etching atoms/molecules, which is present during etching at depth along the latent track

  11. Dominant rate process of silicon surface etching by hydrogen chloride gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Sunao; Nakamura, Akio; Takeuchi, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Silicon surface etching and its dominant rate process are studied using hydrogen chloride gas in a wide concentration range of 1-100% in ambient hydrogen at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range of 1023-1423 K, linked with the numerical calculation accounting for the transport phenomena and the surface chemical reaction in the entire reactor. The etch rate, the gaseous products and the surface morphology are experimentally evaluated. The dominant rate equation accounting for the first-order successive reactions at silicon surface by hydrogen chloride gas is shown to be valid. The activation energy of the dominant surface process is evaluated to be 1.5 x 10 5 J mol - 1 . The silicon deposition by the gaseous by-product, trichlorosilane, is shown to have a negligible influence on the silicon etch rate

  12. Reactive ion beam etching for microcavity surface emitting laser fabrication: technology and damage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, A.; Tadokoro, T.; Koyama, F.; Iga, K.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) is an effective dry etching technique for the fabrication of micro-sized surface emitting (SE) lasers and optoelectronic devices. In this chapter, some etching characteristics for GaAs, InP and GaInAsP with a Cl 2 gas using an RIBE system are discussed. Micro-sized circular mesas including GaInAsP/InP multilayers with vertical sidewalls were fabricated. RIBE-induced damage in InP substrates was estimated by C-V and PL measurement. In addition, the removal of the induced damage by the second RIBE with different conditions for the InP wafer was proposed. The sidewall damage is characterized by photoluminescence emitted from the etched sidewall of a GaInAsP/InP DH wafer. (orig.)

  13. Nano-structuring of PTFE surface by plasma treatment, etching, and sputtering with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznickova, Alena; Kolska, Zdenka; Hnatowicz, Vladimir; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    Properties of pristine, plasma modified, and etched (by water and methanol) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied. Gold nanolayers sputtered on this modified PTFE have been also investigated. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by etching of plasma modified PTFE in water or methanol. The amount of ablated and etched layer was measured by gravimetry. In the next step the pristine, plasma modified, and etched PTFE was sputtered with gold. Changes in surface morphology were observed using atomic force microscopy. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface chemistry of the samples was investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Sheet resistance of the gold layers was measured by two-point technique. The contact angle of the plasma modified PTFE decreases with increasing exposure time. The PTFE amount, ablated by the plasma treatment, increases with the plasma exposure time. XPS measurements proved that during the plasma treatment the PTFE macromolecular chains are degraded and oxidized and new –C–O–C–, –C=O, and –O–C=O groups are created in modified surface layer. Surface of the plasma modified PTFE is weakly soluble in methanol and intensively soluble in water. Zeta potential and XPS shown dramatic changes in PTFE surface chemistry after the plasma exposure, water etching, and gold deposition. When continuous gold layer is formed a rapid decrease of the sheet resistance of the gold layer is observed.

  14. On the topography of sputtered or chemically etched crystals: surface energies minimised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Cope, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sputtering of single or polycrystalline metal surfaces by heavy ions gives rise to the characteristic topographical features of etch pits, ripples, and cones (pyramids). For cones and pyramids, in particular, no completely satisfactory explanation exists as to the origin of the basic geometry. Scanning electron micrographs are shown. It is proposed that for topographical features of both chemical etch and ion beam origin on single crystal surfaces, the presence of facets on cones and pyramids in particular, is due to the minimization of surface energy. (U.K.)

  15. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buling, Anna; Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  16. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna, E-mail: a.buling@hs-osnabrueck.de [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany); Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  17. Atomic structure of diamond {111} surfaces etched in oxygen water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theije, F.K. de; Reedijk, M.F.; Arsic, J.; Enckevort, W.J.P. van; Vlieg, E.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic structure of the {111} diamond face after oxygen-water-vapor etching is determined using x-ray scattering. We find that a single dangling bond diamond {111} surface model, terminated by a full monolayer of -OH fits our data best. To explain the measurements it is necessary to add an ordered water layer on top of the -OH terminated surface. The vertical contraction of the surface cell and the distance between the oxygen atoms are generally in agreement with model calculations and results on similar systems. The OH termination is likely to be present during etching as well. This model experimentally confirms the atomic-scale mechanism we proposed previously for this etching system

  18. Extremely superhydrophobic surfaces with micro- and nanostructures fabricated by copper catalytic etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin

    2011-01-18

    We demonstrate a simple method for the fabrication of rough silicon surfaces with micro- and nanostructures, which exhibited superhydrophobic behaviors. Hierarchically rough silicon surfaces were prepared by copper (Cu)-assisted chemical etching process where Cu nanoparticles having particle size of 10-30 nm were deposited on silicon surface, depending on the period of time of electroless Cu plating. Surface roughness was controlled by both the size of Cu nanoparticles and etching conditions. As-synthesized rough silicon surfaces showed water contact angles ranging from 93° to 149°. Moreover, the hierarchically rough silicon surfaces were chemically modified by spin-coating of a thin layer of Teflon precursor with low surface energy. And thus it exhibited nonsticky and enhanced hydrophobic properties with extremely high contact angle of nearly 180°.

  19. Determination of the dissolution slowness surface by study of etched shapes I. Morphology of the dissolution slowness surface and theoretical etched shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, T.; Tellier, C. R.

    1992-07-01

    We propose a theoretical model for the anisotropic etching of crystals, in order to be applied in the micromachining. The originality of the model is due to the introduction of dissolution tensors to express the representative surface of the dissolution slowness. The knowledge of the equation of the slowness surface allows us to determine the trajectories of all the elements which compose the starting surface. It is then possible to construct the final etched shape by numerical simulation. Several examples are given in this paper which show that the final etched shapes are correlated to the extrema of the dissolution slowness. Since the slowness surface must be determined from experiments, emphasis is placed on difficulties encountered when we correlate theory to experiments. Nous avons modélisé le processus de dissolution anisotrope des cristaux en vue d'une application à la simulation des formes obtenues par photolithogravure chimique. La principale originalité de ce modèle tient à l'introduction de tenseurs de dissolution pour exprimer la surface représentative de la lenteur de dissolution. La connaissance de l'équation de la lenteur de dissolution permet de calculer les trajectoires des différents éléments constituant la surface de départ puis de reconstituer par simulation la forme dissoute. Les simulations démontrent que les formes limites des cristaux dissous sont corrélées aux extrema de la lenteur de dissolution. La détermination de la surface de la lenteur se faisant à partir de mesures expérimetales, nous nous sommes efforcés de montrer toutes les difficultés attachées à cette analyse.

  20. Low-frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Kuttge, M.; Kurz, H.; Haring Bolivar, P.; Sánchez-Gil, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of surface plasmon optics or plasmonics is the active control of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of low-frequency active plasmonics using semiconductors. We show experimentally that the Bragg scattering

  1. Simple method to transfer graphene from metallic catalytic substrates to flexible surfaces without chemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P J; Takahashi, H; Sakai, H; Thu, T V; Okada, H; Sandhu, A; Koide, S

    2013-01-01

    Graphene shows promise for applications in flexible electronics. Here, we describe our procedure to transfer graphene grown on copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and SiO 2 /Si surfaces. The transfer of graphene was achieved by a simple, etching-free method onto flexible PDMS substrates.

  2. Bio-inspired silicon nanospikes fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching for antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huan; Siu, Vince S.; Gifford, Stacey M.; Kim, Sungcheol; Lu, Minhua; Meyer, Pablo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A.

    2017-12-01

    The recently discovered bactericidal properties of nanostructures on wings of insects such as cicadas and dragonflies have inspired the development of similar nanostructured surfaces for antibacterial applications. Since most antibacterial applications require nanostructures covering a considerable amount of area, a practical fabrication method needs to be cost-effective and scalable. However, most reported nanofabrication methods require either expensive equipment or a high temperature process, limiting cost efficiency and scalability. Here, we report a simple, fast, low-cost, and scalable antibacterial surface nanofabrication methodology. Our method is based on metal-assisted chemical etching that only requires etching a single crystal silicon substrate in a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid for several minutes. We experimentally studied the effects of etching time on the morphology of the silicon nanospikes and the bactericidal properties of the resulting surface. We discovered that 6 minutes of etching results in a surface containing silicon nanospikes with optimal geometry. The bactericidal properties of the silicon nanospikes were supported by bacterial plating results, fluorescence images, and scanning electron microscopy images.

  3. Surface roughness of etched composite resin in light of composite repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Cardoso, M.V.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In search for clinically effective composite repair protocols, the effect of various etching protocols on the surface roughness of composite resins with different filler composition were investigated. METHODS: Of two composite resins (hybrid-filled Clearfil AP-X; nano-filled Filtek

  4. Acid Etching as Surface Treatment Method for Luting of Glass-Ceramic Restorations, part 1: Acids, Application Protocol and Etching Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Barjaktarova-Valjakova

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Acid etching of the bonding surface of glass - ceramic restorations is considered as the most effective treatment method that provides a reliable bond with composite cement. Selective removing of the glassy matrix of silicate ceramics results in a micromorphological three-dimensional porous surface that allows micromechanical interlocking of the luting composite.

  5. Effect of deposition temperature and thermal annealing on the dry etch rate of a-C: H films for the dry etch hard process of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Moo; Won, Jaihyung; Yim, Soyoung; Park, Se Jun; Choi, Jongsik; Kim, Jeongtae; Lee, Hyeondeok; Byun, Dongjin

    2012-01-01

    The effect of deposition and thermal annealing temperatures on the dry etch rate of a-C:H films was investigated to increase our fundamental understanding of the relationship between thermal annealing and dry etch rate and to obtain a low dry etch rate hard mask. The hydrocarbon contents and hydrogen concentration were decreased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures. The I(D)/I(G) intensity ratio and extinction coefficient of the a-C:H films were increased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures because of the increase of sp 2 bonds in the a-C:H films. There was no relationship between the density of the unpaired electrons and the deposition temperature, or between the density of the unpaired electrons and the annealing temperature. However, the thermally annealed a-C:H films had fewer unpaired electrons compared with the as-deposited ones. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the absence of any crystallographic change after thermal annealing. The density of the as-deposited films was increased with increasing deposition temperature. The density of the 600 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited under 450 °C was decreased but at 550 °C was increased, and the density of all 800 °C annealed films was increased. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited a-C:H films was negatively correlated with the deposition temperature. The dry etch rate of the 600 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C was faster than that of the as-deposited film and that of the 800 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C was 17% faster than that of the as-deposited film. However, the dry etch rate of the 550 °C deposited a-C:H film was decreased after annealing at 600 °C and 800 °C. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited films was decreased with increasing density but that of the annealed a-C:H films was not. These results indicated that the dry etch rate of a-C:H films for dry etch hard masks can be further decreased by

  6. Plasma surface modification of polypropylene track-etched membrane to improve its performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, L. I.; Elinson, V. M.; Ibragimov, R. G.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2018-02-01

    The surface and electrochemical properties of polypropylene track-etched membrane treated by plasma of nitrogen, air and oxygen are studied. The effect of the plasma-forming gas composition on the surface morphology is considered. It has been found that the micro-relief of the membrane surface formed under the gas-discharge etching, changes. Moreover, the effect of the non-polymerizing gas plasma leads to formation of oxygen-containing functional groups, mostly carbonyl and carboxyl. It is shown that due to the formation of polar groups on the surface and its higher roughness, the wettability of the plasma-modified membranes improves. In addition, the presence of polar groups on the membrane surface layer modifies its electrochemical properties so that conductivity of plasma-treated membranes increase.

  7. Synchrotron radiation induced direct photo-etching and surface modification of PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we have described and discussed the measurement results of etching rates by direct photo-etching using Synchrotron Radiation (SR) for various kind of crosslinked PTFEs, which were prepared by different crosslinking doses, comparing with the non-crosslinked PTFE. It has been found that the etching rates obtained for crosslinked PTFE were much larger than that of non-crosslinked one. These results are not described by simple consideration such as the G values of main chain scission. We propose that the etching rates should be discussed by the complex mechanism through at least two different steps such as polymer decomposition and fragment desorption. In the second part of the article, we have described and discussed the abnormal reaction induced at the surface region after the SR etching for non-crosslinked PTFE. Through the measurements using DSC and solid state 19 F-NMR, we have confirmed the crosslinking reaction of PTFE even in solid state PTFE. This should be induced by the very high density radical formation in very thin area of PTFE films by SR radiation. (author)

  8. Silicon surface damage caused by reactive ion etching in fluorocarbon gas mixtures containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstroem, H.; Blom, H.; Ostling, M.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Keinonen, J.; Berg, S.

    1991-01-01

    For selective etching of SiO 2 on silicon, gases or gas mixtures containing hydrogen are often used. Hydrogen from the glow discharge promotes the formation of a thin film polymer layer responsible for the selectivity of the etching process. The reactive ion etch (RIE) process is known to create damage in the silicon substrate. The influence of hydrogen on the damage and deactivation of dopants is investigated in the present work. The distribution of hydrogen in silicon, after different etching and annealing conditions have been studied. The influence of the RIE process on the charge carrier concentration in silicon has been investigated. Various analytical techniques like contact resistivity measurements, four point probe measurements, and Hall measurements have been used to determine the influence of the RIE process on the electrical properties of processed silicon wafers. The hydrogen profile in as-etched and post annealed wafers was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The depth of the deactivated surface layer is discussed in terms of the impinging hydrogen ion energy, i.e., the possibility of H + ions to pick up an energy equal to the peak-to-peak voltage of the rf signal

  9. A study on decontamination of TRU, Co, and Mo using plasma surface etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Y.D.; Kim, Y.S.; Paek, S.H.; Lee, K.H.; Jung, C.H.; Oh, W.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Recently dry decontamination/surface-cleaning technology using plasma etching has been focused in the nuclear industry. In this study, the applicability and the effectiveness of this new dry processing technique are experimentally investigated by examining the etching reaction of UO 2 , Co, and Mo in r.f. plasma with the etchant gas of CF 4 /O 2 mixture. UO 2 is chosen as a representing material for uranium and TRU (TRans-Uranic) compounds and metallic Co and Mo are selected because they are the principal contaminants in the spent nuclear components such as valves and pipes made of stainless steel or INCONEL. Results show that in all cases maximum etching rate is achieved when the mole fraction of O 2 to CF 4 /O 2 mixture gas is 20 %, regardless of temperature and r.f. power. (author)

  10. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Phillips, Larry; Valente, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  11. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardan Upadhyay, Larry Phillips, Anne-Marie Valente

    2011-09-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  12. Change of wettability of PTFE surface by sputter etching and excimer laser. Sputter etching oyobi excimer laser ni yoru PTFE hyomen no shinsuika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S. (Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)); Kubo, U. (Kinki University, Osaka (Japan))

    1994-06-20

    The wettability of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) surfaces was improved by sputter etching and excimer laser irradiation. In sputter etching, the PTFE surface was treated by reactive sputter etching with H2O gas to give active groups on the surface. In laser irradiation, the surface was irradiated in pure water by high-energy KrF excimer laser. As the surface wettability was evaluated with a contact angle to water, the contact angle decreased remarkably in both treatments resulting in a good improvement effect. In sputter etching, various new chemical bonds such as F-C=O, F2C-FC-O, F2C-C-O and C-O were observed because of a decrease in F and incorporation of oxygen. Such chemical bonds could be eliminated by ultraviolet ray irradiation, and the treated surface condition approached the initial condition after irradiation of 200 hours. In laser irradiation, it was suggested that C-F bonds were broken, and OH groups were added to the surface by dissociation of H2O to H and OH. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Fabrication mechanism of friction-induced selective etching on Si(100) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Yu, Bingjun; Dong, Hanshan; Qian, Linmao; Zhou, Zhongrong

    2012-02-23

    As a maskless nanofabrication technique, friction-induced selective etching can easily produce nanopatterns on a Si(100) surface. Experimental results indicated that the height of the nanopatterns increased with the KOH etching time, while their width increased with the scratching load. It has also found that a contact pressure of 6.3 GPa is enough to fabricate a mask layer on the Si(100) surface. To understand the mechanism involved, the cross-sectional microstructure of a scratched area was examined, and the mask ability of the tip-disturbed silicon layer was studied. Transmission electron microscope observation and scanning Auger nanoprobe analysis suggested that the scratched area was covered by a thin superficial oxidation layer followed by a thick distorted (amorphous and deformed) layer in the subsurface. After the surface oxidation layer was removed by HF etching, the residual amorphous and deformed silicon layer on the scratched area can still serve as an etching mask in KOH solution. The results may help to develop a low-destructive, low-cost, and flexible nanofabrication technique suitable for machining of micro-mold and prototype fabrication in micro-systems.

  14. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353

  15. Nanowall formation by maskless wet-etching on a femtosecond laser irradiated silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siwoo; Jo, Kukhyun; Keum, Hee-sung; Chae, Sangmin; Kim, Yonghyeon; Choi, Jiyeon; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2018-04-01

    We found that micro-cells surrounded by nanowalls can be formed by a maskless wet-etching process on Si (100) surfaces possessing Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure (LIPSS) by femtosecond laser irradiation. The LIPSS process could produce periodic one-dimensional micron scale ripples on a Si surface, which could be developed into micro-cells by a subsequent etching process. The solution etching conditions strongly affected both the micro-cell and nanowall shapes such as the height and the thickness of nanowalls. The tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution created thin nanowalls and the resulting micro-cells with a well-flattened bottom while the KOH solution formed thick walls and incomplete micro-cells. The bottoms of micro-cells surrounded by the nanowalls were considerably flat with a 3.10 nm surface roughness. A pentacene layer was deposited on the micro-cells of a Si surface to evaluate the film properties by grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering measurements. The pentacene film on the micro-cell Si surface showed a strong film phase, which was comparable to the film phase grown on the atomically flat Si surface.

  16. Investigation of Plasma Etching for Superconducting RF Cavities Surface Preparation. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2009-01-01

    Our results show that plasma-treated samples are comparable or superior to a BCP sample, both in the size of features and sharpness of the boundaries between individual features at the surface. Plasma treatment of bulk Nb cavities is a promising technique for microwave cavities preparation used in particle acceleration application. Etching rates are sufficiently high to enable efficient removal of mechanically damaged surface layer with high reproducibility. No impurities are deposited on the bulk Nb surface during plasma treatment. Surface topology characteristic are promising for complex cavity geometry, since discharge conforms the profile of the reaction chamber. In view of these experimental results, we propose plasma treatment for producing microwave cavities with high Q factor instead of using bulk Nb treated with wet etching process.

  17. Improved surface quality of anisotropically etched silicon {111} planes for mm-scale optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, J P; Hinds, E A; Zeimpekis, I; Kraft, M

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the surface quality of millimetre-scale optical mirrors produced by etching CZ and FZ silicon wafers in potassium hydroxide to expose the {111} planes. We find that the FZ surfaces have four times lower noise power at spatial frequencies up to 500 mm −1 . We conclude that mirrors made using FZ wafers have higher optical quality. (technical note)

  18. Development of a Photoelectrochemical Etch Process to Enable Heterogeneous Substrate Integration of Epitaxial III-Nitride Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    release stack. Recently, this technique has been refined with band engineering within the release layer7 and extended to the point where it has been...liftoff. Mesas with a 200-μm diameter are lithographically defined and etched down to a depth of approximately 450 nm using a plasma etching chemistry ...etch chemistry , bonding, and other materials processing vary, but the setup created for this project can be applied to others as well. Approved

  19. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  20. Surface morphology and electronic structure of halogen etched InAs (1 1 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eassa, N., E-mail: nashwa.eassa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Murape, D.M. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Betz, R. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Africa); Neethling, J.H.; Venter, A.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The reaction of halogen-based etchants with n-InAs (1 1 1)A and the resulting surface morphology and surface electronic structure are investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using the intensity ratio of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonon to the transverse optical (TO) phonon in the Raman spectrum, a significant reduction in band bending is deduced after exposure of the InAs surface to HCl:H{sub 2}O, Br-methanol and I-ethanol for moderate times and concentrations. These procedures also lead to smooth and defect-free InAs surfaces. The improvements in surface properties are reversed, however, if the concentrations of the etchants are increased or the etch time is too long. In the worst cases, pit formation and inverted pyramids with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} side facets are observed. The influence of the etchant concentration and etch time on the morphological and electronic properties of the etched surfaces is reported.

  1. Surface morphology and electronic structure of halogen etched InAs (1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eassa, N.; Murape, D.M.; Betz, R.; Neethling, J.H.; Venter, A.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of halogen-based etchants with n-InAs (1 1 1)A and the resulting surface morphology and surface electronic structure are investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using the intensity ratio of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonon to the transverse optical (TO) phonon in the Raman spectrum, a significant reduction in band bending is deduced after exposure of the InAs surface to HCl:H 2 O, Br–methanol and I–ethanol for moderate times and concentrations. These procedures also lead to smooth and defect-free InAs surfaces. The improvements in surface properties are reversed, however, if the concentrations of the etchants are increased or the etch time is too long. In the worst cases, pit formation and inverted pyramids with {1 1 1} side facets are observed. The influence of the etchant concentration and etch time on the morphological and electronic properties of the etched surfaces is reported.

  2. Dry Etch Black Silicon with Low Surface Damage: Effect of Low Capacitively Coupled Plasma Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iandolo, Beniamino; Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Gaudig, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon fabricated by reactive ion etch (RIE) is promising for integration into silicon solar cells thanks to its excellent light trapping ability. However, intensive ion bombardment during the RIE induces surface damage, which results in enhanced surface recombination velocity. Here, we pr...... carrier lifetime thanks to reduced ion energy. Surface passivation using atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 improves the effective lifetime to 7.5 ms and 0.8 ms for black silicon n- and p-type wafers, respectively.......Black silicon fabricated by reactive ion etch (RIE) is promising for integration into silicon solar cells thanks to its excellent light trapping ability. However, intensive ion bombardment during the RIE induces surface damage, which results in enhanced surface recombination velocity. Here, we...... present a RIE optimization leading to reduced surface damage while retaining excellent light trapping and low reflectivity. In particular, we demonstrate that the reduction of the capacitively coupled power during reactive ion etching preserves a reflectance below 1% and improves the effective minority...

  3. Surface Roughening of Polystyrene and Poly(methyl methacrylate in Ar/O2 Plasma Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Wendt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selectively plasma-etched polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate (PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer masks present a promising alternative for subsequent nanoscale patterning of underlying films. Because mask roughness can be detrimental to pattern transfer, this study examines roughness formation, with a focus on the role of cross-linking, during plasma etching of PS and PMMA. Variables include ion bombardment energy, polymer molecular weight and etch gas mixture. Roughness data support a proposed model in which surface roughness is attributed to polymer aggregation associated with cross-linking induced by energetic ion bombardment. In this model, RMS roughness peaks when cross-linking rates are comparable to chain scissioning rates, and drop to negligible levels for either very low or very high rates of cross-linking. Aggregation is minimal for very low rates of cross-linking, while very high rates produce a continuous cross-linked surface layer with low roughness. Molecular weight shows a negligible effect on roughness, while the introduction of H and F atoms suppresses roughness, apparently by terminating dangling bonds. For PS etched in Ar/O2 plasmas, roughness decreases with increasing ion energy are tentatively attributed to the formation of a continuous cross-linked layer, while roughness increases with ion energy for PMMA are attributed to increases in cross-linking from negligible to moderate levels.

  4. Beam Simulation Studies of Plasma-Surface Interactions in Fluorocarbon Etching of Silicon and Silicon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular beam apparatus has been constructed which allows the synthesis of dominant species fluxes to a wafer surface during fluorocarbon plasma etching. These species include atomic F as the primary etchant, CF _2 as a potential polymer forming precursor, and Ar^{+} or CF _{rm x}^{+} type ions. Ionic and neutral fluxes employed are within an order of magnitude of those typical of fluorocarbon plasmas and are well characterized through the use of in -situ probes. Etching yields and product distributions have been measured through the use of in-situ laser interferometry and line-of-sight mass spectrometry. XPS studies of etched surfaces were performed to assess surface chemical bonding states and average surface stoichiometry. A useful design guide was developed which allows optimal design of straight -tube molecular beam dosers in the collisionally-opaque regime. Ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics have been studied as a function of the independently variable fluxes of free radicals and ions, as well as ion energy and substrate temperature. We have investigated the role of Ar ^{+} ions in enhancing the chemistries of F and CF_2 separately, and in combination on undoped silicon and silicon dioxide surfaces. We have employed both reactive and inert ions in the energy range most relevant to plasma etching processes, 20-500 eV, through the use of Kaufman and ECR type ion sources. The effect of increasing ion energy on the etching of fluorine saturated silicon and silicon dioxide surfaces was quantified through extensions of available low energy physical sputtering theory. Simple "site"-occupation models were developed for the quantification of the ion-enhanced fluorine etching kinetics in these systems. These models are suitable for use in topography evolution simulators (e.g. SAMPLE) for the predictive modeling of profile evolution in non-depositing fluorine-based plasmas such as NF_3 and SF_6. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14

  5. Effect of Reduced Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times 
on Enamel Surface Characteristics and Shear Fatigue Strength Using Universal Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Fischer, Nicholas; Barkmeier, Wayne; Baruth, Andrew; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times on enamel fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives and surface characteristics by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three universal adhesives were used in this study (Clearfil Universal Bond [C], G-Premio Bond [GP], Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SU]). Four pre-etching groups were employed: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid and immediately rinsed with an air-water spray, and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 5, 10, or 15 s. Ground enamel was used as the control group. For the initial bond strength test, 15 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were used. For the shear fatigue test, 20 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were loaded using a sine wave at a frequency of 20 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of composite adhesively bonded to ground and pre-etched enamel were determined. AFM observations of ground and pre-etched enamel were also conducted, and surface roughness as well as surface area were evaluated. The initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of the universal adhesives in the pre-etched groups were significantly higher than those of the control group, and were not influenced by the pre-etching time. Significantly higher surface roughness and surface area of enamel surfaces in pre-etched groups were observed compared with those in the control group. While the surface area was not significantly influenced by etching time, surface roughness of the enamel surfaces in the pre-etched groups significantly increased with pre-etching time. The results of this in vitro study suggest that reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times do not impair the fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives. Although fatigue bond strength and surface area were not influenced by phosphoric-acid etching times, surface roughness increased with increasing etching time.

  6. Subsurface dimerization in III-V semiconductor (001) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumpf, C.; Marks, L.D.; Ellis, D.

    2001-01-01

    We present the atomic structure of the c(8 X 2) reconstructions of InSb-, InAs-, and GaAs-(001) surfaces as determined by surface x-ray diffraction using direct methods. Contrary to common belief, group III dimers are not prominent on the surface, instead subsurface dimerization of group m atoms ...... takes place in the second bilayer, accompanied by a major rearrangement of the surface atoms above the dimers to form linear arrays. By varying the occupancies of four surface sites the (001)-c(8 X 2) reconstructions of III-V semiconductors can be described in a unified model....

  7. Growth of crystalline semiconductor materials on crystal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, L

    2013-01-01

    Written for physicists, chemists, and engineers specialising in crystal and film growth, semiconductor electronics, and various applications of thin films, this book reviews promising scientific and engineering trends in thin films and thin-films materials science. The first part discusses the physical characteristics of the processes occurring during the deposition and growth of films, the principal methods of obtaining semiconductor films and of reparing substrate surfaces on which crystalline films are grown, and the main applications of films. The second part contains data on epitaxial i

  8. Performance of a universal adhesive on etched and non-etched surfaces: Do the results match the expectations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grégoire, Geneviève, E-mail: genevieve.gregoire@univ-tlse3.fr [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062 Toulouse (France); Sharrock, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.sharrock@gmail.com [CNRS UMR 5302, University Toulouse III, Mines-Albi, 81013 Albi (France); Prigent, Yann, E-mail: prigent@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Institut de Chimie de Toulouse (ICT) – FR 2599, Faculté des Sciences et de l' Ingénierie, University Toulouse III, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-09-01

    A universal adhesive was applied to human dentin in both the etched and rinsed state and the normal non etched state, to compare the resulting properties and detect any significant differences. The study focused on observations of the hybrid layer by scanning electron microscopy and on fluid permeation measurements as a function of time. Spectroscopic characterizations included infrared and differential calorimetric curves of the samples. The results obtained show non-statistically significant fluid permeability between the two sample types. Both the etched and rinsed samples and the non-etched ones showed similar homogeneous hybrid layers that reduced the fluid flow, and corresponded to well spread polymer coatings. The infrared results illustrated the spectra obtained on going from the outside adhesive layer to the inside portion of the dentin-polymer interface and did not reveal any intermediate zone resembling demineralized collagen that would be water saturated and not infiltrated with adhesive. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) curves corresponded to the curves obtained with ethanol wet bonding in that free water (melting at 0 °C) was removed by the universal adhesive, and that no collagen melting was observed for the non-etched samples. The Diffusion-Ordered Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (DOSY NMR) spectrum of the virgin adhesive showed the presence of water and ethanol solvents and indicated that several monomer or prepolymer molecules were present with multiple acrylic functional groups with diffusion coefficients related to molecular weights. Overall, the results show that universal adhesive can be used in the milder self-etch mode and that more aggressive etch and rinse procedure can be reserved for the occasions with sclerotic dentin or enamel regions more difficult to treat.

  9. Performance of a universal adhesive on etched and non-etched surfaces: Do the results match the expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grégoire, Geneviève; Sharrock, Patrick; Prigent, Yann

    2016-01-01

    A universal adhesive was applied to human dentin in both the etched and rinsed state and the normal non etched state, to compare the resulting properties and detect any significant differences. The study focused on observations of the hybrid layer by scanning electron microscopy and on fluid permeation measurements as a function of time. Spectroscopic characterizations included infrared and differential calorimetric curves of the samples. The results obtained show non-statistically significant fluid permeability between the two sample types. Both the etched and rinsed samples and the non-etched ones showed similar homogeneous hybrid layers that reduced the fluid flow, and corresponded to well spread polymer coatings. The infrared results illustrated the spectra obtained on going from the outside adhesive layer to the inside portion of the dentin-polymer interface and did not reveal any intermediate zone resembling demineralized collagen that would be water saturated and not infiltrated with adhesive. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) curves corresponded to the curves obtained with ethanol wet bonding in that free water (melting at 0 °C) was removed by the universal adhesive, and that no collagen melting was observed for the non-etched samples. The Diffusion-Ordered Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (DOSY NMR) spectrum of the virgin adhesive showed the presence of water and ethanol solvents and indicated that several monomer or prepolymer molecules were present with multiple acrylic functional groups with diffusion coefficients related to molecular weights. Overall, the results show that universal adhesive can be used in the milder self-etch mode and that more aggressive etch and rinse procedure can be reserved for the occasions with sclerotic dentin or enamel regions more difficult to treat.

  10. Graphite surface topography induced by Ta cluster impact and oxidative etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.T.; Olsson, L.; Erlandsson, R.; Henkel, M.; Urbassek, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Freshly cleaved highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), when baked in air at ∝630 C, forms one-monolayer(ML)-deep circular pits due to oxidation initiated at surface defect sites. We found that the areal density and depths of these pits could be modulated by deliberately introducing surface and sub-surface defects by energetic ion bombardment prior to baking. Bombardment by 555-eV/atom Ta 1 + , Ta 2 + , Ta 4 + , or Ta 9 + , always enhanced the areal density of etch pits, but only bombardment by Ta 4 + , or Ta 9 + significantly enhanced the depths of the pits. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of Ta n cluster bombardment of HOPG (n = 1, 2, 4, and 9) with the aim of characterizing the damage structures induced by the bombardment and correlating them with the experimental data. For Ta 9 + , the simulations showed a high level of damage extending from the surface down to nine MLs, in agreement with the most probable etch pit depth observed. For other cluster species, predicted etch pit depths were deeper than the observed ones. Annealing or steric requirements for initiating oxidation may account for some of the differences between simulations and experimental results. (orig.)

  11. Thermally controlled growth of surface nanostructures on ion-modified AIII-BV semiconductor crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trynkiewicz, Elzbieta; Jany, Benedykt R.; Wrana, Dominik; Krok, Franciszek

    2018-01-01

    The primary motivation for our systematic study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of sample temperature on the pattern evolution of several AIII-BV semiconductor crystal (001) surfaces (i.e., InSb, InP, InAs, GaSb) in terms of their response to low-energy Ar+ ion irradiation conditions. The surface morphology and the chemical diversity of such ion-modified binary materials has been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, all surface textures following ion irradiation exhibit transitional behavior from small islands, via vertically oriented 3D nanostructures, to smoothened surface when the sample temperature is increased. This result reinforces our conviction that the mass redistribution of adatoms along the surface plays a vital role during the formation and growth process of surface nanostructures. We would like to emphasize that this paper addresses in detail for the first time the topic of the growth kinetics of the nanostructures with regard to thermal surface diffusion, while simultaneously offering some possible approaches to supplementing previous studies and therein gaining a new insight into this complex issue. The experimental results are discussed with reference to models of the pillars growth, abutting on preferential sputtering, the self-sustained etch masking effect and the redeposition process recently proposed to elucidate the observed nanostructuring mechanism.

  12. Plasma etching to enhance the surface insulating stability of alumina for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the surface electrical conductivity of alumina, considered one of the most promising insulating materials for numerous applications in fusion devices, has been observed during ion bombardment in vacuum due to oxygen loss by preferential sputtering. Although this is expected to cause serious limitations to insulating components functionality, recent studies showed it is possible to restore the damaged lattice by oxygen reincorporation during thermal treatments in air. These studies also revealed a correlation between conductivity and ion beam induced luminescence, which is being used to monitor surface electrical conductivity degradation and help qualify the post irradiation recovery. Work now carried out for Wesgo alumina considers oxygen implantation and plasma etching as additional methods to improve recovered layer depth and quality. Both conductivity and luminescence results indicate the potential use of plasma etching not only for damage recovery, but also as a pre-treatment to enhance material stability during irradiation.

  13. O2 Plasma Etching and Antistatic Gun Surface Modifications for CNT Yarn Microelectrode Improve Sensitivity and Antifouling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Venton, B Jill

    2017-05-16

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based microelectrodes exhibit rapid and selective detection of neurotransmitters. While different fabrication strategies and geometries of CNT microelectrodes have been characterized, relatively little research has investigated ways to selectively enhance their electrochemical properties. In this work, we introduce two simple, reproducible, low-cost, and efficient surface modification methods for carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs): O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment. O 2 plasma etching was performed by a microwave plasma system with oxygen gas flow and the optimized time for treatment was 1 min. The antistatic gun treatment flows ions by the electrode surface; two triggers of the antistatic gun was the optimized number on the CNTYME surface. Current for dopamine at CNTYMEs increased 3-fold after O 2 plasma etching and 4-fold after antistatic gun treatment. When the two treatments were combined, the current increased 12-fold, showing the two effects are due to independent mechanisms that tune the surface properties. O 2 plasma etching increased the sensitivity due to increased surface oxygen content but did not affect surface roughness while the antistatic gun treatment increased surface roughness but not oxygen content. The effect of tissue fouling on CNT yarns was studied for the first time, and the relatively hydrophilic surface after O 2 plasma etching provided better resistance to fouling than unmodified or antistatic gun treated CNTYMEs. Overall, O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by different mechanisms, providing the possibility to tune the CNTYME surface and enhance sensitivity.

  14. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Kei [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki [Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies, 2-1-22, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0001 (Japan); Fukai, Jun, E-mail: jfukai@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  15. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Kei; Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento; Yahiro, Masayuki; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  16. Electroless silver plating of the surface of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Marcello; Parravicini, Matteo; Moret, Massimo; Papagni, Antonio; Schröter, Bernd; Fritz, Torsten

    2011-10-04

    The integration of nanoscale processes and devices demands fabrication routes involving rapid, cost-effective steps, preferably carried out under ambient conditions. The realization of the metal/organic semiconductor interface is one of the most demanding steps of device fabrication, since it requires mechanical and/or thermal treatments which increment costs and are often harmful in respect to the active layer. Here, we provide a microscopic analysis of a room temperature, electroless process aimed at the deposition of a nanostructured metallic silver layer with controlled coverage atop the surface of single crystals and thin films of organic semiconductors. This process relies on the reaction of aqueous AgF solutions with the nonwettable crystalline surface of donor-type organic semiconductors. It is observed that the formation of a uniform layer of silver nanoparticles can be accomplished within 20 min contact time. The electrical characterization of two-terminal devices performed before and after the aforementioned treatment shows that the metal deposition process is associated with a redox reaction causing the p-doping of the semiconductor. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Inverse metal-assisted chemical etching produces smooth high aspect ratio InP nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

    2015-01-14

    Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods.

  18. Influence of pH, bleaching agents, and acid etching on surface wear of bovine enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Flávia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares; Alencar, Marina Studart; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Material and Methods Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). Results The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. Conclusion There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups. PMID:27008254

  19. Effect of Cl2- and HBr-based inductively coupled plasma etching on InP surface composition analyzed using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchoule, S.; Vallier, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chevolleau, T.; Cardinaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    A Cl 2 -HBr-O 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process has been adapted for the processing of InP-based heterostructures in a 300-mm diameter CMOS etching tool. Smooth and anisotropic InP etching is obtained at moderate etch rate (∼600 nm/min). Ex situ x-ray energy dispersive analysis of the etched sidewalls shows that the etching anisotropy is obtained through a SiO x passivation mechanism. The stoichiometry of the etched surface is analyzed in situ using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that Cl 2 -based ICP etching results in a significantly P-rich surface. The phosphorous layer identified on the top surface is estimated to be ∼1-1.3-nm thick. On the other hand InP etching in HBr/Ar plasma results in a more stoichiometric surface. In contrast to the etched sidewalls, the etched surface is free from oxides with negligible traces of silicon. Exposure to ambient air of the samples submitted to Cl 2 -based chemistry results in the complete oxidation of the P-rich top layer. It is concluded that a post-etch treatment or a pure HBr plasma step may be necessary after Cl 2 -based ICP etching for the recovery of the InP material.

  20. Enhanced performance of solar cells with optimized surface recombination and efficient photon capturing via anisotropic-etching of black silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Peng, Y.; Hong, M.; Zhang, Y. B.; Cai, Bin; Zhu, Y. M.; Yuan, G. D.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report an enhanced conversion efficiency of femtosecond-laser treated silicon solar cells by surface modification of anisotropic-etching. The etching improves minority carrier lifetime inside modified black silicon area substantially; moreover, after the etching, an inverted pyramids/upright pyramids mixed texture surface is obtained, which shows better photon capturing capability than that of conventional pyramid texture. Combing of these two merits, the reformed solar cells show higher conversion efficiency than that of conventional pyramid textured cells. This work presents a way for fabricating high performance silicon solar cells, which can be easily applied to mass-production

  1. Surface and Interface Engineering of Organometallic and Two Dimensional Semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong

    For over half a century, inorganic Si and III-V materials have led the modern semiconductor industry, expanding to logic transistor and optoelectronic applications. However, these inorganic materials have faced two different fundamental limitations, flexibility for wearable applications and scaling limitation as logic transistors. As a result, the organic and two dimensional have been studied intentionally for various fields. In the present dissertation, three different studies will be presented with followed order; (1) the chemical response of organic semiconductor in NO2 exposure. (2) The surface and stability of WSe2 in ambient air. (3) Deposition of dielectric on two dimensional materials using organometallic seeding layer. The organic molecules rely on the van der Waals interaction during growth of thin films, contrast to covalent bond inorganic semiconductors. Therefore, the morphology and electronic property at surface of organic semiconductor in micro scale is more sensitive to change in gaseous conditions. In addition, metal phthalocyanine, which is one of organic semiconductor materials, change their electronic property as reaction with gaseous analytes, suggesting as potential chemical sensing platforms. In the present part, the growth behavior of metal phthalocyanine and surface response to gaseous condition will be elucidated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In second part, the surface of layered transition metal dichalcogenides and their chemical response to exposure ambient air will be investigated, using STM. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted widespread attention in the scientific community for electronic device applications because improved electrostatic gate control and suppression of short channel leakage resulted from their atomic thin body. To fabricate the transistor based on TMDs, TMDs should be exposed to ambient conditions, while the effect of air exposure has not been understood fully. In this part

  2. Surface changes of biopolymers PHB and PLLA induced by Ar+ plasma treatment and wet etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Slepička, P.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2014-08-01

    Polymers, especially group of biopolymers find potential application in a wide range of disciplines due to their biodegradability. In biomedical applications these materials can be used as a scaffold or matrix. In this work, the influence of the Ar+ plasma treatment and subsequent wet etching (acetone/water) on the surface properties of polymers were studied. Two biopolymers - polyhydroxybutyrate with 8% polyhydroxyvalerate (PHB) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were used in these experiments. Modified surface layers were analyzed by different methods. Surface wettability was characterized by determination of water contact angle. Changes in elemental composition of modified surfaces were performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology and roughness was examined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Gravimetry method was used to study the mass loss. It was found that the modification from both with plasma and wet etching leads to dramatic changes of surface properties (surface chemistry, morphology and roughness). Rate of changes of these features strongly depends on the modification parameters.

  3. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces from austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) by chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Mirzaei, Ali; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2018-05-01

    Stainless steels are among the most common engineering materials and are used extensively in humid areas. Therefore, it is important that these materials must be robust to humidity and corrosion. This paper reports the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces from austenitic stainless steel (type AISI 304) using a facile two-step chemical etching method. In the first step, the stainless steel plates were etched in a HF solution, followed by a fluorination process, where they showed a water contact angle (WCA) of 166° and a sliding angle of 5° under the optimal conditions. To further enhance the superhydrophobicity, in the second step, they were dipped in a 0.1 wt.% NaCl solution at 100 °C, where the WCA was increased to 168° and the sliding angle was decreased to ∼2°. The long-term durability of the fabricated superhydrophobic samples for 1 month storage in air and water was investigated. The potential applicability of the fabricated samples was demonstrated by the excellent superhydrophobicity after 1 month. In addition, the self-cleaning properties of the fabricated superhydrophobic surface were also demonstrated. This paper outlines a facile, low-cost and scalable chemical etching method that can be adopted easily for large-scale purposes.

  4. Voltammetric determination of metal impurities on semiconductor surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazeva, E.P.; Mokrousov, G.M.; Volkova, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    A modification of voltamperometric method used for analysis of semiconductor surfaces which make it possible to exclude a contact between surface and background solution. This technique is based on solubility of elemental metal forms in low melting electroconductor systems (e.g., in mercury. The voltampere characteristics of amalgams formed are then studied. The suggested method is simple, rapid, and makes it possible to perform a nondestructive qualitative analysis of the sample surface area measuring about 10 -3 cm -2 and more. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  5. The Investigation of Intermediate Stage of Template Etching with Metal Droplets by Wetting Angle Analysis on (001 GaAs Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamkina AA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we study metal droplets on a semiconductor surface that are the initial stage for both droplet epitaxy and local droplet etching. The distributions of droplet geometrical parameters such as height, radius and volume help to understand the droplet formation that strongly influences subsequent nanohole etching. To investigate the etching and intermixing processes, we offer a new method of wetting angle analysis. The aspect ratio that is defined as the ratio of the height to radius was used as an estimation of wetting angle which depends on the droplet material. The investigation of the wetting angle and the estimation of indium content revealed significant materials intermixing during the deposition time. AFM measurements reveal the presence of two droplet groups that is in agreement with nanohole investigations. To explain this observation, we consider arsenic evaporation and consequent change in the initial substrate. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest the model of droplet evolution and the formation of two droplet groups.

  6. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, P; Knoll, A J; Wang, H; Oehrlein, G S; Kondeti, V S S K; Bruggeman, P J

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O 2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H 2 O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O 2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O 2 and H 2 O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O 2 /H 2 O plasma. (letter)

  7. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, P.; Knoll, A. J.; Wang, H.; Kondeti, V. S. S. K.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H2O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10-4 to 10-3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O2 and H2O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O2/H2O plasma.

  8. Synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy study of ammonium hydroxide etching to prepare well-ordered GaAs(1 0 0) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Mikhail V.; Ensling, David; Hunger, Ralf; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron-induced photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the native-oxide-covered GaAs(1 0 0) surface and changes induced by etching with aqueous ammonia solution and by annealing in vacuum. The etching step removes arsenic and gallium oxides from the surface and the surface gets covered by elemental arsenic and tiny amounts of gallium suboxide. The surface oxygen content is reduced by an order of magnitude after etching, whereas the surface carbon content is somewhat increased. Annealing of this surface at 450 deg. C results in the disappearance of elemental arsenic and a considerable decrease in surface carbon and oxygen contents. The valence band spectra exhibit clear features typical for As-terminated GaAs(1 0 0) surfaces, as also obtained after As decapping

  9. Electronic collective modes and instabilities on semiconductor surfaces. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, A.; Hanke, W.

    1984-01-01

    A Green's-function theory of electronic collective modes is presented which leads to a practical scheme for a microscopic determination of surface elementary excitations in conducting as well as nonconducting solids. Particular emphasis is placed on semiconductor surfaces where the jellium approximation is not valid, due to the importance of density fluctuations on a microscopic scale (reflected in the local-field effects). Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the two-particle Green's function of the surface system, an equation of motion for the electron-hole pair is obtained. Its solutions determine the energy spectra, lifetimes, and amplitudes of the surface elementary excitations, i.e., surface plasmons, excitons, polaritons, and magnons. Exchange and correlation effects are taken into account through the random-phase and time-dependent Hartree-Fock (screened electron-hole attraction) approximations. The formalism is applied to the study of electronic (charge- and spin-density) instabilities at covalent semiconductor surfaces. Quantitative calculations for an eight-layer Si(111) slab display an instability of the ideal paramagnetic surface with respect to spin-density waves with wavelength nearly corresponding to (2 x 1) and (7 x 7) superstructures

  10. Effect of input power and gas pressure on the roughening and selective etching of SiO2/Si surfaces in reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, X. X.; Huang, X. Z.; Tam, E.; Ostrikov, K.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the application low-temperature plasmas for roughening Si surfaces which is becoming increasingly important for a number of applications ranging from Si quantum dots to cell and protein attachment for devices such as 'laboratory on a chip' and sensors. It is a requirement that Si surface roughening is scalable and is a single-step process. It is shown that the removal of naturally forming SiO 2 can be used to assist in the roughening of the surface using a low-temperature plasma-based etching approach, similar to the commonly used in semiconductor micromanufacturing. It is demonstrated that the selectivity of SiO 2 /Si etching can be easily controlled by tuning the plasma power, working gas pressure, and other discharge parameters. The achieved selectivity ranges from 0.4 to 25.2 thus providing an effective means for the control of surface roughness of Si during the oxide layer removal, which is required for many advance applications in bio- and nanotechnology.

  11. Ripple formation on Si surfaces during plasma etching in Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Matsumoto, Haruka; Sonobe, Soma; Hatsuse, Takumi; Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2018-05-01

    Nanoscale surface roughening and ripple formation in response to ion incidence angle has been investigated during inductively coupled plasma etching of Si in Cl2, using sheath control plates to achieve the off-normal ion incidence on blank substrate surfaces. The sheath control plate consisted of an array of inclined trenches, being set into place on the rf-biased electrode, where their widths and depths were chosen in such a way that the sheath edge was pushed out of the trenches. The distortion of potential distributions and the consequent deflection of ion trajectories above and in the trenches were then analyzed based on electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations of the plasma sheath, to evaluate the angular distributions of ion fluxes incident on substrates pasted on sidewalls and/or at the bottom of the trenches. Experiments showed well-defined periodic sawtooth-like ripples with their wave vector oriented parallel to the direction of ion incidence at intermediate off-normal angles, while relatively weak corrugations or ripplelike structures with the wave vector perpendicular to it at high off-normal angles. Possible mechanisms for the formation of surface ripples during plasma etching are discussed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations of plasma-surface interactions and feature profile evolution. The results indicate the possibility of providing an alternative to ion beam sputtering for self-organized formation of ordered surface nanostructures.

  12. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiying, Ou; Lei, Zhao; Hongwei, Diao; Jun, Zhang; Wenjing, Wang

    2011-05-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells.

  13. Torque Analysis of a Triple Acid-Etched Titanium Implant Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emília Farias Pontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the removal torque of titanium implants treated with triple acid etching. Twenty-one rats were used in this study. For all animals, the tibia was prepared with a 2 mm drill, and a titanium implant (2 × 4 mm was inserted after treatment using the subtraction method of triple acid etching. The flaps were sutured. Seven animals were killed 14, 28, and 63 days after implant installation, and the load necessary for removing the implant from the bone was evaluated by using a torque meter. The torque values were as follows: 3.3 ± 1.7 Ncm (14 days, 2.2 ± 1.3 Ncm (28 days, and 6.7 ± 1.4 Ncm (63 days. The torque value at the final healing period (63 days was statistically significantly different from that at other time points tested (ANOVA, p=0.0002. This preliminary study revealed that treatment with triple acid etching can create a promising and efficient surface for the process of osseointegration.

  14. Surface phonon polaritons in semi-infinite semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Surface phonon polaritons in a semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice bounded by vacuum are studied. The modes associated with the polaritons are obtained and used to obtain the dispersion relation. Numerical results show that polariton bands exist between the TO and LO phonon frequencies, and are found to approach two surface mode frequencies in the limit of large tangential wave vector. Dependency of frequencies on the ratio of layer thicknesses is shown. Results are illustrated by a GaAs-GaP superlattice bounded by vacuum. (author)

  15. Reactivity of group IV (100) semiconductor surfaces towards organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.

    The reactions of simple and multifunctional organic compounds with the clean silicon, germanium, and diamond (100)-2 x 1 semiconductor surfaces have been investigated using a combination of multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemistry density functional theory calculations. From these studies, an improved understanding of the atomic level reactivity of these semiconductor surfaces has been obtained, along with insights into how to achieve their selective coupling with organics of desired and varied functionality. In addition to the Si(100) and Ge(100) surfaces, our results show that cycloaddition chemistry can also be extended to the diamond (100) surface. At room temperature, 1,3-butadiene was found to form a Diels-Alder product with the diamond (100) surface, as evidenced by isotopic substitution experiments and comparison of the surface adduct with its direct molecular analogue, cyclohexene. The reactions of other classes of molecules in addition to alkenes on the Si(100) and Ge(100) surfaces, including a series of five-membered cyclic amines, were also examined. For tertiary aliphatic amines on Si(100) and both secondary and tertiary aliphatic amines on Ge(100), a majority of the molecules were observed to become stably trapped in dative-bonded precursor states rather than form energetically favorable dissociation products. For pyrrole, aromaticity was found to play a defining role in its reactivity, and a comparison of its molecular and surface reactivity reveals interesting similarities. To probe the factors controlling the selectivity of organic reactions on clean semiconductor surfaces, the adsorption of acetone and a series of unsaturated ketones was also investigated. The reaction of acetone on Ge(100) was found to be under thermodynamic control at room temperature, resulting in the formation of an "ene" product rather than the kinetically favored [2+2] C=O cycloaddition product previously observed on the Si(100) surface. In

  16. Guiding gate-etch process development using 3D surface reaction modeling for 7nm and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Derren; Sporre, John R.; Deshpande, Vaibhav; Oulmane, Mohamed; Gull, Ronald; Ventzek, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, advanced process nodes such as 7nm (N7) are fundamentally 3D and require stringent control of critical dimensions over high aspect ratio features. Process integration in these nodes requires a deep understanding of complex physical mechanisms to control critical dimensions from lithography through final etch. Polysilicon gate etch processes are critical steps in several device architectures for advanced nodes that rely on self-aligned patterning approaches to gate definition. These processes are required to meet several key metrics: (a) vertical etch profiles over high aspect ratios; (b) clean gate sidewalls free of etch process residue; (c) minimal erosion of liner oxide films protecting key architectural elements such as fins; and (e) residue free corners at gate interfaces with critical device elements. In this study, we explore how hybrid modeling approaches can be used to model a multi-step finFET polysilicon gate etch process. Initial parts of the patterning process through hardmask assembly are modeled using process emulation. Important aspects of gate definition are then modeled using a particle Monte Carlo (PMC) feature scale model that incorporates surface chemical reactions.1 When necessary, species and energy flux inputs to the PMC model are derived from simulations of the etch chamber. The modeled polysilicon gate etch process consists of several steps including a hard mask breakthrough step (BT), main feature etch steps (ME), and over-etch steps (OE) that control gate profiles at the gate fin interface. An additional constraint on this etch flow is that fin spacer oxides are left intact after final profile tuning steps. A natural optimization required from these processes is to maximize vertical gate profiles while minimizing erosion of fin spacer films.2

  17. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Ultrastructure of the surface of dental enamel with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) with and without acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozal, Carola B; Kaplan, Andrea; Ortolani, Andrea; Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the ultrastructure and mineral composition of the surface of the enamel on a molar with MIH, with and without acid etching. A permanent tooth without clinical MIH lesions (control) and a tooth with clinical diagnosis of mild and moderate MIH, with indication for extraction, were processed with and without acid etching (H3PO4 37%, 20") for observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM) ZEISS (Supra 40) and mineral composition analysis with an EDS detector (Oxford Instruments). The control enamel showed normal prismatic surface and etching pattern. The clinically healthy enamel on the tooth with MIH revealed partial loss of prismatic pattern. The mild lesion was porous with occasional cracks. The moderate lesion was more porous, with larger cracks and many scales. The mineral composition of the affected surfaces had lower Ca and P content and higher O and C. On the tooth with MIH, even on normal looking enamel, the demineralization does not correspond to an etching pattern, and exhibits exposure of crystals with rods with rounded ends and less demineralization in the inter-prismatic spaces. Acid etching increased the presence of cracks and deep pores in the adamantine structure of the enamel with lesion. In moderate lesions, the mineral composition had higher content of Ca, P and Cl. Enamel with MIH, even on clinically intact adamantine surfaces, shows severe alterations in the ultrastructure and changes in ionic composition, which affect the acid etching pattern and may interfere with adhesion.

  19. A Initio Theoretical Studies of Surfaces of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    1993-01-01

    The first semiconductor which we study with these techniques is the archetypal elemental semiconductor, silicon. We present the first extensive study of point defects on Si(100). We identify the principal defects and two primary mechanisms responsible for their dominance: the need to eliminate dangling bonds on the surface and the need to compensate the strain induced by topological effects. Furthermore, we present evidence that the presence of point defects on the Si(100) surface is not intrinsic to the ground state of the surface as a stress relieving mechanism but rather is due merely to thermal fluctuations. We address materials issues associated with the identification of the lowest energy surfaces of GaAs and the determination of the geometric structure of a GaAs crystallite growing freely in three dimensions. The fracture energies associated with (110), (100) and (111) interface planes are calculated and a Wulff construction indicates that an ideal stoichiometric GaAs crystal should be terminated with (110) surfaces. We investigate the more complex issues that arise on surfaces when aspects of these two semiconductors are mixed. We investigate the problem of growing GaAs on the Si(100) surface and demonstrate how and why the most fundamental properties of the resulting bulk GaAs material, such as its crystalline orientation, may depend sensitively on the interplay between growth conditions such as temperature and the properties of the Si surface. For stepped Si(100) -As, we show that the growth of As directly on top of the Si surface produces a metastable state, while the replacement of the original top Si layer leads to a lower energy configuration, with the rearrangement of the surface driven by the relaxation of stress by surface steps. Finally, we study delta -doping, where one attempts to grow a single layer of Si on a GaAs surface before continuing with the growth of bulk GaAs. We shall employ a slightly different modality of the ab initio approach. We

  20. Effect of Surface Treatment on Enamel Cracks After Orthodontic Bracket Debonding: Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-Etching Versus Acid-Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Hassanali; Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Baherimoghadam, Tahereh; Azmi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to compare enamel cracks after orthodontic bracket debonding in the surfaces prepared with erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-galliumgarnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and the conventional acid-etching technique. Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 60 sound human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=30). The teeth in group A were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, while the teeth in group B were subjected to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (gold handpiece, MZ8 tip, 50Hz, 4.5W, 60μs, 80% water and 60% air). Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the enamel surfaces and were then debonded in both groups. The samples were inspected under a stereomicroscope at ×38 magnification to assess the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding and after debonding. Independent-samples t-test was used to compare the frequency of enamel cracks in the two groups. Levene’s test was applied to assess the equality of variances. Results: No significant difference was noted in the frequency or length of enamel cracks between the two groups after debonding (P>0.05). Conclusions: Despite the same results of the frequency and length of enamel cracks in the two groups and by considering the side effects of acid-etching (demineralization and formation of white spot lesions), Er,Cr:YSGG laser may be used as an alternative to acid-etching for enamel surface preparation prior to bracket bonding. PMID:29296111

  1. Self-organised wires and antiwires on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Miwa, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of self-organised formation of lines of (semi)metal elements on semiconductor surfaces, together with an ab initio theoretical modelling of such quasi-one-dimensional systems. Results of calculations are presented for the atomic geometry, electronic states, and dispersion of the most tightly bound image state (IS) for a self-organised thin indium chain on the silicon surface forming the Si(1 1 1)-In(4 x 1) nanowire system. It is pointed out that strong anisotropic behaviour of the image state observed in inverse photoemission measurements originates from the anisotropy in the surface corrugation potential. Results are also presented for theoretically simulated STM images of self-organised Bi-lines on the Si(0 0 1) surface, which suggest a low density of states close to the valence band maximum localized on the Bi-lines, supporting a proposed model of a quantum antiwire system

  2. Preparation and analysis of amorphous carbon films deposited from (C{sub 6}H{sub 12})/Ar/He chemistry for application as the dry etch hard mask in the semiconductor manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungmoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jaihyung; Choi, Jongsik [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Samseok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Yeonhong; Lee, Hyeondeok [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Dongjin, E-mail: dbyun@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous carbon layers (ACL) were deposited on Si (100) wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by using 1-hexene (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}) as a carbon source for dry etch hard mask of semiconductor devices manufacturing process. The deposition characteristics and film properties were investigated by means of ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and stress analysis. Hardness, Young's modulus, and surface roughness of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C were investigated by using nano-indentation and AFM. The deposition rate was decreased from 5050 A/min to 2160 A/min, and dry etch rate was decreased from 2090 A/min to 1770 A/min, and extinction coefficient was increased from 0.1 to 0.5. Raman analysis revealed a higher shift of the G-peak and a lower shift of the D-peak and the increase of I(D)/I(G) ratio as the deposition temperature was increased from 350 deg. C to 550 deg. C. XPS results of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C revealed a carbon 1s binding energy of 284.4 eV. The compressive film stress was decreased from 2.95 GPa to 1.28 GPa with increasing deposition temperature. The hardness and Young's modulus of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C were 5.8 GPa and 48.7 GPa respectively. The surface roughness RMS of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C was 2.24 A, and that after cleaning in diluted HF solution (H{sub 2}O:HF = 200:1), SC1 (NH{sub 4}OH:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O = 1:4:20) solution, and sulfuric acid solution (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} = 6:1) was 2.28 A, 2.30 A and 7.34 A, respectively. The removal amount of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C in diluted HF solution, SC1 solution and sulfuric acid solution was 6 A, 36 A and 110 A, respectively. These results demonstrated the viability of ACL deposited by PECVD from C{sub 6}H{sub 12} at 550 deg. C for application as the dry etch hard mask in fabrication of semiconductor devices.

  3. Effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Tabassom; Parvizi, Shaghayegh; Keshvad, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics reinforced by leucite or lithium disilicate crystals. Forty glass ceramic disks (14-mm diameter, 2-mm thick) consisting of 20 leucite-based ceramic disks (IPS Empress) and 20 lithia disilicate-based ceramic (IPS Empress 2) were produced by hot-pressing technique. All specimens were polished and then cleaned ultrasonically in distilled water. Ten specimens of each ceramic group were then etched with 9% hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel for 2 minutes and cleaned ultrasonically again. The biaxial flexural strength was measured by the piston-on-three-ball test in a universal testing machine. Data based on ten specimens in each group were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Microstructure of ceramic surfaces before and after acid etching was also examined by a scanning electron microscope. The mean biaxial flexural strength values for each group tested were (in MPa): nonetched IPS Empress = 118.6 +/- 25.5; etched IPS Empress = 102.9 +/- 15.4; nonetched IPS Empress 2 = 283.0 +/- 48.5; and etched IPS Empress 2 = 250.6 +/- 34.6. The results showed that the etching process reduced the biaxial flexural strengths significantly for both ceramic types (p= 0.025). No significant interaction between the ceramic type and etching process was found (p= 0.407). From the results, it was concluded that surface HF acid etching could have a weakening effect on hot-pressed leucite or lithia disilicate-based glass ceramic systems.

  4. Aqueous bromine etching of InP: a specific surface chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causier, A.; Bouttemy, M.; Gerard, I.; Aureau, D.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, Versailles-Saint-Quentin University, UMR CNRS 8180, 45 Av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-06-15

    The n -InP behaviour in HBr (0.1-1.0 M)/Br{sub 2} (1.25 x 10{sup -2}M) aqueous solutions is studied by AAS, XPS and SEM-FEG. Indium AAS-titrations of the HBr/Br{sub 2} solutions demonstrate that InP undergoes an etching mechanism whatever the HBr/Br{sub 2} formulation. The etching process is always linear with time but its rate depends on the HBr concentration. XPS analyses permit to link the apparent slow-down of the dissolution process when decreasing the HBr molarity from 1.0 M to 0.1 M to the presence of a mixed (In,P){sub ox} oxide layer on the surface. Therefore, the dissolution process of InP in HBr/Br{sub 2} solution appears to be ruled by the surface chemical state (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Surface passivation technology for III-V semiconductor nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Akazawa, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    The present status and key issues of surface passivation technology for III-V surfaces are discussed in view of applications to emerging novel III-V nanoelectronics. First, necessities of passivation and currently available surface passivation technologies for GaAs, InGaAs and AlGaAs are reviewed. Then, the principle of the Si interface control layer (ICL)-based passivation scheme by the authors' group is introduced and its basic characterization is presented. Ths Si ICL is a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown ultrathin Si layer inserted between III-V semiconductor and passivation dielectric. Finally, applications of the Si ICL method to passivation of GaAs nanowires and GaAs nanowire transistors and to realization of pinning-free high-k dielectric/GaAs MOS gate stacks are presented

  6. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  7. Evaluation of surface topography of zirconia ceramic after Er:YAG laser etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser with different pulse lengths on the surface roughness of zirconia ceramic and airborne particle abrasion. Er:YAG laser treatment is expected to be an alternative surface treatment method for zirconia ceramics; however, the parameters and success of the application are not clear. One hundred and forty zirconia discs (diameter, 10 mm; thickness, 1.2 mm) were prepared by a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n=10). One group was left as polished control, one group was air-particle abraded with Al2O3 particles. For the laser treatment groups, laser irradiation was applied at three different pulse energy levels (100, 200, and 300 mJ) and for each energy level at four different pulse lengths; 50, 100, 300, and 600 μs. Surface roughness was evaluated with an optical profilometer and specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). For the 100 and 200 mJ laser etching groups, 50 and 100 μs laser duration resulted in significantly higher surface roughness compared with air-particle abrasion (p0.05). For the 300 mJ laser etching groups; there was no statistically significant difference among the Ra values of 50 μs, 100 μs, 300 μs, 600 μs, and air-particle abrasion groups (p>0.05). In order to increase surface roughness and promote better bonding to resin luting agents, Er:YAG laser etching may be an alternative to air-particle abrasion for zirconia ceramics. However, high levels of pulse energy and longer pulse length may have an adverse effect on micromechanical locking properties, because of a decrease in surface roughness.

  8. Physics and Chemistry on Well-Defined Semiconductor and Oxide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peijun

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and other surface spectroscopic techniques have been employed to investigate the following two classes of surface/interface phenomena on well-defined semiconductor and oxide surfaces: (i) the fundamental physical and chemical processes involved in gas-solid interaction on silicon single crystal surfaces, and (ii) the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxide interfaces. The particular systems reported in this dissertation are: NH_3, PH_3 and B_ {10}H_{14} on Si(111)-(7 x 7); NH_3 on Si(100) -(2 x 1); atomic H on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and boron-modified Si(111); Al on Al_2O_3 and Sn on SiO_2.. On silicon surfaces, the surface dangling bonds function as the primary adsorption sites where surface chemical processes take place. The unambiguous identification of surface species by vibrational spectroscopy allows the elementary steps involved in these surface chemical processes to be followed on a molecular level. For adsorbate molecules such as NH_3 and PH_3, the nature of the initial low temperature (100 -300 K) adsorption is found to be dissociative, while that for B_{10}H_ {14} is non-dissociative. This has been deduced based upon the presence (or absence) of specific characteristic vibrational mode(s) on surface. By following the evolution of surface species as a function of temperature, the elementary steps leading to silicon nitride thin film growth and doping of silicon are elucidated. In the case of NH_3 on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and Si(100)-(2 x 1), a detailed understanding on the role of substrate surface structure in controlling the surface reactivity has been gained on the basis of a Si adatom backbond-strain relief mechanism on the Si(111) -(7 x 7). The electronic modification to Si(111) surface by subsurface boron doping has been shown to quench its surface chemistry, even for the most aggressive atomic H. This discovery is potentially meaningful to the technology of gas-phase silicon etching. The

  9. A study of the mechanisms causing surface defects on sidewalls during Si etching for TSV (through Si via)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Loh, Woon Leng; Praveen, Sampath Kumar; Murphy, Ramana; Swee, Eugene Tan Kiat

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report three mechanisms causing surface defects on Si sidewalls during Si etching for TSV. The first mechanism causing surface defects was a downward surface-defect formation due to the participation of the residual polymerizing gas in the transition periods between passivation steps and etch steps. The second mechanism was an upward surface-defect formation due to etchant attacking the interface between the Si and the sidewall polymer. Although the sidewall polymer was thick enough to protect the Si surface, it was not possible to avoid surface defects if the etch step was not switched to the following passivation step in time. The third mechanism was a sponge-like surface-defect formation caused by either poor polymer depositions or voids inside the sidewall polymer. The sponge-like surface defects were formed by Si isotropic etching through the weak points of the sidewall polymer. All three surface defects were considered as the major factors on TSV integration and packaging reliability issues. (paper)

  10. Quasi-one-dimensional metals on semiconductor surfaces with defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    Several examples are known in which massive arrays of metal atomic chains are formed on semiconductor surfaces that show quasi-one-dimensional metallic electronic structures. In this review, Au chains on Si(557) and Si(553) surfaces, and In chains on Si(111) surfaces, are introduced and discussed with regard to the physical properties determined by experimental data from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and electrical conductivity measurements. They show quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces and parabolic band dispersion along the chains. All of them are known from STM and ARPES to exhibit metal-insulator transitions by cooling and charge-density-wave formation due to Peierls instability of the metallic chains. The electrical conductivity, however, reveals the metal-insulator transition only on the less-defective surfaces (Si(553)-Au and Si(111)-In), but not on a more-defective surface (Si(557)-Au). The latter shows an insulating character over the whole temperature range. Compared with the electronic structure (Fermi surfaces and band dispersions), the transport property is more sensitive to the defects. With an increase in defect density, the conductivity only along the metal atomic chains was significantly reduced, showing that atomic-scale point defects decisively interrupt the electrical transport along the atomic chains and hide the intrinsic property of transport in quasi-one-dimensional systems.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel–titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO 2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces. (paper)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  14. Application of Surface Plasmonics for Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed

    This thesis addresses the lack of an efficient semiconductor light source at green emission colours. Considering InGaN based quantum-well (QW) light-emitters and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), various ways of applying surface plasmonics and nano-patterning to improve the efficiency, are investigated....... By placing metallic thin films or nanoparticles (NPs) in the near-field of QW light-emitters, it is possible to improve their internal quantum efficiency (IQE) through the Purcell enhancement effect. It has been a general understanding that in order to achieve surface plasmon (SP) coupling with QWs......-QW coupling does not necessarily lead to emission enhancement. The findings of this work show that the scattering and absorption properties of NPs play a crucial role in determining whether the implementation will improve or degrade the optical performance. By applying these principles, a novel design...

  15. Surface electron structure of short-period semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, I.; Czech Academy Science, Prague,; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Semiconductor superlattices represent man-made crystals with unique physical properties. By means of the directed layer-by-layer molecular epitaxy growth their electric properties can be tailored (band structure engineering). Longer translational periodicity in the growth direction is responsible for opening of new electron energy gaps (minigaps) with surface states and resonances localized at superlattice surfaces. Similarly as for the electron structure of the bulk, a procedure enabling to modify the surface electron structure of superlattices is desirable. Short-period superlattice (GaAs) 2 (AlAs) 2 with unreconstructed (100) surface is investigated in detail. Theoretical description in terms of full eigenfunctions of individual components has to be used. The changes of electron surface state energies governed by the termination of a periodic crystalline potential, predicted on simple models, are confirmed for this system. Large surface state shifts are found in the lowest minigap of the superlattice when this is terminated in four different topmost layer configurations. The changes should be observable in angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy as demonstrated in calculations based on the one step model of photoemission. Surface state in the center of the two dimensional Brillouin zone moves from the bottom of the minigap (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of GaAs) to its top (for the superlattice terminated by two bilayers of AlAs) where it becomes a resonance. No surface state/resonance is found for a termination with one bilayer of AlAs. The surface state bands behave similarly in the corresponding gaps of the k-resolved section of the electron band structure. The molecular beam epitaxy, which enables to terminate the superlattice growth with atomic layer precision, provides a way of tuning the superlattice surface electron structure by purely geometrical means. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences

  16. Influence of semiconductor surface preparation on photoelectric properties of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirowska, Nella [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: nella.mirowska@pwr.wroc.pl; Misiewicz, Jan [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-06-15

    The Schottky barriers formed by Al on Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} p-type crystals have been studied. Three types of crystals (monocrystal, large-grain crystal and polycrystal) were used for device fabrication. The samples were separated in two groups according to the type of structure and the methods of surface preparation. The samples from the first group were different in structure (monocrystal, large-grain crystal and polycrystals) but prepared in the same way. Three polycrystals with differently prepared surfaces were collected in the second group. Two samples from this group were also annealed in open air at 523 K for 24 h. Measurements of photovoltaic effect at room temperature were carried out to test the impact of surface preparation on photoelectric properties of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} contacts. Substantial differences in shape and intensity of PV signal were observed depending on whether the surface of semiconductor was mechanically polished, chemically etched or/and heat treated. The height of potential barrier, {phi} {sub B}, and optical transitions in semiconductor were determined. The value of {phi} {sub B} changed from 0.747 to 0.767 eV for unheated samples and from 0.724 to 0.755 eV for the heated ones. The quality of semiconductor surface seems to have an essential influence on spectral characteristics of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} junctions, especially in the case of polycrystals. It appeared that thorough preliminary mechanical polishing of crystals surface provides quite good photoelectric properties of Al-Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} junctions.

  17. Correlation of III/V semiconductor etch results with physical parameters of high-density reactive plasmas excited by electron cyclotron resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, FRANZ; Ralf, MEYER; Markus-Christian, AMANN

    2017-12-01

    Reactive ion etching is the interaction of reactive plasmas with surfaces. To obtain a detailed understanding of this process, significant properties of reactive composite low-pressure plasmas driven by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) were investigated and compared with the radial uniformity of the etch rate. The determination of the electronic properties of chlorine- and hydrogen-containing plasmas enabled the understanding of the pressure-dependent behavior of the plasma density and provided better insights into the electronic parameters of reactive etch gases. From the electrical evaluation of I(V) characteristics obtained using a Langmuir probe, plasmas of different compositions were investigated. The standard method of Druyvesteyn to derive the electron energy distribution functions by the second derivative of the I(V) characteristics was replaced by a mathematical model which has been evolved to be more robust against noise, mainly, because the first derivative of the I(V) characteristics is used. Special attention was given to the power of the energy dependence in the exponent. In particular, for plasmas that are generated by ECR with EM modes, the existence of Maxwellian distribution functions is not to be taken as a self-evident fact, but the bi-Maxwellian distribution was proven for Ar- and Kr-stabilized plasmas. In addition to the electron temperature, the global uniform discharge model has been shown to be useful for calculating the neutral gas temperature. To what extent the invasive method of using a Langmuir probe could be replaced with the non-invasive optical method of emission spectroscopy, particularly actinometry, was investigated, and the resulting data exhibited the same relative behavior as the Langmuir data. The correlation with etchrate data reveals the large chemical part of the removal process—most striking when the data is compared with etching in pure argon. Although the relative amount of the radial variation of plasma density and

  18. Surface reactions during low-k etching using H2/N2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Oshima, Keiji; Nagahata, Kazunori; Uchida, Saburo; Takashima, Seigo; Hori, Masaru; Kamide, Yukihiro

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the hard mask faceting that occurs during organic low-k etching and the ion energy distribution function of a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. We minimized the hard mask faceting by precisely controlling the ion energy. This precise control was obtained by selecting the optimum bottom frequency and bias power. We measured the amount of damage done to a SiOCH film exposed to H 2 /N 2 plasma in order to find the H 2 /N 2 ratio at which the plasma caused the least damage. The amount of moisture uptake by the damaged SiOCH film is the dominant factor controlling the dielectric constant increase (Δk). To suppress Δk, the incident ion species and ion energies have to be precisely controlled. This reduces the number of adsorption sites in the bulk SiOCH and maintains the hydrophobic surface that suppresses water permeation during air exposure

  19. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  20. Large scale, highly dense nanoholes on metal surfaces by underwater laser assisted hydrogen etching near nanocrystalline boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Dong; Zhang, Martin Yi; Ye Chang; Liu Zhikun; Liu, C. Richard [School of Industrial Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Cheng, Gary J., E-mail: gjcheng@purdue.edu [School of Industrial Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    A new method to generate large scale and highly dense nanoholes is presented in this paper. By the pulsed laser irradiation under water, the hydrogen etching is introduced to form high density nanoholes on the surfaces of AISI 4140 steel and Ti. In order to achieve higher nanohole density, laser shock peening (LSP) followed by recrystallization is used for grain refinement. It is found that the nanohole density does not increase until recrystallization of the substructures after laser shock peening. The mechanism of nanohole generation is studied in detail. This method can be also applied to generate nanoholes on other materials with hydrogen etching effect.

  1. Large scale, highly dense nanoholes on metal surfaces by underwater laser assisted hydrogen etching near nanocrystalline boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dong; Zhang, Martin Yi; Ye Chang; Liu Zhikun; Liu, C. Richard; Cheng, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    A new method to generate large scale and highly dense nanoholes is presented in this paper. By the pulsed laser irradiation under water, the hydrogen etching is introduced to form high density nanoholes on the surfaces of AISI 4140 steel and Ti. In order to achieve higher nanohole density, laser shock peening (LSP) followed by recrystallization is used for grain refinement. It is found that the nanohole density does not increase until recrystallization of the substructures after laser shock peening. The mechanism of nanohole generation is studied in detail. This method can be also applied to generate nanoholes on other materials with hydrogen etching effect.

  2. Wafer Surface Charge Reversal as a Method of Simplifying Nanosphere Lithography for Reactive Ion Etch Texturing of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Inns

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified nanosphere lithography process has been developed which allows fast and low-waste maskings of Si surfaces for subsequent reactive ion etching (RIE texturing. Initially, a positive surface charge is applied to a wafer surface by dipping in a solution of aluminum nitrate. Dipping the positive-coated wafer into a solution of negatively charged silica beads (nanospheres results in the spheres becoming electrostatically attracted to the wafer surface. These nanospheres form an etch mask for RIE. After RIE texturing, the reflection of the surface is reduced as effectively as any other nanosphere lithography method, while this batch process used for masking is much faster, making it more industrially relevant.

  3. Chlorhexidine controlled-release profile after EDTA root surface etching: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Ahmed Y; Kumper, Radi M; Sadek, Hesham S; El Destawy, Mahmoud T

    2011-05-01

    The main objective of the present study was to quantify chlorhexidine (CHX) release after the use of CHX-EDTA root surface treatment as a local-delivery antimicrobial vehicle. Twenty non-smoking patients clinically diagnosed as having moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected to participate in this study. After cause-related therapy, one site in every patient received defect overfill with CHX gel 2% (20 sites). In addition, twenty contralateral sites received defect fill of CHX gel after 3 minutes of 24% EDTA gel root surface etching (20 sites). Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days post-therapy. The CHX-EDTA group showed statistically significantly higher levels of CHX than those of the control group at 1, 3, and 7 days. At 14 days, the CHX-EDTA group showed 0.8 mg/mL values. The use of CHX-EDTA root surface treatment as a local-delivery antimicrobial improves CHX substantivity.

  4. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  5. Surface photovoltage studies of p-type AlGaN layers after reactive-ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. D.; Phumisithikul, K. L.; Baski, A. A.; Marini, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Das, S.; Reshchikov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique was used to study the surface and electrical properties of Mg-doped, p-type AlxGa1-xN (0.06 GaN:Mg thin films and from the predictions of a thermionic model for the SPV behavior. In particular, the SPV of the p-AlGaN:Mg layers exhibited slower-than-expected transients under ultraviolet illumination and delayed restoration to the initial dark value. The slow transients and delayed restorations can be attributed to a defective surface region which interferes with normal thermionic processes. The top 45 nm of the p-AlGaN:Mg layer was etched using a reactive-ion etch which caused the SPV behavior to be substantially different. From this study, it can be concluded that a defective, near-surface region is inhibiting the change in positive surface charge by allowing tunneling or hopping conductivity of holes from the bulk to the surface, or by the trapping of electrons traveling to the surface by a high concentration of defects in the near-surface region. Etching removes the defective layer and reveals a region of presumably higher quality, as evidenced by substantial changes in the SPV behavior.

  6. Improving the Performance of Semiconductor Sensor Devices Using Surface Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel W.

    a form of surface modification the devices were capable of generating a response in the presence of a charged biomolecule. Solution exposure tests done devices showed that incubating peptides on the device surfaces produced a weak interaction and following 24 hrs of soaking no signs of peptide remained via XPS analysis. Subsequent testing was done to incorporate the phosphonic acid functionalization techniques shown previously by other members of this lab to the AlGaN/GaN surfaces as a remedy to this solution instability. In this second study FETs were modified using a heated phosphoric acid:ethephon etch followed by an incubation in TAT-C peptide. Resulting IV measurements done on the samples showed a shift in threshold voltage of the FETs following the etching procedure followed by a recovery of this shift from prolonged solution exposure. In total samples were given 168 hours of soaking and showed persistent peptide presence through the N 1s peak from XPS scans. FETs modified with this phosphonic acid derivative were examined in a third study under a simulated pollutant sensing scenario by measuring varied concentrations of Hg via a phytochelatin peptide bound to FET surfaces. HNO3 used in the Hg stock solution led to degradation of the FET signal but did not remove the phytochelatin layer. This led to a compensation effect in sensing the highest levels of Hg, lower concentrations however were successfully tested and showed varied responses from the FETs relative to the Hg content. In a concluding study on devices work was done to understand broader effects on the AlGaN/GaN FETs relative to a simulated biological sensing environment. Here an effect was noted from the addition of a biological fouling solution to the FETs and an increase in this effect when the biofouling was done to a phosphonic modified FET surface. Additionally devices were modified and soaked for 5 weeks and showed no shift or degradation in signal. Lastly in controlling for gate width of the

  7. Surface-segregated monolayers: a new type of ordered monolayer for surface modification of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Tajima, Keisuke; Tong, Yujin; Ye, Shen; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2009-12-09

    We report a new type of ordered monolayer for the surface modification of organic semiconductors. Fullerene derivatives with fluorocarbon chains ([6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-buryric acid 1H,1H-perfluoro-1-alkyl ester or FC(n)) spontaneously segregated as a monolayer on the surface of a [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) film during a spin-coating process from the mixture solutions, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) showed the shift of ionization potentials (IPs) depending on the fluorocarbon chain length, indicating the formation of surface dipole moments. Surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) revealed the ordered molecular orientations of the C(60) moiety in the surface FC(n) layers. The intensity of the SFG signals from FC(n) on the surface showed a clear odd-even effect when the length of the fluorocarbon chain was changed. This new concept of the surface-segregated monolayer provides a facile and versatile approach to modifying the surface of organic semiconductors and is applicable to various organic optoelectronic devices.

  8. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Yaming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  9. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  10. Selection of efficient etchants for nondestructive treatment of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Fomin, A.V.; Tomashik, Z.F.

    1996-01-01

    The scheme for studying etching processes of semiconductor materials and developing new etchants for different semiconductors is proposed. The scheme includes the experiment mathematical planning, computerized physicochemical modeling, kinetic studies, investigation of surface layers, formed by etching. Such on approach makes it possible to optimize the etchant composition in every concrete cage. The scheme is tested in the course of developing optimal methodologies of preepitaxial treatment and selection of etchants composition for semiconductor compounds of the A 1 B 6 and A 3 B 5 type. 13 refs., 4 figs

  11. Device fabrication by plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogab, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma etching as applied to many of the materials encountered in the fabrication of LSI's is complicated by loading effect-the dependence of etch rate on the integrated surface area to be etched. This problem is alleviated by appropriate choice of etchant and etching conditions. Appropriate choice of system parameters, generally most concerned with the inherent lifetime of etchant species, may also result in improvement of etch rate uniformity on a wafer-by-wafer basis

  12. Determination of the Dissolution Slowness Surface by Study of Etched Shapes: II. Comparison of 2D Experimental and Theoretical Etching Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, T.; Tellier, C. R.; Messaoudi, T.

    1997-03-01

    The anisotropic etching behavior of quartz crystal in concentrated ammonium bifluoride solution is studied and analyzed in the framework of a tensorial model. This model allows to simulate bi- or three-dimensional etching shapes from the equation for the representative surface of the dissolution slowness. In this paper, we present experimental results such as surface profile and initially circular cross-sectional profiles of differently singly- or doubly-rotated cuts. The polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness vector in several planes are deduced from experimental data. The comparison between predicted surface and cross-sectional profiles and experimental results is detailed and shows a good agreement. In particular, several examples give evidence that the final etched shapes are correlated to the extrema of the dissolution slowness. However, in several cases, experimental shapes cannot be simply correlated to the presence of extrema. Simulation gives effectively evidence for an important role played by more progressive changes in the curvature of the slowness surface. Consequently, analysis of data merits to be treated carefully. Nous nous proposons d'étudier et d'analyser à l'aide du modèle tensoriel de la dissolution l'attaque chimique anisotrope du cristal de quartz dans une solution concentrée de bifluorure d'ammonium. Ce modèle permet de simuler des formes usinées à deux ou trois dimensions à partir de l'équation de la surface représentative de la lenteur de dissolution du cristal de quartz. Dans cet article, nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux concernant des profils de surface et des sections initialement cylindriques de coupes à simple et double rotation. Les diagrammes polaires du vecteur lenteur de dissolution dans différents plans sont déduits de données expérimentales. La comparaison entre les profils de surface et de section théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux est détaillée et montre un bon accord. En

  13. Studies on surface structures and etch patterns on habit faces of gel-grown crystals of iodates of barium, strontium, and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.S.; Trivedi, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Microtopographical studies on habit faces of gel grown crystals (of different habits) of iodates of Ba, Sr, and Ca are illustrated and described. Etch patterns on these faces are illustrated and correlated to the observed growth patterns on the respective faces. Growth mechanism of the crystals is explained in light of the observed surface structures and etch pits suitably produced. (author)

  14. On the Origin of Surface Traps in Colloidal II–VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, Arjan J.; Hens, Zeger; Owen, Jonathan S.; Infante, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of semiconductor nanomaterials is to make trap-free nanocrystalline structures to attain a remarkable improvement of their optoelectronic performances. In semiconductor nanomaterials, a very high number of atoms is located on the surface and these atoms

  15. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  16. Development of the DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Source and the Application to the Etching and Texturing of the Silicon Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hun

    2011-02-01

    Plasma used in dry etching, thin film deposition and surface treatment for display or semiconductor industries are operating at low pressures in general. However, low pressure processing is very costly due to the use of vacuum equipment and vacuum components. Subsequent wet processing is environmentally undesirable due to the use of a large amount of chemicals. Also, the usage of vacuum processing increases fabrication cost and decreases productivity. If stable atmospheric plasmas can be used, not only the decrease in processing costs but also the increase in productivity could be obtained. New DC arc plasmatron with a hot rod cathode and cold nozzle anode was developed and its V-A (Volt-Ampere) characteristics were investigated. Outlook of the measured V-A characteristics cleared the question of the stability of arc burning in the new DC arc plasmatron. The plasmatron that has a stable operations with distributed anode spot could possibly be applied to plasma chemical processing. And measured value of the erosion rate for copper anode is m Cu 3.6x10 -10 g/C which is better than corresponding data for thermo-ionic emission cathodes made of tungsten mw ∼10 -9 g/C. These facts mean that plasmatron durability reaches ∼10 3 h. The low anode erosion rate is related to the large surface of arc-anode contact due to distributed anode arc spot, which reduces the current density. Unique characteristics of the new plasma source concerning its durability and plasma purity at rather low temperatures make it an interesting tool for technical applications, such as etching/deposition and chemical reaction. To apply a plasma processing, the T-type plasmatron was modified to A-type. The A-type plasmatron was used to activate the CF 4 and SF 6 gases in etching experiments at atmospheric and low pressure. To reduce the recombination rate of the activated gas particles inside a plasmatron and let them preserve their activated state outside, the whole device was installed outside of

  17. Etching Effect of an Atmospheric DC Arc Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Min; Kim, Ji Hun; Kang, In Je; Lee, Heon Ju

    2010-01-01

    Thermal plasmas (especially arc plasma) were extensively industrialized, principally by aeronautic sector. Cold plasma technologies have been developed in the microelectronics but their vacuum equipment limits their implantation. Plasmas used in dry etching, thin film deposition and surface treatment for display or semiconductor industries are operating at low pressures in very costly due to the use of vacuum equipment and vacuum components. Use of DC arc plasmatrons in welding, soldering, and cutting of metals is well known. A DC-arc plasmatron with high durability was reported to be a suitable device for etching silicon and photo-resist surfaces

  18. Redeposition of etch products on sidewalls during SiO2 etching in a fluorocarbon plasma. I. Effect of particle emission from the bottom surface in a CF4 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jae-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Moon, Sang Heup

    2002-01-01

    The effect of etch-product redeposition on sidewall properties during the etching of step-shaped SiO 2 patterns in a CF 4 plasma was examined using a Faraday cage located in a transformer coupled plasma etcher. Sidewall properties were observed for two cases: with and without particles emitted from the bottom surface in normal contact with the sidewall. Particles sputtered from the bottom surface were redeposited on the sidewall, which contributes to the formation of a passivation layer on the surface of the latter. The passivation layer consisted of silicon oxide, Si x O y , and fluorocarbon, C x F y , the latter comprising the major species. Ar plasma experiments confirmed that C x F y or a fluorocarbon polymer must be present on the sidewall in order for the Si x O y species to be deposited on the surface. The redeposited particles, which were largely F-deficient fluorocarbon species, as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, functioned as precursors for fluorocarbon polymerization, resulting in a rough sidewall surface. The chemical etch rates of SiO 2 were retarded by the redeposition of particles, which eventually formed a thick layer, eventually covering the bulk SiO 2 . Auger electron spectroscopy analyses of the sidewall surface affected by the emission from the bottom suggest that the surface consists of three distinct layers: a surface-carbon layer, a redeposition-etch combined layer, and bulk SiO 2

  19. Surface Modification of Ti-35Nb-10Ta-1.5Fe by the Double Acid-Etching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Lario; Angélica Amigó; Francisco Segovia; Vicente Amigó

    2018-01-01

    Surface topography and composition influence the osteoblastic proliferation and osseointegration rates, which favor the biomechanical stability of bone anchoring and implants. In recent years, beta titanium alloys have been developed, and are composed of biocompatible elements, have low elastic modulus, high corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties to improve the long performance behavior of biomaterials. In the present research, the influence of the acid-etching process was studied in...

  20. Influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on bond durability of universal adhesives and surface free-energy characteristics of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel. Three universal adhesives and extracted human molars were used. Two no-pre-etching groups were prepared: ground enamel; and enamel after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 s to remove the smear layer. Four pre-etching groups were prepared: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 3, 5, 10, and 15 s. Shear bond strength (SBS) values of universal adhesive after no thermal cycling and after 30,000 or 60,000 thermal cycles, and surface free-energy values of enamel surfaces, calculated from contact angle measurements, were determined. The specimens that had been pre-etched showed significantly higher SBS and surface free-energy values than the specimens that had not been pre-etched, regardless of the aging condition and adhesive type. The SBS and surface free-energy values did not increase for pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. There were no significant differences in SBS values and surface free-energy characteristics between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. A survey of some metallographic etching reagents for restoration of obliterated engraved marks on aluminium-silicon alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uli, Norjaidi; Kuppuswamy, R; Amran, Mohd Firdaus Che

    2011-05-20

    A brief survey to assess the sensitivity and efficacy of some common etching reagents for revealing obliterated engraved marks on Al-Si alloy surfaces is presented. Experimental observations have recommended use of alternate swabbing of 10% NaOH and 10% HNO(3) on the obliterated surfaces for obtaining the desired results. The NaOH etchant responsible for bringing back the original marks resulted in the deposition of some dark coating that has masked the recovered marks. The coating had been well removed by dissolving it in HNO(3) containing 10-20% acid. However, the above etching procedure was not effective on aluminium (99% purity) and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy surfaces. Also the two reagents (i) immersion in 10% aq. phosphoric acid and (ii) alternate swabbing of 60% HCl and 40% NaOH suggested earlier for high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys [23] were quite ineffective on Al-Si alloys. Thus different aluminium alloys needed different etching treatments for successfully restoring the obliterated marks. Al-Si alloys used in casting find wide applications especially in the manufacture of engine blocks of motor vehicles. Hence, the results presented in this paper are of much relevance in serial number restoration problems involving this alloy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antireflective surface structures in glass by self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles and wet etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Thomas; Bach, David; Müllner, Paul; Hainberger, Rainer; Brückl, Hubert

    2013-08-26

    We describe the fabrication of an antireflective surface structure with sub-wavelength dimensions on a glass surface using scalable low-cost techniques involving sol-gel coating, thermal annealing, and wet chemical etching. The glass surface structure consists of sand dune like protrusions with 250 nm periodicity and a maximum peak-to-valley height of 120 nm. The antireflective structure increases the transmission of the glass up to 0.9% at 700 nm, and the transmission remains enhanced over a wide spectral range and for a wide range of incident angles. Our measurements reveal a strong polarization dependence of the transmission change.

  3. The Langmuir isotherm and the standard model of ion-assisted etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, M A

    2009-01-01

    Langmuir is lured to the General Electric Research Laboratory, where he creates a new science-surface chemistry-and christens another-plasma. His atomistic views of gas-surface interactions are extended 65 years later to describe ion-assisted plasma etching, an indispensable process in modern semiconductor device manufacturing.

  4. Electronic Properties of Metallic Nanoclusters on Semiconductor Surfaces: Implications for Nanoelectronic Device Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Takhee; Liu Jia; Chen, N.-P.; Andres, R.P.; Janes, D.B.; Reifenberger, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review current research on the electronic properties of nanoscale metallic islands and clusters deposited on semiconductor substrates. Reported results for a number of nanoscale metal-semiconductor systems are summarized in terms of their fabrication and characterization. In addition to the issues faced in large-area metal-semiconductor systems, nano-systems present unique challenges in both the realization of well-controlled interfaces at the nanoscale and the ability to adequately characterize their electrical properties. Imaging by scanning tunneling microscopy as well as electrical characterization by current-voltage spectroscopy enable the study of the electrical properties of nanoclusters/semiconductor systems at the nanoscale. As an example of the low-resistance interfaces that can be realized, low-resistance nanocontacts consisting of metal nanoclusters deposited on specially designed ohmic contact structures are described. To illustrate a possible path to employing metal/semiconductor nanostructures in nanoelectronic applications, we also describe the fabrication and performance of uniform 2-D arrays of such metallic clusters on semiconductor substrates. Using self-assembly techniques involving conjugated organic tether molecules, arrays of nanoclusters have been formed in both unpatterned and patterned regions on semiconductor surfaces. Imaging and electrical characterization via scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy indicate that high quality local ordering has been achieved within the arrays and that the clusters are electronically coupled to the semiconductor substrate via the low-resistance metal/semiconductor interface

  5. Development of Functional Surfaces on High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) via Gas-Assisted Etching (GAE) Using Focused Ion Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Meltem; Bakan, Feray

    2015-12-01

    Irradiation damage, caused by the use of beams in electron and ion microscopes, leads to undesired physical/chemical material property changes or uncontrollable modification of structures. Particularly, soft matter such as polymers or biological materials is highly susceptible and very much prone to react on electron/ion beam irradiation. Nevertheless, it is possible to turn degradation-dependent physical/chemical changes from negative to positive use when materials are intentionally exposed to beams. Especially, controllable surface modification allows tuning of surface properties for targeted purposes and thus provides the use of ultimate materials and their systems at the micro/nanoscale for creating functional surfaces. In this work, XeF2 and I2 gases were used in the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope instrument in combination with gallium ion etching of high-density polyethylene surfaces with different beam currents and accordingly different gas exposure times resulting at the same ion dose to optimize and develop new polymer surface properties and to create functional polymer surfaces. Alterations in the surface morphologies and surface chemistry due to gas-assisted etching-based nanostructuring with various processing parameters were tracked using high-resolution SEM imaging, complementary energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses, and atomic force microscopic investigations.

  6. Structure of metal-rich (001) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumpf, C.; Smilgies, D.; Landemark, E.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic structure of the group-III-rich surface of III-V semiconductor compounds has been under intense debate for many years, yet none of the models agrees with the experimental data available. Here we present a model for the three-dimensional structure of the (001)-c(8x2) reconstruction on In......(8 x 2) reconstructions of III-V semiconductor surfaces contain the same essential building blocks....

  7. Effects of various etching protocols on the flexural properties and surface topography of fiber-reinforced composite dental posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksornmuang, Juthatip; Chuenarrom, Chanya; Chittithaworn, Natjira

    2017-09-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural properties and surface topography of fiber posts surface-treated with various etching protocols. Seventy each of three types of fiber posts: RelyX Fiber Post, Tenax Fiber Trans, and D.T. Light-Post Illusion X-Ro, were randomly divided into 7 groups: no surface treatment, surface treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) 4.5% for 60 s, HF 4.5% for 120 s, HF 9.6% for 15 s, HF 9.6% for 60 s, HF 9.6% for 120 s, and treated with H 2 O 2 24% for 10 min. The specimens were then subjected to a three-point bending test. Surface topographies of the posts were observed using a SEM. The results indicate that fiber post surface pretreatments had no adverse effects on the flexural properties. However, the fiber posts treated with high HF concentrations or long etching times seemed to have more surface irregularities.

  8. Surface changes of biopolymers PHB and PLLA induced by Ar{sup +} plasma treatment and wet etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Polymers, especially group of biopolymers find potential application in a wide range of disciplines due to their biodegradability. In biomedical applications these materials can be used as a scaffold or matrix. In this work, the influence of the Ar{sup +} plasma treatment and subsequent wet etching (acetone/water) on the surface properties of polymers were studied. Two biopolymers – polyhydroxybutyrate with 8% polyhydroxyvalerate (PHB) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were used in these experiments. Modified surface layers were analyzed by different methods. Surface wettability was characterized by determination of water contact angle. Changes in elemental composition of modified surfaces were performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology and roughness was examined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Gravimetry method was used to study the mass loss. It was found that the modification from both with plasma and wet etching leads to dramatic changes of surface properties (surface chemistry, morphology and roughness). Rate of changes of these features strongly depends on the modification parameters.

  9. Low-loss slot waveguides with silicon (111 surfaces realized using anisotropic wet etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Debnath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate low-loss slot waveguides on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platform. Waveguides oriented along the (11-2 direction on the Si (110 plane were first fabricated by a standard e-beam lithography and dry etching process. A TMAH based anisotropic wet etching technique was then used to remove any residual side wall roughness. Using this fabrication technique propagation loss as low as 3.7dB/cm was realized in silicon slot waveguide for wavelengths near 1550nm. We also realized low propagation loss of 1dB/cm for silicon strip waveguides.

  10. Critical role of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface in photocatalytic performance for water-splitting reactions using Ta3N5 particles

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Harb, Moussab; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Aouine, Mimoun; Puzenat, Eric; Sautet, Philippe; Domen, Kazunari; Basset, Jean-Marie; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    the experiments. Electrochemical and Mott-Schottky analyses demonstrated that the surface layer drastically affects the energetic picture at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which can consequently affect the photocatalytic performance. Chemical etching

  11. Surface kinetics of Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 films etched in a CF4/Ar gas chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Efremov, A. M.; Kim, Chang-Il

    2004-01-01

    The surface reactions and the etch rate of Bi 4-x La x Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) films in a CF 4 /Ar plasma were investigated in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor in terms of the gas mixing ratio. The variation of relative volume densities for the F and the Ar atoms were measured with optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The maximum etch rate of 803 A/min was obtained in a CF 4 (20 %)/Ar(80 %) plasma. The presence of a maximum in the BLT etch rate at CF 4 (20 %)/Ar(80 %) may be explained by the concurrence of two etching mechanisms, physical sputtering and chemical reaction. Ar-ion bombardment played roles of destroying the metal (Bi, La, Ti)-O bonds and assisting the chemical reaction between metal and fluorine atoms. The chemical states of BLT were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed the existence of nonvolatile etch byproducts (La-fluorides).

  12. Revealing the surface pattern of medieval pattern welded iron objects - etching tests conducted on reconstructed composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiele, Á.; Hošek, Jiří; Haramza, M.; Török, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2014), s. 18-24 ISSN 1805-7241 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : etching * pattern welding * phosphoric iron * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Chemical etching of Tungsten thin films for high-temperature surface acoustic wave-based sensor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, M., E-mail: m.spindler@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, SAWLab Saxony, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Herold, S.; Acker, J. [BTU Cottbus – Senftenberg, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 101548, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany); Brachmann, E.; Oswald, S.; Menzel, S.; Rane, G. [IFW Dresden, SAWLab Saxony, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Surface acoustic wave devices are widely used as wireless sensors in different application fields. Recent developments aimed to utilize those devices as temperature sensors even in the high temperature range (T > 300 °C) and in harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, conventional materials, which are used for the substrate and for the interdigital transducer finger electrodes such as multilayers or alloys based on Al or Cu have to be exchanged by materials, which fulfill some important criteria regarding temperature related effects. Electron beam evaporation as a standard fabrication method is not well applicable for depositing high temperature stable electrode materials because of their very high melting points. Magnetron sputtering is an alternative deposition process but is also not applicable for lift-off structuring without any further improvement of the structuring process. Due to a relatively high Ar gas pressure of about 10{sup −1} Pa, the sidewalls of the photoresist line structures are also covered by the metallization, which subsequently prevents a successful lift-off process. In this study, we investigate the chemical etching of thin tungsten films as an intermediate step between magnetron sputtering deposition of thin tungsten finger electrodes and the lift-off process to remove sidewall covering for a successful patterning process of interdigital transducers. - Highlights: • We fabricated Tungsten SAW Electrodes by magnetron sputtering technology. • An etching process removes sidewall covering of photoresist, which allows lift-off. • Tungsten etching rates based on a hydrogen peroxide solutions were determined.

  14. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lee, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  15. Chemical Modification of Semiconductor Surfaces for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2017-03-08

    Inserting molecular monolayers within metal/semiconductor interfaces provides one of the most powerful expressions of how minute chemical modifications can affect electronic devices. This topic also has direct importance for technology as it can help improve the efficiency of a variety of electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, sensors, and possible future bioelectronic ones. The review covers the main aspects of using chemistry to control the various aspects of interface electrostatics, such as passivation of interface states and alignment of energy levels by intrinsic molecular polarization, as well as charge rearrangement with the adjacent metal and semiconducting contacts. One of the greatest merits of molecular monolayers is their capability to form excellent thin dielectrics, yielding rich and unique current-voltage characteristics for transport across metal/molecular monolayer/semiconductor interfaces. We explain the interplay between the monolayer as tunneling barrier on the one hand, and the electrostatic barrier within the semiconductor, due to its space-charge region, on the other hand, as well as how different monolayer chemistries control each of these barriers. Practical tools to experimentally identify these two barriers and distinguish between them are given, followed by a short look to the future. This review is accompanied by another one, concerning the formation of large-area molecular junctions and charge transport that is dominated solely by molecules.

  16. Formation of Micro- and Nanostructures on the Nanotitanium Surface by Chemical Etching and Deposition of Titania Films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated approach was used for the preparation of a nanotitanium-based bioactive material. The integrated approach included three methods: severe plastic deformation (SPD, chemical etching and atomic layer deposition (ALD. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the nature of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time have a significant qualitative impact on the nanotitanium surface structure both at the nano- and microscale. The etched samples were coated with crystalline biocompatible TiO2 films with a thickness of 20 nm by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. Comparative study of the adhesive and spreading properties of human osteoblasts MG-63 has demonstrated that presence of nano- and microscale structures and crystalline titanium oxide on the surface of nanotitanium improve bioactive properties of the material.

  17. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-12-22

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  18. Mask-free surface structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films by reactive ion plasma etching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7 (2014), s. 780-784 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA MPO FR-TI2/736 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : micro- and nanocrystalline diamond * capacitively coupled plasma * reactive ion etching * nanostructuring * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  20. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  1. Study of Gallium Arsenide Etching in a DC Discharge in Low-Pressure HCl-Containing Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, A. V.; Murin, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    Halogen-containing plasmas are often used to form topological structures on semiconductor surfaces; therefore, spectral monitoring of the etching process is an important diagnostic tool in modern electronics. In this work, the emission spectra of gas discharges in mixtures of hydrogen chloride with argon, chlorine, and hydrogen in the presence of a semiconducting gallium arsenide plate were studied. Spectral lines and bands of the GaAs etching products appropriate for monitoring the etching rate were determined. It is shown that the emission intensity of the etching products is proportional to the GaAs etching rate in plasmas of HCl mixtures with Ar and Cl2, which makes it possible to monitor the etching process in real time by means of spectral methods.

  2. Damage-Free Smooth-Sidewall InGaAs Nanopillar Array by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyu; Song, Yi; Kim, Jeong Dong; Yu, Lan; Wasserman, Daniel; Chim, Wai Kin; Chiam, Sing Yang; Li, Xiuling

    2017-10-24

    Producing densely packed high aspect ratio In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As nanostructures without surface damage is critical for beyond Si-CMOS nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. However, conventional dry etching methods are known to produce irreversible damage to III-V compound semiconductors because of the inherent high-energy ion-driven process. In this work, we demonstrate the realization of ordered, uniform, array-based In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As pillars with diameters as small as 200 nm using the damage-free metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) technology combined with the post-MacEtch digital etching smoothing. The etching mechanism of In x Ga 1-x As is explored through the characterization of pillar morphology and porosity as a function of etching condition and indium composition. The etching behavior of In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As, in contrast to higher bandgap semiconductors (e.g., Si or GaAs), can be interpreted by a Schottky barrier height model that dictates the etching mechanism constantly in the mass transport limited regime because of the low barrier height. A broader impact of this work relates to the complete elimination of surface roughness or porosity related defects, which can be prevalent byproducts of MacEtch, by post-MacEtch digital etching. Side-by-side comparison of the midgap interface state density and flat-band capacitance hysteresis of both the unprocessed planar and MacEtched pillar In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors further confirms that the surface of the resultant pillars is as smooth and defect-free as before etching. MacEtch combined with digital etching offers a simple, room-temperature, and low-cost method for the formation of high-quality In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As nanostructures that will potentially enable large-volume production of In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As-based devices including three-dimensional transistors and high-efficiency infrared photodetectors.

  3. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  4. Etching method employing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation

  5. Site-specific Pt deposition and etching on electrically and thermally isolated SiO2 micro-disk surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V

    2010-01-01

    Electrically and thermally isolated surfaces are crucial for improving the detection sensitivity of microelectronic sensors. The site-specific in situ growth of Pt nano-rods on thermally and electrically isolated SiO 2 micro-disks using wet chemical etching and a focused ion/electron dual beam (FIB-SEM) is demonstrated. Fabrication of an array of micro-cavities on top of a micro-disk is also demonstrated. The FIB source is utilized to fabricate through-holes in the micro-disks. Due to the amorphous nature of SiO 2 micro-disks, the Ga implantation possibly modifies through-hole sidewall surface chemistry rather than affecting its transport properties. Some sensor design concepts based on micro-fabrication of SiO 2 micro-disks utilizing thermally and electrically isolated surfaces are discussed from the viewpoint of applications in photonics and bio-sensing.

  6. Preparation of composite micro/nano structure on the silicon surface by reactive ion etching: Enhanced anti-reflective and hydrophobic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu; Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Jiajia; He, Siyu; Yi, Zao; Ye, Xin; Yi, Yougen

    2018-05-01

    A silicon substrate with micro-pyramid structure (black silicon) is prepared by wet chemical etching and then subjected to reactive ion etching (RIE) in the mixed gas condition of SF6, CHF3 and He. We systematically study the impacts of flow rates of SF6, CHF3 and He, the etching pressure and the etching time on the surface morphology and reflectivity through various characterizations. Meanwhile, we explore and obtain the optimal combination of parameters for the preparation of composite structure that match the RIE process based on the basis of micro-pyramid silicon substrate. The composite sample prepared under the optimum parameters exhibits excellent anti-reflective performance, hydrophobic, self-cleaning and anti-corrosive properties. Based on the above characteristics, the composite micro/nano structure can be applied to solar cells, photodetectors, LEDs, outdoor devices and other important fields.

  7. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Silvia H; DenBaars, Steven P; Keller, Stacia; Tahhan, Maher; Li, Haoran; Romanczyk, Brian; Mishra, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N 2  + NH 3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm 2 V −1 s −1 (R sh  = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al 2 O 3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas. (paper)

  8. Filamentation of a surface plasma wave over a semiconductor-free space interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gagan; Tripathi, V. K.

    2007-12-01

    A large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW), propagating over a semiconductor-free space interface, is susceptible to filamentation instability. A small perturbation in the amplitude of the SPW across the direction of propagation exerts a ponderomotive force on free electrons and holes, causing spatial modulation in free carrier density and hence the effective permittivity ɛeff of the semiconductor. The regions with higher ɛeff attract more power from the nieghborhood, leading to the growth of the perturbation. The growth rate increases with the intensity of the surface wave. It decreases with the frequency of the SPW.

  9. Resin bleed improvement on surface mount semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Indra Kumar; Tahir, Suraya Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Resin bleed is a transparent layer of epoxy compound which occurs during molding process but is difficult to be detected after the molding process. Resin bleed on the lead on the unit from the focused package, SOD123, can cause solderability failure at end customer. This failed unit from the customer will be considered as a customer complaint. Generally, the semiconductor company has to perform visual inspection after the plating process to detect resin bleed. Mold chase with excess hole, split cavity & stepped design ejector pin hole have been found to be the major root cause of resin bleed in this company. The modifications of the mold chase, changing of split cavity to solid cavity and re-design of the ejector pin proposed were derived after a detailed study & analysis conducted to arrive at these solutions. The solutions proposed have yield good results during the pilot run with zero (0) occurrence of resin bleed for 3 consecutive months.

  10. Sputtering yields and surface chemical modification of tin-doped indium oxide in hydrocarbon-based plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: hamaguch@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya [Device and Material R& D Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Sputtering yields and surface chemical compositions of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) by CH{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, and inert-gas ion (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, and Ar{sup +}) incidence have been obtained experimentally with the use of a mass-selected ion beam system and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that etching of ITO is chemically enhanced by energetic incidence of hydrocarbon (CH{sub x}{sup +}) ions. At high incident energy incidence, it appears that carbon of incident ions predominantly reduce indium (In) of ITO and the ITO sputtering yields by CH{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are found to be essentially equal. At lower incident energy (less than 500 eV or so), however, a hydrogen effect on ITO reduction is more pronounced and the ITO surface is more reduced by CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions. Although the surface is covered more with metallic In by low-energy incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions and metallic In is in general less resistant against physical sputtering than its oxide, the ITO sputtering yield by incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions is found to be lower than that by incident CH{sup +} ions in this energy range. A postulation to account for the relation between the observed sputtering yield and reduction of the ITO surface is also presented. The results presented here offer a better understanding of elementary surface reactions observed in reactive ion etching processes of ITO by hydrocarbon plasmas.

  11. Crystal step edges can trap electrons on the surfaces of n-type organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Wu, Yanfei; D'Avino, Gabriele; Schmidt, Elliot; Stolte, Matthias; Cornil, Jérôme; Beljonne, David; Ruden, P Paul; Würthner, Frank; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2018-05-30

    Understanding relationships between microstructure and electrical transport is an important goal for the materials science of organic semiconductors. Combining high-resolution surface potential mapping by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) with systematic field effect transport measurements, we show that step edges can trap electrons on the surfaces of single crystal organic semiconductors. n-type organic semiconductor crystals exhibiting positive step edge surface potentials display threshold voltages that increase and carrier mobilities that decrease with increasing step density, characteristic of trapping, whereas crystals that do not have positive step edge surface potentials do not have strongly step density dependent transport. A device model and microelectrostatics calculations suggest that trapping can be intrinsic to step edges for crystals of molecules with polar substituents. The results provide a unique example of a specific microstructure-charge trapping relationship and highlight the utility of surface potential imaging in combination with transport measurements as a productive strategy for uncovering microscopic structure-property relationships in organic semiconductors.

  12. Impact of recess etching and surface treatments on ohmic contacts regrown by molecular-beam epitaxy for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, S.; Azize, M.; Palacios, T. [Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Beeler, M.; Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA Grenoble, INAC-PHELIQS, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-25

    Ohmic contacts fabricated by regrowth of n{sup +} GaN are favorable alternatives to metal-stack-based alloyed contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors. In this paper, the influence of reactive ion dry etching prior to regrowth on the contact resistance in AlGaN/GaN devices is discussed. We demonstrate that the dry etch conditions modify the surface band bending, dangling bond density, and the sidewall depletion width, which influences the contact resistance of regrown contacts. The impact of chemical surface treatments performed prior to regrowth is also investigated. The sensitivity of the contact resistance to the surface treatments is found to depend upon the dangling bond density of the sidewall facets exposed after dry etching. A theoretical model has been developed in order to explain the observed trends.

  13. The etching property of the surface of CR-39 and the track core radius of fission fragment

    CERN Document Server

    Mineyama, D; Yamauchi, T; Oda, K; El-Rahman, A

    2002-01-01

    The etch pits of fission fragments in CR-39 detector have been observed carefully using an atomic force microscope (AFM) after extremely short chemical etching in stirred 6N KOH solution kept at 70degC. It was found that there existed a thin layer where the bulk etch rate is relativity from large the etch-pit growth curve for the etching duration between 10 and 1800 seconds. The track core radius of fission fragment was evaluated to be about 6 nm from the extrapolation of the growth curve in a thinner region. (author)

  14. A study on etching of UO2, Co, and Mo surface with R.F. plasma using CF4 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae

    2003-01-01

    Recently dry decontamination/surface-cleaning technology using plasma etching has been focused in the nuclear industry. In this study, the applicability of this new dry processing technique are experimentally investigated by examining the etching reaction of UO 2 , Co, and Mo in r.f. plasma with the etchant gas of CF 4 /O 2 mixture. UO 2 is chosen as a representing material for uranium and TRU (TRans-Uranic) compounds while metallic Co and Mo are selected because they are the principal contaminants in the used metallic nuclear components such as valves and pipes made of stainless steel or Inconel. Results show that in all cases maximum etching rate is achieved when the mole fraction of O 2 in CF 4 /O 2 mixture gas is 20%, regardless of temperature and r.f. power. In case of UO 2 , the highest etching reaction rate is greater than 1000 monolayers/min. at 370 .deg. C under 150 W r.f. power which is equivalent to 0.4 μm/min. As for Co, etching reaction begins to take place significantly when the temperature exceeds 350 .deg. C. Maximum etching rate achieved at 380 .deg. C is 0.06 μm/min. Mo etching reaction takes place vigorously even at relatively low temperature and the reaction rate increases drastically with increasing temperature. Highest etching rate at 380 .deg. C is 1.9 μm /min. According to OES (Optical Emission Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) analysis, primary reaction seems to be a fluorination reaction, but carbonyl compound formation reaction may assist the dominant reaction, especially in case of Co and Mo. Through this basic study, the feasibility and the applicability of plasma decontamination technique are demonstrated

  15. Electronic transport at semiconductor surfaces - from point-contact transistor to micro-four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Grey, Francois

    2002-01-01

    show that this type of conduction is measurable using new types of experimental probes, such as the multi-tip scanning tunnelling microscope and the micro-four-point probe. The resulting electronic transport properties are intriguing, and suggest that semiconductor surfaces should be considered...

  16. Anti-reflection textured structures by wet etching and island lithography for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Bo-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsin-Hung [Department of Marine Engineering, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taipei 11174, Taiwan (China); Nien, Li-Wei; Chen, Miin-Jang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nagao, Tadaaki [Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Li, Jia-Han [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway, E-mail: hsuehc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We fabricated textured SERS substrate with a high surface area and low reflectance. • Large surface area of substrate contains more gold nanodroplets to absorb analytes. • Low reflectance of textured SERS substrate enabled multiple reflections of incident laser light. • We obtained strong SERS enhancement from nanopillar-on-pyramid SERS substrate. - Abstract: A high surface area and low reflection textured surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with plasmonic gold nanodroplets fabricated by wet etching and island lithography was reported in the present study. Specifically, four textured substrates, planar, pyramid, nanopillar, and nanopillar-on-pyramid, were fabricated. The fabricated structures were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method and the results agreed with the reflection and dark-field scattering measurements. Although the SERS signals varied in different measured regions because of the random nanostructure, the SERS substrates with nanopillar-on-pyramid structure always have the stronger enhancement factor than the SERS substrates with only pyramids or nanopillars. Based on the atomic force microscope and reflection measurements, the nanopillar-on-pyramid structure provided a large surface area and multiple reflections for SERS enhancement, which was about 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the planar substrate. Our results can be applied to fabricate the inexpensive, large surface area, and high SERS enhancement substrates.

  17. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  18. Gas-surface dynamics and charging effects during plasma processing of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gyeong Soon

    This thesis work attempts to elucidate the fundamentals of gas-surface interactions that occur during plasma etching. Controlled experiments using hyperthermal fluorine beams have enabled us to uncover the scattering dynamics at complex surfaces similar to those encountered in etching. By analyzing energy and angular distributions of inelastically scattered F atoms, we were able to distinguish single- and multiple-bounce scattering and to develop models to describe these exit channels. Furthermore, we found that hard-sphere collision kinematics can capture well the energy transfer of the hyperthermal F atoms onto fluorinated silicon surfaces. Based on the fundamental scattering information, we have developed a kinetic model that is described by two parameters: (1) direct inelastic scattering probability and (2) sticking (reaction) probability. These parameters are formulated as a function of the incident energy and angle of F atoms. By incorporating the empirical kinetic model into Monte Carlo based profile evolution simulations, we have unraveled the origin of many etch profile peculiarities which appear during hyperthermal F-beam etching, such as microtrenching, inverse microloading, and undercutting. The kinetic model has been used to describe successfully etching in Cl2-plasmas. For the study of pattern-dependent charging, we have developed a numerical model that combines plasma, sheath, and charging dynamics. The charging simulations illustrate that the directionality difference between ions and electrons arriving at the wafer, brought about by the sheath, causes differential charging on patterned areas even when the plasma is uniform. Using the newly developed charging model, we have investigated gate oxide damage. The results show that a potential drop across the thin gate oxide caused by differential microstructure charging is primarily responsible for gate oxide degradation by driving Fowler-Nordheim stress currents. In general, increasing the flux of low

  19. A tunable sub-100 nm silicon nanopore array with an AAO membrane mask: reducing unwanted surface etching by introducing a PMMA interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Namsoo; Pak, Yusin; Kim, Jin Tae; Hwang, Youngkyu; Lee, Ryeri; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Myoung, Nosoung; Ko, Heung Cho; Jung, Gun Young

    2015-08-01

    Highly ordered silicon (Si) nanopores with a tunable sub-100 nm diameter were fabricated by a CF4 plasma etching process using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as an etching mask. To enhance the conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the underlying Si substrate, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin-coated on top of the Si substrate prior to the transfer of the AAO membrane. The AAO membrane mask was fabricated by two-step anodization and subsequent removal of the aluminum support and the barrier layer, which was then transferred to the PMMA-coated Si substrate. Contact printing was performed on the sample with a pressure of 50 psi and a temperature of 120 °C to make a conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the Si substrate. The CF4 plasma etching was conducted to transfer nanopores onto the Si substrate through the PMMA interlayer. The introduced PMMA interlayer prevented unwanted surface etching of the Si substrate by eliminating the etching ions and radicals bouncing at the gap between the mask and the substrate, resulting in a smooth Si nanopore array.Highly ordered silicon (Si) nanopores with a tunable sub-100 nm diameter were fabricated by a CF4 plasma etching process using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as an etching mask. To enhance the conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the underlying Si substrate, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin-coated on top of the Si substrate prior to the transfer of the AAO membrane. The AAO membrane mask was fabricated by two-step anodization and subsequent removal of the aluminum support and the barrier layer, which was then transferred to the PMMA-coated Si substrate. Contact printing was performed on the sample with a pressure of 50 psi and a temperature of 120 °C to make a conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the Si substrate. The CF4 plasma etching was conducted to transfer nanopores onto the Si substrate through the PMMA interlayer. The introduced PMMA interlayer

  20. Semiconductor surface diffusion: Nonthermal effects of photon illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, R.; Llera-Rodriguez, D.; Seebauer, E. G.

    2000-01-01

    Nonthermal influences of photon illumination on surface diffusion at high temperatures have been measured experimentally. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors for diffusion of germanium, indium, and antimony on silicon change by up to 0.3 eV and two orders of magnitude, respectively, in response to illumination by photons having energies greater than the substrate band gap. The parameters decrease for n-type material and increase for p-type material. Aided by results from photoreflectance spectroscopy, we suggest that motion of the surface quasi-Fermi-level for minority carriers accounts for much of the effect by changing the charge states of surface vacancies. An additional adatom-vacancy complexation mechanism appears to operate on p-type substrates. The results have significant implications for aspects of microelectronics fabrication by rapid thermal processing that are governed by surface mobility. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Self-formation of a nanonet of fluorinated carbon nanowires on the Si surface by combined etching in fluorine-containing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, I. I.; Gorlachev, E. S.; Mazaletskiy, L. A.; Izyumov, M. O.; Alov, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we report a technique of the self-formation of a nanonet of fluorinated carbon nanowires on the Si surface using a combined etching in fluorine-containing C4F8/Ar and SF6 plasmas. Using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that after the etching of Si in the C4F8/Ar plasma, a fluorinated carbon film of nanometer-scale thickness is formed on its surface and its formation accelerates at elevated temperatures. After a subsequent short-term etching in the SF6 plasma, the film is modified into a nanonet of self-formed fluorinated carbon nanowires.

  2. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. McIntyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  3. Tunneling microscopy of 2H-MoS2: A compound semiconductor surface

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, M.; Kramar, J.; Bai, C.; Baldeschwieler, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide, a layered semiconductor, is an interesting material to study with the tunneling microscope because two structurally and electronically different atomic species may be probed at its surface. We report on a vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy study of 2H-MoS2. Atomic resolution topographs and current images show the symmetry of the surface unit cell and clearly reveal two distinct atomic sites in agreement with the well-known x-ray crystal structure.

  4. Surface Passivation for 3-5 Semiconductor Processing: Stable Gallium Sulphide Films by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnes, Andrew N.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Power, Michael B.; Kang, Soon; Barron, Andrew R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1994-01-01

    Gallium sulphide (GaS) has been deposited on GaAs to form stable, insulating, passivating layers. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence and surface recombination velocity measurements indicate that the GaS itself can contribute a significant fraction of the photoluminescence in GaS/GaAs structures. Determination of surface recombination velocity by photoluminescence is therefore difficult. By using C-V analysis of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures, passivation of the GaAs with GaS films is quantified.

  5. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si_3N_4 and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO_2 ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar"+ ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO_2 from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si_3N_4 and SiO_2 layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si_3N_4 etching and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4 were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si_3N_4 were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si_3N_4 has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO_2, Si_3N_4 physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si_3N_4 to SiO_2 ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO_2 to Si_3N_4 etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si_3N_4 surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si_3N_4 as compared to SiO_2. The comparison of C_4F_8 and CHF_3 only showed a difference in etching selectivity for FC depleted conditions. For FC accumulation conditions

  6. Quadrilateral Micro-Hole Array Machining on Invar Thin Film: Wet Etching and Electrochemical Fusion Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Kirl Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-precision products which contain a micro-hole array have recently shown remarkable demand growth in many fields, especially in the semiconductor and display industries. Photoresist etching and electrochemical machining are widely known as precision methods for machining micro-holes with no residual stress and lower surface roughness on the fabricated products. The Invar shadow masks used for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs contain numerous micro-holes and are currently machined by a photoresist etching method. However, this method has several problems, such as uncontrollable hole machining accuracy, non-etched areas, and overcutting. To solve these problems, a machining method that combines photoresist etching and electrochemical machining can be applied. In this study, negative photoresist with a quadrilateral hole array pattern was dry coated onto 30-µm-thick Invar thin film, and then exposure and development were carried out. After that, photoresist single-side wet etching and a fusion method of wet etching-electrochemical machining were used to machine micro-holes on the Invar. The hole machining geometry, surface quality, and overcutting characteristics of the methods were studied. Wet etching and electrochemical fusion machining can improve the accuracy and surface quality. The overcutting phenomenon can also be controlled by the fusion machining. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising for the fabrication of Invar film shadow masks.

  7. Predicting synergy in atomic layer etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanarik, Keren J. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Tan, Samantha [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yang, Wenbing [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kim, Taeseung [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Lill, Thorsten [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kabansky, Alexander [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Ohba, Tomihito [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Nojiri, Kazuo [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yu, Jengyi [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Wise, Rich [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Berry, Ivan L. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Pan, Yang [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Marks, Jeffrey [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Gottscho, Richard A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a multistep process used today in manufacturing for removing ultrathin layers of material. In this article, the authors report on ALE of Si, Ge, C, W, GaN, and SiO2 using a directional (anisotropic) plasma-enhanced approach. The authors analyze these systems by defining an “ALE synergy” parameter which quantifies the degree to which a process approaches the ideal ALE regime. This parameter is inspired by the ion-neutral synergy concept introduced in the 1979 paper by Coburn and Winters. ALE synergy is related to the energetics of underlying surface interactions and is understood in terms of energy criteria for the energy barriers involved in the reactions. Synergistic behavior is observed for all of the systems studied, with each exhibiting behavior unique to the reactant–material combination. By systematically studying atomic layer etching of a group of materials, the authors show that ALE synergy scales with the surface binding energy of the bulk material. This insight explains why some materials are more or less amenable to the directional ALE approach. Furthermore, they conclude that ALE is both simpler to understand than conventional plasma etch processing and is applicable to metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics.

  8. Catalyst and processing effects on metal-assisted chemical etching for the production of highly porous GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Xuewen; Grismer, Dane A; Bohn, Paul W; Duan, Barrett K; Zhao, Liancheng

    2013-01-01

    Metal-assisted chemical etching is a facile method to produce micro-/nanostructures in the near-surface region of gallium nitride (GaN) and other semiconductors. Detailed studies of the production of porous GaN (PGaN) using different metal catalysts and GaN doping conditions have been performed in order to understand the mechanism by which metal-assisted chemical etching is accomplished in GaN. Patterned catalysts show increasing metal-assisted chemical etching activity to n-GaN in the order Ag < Au < Ir < Pt. In addition, the catalytic behavior of continuous films is compared to discontinuous island films. Continuous metal films strongly shield the surface, hindering metal-assisted chemical etching, an effect which can be overcome by using discontinuous films or increasing the irradiance of the light source. With increasing etch time or irradiance, PGaN morphologies change from uniform porous structures to ridge and valley structures. The doping type plays an important role, with metal-assisted chemical etching activity increasing in the order p-GaN < intrinsic GaN < n-GaN. Both the catalyst identity and the doping type effects are explained by the work functions and the related band offsets that affect the metal-assisted chemical etching process through a combination of different barriers to hole injection and the formation of hole accumulation/depletion layers at the metal–semiconductor interface. (paper)

  9. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotropic and anisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how one can calculate the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, track profile and track contour. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (orig.)

  10. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotopic and unisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, the track profile and the track contour can be calculated. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (author)

  11. Decontamination of U-metal surface by an oxidation etching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Kansa, E.J.; Shaffer, R.J.; Weed, H.C. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    A surface treatment to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts is described. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidation process to create a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are significantly large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination. (authors)

  12. Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenat, Alexandre; Muñiz-Piniella, Andrés; Muñoz-Rojo, Miguel; Murphy, Craig E; Tsoi, Wing C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the validation of a method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) able to measure the different phases and the relative work function of polymer blend heterojunctions at the nanoscale. The method does not necessitate complex ultra-high vacuum setup. The quantitative information that can be extracted from the topography and the Kelvin probe measurements is critically analysed. Surface voltage difference can be observed at the nanoscale on poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends and dependence on the annealing condition and the regio-regularity of P3HT is observed. (paper)

  13. Electronic-state control of amino acids on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masato; Nakayama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Electronic structures of amino acids on the Si(1 1 1) surfaces are investigated by using ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that among various polar amino acids, a histidine is the only one that can be positively ionized when hole carriers are supplied in the Si substrate, by transferring the hole charge from Si substrate to an amino acid. This result indicates that the ionization of a histidine, which will activate the protein functions, can be controlled electrically by producing amino acid/Si junctions

  14. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth of insulating AlN on surface-controlled 6H-SiC substrate by HCl gas etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onojima, Norio; Suda, Jun; Matsunami, Hiroyuki

    2002-01-01

    Insulating AlN layers were grown on surface-controlled 6H-SiC subtrates by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) using elemental Al and rf plasma-excited nitrogen (N*). HCl gas etching was introduced as an effective pretreatment method of substrate for MBE growth of AlN. 6H-SiC substrates pretreated by HCl gas etching had no surface polishing scratches and an atomically flat surface. In addition, evident ( 3 √x 3 √)R30 deg. surface reconstruction was observed even before thermal cleaning. AlN layers grown on this substrate had no defects related to surface polishing scratches and excellent insulating characteristics

  15. Nanorods on surface of GaN-based thin-film LEDs deposited by post-annealing after photo-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Lin, Wun-Wei; Liu, Te-Yu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the optoelectronic characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN)-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) that are formed by a two-step transfer process that involves wet etching and post-annealing. In the two-step transfer process, GaN LEDs were stripped from sapphire substrates by the laser lift-off (LLO) method using a KrF laser and then transferred onto ceramic substrates. Ga-K nanorods were formed on the surface of the GaN-based TF-LEDs following photo-assisted chemical etching and photo-enhanced post-annealing at 100 °C for 1 min. As a result, the light output power of GaN-based TF-LEDs with wet etching and post-annealing was over 72% more than that of LEDs that did not undergo these treatments.

  16. Semiconductor Sensors Application for Definition of Factor of Ozone Heterogeneous Destruction on Teflon Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Finogenova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we present the results of our research, which was carried out by means of semiconductor sensor techniques (SCS, which allowed evaluating heterogeneous death-rate of ozone (γ Teflon surface. When ozone concentration is near to Ambient Air Standard value, γ is assessed to be equal to 6,57*10-7. High technique response provide possibility to determine ozone contents in the air media and the percentage of ozone, decomposed on the communication surfaces and on the surfaces of installation in the low concentration range (1–100 ppb.

  17. On the problem of propagation of magnetoplasma surface waves in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.B.; Zakharov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    A calculation is made of the spectrum of surface waves traveling along a boundary separating a dielectric from a magnetized semiconductor plasma parallel or at right angles to a magnetic field B. Dispersion relationships are obtained for the k is parallel to B case and these relationships explain the origin of the investigated surface waves on the boundary of a two-component (electron-hole) plasma in InSb. An analysis is made of the dispersion of the surface waves in the k is perpendicular to B case, which leads to a nonreciprocal propagation. (author)

  18. Theoretical modelling of semiconductor surfaces microscopic studies of electrons and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, G P

    1999-01-01

    The state-of-the-art theoretical studies of ground state properties, electronic states and atomic vibrations for bulk semiconductors and their surfaces by the application of the pseudopotential method are discussed. Studies of bulk and surface phonon modes have been extended by the application of the phenomenological bond charge model. The coverage of the material, especially of the rapidly growing and technologically important topics of surface reconstruction and chemisorption, is up-to-date and beyond what is currently available in book form. Although theoretical in nature, the book provides

  19. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  20. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  1. Plasma etching treatment for surface modification of boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ito, Hiroyuki [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Kusakabe, Kazuhide [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawai, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawai@ci.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2007-03-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film surfaces were modified by brief plasma treatment using various source gases such as Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 4}, Ar and CH{sub 4}, and the electrochemical properties of the surfaces were subsequently investigated. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, Cl and F atoms were detected on the BDD surfaces after 3 min of Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments, respectively. From the results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical AC impedance measurements, the electron-transfer rate for Fe(CN){sub 6} {sup 3-/4-} and Fe{sup 2+/3+} at the BDD electrodes was found to decrease after Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments. However, the electron-transfer rate for Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6} {sup 2+/3+} showed almost no change after these treatments. This may have been related to the specific interactions of surface halogen (C-Cl and C-F) moieties with the redox species because no electrical passivation was observed after the treatments. In addition, Raman spectroscopy showed that CH{sub 4} plasma treatment of diamond surfaces formed an insulating diamond-like carbon thin layer on the surfaces. Thus, by an appropriate choice of plasma source, short-duration plasma treatments can be an effective way to functionalize diamond surfaces in various ways while maintaining a wide potential window and a low background current.

  2. Laser etching of polymer masked leadframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. K.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.; Yuen, C. W.

    1997-02-01

    A typical electroplating production line for the deposition of silver pattern on copper leadframes in the semiconductor industry involves twenty to twenty five steps of cleaning, pickling, plating, stripping etc. This complex production process occupies large floor space and has also a number of problems such as difficulty in the production of rubber masks and alignment, generation of toxic fumes, high cost of water consumption and sometimes uncertainty on the cleanliness of the surfaces to be plated. A novel laser patterning process is proposed in this paper which can replace many steps in the existing electroplating line. The proposed process involves the application of high speed laser etching techniques on leadframes which were protected with polymer coating. The desired pattern for silver electroplating is produced by laser ablation of the polymer coating. Excimer laser was found to be most effective for this process as it can expose a pattern of clean copper substrate which can be silver plated successfully. Previous working of Nd:YAG laser ablation showed that 1.06 μm radiation was not suitable for this etching process because a thin organic and transparent film remained on the laser etched region. The effect of excimer pulse frequency and energy density upon the removal rate of the polymer coating was studied.

  3. Micro-structured rough surfaces by laser etching for heat transfer enhancement on flush mounted heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventola, L; Scaltrito, L; Ferrero, S; Chiavazzo, E; Asinari, P; Maccioni, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve heat transfer performances of flush mounted heat sinks used in electronic cooling. To do this we patterned 1.23 cm 2 heat sinks surfaces by microstructured roughnesses built by laser etching manufacturing technique, and experimentally measured the convective heat transfer enhancements due to different patterns. Each roughness differs from the others with regards to the number and the size of the micro-fins (e.g. the micro- fin length ranges from 200 to 1100 μm). Experimental tests were carried out in forced air cooling regime. In particular fully turbulent flows (heating edge based Reynolds number ranging from 3000 to 17000) were explored. Convective heat transfer coefficient of the best micro-structured heat sink is found to be roughly two times compared to the smooth heat sinks one. In addition, surface area roughly doubles with regard to smooth heat sinks, due to the presence of micro-fins. Consequently, patterned heat sinks thermal transmittance [W/K] is found to be roughly four times the smooth heat sinks one. We hope this work may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by innovative manufacturing techniques.

  4. Influence of warm air-drying on enamel bond strength and surface free-energy of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Koji; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effect of warm air-drying on the enamel bond strengths and the surface free-energy of three single-step self-etch adhesives. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and then wet ground with #600 silicon carbide (SiC) paper. The adhesives were applied according to the instructions of the respective manufacturers and then dried in a stream of normal (23°C) or warm (37°C) air for 5, 10, and 20 s. After visible-light irradiation of the adhesives, resin composites were condensed into a mold and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then the bond strengths were measured. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. The enamel bond strengths varied according to the air-drying time and ranged from 15.8 to 19.1 MPa. The trends for the bond strengths were different among the materials. The value of the γS⁺ component increased slightly when drying was performed with a stream of warm air, whereas that of the γS⁻ component decreased significantly. These data suggest that warm air-drying is essential to obtain adequate enamel bond strengths, although increasing the drying time did not significantly influence the bond strength. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  6. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extracted and found to be covered by a continuous surface layer...... of martensite with varying thickness formed by the grinding process. Worn R350HT and R200 rails were extracted from the Danish rail network as they had transverse bands resembling grinding marks on the running surface. The transverse bands were shown to consist of martensite which had extensive crack formation...... at the martensite/pearlite interface. The cracks in R350HT propagated down into the rail while those in the soft R200 returned to the surface causing only very small shallow spallation. The transverse bands had the same shape, size, orientation, location and periodicity which would be expected from grinding marks...

  7. Influence of impurities on the surface morphology of the TIBr crystal semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Robinson A. dos; Silva, Julio B. Rodrigues da; Martins, Joao F.T.; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Costa, Fabio E. da; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2013-01-01

    The impurity effect in the surface morphology quality of TlBr crystals was evaluated, aiming a future application of these crystals as room temperature radiation semiconductor detectors. The crystals were purified and grown by the Repeated Bridgman technique. Systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. A significant difference in the crystals impurity concentration was observed for almost all impurities, compared to those found in the raw material. The crystals wafer grown twice showed a surface roughness and grains which may be due to the presence of impurities on the surface, while those obtained with crystals grown three times presented a more uniform surface: even though, a smaller roughness was still observed. It was demonstrated that the impurities affect strongly the surface morphology quality of crystals. (author)

  8. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunquan, E-mail: likunquan1987@gmail.com; Zeng, Xingrong, E-mail: psxrzeng@gmail.com; Li, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqli1979@gmail.com; Lai, Xuejun, E-mail: msxjlai@scut.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic iron surfaces were prepared by etching and replacement method. • The fabrication process was simple, time-saving and inexpensive. • Galvanic replacement method was more favorable to create roughness on iron surface. • The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties. - Abstract: Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO{sub 3} concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for

  9. Effect of the association between citric acid and EDTA on root surface etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolli Leite, Fabio Renato; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Manzolli Leite, Elza Regina; Leite, Amauri Antiquera; Cezar Sampaio, Josá Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to compare the clot stabilization on root surfaces conditioned with citric acid and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Scaled root samples (n = 100) were set in fve groups: group I-control group (saline solution); group II (24% EDTA); group III (25% citric acid); group IV (EDTA + citric acid); group V (citric acid + EDTA). Fifty samples were assessed using the root surface modifcation index (RSMI). The other 50 received a blood drop after conditioning. Clot formation was assessed using blood elements adhesion index (BEAI). A blind examiner evaluated photomicrographs. Statistical analysis considered p EDTA employment before citric acid (group-IV) reduced clot formation in comparison to citric acid use alone (group-III). Root conditioning with citric acid alone and before EDTA had the best results for smear layer removal and clot stabilization. EDTA inhibited clot stabilization on root surface and must have a residual activity once it has diminished clot adhesion to root even after citric acid conditioning. Thus, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells without affecting clot stabilization. Clinical signifcance: To demonstrate that citric acid use on root surfaces previously affected by periodontal disease may favor clot stabilization and may have a benefcial effect on surgical outcomes. Also, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells.

  10. Dependence of surface smoothing, sputtering and etching phenomena on cluster ion dosage

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of surface smoothing and sputtering phenomena of Si (1 0 0) solid surfaces irradiated by CO sub 2 cluster ions on cluster-ion dosage was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The flux and total ion dosage of impinging cluster ions at the acceleration voltage of 50 kV were fixed at 10 sup 9 ions/cm sup 2 s and were scanned from 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The density of hillocks induced by cluster ion impact was gradually increased with the dosage up to 5x10 sup 1 sup 1 ions/cm sup 2 , which caused that the irradiated surface became rough from 0.4 to 1.24 nm in root-mean-square roughness (sigma sub r sub m sub s). At the boundary of the ion dosage of 10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 , the density of the induced hillocks was decreased and sigma sub r sub m sub s was about 1.21 nm, not being deteriorated further. At the dosage of 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , the induced hillocks completely disappeared and the surface became very flat as much as sigma...

  11. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  12. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO 2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  13. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Dipankar; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates

  14. Some specific features of a surface-screw plasma instability in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaev, G.F.; Tsipivka, Yu.I.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the dispersion relation has been carried out, which enables to discover some new peculiarities in the behaviour of the surface helical instability (SHI) of a semiconductor plasma. To simplify the dispersion relation a semiconductor with nearly equal electron and hole mobilities has been considered. The dependences of threshold characteristics of SHI on a magnetic field H for different angular harmonics are represented graphically. A comparison of the formulas obtained shows that the approximation of truncated series yields an incorrect qualitative dependence of the wavelength on H, whereas asymptotic formulas in the range of strong magnetic fields yield not only a correct qualitative dependence of the threshold characteristics on H, but also a good quantitative agreement

  15. The Role of III-V Substrate Roughness and Deoxidation Induced by Digital Etch in Achieving Low Resistance Metal Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Ravaux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve low contact resistance between metal and III-V material, transmission-line-model (TLM structures of molybdenum (Mo were fabricated on indium phosphide (InP substrate on the top of an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The contact layer was prepared using a digital etch procedure before metal deposition. The contact resistivity was found to decrease significantly with the cleaning process. High Resolution Transmission & Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRTEM & HRSTEM investigations revealed that the surface roughness of treated samples was increased. Further analysis of the metal-semiconductor interface using Energy Electron Loss Spectroscopy (EELS showed that the amount of oxides (InxOy, GaxOy or AsxOy was significantly decreased for the etched samples. These results suggest that the low contact resistance obtained after digital etching is attributed to the combined effects of the induced surface roughness and oxides removal during the digital etch process.

  16. Modeling of block copolymer dry etching for directed self-assembly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Zelalem; Baer, Eberhard; Erdmann, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is a promising alternative technology to overcome the limits of patterning for the semiconductor industry. DSA exploits the self-assembling property of BCPs for nano-scale manufacturing and to repair defects in patterns created during photolithography. After self-assembly of BCPs, to transfer the created pattern to the underlying substrate, selective etching of PMMA (poly (methyl methacrylate)) to PS (polystyrene) is required. However, the etch process to transfer the self-assemble "fingerprint" DSA patterns to the underlying layer is still a challenge. Using combined experimental and modelling studies increases understanding of plasma interaction with BCP materials during the etch process and supports the development of selective process that form well-defined patterns. In this paper, a simple model based on a generic surface model has been developed and an investigation to understand the etch behavior of PS-b-PMMA for Ar, and Ar/O2 plasma chemistries has been conducted. The implemented model is calibrated for etch rates and etch profiles with literature data to extract parameters and conduct simulations. In order to understand the effect of the plasma on the block copolymers, first the etch model was calibrated for polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) homopolymers. After calibration of the model with the homopolymers etch rate, a full Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted and simulation results are compared with the critical-dimension (CD) and selectivity of etch profile measurement. In addition, etch simulations for lamellae pattern have been demonstrated, using the implemented model.

  17. Compact Submillimeter-Wave Receivers Made with Semiconductor Nano-Fabrication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Thomas, B.; Lee, C.; Peralta, A.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Gill, J.; Cooper, K.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques are utilized to design, fabricate and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass (<10 grams) submillimeter-wave heterodyne front-end. RF elements such as waveguides and channels are fabricated in a silicon wafer substrate using deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE). Etched patterns with sidewalls angles controlled with 1 deg precision are reported, while maintaining a surface roughness of better than 20 nm rms for the etched structures. This approach is being developed to build compact 2-D imaging arrays in the THz frequency range.

  18. From acid etching treatments to tribocorrosive properties of dental implants: do some experimental results on surface treatments have an influence on the tribocorrosion behaviour of dental implants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geringer, Jean; Demanget, Nicolas; Pellier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Surface treatments of dental implants aim at promoting osseointegration, i.e. the anchorage of the metallic part. Titanium-, grade II–V, based material is used as a bulk material for dental implants. For promoting the anchorage of this metallic biomaterial in human jaw, some strategies have been applied for improving the surface state, i.e. roughness, topography and coatings. A case study, experimental study, is described with the method of acid etching on titanium grade 4, CpTi. The main goal is to find the right proportion in a mixture of two acids in order to obtain the best surface state. Finally, a pure theoretical prediction is quite impossible and some experimental investigations are necessary to improve the surface state. The described acid etching is compared with some other acid etching treatments and some coatings available on dental implants. Thus, the discussion is focused on the tribocorrosion behaviour of titanium-based materials. The purpose of the coating is that the lifetime under tribocorrosion is limited. Moreover, the surgery related to the implantation has a huge impact on the stability of dental implants. Thus, the performance of dental implants depends on factors related to surgery (implantation) that are difficult to predict from the biomaterial characteristics. From the tribocorrosion point of view, i.e. during the mastication step, the titanium material is submitted to some deleterious factors that cause the performance of dental implants to decrease. (paper)

  19. Effect of chemical etching on the surface roughness of CdZnTe and CdMnTe gamma radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, A.; Babalola, S.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Yang, G.; Guo, M.; Kochanowska, D.; Mycielski, A.; Burger, A.; James, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Generally, mechanical polishing is performed to diminish the cutting damage followed by chemical etching to remove the remaining damage on crystal surfaces. In this paper, we detail the findings from our study of the effects of various chemical treatments on the roughness of crystal surfaces. We prepared several CdZnTe (CZT) and CdMnTe (CMT) crystals by mechanical polishing with 5 (micro)m and/or lower grits of Al 2 O 3 abrasive papers including final polishing with 0.05-(micro)m particle size alumina powder and then etched them for different periods with a 2%, 5% Bromine-Methanol (B-M) solution, and also with an E-solution (HNO 3 :H 2 O:Cr 2 O 7 ). The material removal rate (etching rate) from the crystals was found to be 10 (micro)m, 30 (micro)m, and 15 (micro)m per minute, respectively. The roughness of the resulting surfaces was determined by the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to identify the most efficient surface processing method by combining mechanical and chemical polishing

  20. Surface topography and chemistry shape cellular behavior on wide band-gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lauren E; Collazo, Ramon; Hsu, Shu-Han; Latham, Nicole Pfiester; Manfra, Michael J; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-06-01

    The chemical stability and electrical properties of gallium nitride make it a promising material for the development of biocompatible electronics, a range of devices including biosensors as well as interfaces for probing and controlling cellular growth and signaling. To improve the interface formed between the probe material and the cell or biosystem, surface topography and chemistry can be applied to modify the ways in which the device interacts with its environment. PC12 cells are cultured on as-grown planar, unidirectionally polished, etched nanoporous and nanowire GaN surfaces with and without a physisorbed peptide sequence that promotes cell adhesion. While cells demonstrate preferential adhesion to roughened surfaces over as-grown flat surfaces, the topography of that roughness also influences the morphology of cellular adhesion and differentiation in neurotypic cells. Addition of the peptide sequence generally contributes further to cellular adhesion and promotes development of stereotypic long, thin neurite outgrowths over alternate morphologies. The dependence of cell behavior on both the topographic morphology and surface chemistry is thus demonstrated, providing further evidence for the importance of surface modification for modulating bio-inorganic interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface properties and photocatalytic activity of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 semiconductors and their binary and ternary semiconductor composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorowicz, Beata; Cybula, Anna; Winiarski, Michał J; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Zaleska, Adriana

    2014-09-24

    Single semiconductors such as KTaO3, CdS MoS2 or their precursor solutions were combined to form novel binary and ternary semiconductor nanocomposites by the calcination or by the hydro/solvothermal mixed solutions methods, respectively. The aim of this work was to study the influence of preparation method as well as type and amount of the composite components on the surface properties and photocatalytic activity of the new semiconducting photoactive materials. We presented different binary and ternary combinations of the above semiconductors for phenol and toluene photocatalytic degradation and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and porosity. The results showed that loading MoS2 onto CdS as well as loading CdS onto KTaO3 significantly enhanced absorption properties as compared with single semiconductors. The highest photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation reaction under both UV-Vis and visible light irradiation and very good stability in toluene removal was observed for ternary hybrid obtained by calcination of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 powders at the 10:5:1 molar ratio. Enhanced photoactivity could be related to the two-photon excitation in KTaO3-CdS-MoS2 composite under UV-Vis and/or to additional presence of CdMoO4 working as co-catalyst.

  2. Surface passivation of mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystals by selective etching for improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Qiang; Zhang, Mian; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhenda

    2017-06-08

    In recent years, there has been an unprecedented rise in the research of halide perovskites because of their important optoelectronic applications, including photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and lasers. The most pressing question concerns the stability of these materials. Here faster degradation and PL quenching are observed at higher iodine content for mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(Br x I 1-x ) 3 nanocrystals, and a simple yet effective method is reported to significantly enhance their stability. After selective etching with acetone, surface iodine is partially etched away to form a bromine-rich surface passivation layer on mixed-halide perovskite nanocrystals. This passivation layer remarkably stabilizes the nanocrystals, making their PL intensity improved by almost three orders of magnitude. It is expected that a similar passivation layer can also be applied to various other kinds of perovskite materials with poor stability issues.

  3. Analysis of defects near the surface and the interface of semiconductors by monoenergetic positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro

    1989-01-01

    A monoenergetic low-speed positron beam line is constructed and a study is made on defects near the surface and the interface of semiconductors by using the beam line. Sodium-22 is used as beam source. Ion implantation, though being an essential technique for semiconductor integrated circuit production, can introduce lattice defects, affecting the yield and reliability of the resultant semiconductor devices. Some observations are made on the dependence of the Doppler broadening on the depth, and the ΔS-E relationship in P + -ion implanted SiO 2 (43nm)-Si. These observations demonstrate that monoenergetic positron beam is useful to detect hole-type defects resulting from ion implantation over a very wide range of defect density. Another study is made for the detection of defects near an interface. Positrons are expected to drift when left in an electric field with a gradient. Observations made here show that positrons can be concentrated at any desired interface by introducing an electric field intensity gradient in the oxide. This process also serves for accurate measurement of the electronic structure at the interface, and the effect of ion implantation and radiations on the interface. (N.K.)

  4. Platinum nanoparticles on gallium nitride surfaces: effect of semiconductor doping on nanoparticle reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Susanne; Wyrzgol, Sonja A; Caterino, Roberta; Jentys, Andreas; Schoell, Sebastian J; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Lercher, Johannes A; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on n- and p-type gallium nitride (GaN) are investigated as novel hybrid systems for the electronic control of catalytic activity via electronic interactions with the semiconductor support. In situ oxidation and reduction were studied with high pressure photoemission spectroscopy. The experiments revealed that the underlying wide-band-gap semiconductor has a large influence on the chemical composition and oxygen affinity of supported nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation. For as-deposited Pt cuboctahedra supported on n-type GaN, a higher fraction of oxidized surface atoms was observed compared to cuboctahedral particles supported on p-type GaN. Under an oxygen atmosphere, immediate oxidation was recorded for nanoparticles on n-type GaN, whereas little oxidation was observed for nanoparticles on p-type GaN. Together, these results indicate that changes in the Pt chemical state under X-ray irradiation depend on the type of GaN doping. The strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the support is consistent with charge transfer of X-ray photogenerated free carriers at the semiconductor-nanoparticle interface and suggests that GaN is a promising wide-band-gap support material for photocatalysis and electronic control of catalysis.

  5. Hot electron dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: Implications for quantum dot photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdale, William A., III

    Finding a viable supply of clean, renewable energy is one of the most daunting challenges facing the world today. Solar cells have had limited impact in meeting this challenge because of their high cost and low power conversion efficiencies. Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, are promising materials for use in novel solar cells because they can be processed with potentially inexpensive solution-based techniques and because they are predicted to have novel optoelectronic properties that could enable the realization of ultra-efficient solar power converters. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the behavior of highly-excited, or "hot," charge carriers near quantum-dot and semiconductor interfaces, which is of paramount importance to the rational design of high-efficiency devices. The elucidation of these ultrafast hot electron dynamics is the central aim of this Dissertation. I present a theoretical framework for treating the electronic interactions between quantum dots and bulk semiconductor surfaces and propose a novel experimental technique, time-resolved surface second harmonic generation (TR-SHG), for probing these interactions. I then describe a series of experimental investigations into hot electron dynamics in specific quantum-dot/semiconductor systems. A two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (2PPE) study of the technologically-relevant ZnO(1010) surface reveals ultrafast (sub-30fs) cooling of hot electrons in the bulk conduction band, which is due to strong electron-phonon coupling in this highly polar material. The presence of a continuum of defect states near the conduction band edge results in Fermi-level pinning and upward (n-type) band-bending at the (1010) surface and provides an alternate route for electronic relaxation. In monolayer films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots, chemical treatment with either hydrazine or 1,2-ethanedithiol results in strong and tunable electronic coupling between neighboring quantum dots

  6. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  7. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic 'lotus leaf' hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7-9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured 'over growth' oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from -1.521 V of the bare magnesium to -1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the other metal materials.

  8. Rational design of organic semiconductors for texture control and self-patterning on halogenated surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jeremy W.

    2014-05-15

    Understanding the interactions at interfaces between the materials constituting consecutive layers within organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is vital for optimizing charge injection and transport, tuning thin-film microstructure, and designing new materials. Here, the influence of the interactions at the interface between a halogenated organic semiconductor (OSC) thin film and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer on the formation of the crystalline texture directly affecting the performance of OTFTs is explored. By correlating the results from microbeam grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (μGIWAXS) measurements of structure and texture with OTFT characteristics, two or more interaction paths between the terminating atoms of the semiconductor and the halogenated surface are found to be vital to templating a highly ordered morphology in the first layer. These interactions are effective when the separating distance is lower than 2.5 dw, where dw represents the van der Waals distance. The ability to modulate charge carrier transport by several orders of magnitude by promoting "edge-on" versus "face-on" molecular orientation and crystallographic textures in OSCs is demonstrated. It is found that the "edge-on" self-assembly of molecules forms uniform, (001) lamellar-textured crystallites which promote high charge carrier mobility, and that charge transport suffers as the fraction of the "face-on" oriented crystallites increases. The role of interfacial halogenation in mediating texture formation and the self-patterning of organic semiconductor films, as well as the resulting effects on charge transport in organic thin-film transistors, are explored. The presence of two or more anchoring sites between a halogenated semiconductor and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer, closer than about twice the corresponding van der Waals distance, alter the microstructure and improve electrical properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Understanding and controlling the step bunching instability in aqueous silicon etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hailing

    Chemical etching of silicon has been widely used for more than half a century in the semiconductor industry. It not only forms the basis for current wafer cleaning processes, it also serves as a powerful tool to create a variety of surface morphologies for different applications. Its potential for controlling surface morphology at the atomic scale over micron-size regions is especially appealing. In spite of its wide usage, the chemistry of silicon etching is poorly understood. Many seemingly simple but fundamental questions have not been answered. As a result, the development of new etchants and new etching protocols are based on expensive and tedious trial-and-error experiments. A better understanding of the etching mechanism would direct the rational formulation of new etchants that produce controlled etch morphologies. Particularly, micron-scale step bunches spontaneously develop on the vicinal Si(111) surface etched in KOH or other anisotropic aqueous etchants. The ability to control the size, orientation, density and regularity of these surface features would greatly improve the performance of microelectromechanical devices. This study is directed towards understanding the chemistry and step bunching instability in aqueous anisotropic etching of silicon through a combination of experimental techniques and theoretical simulations. To reveal the cause of step-bunching instability, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were constructed based on an atomistic model of the silicon lattice and a modified kinematic wave theory. The simulations showed that inhomogeneity was the origin of step-bunching, which was confirmed through STM studies of etch morphologies created under controlled flow conditions. To quantify the size of the inhomogeneities in different etchants and to clarify their effects, a five-parallel-trench pattern was fabricated. This pattern used a nitride mask to protect most regions of the wafer; five evenly spaced etch windows were opened to the Si(110

  10. Glial cell adhesion and protein adsorption on SAM coated semiconductor and glass surfaces of a microfluidic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Cox, Jimmy D.; Follstaedt, Susan C.; Curry, Mark S.; Skirboll, Steven K.; Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-05-01

    The development of microsystems that merge biological materials with microfabricated structures is highly dependent on the successful interfacial interactions between these innately incompatible materials. Surface passivation of semiconductor and glass surfaces with thin organic films can attenuate the adhesion of proteins and cells that lead to biofilm formation and biofouling of fluidic structures. We have examined the adhesion of glial cells and serum albumin proteins to microfabricated glass and semiconductor surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of octadecyltrimethoxysilane and N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)-O- polyethylene oxide urethane, to evaluate the biocompatibility and surface passivation those coatings provide.

  11. A novel approach to the use of doxycycline-loaded biodegradable membrane and EDTA root surface etching in chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Ahmed Y; Kumper, Radi M

    2012-09-01

    The release profile of 25% doxycycline (DOX) gel loaded on a biodegradable collagen membrane (COL) after 24% EDTA root surface etching was evaluated. Thirty systemically healthy patients, each with at least one pair of contralateral interproximal intrabony defects ≥4 mm deep, along with an interproximal probing depth ≥6 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥4 mm, were randomized into two groups. Group 1 consisted of sites treated with open-flap debridement followed by placement of DOX gel-loaded COL (DOX-COL), whereas group 2 sites were treated with flap surgery followed by the placement of DOX-COL after EDTA etching of the exposed root surfaces (DOX-COL + EDTA). Samples of gingival crevicular fluid were obtained 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery. Separation was performed, and quantitative measurements of DOX were taken with a high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical evaluation and follow-up for 6 months were performed. At 21 days, DOX-COL + EDTA group showed 5.3 μg/mL value. However, no DOX was detected in samples of the DOX-COL group. DOX-COL + EDTA-treated group retained more DOX during the periods of 3, 7, 10, and 14 days than did the DOX-COL group. EDTA root surface etching could enhance DOX availability in the gingival crevicular fluid after its release from the collagen membrane.

  12. Growth optimization and characterization of GaN epilayers on multifaceted (111) surfaces etched on Si(100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansah-Antwi, KwaDwo Konadu, E-mail: kakadee@gmail.com; Chua, Soo Jin [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis # 08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, E4-5-45, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Soh, Chew Beng [Singapore Institute of Technology, 10 Dover Drive, Singapore 138683 (Singapore); Liu, Hongfei [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis # 08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore)

    2015-11-15

    The four nearest Si(111) multifaceted sidewalls were exposed inside an array of 3 μm-wide square holes patterned on an Si(100) substrate, and this patterned Si(100) substrate was used as a substrate for the deposition of a gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer. Subsequently the effect that the growth pressure, the etched-hole profiles, and the etched-hole arrangement had upon the quality of the as-grown GaN was investigated. The coalescence of the as-grown GaN epilayer on the exposed Si(111) facets was observed to be enhanced with reduced growth pressure from 120 to 90 Torr. A larger Si(001) plane area at the bottom of the etched holes resulted in bidirectional GaN domains, which resulted in poor material quality. The bidirectional GaN domains were observed as two sets of six peaks via a high-resolution x-ray diffraction phi scan of the GaN(10-11) reflection. It was also shown that a triangular array of etched holes was more desirable than square arrays of etched holes for the growth high-quality and continuous GaN films.

  13. Characterizing Surfaces of the Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Ilmenite with Scanning Probe Microcopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.

    1997-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of about 2.5eV. Initial radiation studies indicate that ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Two scanning probe microscopy methods have been used to characterize the surface of samples taken from Czochralski grown single crystals. The two methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), are based on different physical principles and therefore provide different information about the samples. AFM provides a direct, three-dimensional image of the surface of the samples, while STM give a convolution of topographic and electronic properties of the surface. We will discuss the differences between the methods and present preliminary data of each method for ilmenite samples.

  14. Effects of the Addictives on Etching Characteristics of Aluminum Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Jang, J.M.; Chi, C.S. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, D.C. [Sungnam Polytechnic, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, J.H.; Oh, H.J. [Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of additives in the HCI etching solution on etching behaviors of aluminium foil as dielectric film for electrolytic capacitors were investigated. The etch pits formed in 1M hydrochloric acid containing ethylene glycol as an additive contain more fine and homogeneous etch tunnels compared to thoese in 1 M hydrochloric acid only, which led to the increase in the effective internal surface area of aluminum foil. After anodizing of aluminum foil etched in etching solutions, the LCR meter results have shown that the capacitance of dielectric film etched in hydrochloric acid with ethylene glycol was increased remarkably compared to that etched in hydrochloric acid only. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Laterally coupled distributed feedback lasers emitting at 2 μm with quantum dash active region and high-duty-cycle etched semiconductor gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatryfonos, Konstantinos; Saladukha, Dzianis; Merghem, Kamel; Joshi, Siddharth; Lelarge, Francois; Bouchoule, Sophie; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Guilet, Stephane; Le Gratiet, Luc; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huyet, Guillaume; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2017-02-01

    Single-mode diode lasers on an InP(001) substrate have been developed using InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As quantum dash (Qdash) active regions and etched lateral Bragg gratings. The lasers have been designed to operate at wavelengths near 2 μm and exhibit a threshold current of 65 mA for a 600 μm long cavity, and a room temperature continuous wave output power per facet >5 mW. Using our novel growth approach based on the low ternary In0.53Ga0.47As barriers, we also demonstrate ridge-waveguide lasers emitting up to 2.1 μm and underline the possibilities for further pushing the emission wavelength out towards longer wavelengths with this material system. By introducing experimentally the concept of high-duty-cycle lateral Bragg gratings, a side mode suppression ratio of >37 dB has been achieved, owing to an appreciably increased grating coupling coefficient of κ ˜ 40 cm-1. These laterally coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) lasers combine the advantage of high and well-controlled coupling coefficients achieved in conventional DFB lasers, with the regrowth-free fabrication process of lateral gratings, and exhibit substantially lower optical losses compared to the conventional metal-based LC-DFB lasers.

  16. The Effects of Surface Reconstruction and Electron-Positron Correlation on the Annihilation Characteristics of Positrons Trapped at Semiconductor Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Jung, E.; Weiss, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) data from Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces display several strong Auger peaks corresponding to M 4,5 N 1 N 2,3 , M 2,3 M 4,5 M 4,5 , M 2,3 M 4,5 V, and M 1 M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger transitions. The integrated peak intensities of Auger transitions have been used to obtain experimental annihilation probabilities for the Ge 3d and 3p core electrons. The experimental data were analyzed by performing theoretical studies of the effects of surface reconstructions and electron-positron correlations on image potential induced surface states and annihilation characteristics of positrons trapped at the reconstructed Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces. Calculations of positron surface states and annihilation characteristics have been performed for Ge(100) surface with (2x1), (2x2), and (4x2) reconstructions, and for Ge(111) surface with c(2x8) reconstruction. Estimates of the positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to the specific atomic structure of the topmost layers of the semiconductor and to the approximations used to describe electron-positron correlations. The results of these theoretical studies are compared with the ones obtained for the reconstructed Si(100)-(2x1) and Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces.

  17. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  18. Electrostatic mechanism of shaping the wave micro-relief on the surface of a semiconductor, sputtered by an ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the electric field formed due to the surface charging, is not accounted for in the weakly-developed theoretical models for the ordered micro-relief formation on the surface of a semiconductor under the impact of an ion beam. It is shown, that the problem on modeling the physical mechanism of forming the ordered wave micro-relief on the semiconductor surface under the impact of a high-energy ion beam may be interpreted as an electrostatic one [ru

  19. Advancing semiconductor-electrocatalyst systems: application of surface transformation films and nanosphere lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkert, Katharina; Richter, Matthias H; Akay, Ömer; Giersig, Michael; Fountaine, Katherine T; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-05-24

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells offer the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The pursued design involves technologically advanced III-V semiconductor absorbers coupled via an interfacial film to an electrocatalyst layer. These systems have been prepared by in situ surface transformations in electrochemical environments. High activity nanostructured electrocatalysts are required for an efficiently operating cell, optimized in their optical and electrical properties. We demonstrate that shadow nanosphere lithography (SNL) is an auspicious tool to systematically create three-dimensional electrocatalyst nanostructures on the semiconductor photoelectrode through controlling their morphology and optical properties. First results are demonstrated by means of the photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen on p-type InP photocathodes where hitherto applied photoelectrodeposition and SNL-deposited Rh electrocatalysts are compared based on their J-V and spectroscopic behavior. We show that smaller polystyrene particle masks achieve higher defect nanostructures of rhodium on the photoelectrode which leads to a higher catalytic activity and larger short circuit currents. Structural analyses including HRSEM and the analysis of the photoelectrode surface composition by using photoelectron spectroscopy support and complement the photoelectrochemical observations. The optical performance is further compared to theoretical models of the nanostructured photoelectrodes on light scattering and propagation.

  20. Molecular coatings of nitride semiconductors for optoelectronics, electronics, and solar energy harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Priante, Davide; Ooi, Boon S.; Hussein, Mohamed Ebaid Abdrabou

    2018-01-01

    Gallium nitride based semiconductors are provided having one or more passivated surfaces. The surfaces can have a plurality of thiol compounds attached thereto for enhancement of optoelectronic properties and/or solar water splitting properties. The surfaces can also include wherein the surface has been treated with chemical solution for native oxide removal and / or wherein the surface has attached thereto a plurality of nitrides, oxides, insulating compounds, thiol compounds, or a combination thereof to create a treated surface for enhancement of optoelectronic properties and / or solar water splitting properties. Methods of making the gallium nitride based semiconductors are also provided. Methods can include cleaning a native surface of a gallium nitride semiconductor to produce a cleaned surface, etching the cleaned surface to remove oxide layers on the surface, and applying single or multiple coatings of nitrides, oxides, insulating compounds, thiol compounds, or a combination thereof attached to the surface.

  1. Molecular coatings of nitride semiconductors for optoelectronics, electronics, and solar energy harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee

    2018-02-01

    Gallium nitride based semiconductors are provided having one or more passivated surfaces. The surfaces can have a plurality of thiol compounds attached thereto for enhancement of optoelectronic properties and/or solar water splitting properties. The surfaces can also include wherein the surface has been treated with chemical solution for native oxide removal and / or wherein the surface has attached thereto a plurality of nitrides, oxides, insulating compounds, thiol compounds, or a combination thereof to create a treated surface for enhancement of optoelectronic properties and / or solar water splitting properties. Methods of making the gallium nitride based semiconductors are also provided. Methods can include cleaning a native surface of a gallium nitride semiconductor to produce a cleaned surface, etching the cleaned surface to remove oxide layers on the surface, and applying single or multiple coatings of nitrides, oxides, insulating compounds, thiol compounds, or a combination thereof attached to the surface.

  2. Highly roughened polycaprolactone surfaces using oxygen plasma-etching and in vitro mineralization for bone tissue regeneration: fabrication, characterization, and cellular activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YongBok; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-01-01

    Herein, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) surfaces were treated to form various roughness values (R(a)=290-445 nm) and polar functional groups on the surfaces using a plasma-etching process, followed by immersion into simulated body fluid (SBF) for apatite formation. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and mean roughness of the plasma-etched PCL surfaces were measured, and various physical and morphological properties (water contact angles, protein absorption ability, and crystallite size of the apatite layer) of the in vitro mineralized PCL surfaces were evaluated. The roughened PCL surface P-3, which was treated with a sufficient plasma exposure time (4 h), achieved homogeneously distributed apatite formation after soaking in SBF for 7 days, as compared with other surfaces that were untreated or plasma-treated for 30 min or 2 h. Furthermore, to demonstrate their feasibility as a biomimetic surface, pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured on the mineralized PCL surfaces, and cell viability, DAPI-phalloidin fluorescence assay, and alizarin red-staining of the P-3 surface were highly improved compared to the P-1 surface treated with a 30-min plasma exposure time; compared to untreated mineralized PCL surface (N-P), P-3 showed even greater improvements in cell viability and DAPI-phalloidin fluorescence assay. Based on these results, we found that the mineralized PCL surface supplemented with the appropriate plasma treatment can be implicitly helpful to achieve rapid hard tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient measurements with an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope on semiconductor surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate: the use of an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope on a semiconductor surface. Laser-induced transient signals with 1.8 ps rise time are detected, The investigated sample is a low-temperature grown GaAs layer plated on a sapphire substrate with a thin gold layer that serves as st...... bias contact, For comparison, the measurements are performed with the tip in contact to the sample as well as in tunneling above the surface, In contact and under bias, the transient signals are identified as a transient photocurrent, An additional signal is generated by a transient voltage induced...... by the nonuniform carrier density created by the absorption of the light (photo Dember effect). The transient depends in sign and in shape on the direction of optical excitation. This signal is the dominating transient in tunneling mode. The signals are explained by a capacitive coupling across the tunneling gap...

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman effect in hybrid metal–semiconductor nanoparticle assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Barbone, Matteo; Marsich, Lucia; Sergo, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid metal–semiconductor nanoparticles consisting of silver nanoparticle cores (AgNPs) coated with a layer of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared via electrostatic interaction by mixing aqueous suspensions of QDs and AgNPs, where opposite charges on the AgNPs and QDs surfaces were induced by opportunely selected capping agents. Assemblies of such hybrid nanoparticles show an increased intensity of the Raman spectrum of up to 500 times, when compared to that of the sole QDs. This enhancement is attributed to the SERS effect (Surface-enhanced Raman scattering). Such enhancement of the Raman modes suggests several opportunities for further research, both in imaging and sensing applications.

  5. One-dimensional quantum matter: gold-induced nanowires on semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudy, L.; Aulbach, J.; Wagner, T.; Schäfer, J.; Claessen, R.

    2017-11-01

    Interacting electrons confined to only one spatial dimension display a wide range of unusual many-body quantum phenomena, ranging from Peierls instabilities to the breakdown of the canonical Fermi liquid paradigm to even unusual spin phenomena. The underlying physics is not only of tremendous fundamental interest, but may also have bearing on device functionality in future micro- and nanoelectronics with lateral extensions reaching the atomic limit. Metallic adatoms deposited on semiconductor surfaces may form self-assembled atomic nanowires, thus representing highly interesting and well-controlled solid-state realizations of such 1D quantum systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical investigations on a few selected prototypical nanowire surface systems, specifically Ge(0 0 1)-Au and Si(hhk)-Au, and the search for 1D quantum states in them. We summarize the current state of research and identify open questions and issues.

  6. Molecular-scale shear response of the organic semiconductor β -DBDCS (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén; Moreno-Ramírez, Jorge S.; Pimentel, Carlos; Casado, Santiago; Matta, Micaela; Gierschner, Johannes; Muccioli, Luca; Yoon, Seong-Jun; Varghese, Shinto; Park, Soo Young; Gnecco, Enrico; Pina, Carlos M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present friction-force microscopy (FFM) lattice-resolved images acquired on the (100) facet of the semiconductor organic oligomer (2 Z ,2'Z )-3 , 3' -(1,4-phenylene)bis(2-(4-butoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile) (β -DBDCS) crystal in water at room temperature. Stick-slip contrast, lateral contact stiffness, and friction forces are found to depend strongly on the sliding direction due to the anisotropic packing of the molecular chains forming the crystal surface along the [010] and [001] directions. The anisotropy also causes the maximum value of the normal force applicable before wearing to increase by a factor of 3 when the scan is performed along the [001] direction on the (100) face. Altogether, our results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the molecular origin of friction anisotropy on soft crystalline surfaces, which has been often hypothesized but rarely investigated in the literature.

  7. Surface Tension Directed Fluidic Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Chips across Length Scales and Material Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantonu Biswas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is driven by the surface free energy of molten solder bumps where the authors have made a contribution. The general context is to develop a massively parallel and scalable assembly process to overcome some of the limitations of current robotic pick and place and serial wire bonding concepts. The following parts will be discussed: (2 Single-step assembly of LED arrays containing a repetition of a single component type; (3 Multi-step assembly of more than one component type adding a sequence and geometrical shape confinement to the basic concept to build more complex structures; demonstrators contain (3.1 self-packaging surface mount devices, and (3.2 multi-chip assemblies with unique angular orientation. Subsequently, measures are discussed (4 to enable the assembly of microscopic chips (10 μm–1 mm; a different transport method is introduced; demonstrators include the assembly of photovoltaic modules containing microscopic silicon tiles. Finally, (5 the extension to enable large area assembly is presented; a first reel-to-reel assembly machine is realized; the machine is applied to the field of solid state lighting and the emerging field of stretchable electronics which requires the assembly and electrical connection of semiconductor devices over exceedingly large area substrates.

  8. The Role of Electronic Excitations on Chemical Reaction Dynamics at Metal, Semiconductor and Nanoparticle Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tully, John C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-06-10

    Chemical reactions are often facilitated and steered when carried out on solid surfaces, essential for applications such as heterogeneous catalysis, solar energy conversion, corrosion, materials processing, and many others. A critical factor that can determine the rates and pathways of chemical reactions at surfaces is the efficiency and specificity of energy transfer; how fast does energy move around and where does it go? For reactions on insulator surfaces energy transfer generally moves in and out of vibrations of the adsorbed molecule and the underlying substrate. By contrast, on metal surfaces, metallic nanoparticles and semiconductors, another pathway for energy flow opens up, excitation and de-excitation of electrons. This so-called “nonadiabatic” mechanism often dominates the transfer of energy and can directly impact the course of a chemical reaction. Conventional computational methods such as molecular dynamics simulation do not account for this nonadiabatic behavior. The current DOE-BES funded project has focused on developing the underlying theoretical foundation and the computational methodology for the prediction of nonadiabatic chemical reaction dynamics at surfaces. The research has successfully opened up new methodology and new applications for molecular simulation. In particular, over the last three years, the “Electronic Friction” theory, pioneered by the PI, has now been developed into a stable and accurate computational method that is sufficiently practical to allow first principles “on-the-fly” simulation of chemical reaction dynamics at metal surfaces.

  9. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-08-15

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  10. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-01-01

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  11. Influence of Pre-etching Times on Fatigue Strength of Self-etch Adhesives to Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Endo, Hajime; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    To use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence of phosphoric acid pre-etching times prior to application of self-etch adhesives on enamel bonding. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives (Prime&Bond Elect and Scotchbond Universal), a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive (G-ӕnial Bond), and a conventional two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR) were used. The SBS and SFS were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching for 3, 10, or 15 s prior to application of the adhesives, and without pre-etching (0 s) as a control. A staircase method was used to determine the SFS with 10 Hz frequency for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. The mean demineralization depth for each treated enamel surface was also measured using a profilometer. For all the adhesives, the groups with pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFS than groups without pre-etching. However, there was no significant difference in SBS and SFS among groups with > 3 s of preetching. In addition, although the groups with pre-etching showed significantly deeper demineralization depths than groups without pre-etching, there was no significant difference in depth among groups with > 3 s of pre-etching. Three seconds of phosphoric acid pre-etching prior to application of self-etch adhesive can enhance enamel bonding effectiveness.

  12. Periodic arrays of deep nanopores made in silicon with reactive ion etching and deep UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldering, Leon A; Tjerkstra, R Willem; Vos, Willem L; Jansen, Henri V; Setija, Irwan D

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of periodic arrays of deep nanopores with high aspect ratios in crystalline silicon. The radii and pitches of the pores were defined in a chromium mask by means of deep UV scan and step technology. The pores were etched with a reactive ion etching process with SF 6 , optimized for the formation of deep nanopores. We have realized structures with pitches between 440 and 750 nm, pore diameters between 310 and 515 nm, and depth to diameter aspect ratios up to 16. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest aspect ratio ever reported for arrays of nanopores in silicon made with a reactive ion etching process. Our experimental results show that the etching rate of the nanopores is aspect-ratio-dependent, and is mostly influenced by the angular distribution of the etching ions. Furthermore we show both experimentally and theoretically that, for sub-micrometer structures, reducing the sidewall erosion is the best way to maximize the aspect ratio of the pores. Our structures have potential applications in chemical sensors, in the control of liquid wetting of surfaces, and as capacitors in high-frequency electronics. We demonstrate by means of optical reflectivity that our high-quality structures are very well suited as photonic crystals. Since the process studied is compatible with existing CMOS semiconductor fabrication, it allows for the incorporation of the etched arrays in silicon chips

  13. Characterization of Ag-porous silicon nanostructured layer formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type silicon surface for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Al-Mariri, A.; Haj-Mhmoud, N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured layers composed of silver-porous silicon (Ag-PS) have been formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type (1 1 1) silicon substrate in a AgNO3:HF:C2H5OH solution at different etching times (10 min-30 min). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results reveal that the produced layers consist of Ag dendrites and a silicon-rich porous structure. The nanostructuring nature of the layer has been confirmed by spatial micro-Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques. The Ag dendrites exhibit a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum, while the porous structure shows a typical PS Raman spectrum. Upon increasing the etching time, the average size of silicon nanocrystallite in the PS network decreases, while the average size of Ag nanocrystals is slightly affected. In addition, the immobilization of prokaryote Salmonella typhimurium DNA via physical adsorption onto the Ag-PS layer has been performed to demonstrate its efficiency as a platform for detection of biological molecules using SERS.

  14. Surface Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 Semiconductors and Their Binary and Ternary Semiconductor Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bajorowicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Single semiconductors such as KTaO3, CdS MoS2 or their precursor solutions were combined to form novel binary and ternary semiconductor nanocomposites by the calcination or by the hydro/solvothermal mixed solutions methods, respectively. The aim of this work was to study the influence of preparation method as well as type and amount of the composite components on the surface properties and photocatalytic activity of the new semiconducting photoactive materials. We presented different binary and ternary combinations of the above semiconductors for phenol and toluene photocatalytic degradation and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET specific surface area and porosity. The results showed that loading MoS2 onto CdS as well as loading CdS onto KTaO3 significantly enhanced absorption properties as compared with single semiconductors. The highest photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation reaction under both UV-Vis and visible light irradiation and very good stability in toluene removal was observed for ternary hybrid obtained by calcination of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 powders at the 10:5:1 molar ratio. Enhanced photoactivity could be related to the two-photon excitation in KTaO3-CdS-MoS2 composite under UV-Vis and/or to additional presence of CdMoO4 working as co-catalyst.

  15. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  16. Surface capped fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles: radiolytic synthesis and some of its biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals or colloidal quantum dots (QD's) have generated great research interest because of their unusual properties arising out of quantum confinement effects. Many researchers in the field of nanotechnology focus on the 'high quality' semiconductor quantum dots. A good synthetic route should yield nanoparticles with narrow size distribution, good crystallinity, high photostability, desired surface properties and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency. In the domain of colloidal chemistry, reverse micellar synthesis, high temperature thermolysis using organometallic precursors and synthesis in aqueous media using polyphosphates or thiols as stabilizers are the most prominent ones. In contrast, γ-radiation assisted synthesis can offer a simplified approach to prepare size-controlled nanoparticles at room temperature. Syntheses of thiol-capped II-VI nanoparticles by radiolytic method, its characterization and some of its luminescence-based applications of biological relevance will be presented. The versatility of thiols (RSH) can be emphasized here as changing the R-group imparts different functionality to the particles and thus chemical behavior of the particles can be manipulated according to the application intended for. (authors)

  17. Theory of Covalent Adsorbate Frontier Orbital Energies on Functionalized Light-Absorbing Semiconductor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Doak, Peter; Tamblyn, Isaac; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2013-05-16

    Functional hybrid interfaces between organic molecules and semiconductors are central to many emerging information and solar energy conversion technologies. Here we demonstrate a general, empirical parameter-free approach for computing and understanding frontier orbital energies - or redox levels - of a broad class of covalently bonded organic-semiconductor surfaces. We develop this framework in the context of specific density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory calculations, within the GW approximation, of an exemplar interface, thiophene-functionalized silicon (111). Through detailed calculations taking into account structural and binding energetics of mixed-monolayers consisting of both covalently attached thiophene and hydrogen, chlorine, methyl, and other passivating groups, we quantify the impact of coverage, nonlocal polarization, and interface dipole effects on the alignment of the thiophene frontier orbital energies with the silicon band edges. For thiophene adsorbate frontier orbital energies, we observe significant corrections to standard DFT (∼1 eV), including large nonlocal electrostatic polarization effects (∼1.6 eV). Importantly, both results can be rationalized from knowledge of the electronic structure of the isolated thiophene molecule and silicon substrate systems. Silicon band edge energies are predicted to vary by more than 2.5 eV, while molecular orbital energies stay similar, with the different functional groups studied, suggesting the prospect of tuning energy alignment over a wide range for photoelectrochemistry and other applications.

  18. Hydrogen iodide-based dry etching of GaAs, InP, and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, S.J.; Chakrabarti, U.K.; Hobson, W.S.; Abernathy, C.R.; Katz, A.; Ren, F.; Fullowan, T.R.; Perley, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper HI/H 2 /Ar discharges are shown to be universal etchants for III-V semiconductors, giving rise to highly anisotropic features with smooth surface morphologies. At low dc Self bias (-V) and low pressure (1 mTorr), etch rates for all III-V materials of >2000 Angstrom · min -1 are possible for high HI percentages in the discharges, whereas rates greater than 1 μm · min -1 are obtained at higher pressures and dc biases. These etch rates are approximately an order of magnitude faster than for CH 4 /H 2 Ar mixtures under the same conditions and there is no polymer deposition on the mask or within the reactor chamber with HI/H 2 /Ar. Auger electron spectroscopy reveals residue-free, stoichiometric surfaces after dry etching in this mixture. As a result, photoluminescent intensities from dry etched samples remain high with little apparent damage introduction. Changes in the near-surface carrier concentration due to hydrogen passivation effects are also negligible with HI-based mixtures in comparison to CH 4 -based dry etching

  19. Surface modification-a novel way of attaching cocatalysts on CdS semiconductors for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2014-08-22

    Noble metals as cocatalysts for hydrogen evolution are widely investigated for semiconductor photocatalytic water splitting. In this paper, we present a novel way to attach not only noble metals, but also transitional metals onto CdS nanocrystals as cocatalysts for hydrogen evolution. The hydrogen evolution performances for each metal were compared and result shows that Pd attached CdS gives the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 250 μmol/h. The amounts of metal ions attached on the surface were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). This work confirms that surface modification is a promising way of attaching cocatalysts onto semiconductor photocatalysts.

  20. Surface modification-a novel way of attaching cocatalysts on CdS semiconductors for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Isimjan, Tayirjan; Lin, Bin; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Noble metals as cocatalysts for hydrogen evolution are widely investigated for semiconductor photocatalytic water splitting. In this paper, we present a novel way to attach not only noble metals, but also transitional metals onto CdS nanocrystals as cocatalysts for hydrogen evolution. The hydrogen evolution performances for each metal were compared and result shows that Pd attached CdS gives the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 250 μmol/h. The amounts of metal ions attached on the surface were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). This work confirms that surface modification is a promising way of attaching cocatalysts onto semiconductor photocatalysts.

  1. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Zeng, Xingrong; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO3 concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO3 concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for untreated iron. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic iron surface maintained superhydrophobicity after 10 icing and de-icing cycles in cold conditions.

  2. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Miao, Jin-Ru

    2018-02-01

    To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  3. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Dar Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  4. Role of chamber dimension in fluorocarbon based deposition and etching of SiO2 and its effects on gas and surface-phase chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, E. A.; Zhou, B.-S.; Sant, S. P.; Overzet, L. J.; Goeckner, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well understood that chamber geometry is an influential factor governing plasma processing of materials. Simple models suggest that a large fraction of this influence is due to changes in basic plasma properties, namely, density, temperature, and potential. However, while such factors do play an important role, they only partly describe the observed differences in process results. Therefore, to better elucidate the role of chamber geometry in this work, the authors explore the influence of plasma chemistry and its symbiotic effect on plasma processing by decoupling the plasma density, temperature, and potential from the plasma-surface (wall) interactions. Specifically, a plasma system is used with which the authors can vary the chamber dimension so as to vary the plasma-surface interaction directly. By varying chamber wall diameter, 20-66 cm, and source-platen distance, 4-6 cm, the etch behavior of SiO 2 (or the deposition behavior of fluorocarbon polymer) and the resulting gas-phase chemistry change significantly. Results from in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry show significant differences in etch characteristics, with etch rates as high as 350 nm/min and as low as 75 nm/min for the same self-bias voltage. Fluorocarbon deposition rates are also highly dependent on chamber dimension and vary from no net deposition to deposition rates as high as 225 nm/min. Etch yields, however, remain unaffected by the chamber size variations. From Langmuir probe measurements, it is clear that chamber geometry results in significant shifts in plasma properties such as electron and ion densities. Indeed, such measurements show that on-wafer processes are limited at least in part by ion flux for high energy reactive ion etch. However, in situ multipass Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that the line-averaged COF 2 , SiF 4 , CF 2 , and CF 3 gas-phase densities are also dependent on chamber dimension at high self-bias voltage and also correlate well to the CF x

  5. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunfeng [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yaming, E-mail: wangyaming@hit.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Hao [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO{sub 3} aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO{sub 3} and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily

  6. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO_3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO_3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the

  7. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (pcorrosion current density) and Ipass (pcorrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no dose-response corrosion behavior could be observed. These results suggest a greater susceptibility to corrosion of titanium implants in diabetic patients with associated infections. PMID:24671257

  8. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (pdextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (pdextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no dose-response corrosion behavior could be observed. These results suggest a greater susceptibility to corrosion of titanium implants in diabetic patients with associated infections.

  9. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  10. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  11. Theoretical studies of structural and electronic properties of overlayers on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, M.

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we report the results of ab initio density functional calculations of equilibrium atomic geometry, electronic states and chemical bonding for the adsorption of elemental S and H 2 S on chosen semiconductor surfaces. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental results and indicate the need for further experimental work. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, I describe the formalism of the ab initio pseudopotential theory and the computational procedures which are used in this thesis. In the following chapter, a few experimental techniques are discussed, which we subsequently use their results to compare with our theoretical calculated results. In Chapter 4 the passivation of S on InP(110) is investigated. Two sets of geometries are used; non-reacted geometries and reacted geometries. For non-reacted full-monolayer coverage, the epitaxially continued layer structure is found to be the most energetically favourable and it exhibits a good semiconducting nature. For an ordered reacted model with the adsorbate S atoms exchanged with their neighbouring P atoms, the average vertical distance between the top two layers is in agreement with x-ray standing wave analysis, but is characterized by a small band gap. In Chapter 5 adsorption of the H 2 S molecule on the InP(110), GaAs(110) and GaP(110) surfaces is investigated within a dissociative adsorption model. In general the adsorption of H 2 S on the three semiconductors shows similar behaviour. In Chapter 6 the adsorption of elemental S on Si(001) is investigated using three adsorption models; hemisulfide-(2 x 1) structure, monosulfide-(1 x 1) structure, and disulfide-(1 x 1) structure. An analysis of the surface free energy suggests that the monosulfide structure is more stable than the hemisulfide and disulfide structures. This result is also used to investigate the adsorption of elemental S on the Ge(001) surface. In Chapter 7, the adsorption of the H 2 S molecule on the Si(001) and Ge(001

  12. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  13. Quantitative depth profiling of near surface semiconductor structures using ultra low energy SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliner, D.I.

    1999-09-01

    The continual reduction in size of semiconductor structures and depths of junctions is putting a greater strain on characterization techniques. Accurate device and process modelling requires quantified electrical and dopant profiles from the topmost few nanometres. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical technique commonly used in the semiconductor industry to measure concentration depth profiles. To allow the quantification of the features that are closer to the surface, lower energy ions are employed, which also improves the available depth resolution. The development of the floating ion gun (FLIG) has made it possible to use sub keV beam energies on a routine basis, allowing quantified dopant profiles to be obtained within the first few nanometres of the surface. This thesis demonstrates that, when profiling with oxygen ion beams, greatest certainty in the retained dose is achieved at normal incidence, and when analysing boron accurate profile shapes are only obtained when the primary beam energy is less than half that of the implant. It was shown that it is now possible to profile, though with slower erosion rates and a limited dynamic range, with 100 eV oxygen (0 2 + ) ion beams. Profile features that had developed during rapid thermal annealing, that could only be observed when ultra low energy ion beams were used, were investigated using various analytical techniques. Explanations of the apparently inactive dopant were proposed, and included suggestions for cluster molecules. The oxide thickness of fully formed altered layers has also been investigated. The results indicate that a fundamental change in the mechanism of oxide formation occurs, and interfaces that are sharper than those grown by thermal oxidation can be produced using sub-keV ion beams. (author)

  14. Assembly, Structure, and Functionality of Metal-Organic Networks and Organic Semiconductor Layers at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempas, Christopher D.

    Self-assembled nanostructures at surfaces show promise for the development of next generation technologies including organic electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysis. In many cases, the functionality of these nanostructures is not well understood. This thesis presents strategies for the structural design of new on-surface metal-organic networks and probes their chemical reactivity. It is shown that creating uniform metal sites greatly increases selectivity when compared to ligand-free metal islands. When O2 reacts with single-site vanadium centers, in redox-active self-assembled coordination networks on the Au(100) surface, it forms one product. When O2 reacts with vanadium metal islands on the same surface, multiple products are formed. Other metal-organic networks described in this thesis include a mixed valence network containing Pt0 and PtII and a network where two Fe centers reside in close proximity. This structure is stable to temperatures >450 °C. These new on-surface assemblies may offer the ability to perform reactions of increasing complexity as future heterogeneous catalysts. The functionalization of organic semiconductor molecules is also shown. When a few molecular layers are grown on the surface, it is seen that the addition of functional groups changes both the film's structure and charge transport properties. This is due to changes in both first layer packing structure and the pi-electron distribution in the functionalized molecules compared to the original molecule. The systems described in this thesis were studied using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Overall, this work provides strategies for the creation of new, well-defined on-surface nanostructures and adds additional chemical insight into their properties.

  15. Nanorods on surface of GaN-based thin-film LEDs deposited by post-annealing after photo-assisted chemical etching

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Lin, Wun-Wei; Liu, Te-Yu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the optoelectronic characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN)-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) that are formed by a two-step transfer process that involves wet etching and post-annealing. In the two-step transfer process, GaN LEDs were stripped from sapphire substrates by the laser lift-off (LLO) method using a KrF laser and then transferred onto ceramic substrates. Ga-K nanorods were formed on the surface of the GaN-based TF-LEDs following photo-assisted ...

  16. Study of Surface States at the Semiconductor/electrolyte Interface of Liquid-Junction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripala, Withana P.

    The existence of surface states at the semiconductor electrolyte interface of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells plays a major role in determining the performance of the device in regard to the potential distribution and transport mechanisms of photogenerated carriers at the interface. We have investigated the n-TiO(,2)/electrolyte interface using three experimental techniques: relaxation spectrum analysis, photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) spectroscopy. The effect of Fermi level pinning at the CdIn(,2)SE(,4)/aqueous-polysulfide interface was also studied using EER. Three distinct surface states were observed at the n-TiO(,2)/aqueous-electrolyte interface. The dominant state, which tails from the conduction band edge, is primarily responsible for the surface recombination of photocarriers at the interface. The second surface state, observed at 0.8 eV below the conduction band of TiO(,2), originates in the dark charge transfer intermediates (TiO(,2)-H). It is proposed that the sub-bandgap (SBG) photocurrent-potential behavior is a result of the mechanism of dynamic formation and annihilation of these surface states. The third surface state was at 1.3 eV below the conduction band of TiO(,2), and the SBG EER measurements show this state is "intrinsic" to the surface. These states were detected with SBG EER and impedance measurements in the presence of electrolytes that can adsorb on the surface of TiO(,2). Surface concentration of these states was evaluated with impedance measurements. EER measurements on a CdIn(,2)Se(,4)/polysulfide system have shown that the EER spectrum is sensitive to the surface preparation of the sample. The EER signal was quenched as the surface was driven to strong depletion, owing to Fermi level pinning at the interface in the presence of a high density of surface states. The full analysis of this effect enables us to measure the change in the flatband potential, as a function of the electrode potential, and

  17. Ion-induced nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces investigated by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, D; Metzger, T H [ID01, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Biermanns, A; Pietsch, U [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Ziberi, B; Frost, F [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Plantevin, O [Universite Paris-Sud, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, UMR 8609, F-91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: gcarbone@esrf.fr

    2009-06-03

    In this review we cover and describe the application of grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques to study and characterize nanopattern formation on semiconductor surfaces by ion beam erosion under various conditions. It is demonstrated that x-rays under grazing incidence are especially well suited to characterize (sub)surface structures on the nanoscale with high spatial and statistical accuracy. The corresponding theory and data evaluation is described in the distorted wave Born approximation. Both ex situ and in situ studies are presented, performed with the use of a specially designed sputtering chamber which allows us to follow the temporal evolution of the nanostructure formation. Corresponding results show a general stabilization of the ordering wavelength and the extension of the ordering as a function of the ion energy and fluence as predicted by theory. The in situ measurements are especially suited to study the early stages of pattern formation, which in some cases reveal a transition from dot to ripple formation. For the case of medium energy ions crystalline ripples are formed buried under a semi-amorphous thick layer with a ripple structure at the surface being conformal with the crystalline/amorphous interface. Here, the x-ray techniques are especially advantageous since they are non-destructive and bulk-sensitive by their very nature. In addition, the GI x-ray techniques described in this review are a unique tool to study the evolving strain, a topic which remains to be explored both experimentally and theoretically.

  18. Moth eye-inspired anti-reflective surfaces for improved IR optical systems & visible LEDs fabricated with colloidal lithography and etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lesley W; Morse, Daniel E; Gordon, Michael J

    2018-05-08

    Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g. insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes. Light-matter interactions at structured and heterogeneous surfaces over different length scales are discussed, as are the various methods used to create ME-inspired surfaces. Special interest is placed on a simple, scalable, and tunable method, namely colloidal lithography with plasma dry etching, to fabricate ME-inspired nanostructures in a vast suite of materials. Anti-reflective surfaces and coatings for IR devices and enhancing light extraction from visible light emitting diodes are highlighted.

  19. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The effect of different surgical drilling procedures on full laser-etched microgrooves surface-treated implants: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Ryo; Tovar, Nick; Yoo, Daniel Y; Janal, Malvin N; Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Coelho, Paulo G

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of instrumentation technique on the early osseointegration histomorphometrics and biomechanical fixation of fully laser-etched microgrooves implant surfaces in a sheep model. Six sheep were subjected to bilateral hip surgeries 3 and 6 weeks before euthanasia. A total of 48 implants (∅4.5 mm, 8 mm in length) were distributed among four sites (8 per animal) and placed in bone sites drilled to 4.6 mm (reamer), 4.1 mm (loose), 3.7 mm (medium) and 3.2 mm (tight) in diameter. After healing, the animals were euthanized and half of the implants were biomechanically tested, while the remainder was subjected to non-decalcified histologic processing. The histomorphometric parameters assessed were bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-model analysis of variance with significance level set at P bone seemed to be in contact to the implant surface, at 3 weeks, whereas the implants placed in press-fit situations were mainly supported by cortical bone. The laser-etched microgrooved implant presented osteoconductive and biocompatible properties for all surgical procedures tested. However, procedures providing increasingly higher press-fit scenarios presented the strongest histomorphometric and biomechanical responses at 3 and 6 weeks. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Plasma etching of electrospun polymeric nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, Patrick [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: verdonck@imec.be; Braga Caliope, Priscila [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moral Hernandez, Emilio del [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Ana Neilde R. da [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); FATEC-SP, Pca Fernando Prestes, 30 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-25

    Electrospun polymeric nanofibres have several applications because of their high surface area to volume and high length to diameter ratios. This paper investigates the influence of plasma etching on these fibres and the etching mechanisms. For the characterization, SEM analysis was performed to determine the forms and shapes of the fibres and SEM photos were analysed by the technique of mathematical morphology, in order to determine the area on the sample occupied by the fibres and the frequency distribution of the nanofibre diameters. The results showed that the oxygen plasma etches the nanofibres much faster when ion bombardment is present. The form of the fibres is not altered by the etching, indicating the possibility of transport of oxygen atoms over the fibre surface. The most frequent diameter, somewhat surprisingly, is not significantly dependent on the etching process, and remains of the order of 80 nm, indicating that fibres with smaller diameters are etched at high rates.

  2. In vitro study of 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP composite scaffolds with etched oxygen plasma surface modification in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hee-Sang [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sunchon 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Min-Suk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • PLGA and PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were successfully fabricated by 3D printing. • Oxygen plasma etching increases the wettability and surface roughness. • Bioceramics and oxygen plasma etching and could be used to improve the cell affinity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have many advantageous properties for bone tissue engineering application, due to its controllable properties such as pore size, structural shape and interconnectivity. In this study, effects on oxygen plasma surface modification and adding of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds for improving preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were investigated. The 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated by 3D Bio-Extruder equipment. The 3D scaffolds were prepared with 0°/90° architecture and pore size of approximately 300 μm. In addition 3D scaffolds surface were etched by oxygen plasma to enhance the hydrophilic property and surface roughness. After oxygen plasma treatment, the surface chemistry and morphology were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. And also hydrophilic property was measured by contact angle. The MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated by MTT assay and ALP activity. In present work, the 3D PLGA/HAp/beta-TCP composite scaffold with suitable structure for the growth of osteoblast cells was successfully fabricated by 3D rapid prototyping technique. The surface hydrophilicity and roughness of 3D scaffold increased by oxygen plasma treatment had a positive effect on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell was significantly enhanced by adding of n-HAp and β-TCP on 3D PLGA scaffold. As a result, combination of bioceramics and oxygen plasma treatment showed a synergistic effect on

  3. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  4. Obtaining porous silicon suitable for sensor technology using MacEtch nonelectrolytic etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsunskyi I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests to use the etching method MacEtch (metal-assisted chemical etching for production of micro- and nanostructures of porous silicon. The paper presents research results on the morphology structures obtained at different parameters of deposition and etching processes. The research has shown that, depending on the parameters of deposition of silver particles and silicon wafers etching, the obtained surface morphology may be different. There may be both individual crater-like pores and developed porous or macroporous surface. These results indicate that the MacEtch etching is a promising method for obtaining micro-porous silicon nanostructures suitable for effective use in gas sensors and biological object sensors.

  5. Substrate effects on the formation of flat Ag films on (110) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.; Zhang, Z.; Ebert, P.; Shih, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Ag films grown at 135 K on (110) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors and annealed at room temperature are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Ag films on Ga-V semiconductors are well ordered, atomically flat, and exhibit a specific critical thickness, which is a function of the substrate material. Films grown on In-V semiconductors are still rather flat, but significantly more disordered. The (111) oriented Ag films on III-arsenides and III-phosphides exhibit a clear twofold superstructure. Films on III-antimonides exhibit threefold low-energy electron diffraction images. The morphology of the Ag films can be explained on the basis of the electronic growth mechanism. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  7. The effects of surface modification on the electrical properties of p–n+ junction silicon nanowires grown by an aqueous electroless etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seulah; Koo, Ja Hoon; Seo, Jungmok; Kim, Sung-Dae; Lee, Kwang Hyun; Im, Seongil; Kim, Young-Woon; Lee, Taeyoon

    2012-01-01

    Although the aqueous electroless etching (AEE) method has received significant attention for the fabrication of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) due to its simplicity and effectiveness, SiNWs grown via the AEE method have a drawback in that their surface roughness is considerably high. Thus, we fabricated surface-modified p–n + junction SiNWs grown by AEE, wherein the surface roughness was reduced by a sequential processes of oxide growth using the rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) cycling process and oxide removal with a hydrofluoric acid solution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the surface roughness of the modified SiNWs was significantly decreased compared with that of the as-fabricated SiNWs. After RTO treatment, the wettability of the SiNWs had dramatically changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic, which can be attributed to the formation of siloxane groups on the native oxide/SiNW surfaces and the effect of the nanoscale structure. Due to the enhancement in surface carrier mobility, the current density of the surface-modified p–n + junction SiNWs was approximately 6.3-fold greater than that of the as-fabricated sample at a forward bias of 4 V. Meanwhile, the photocurrent density of the surface-modified p–n + junction SiNWs was considerably decreased as a result of the decreases in the light absorption area, light absorption volume, and light scattering.

  8. Bone Response to Two Dental Implants with Different Sandblasted/Acid-Etched Implant Surfaces: A Histological and Histomorphometrical Study in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scarano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scientific evidence in the field of implant dentistry of the past 20 years established that titanium rough surfaces have shown improved osseointegration rates. In a majority of dental implants, the surface microroughness was obtained by grit blasting and/or acid etching. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo two different highly hydrophilic surfaces at different experimental times. Methods. Calcium-modified (CA and SLActive surfaces were evaluated and a total of 18 implants for each type of surface were positioned into the rabbit articular femoral knee-joint in a split model experiment, and they were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically at 15, 30, and 60 days of healing. Results. Bone-implant contact (BIC at the two-implant surfaces was significantly different in favor of the CA surface at 15 days (p=0.027, while SLActive displayed not significantly higher values at 30 (p=0.51 and 60 days (p=0.061. Conclusion. Both implant surfaces show an intimate interaction with newly formed bone.

  9. SFG analysis of the molecular structures at the surfaces and buried interfaces of PECVD ultralow-dielectric constant pSiCOH: Reactive ion etching and dielectric recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John N.; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Huang, Huai; Shobha, Hosadurga; Grill, Alfred; Chen, Zhan

    2017-05-01

    Molecular structures at the surface and buried interface of an amorphous ultralow-k pSiCOH dielectric film were quantitatively characterized before and after reactive ion etching (RIE) and subsequent dielectric repair using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. SFG results indicated that RIE treatment of the pSiCOH film resulted in a depletion of ˜66% of the surface methyl groups and changed the orientation of surface methyl groups from ˜47° to ˜40°. After a dielectric recovery process that followed the RIE treatment, the surface molecular structure was dominated by methyl groups with an orientation of ˜55° and the methyl surface coverage at the repaired surface was 271% relative to the pristine surface. Auger depth profiling indicated that the RIE treatment altered the top ˜25 nm of the film and that the dielectric recovery treatment repaired the top ˜9 nm of the film. Both SFG and Auger profiling results indicated that the buried SiCNH/pSiCOH interface was not affected by the RIE or the dielectric recovery process. Beyond characterizing low-k materials, the developed methodology is general and can be used to distinguish and characterize different molecular structures and elemental compositions at the surface, in the bulk, and at the buried interface of many different polymer or organic thin films.

  10. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~300 to 400nm and a width of ~60 to 70nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dry etching of MgCaO gate dielectric and passivation layers on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlad, M.; Voss, L.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.

    2006-01-01

    MgCaO films grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and capped with Sc 2 O 3 are promising candidates as surface passivation layers and gate dielectrics on GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs), respectively. Two different plasma chemistries were examined for etching these thin films on GaN. Inductively coupled plasmas of CH 4 /H 2 /Ar produced etch rates only in the range 20-70 A/min, comparable to the Ar sputter rates under the same conditions. Similarly slow MgCaO etch rates (∼100 A/min) were obtained with Cl 2 /Ar discharges under the same conditions, but GaN showed rates almost an order of magnitude higher. The MgCaO removal rates are limited by the low volatilities of the respective etch products. The CH 4 /H 2 /Ar plasma chemistry produced a selectivity of around 2 for etching the MgCaO with respect to GaN

  12. Optical properties of single semiconductor nanowires and nanowire ensembles. Probing surface physics by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfueller, Carsten

    2011-06-27

    This thesis presents a detailed investigation of the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in general and single GaN NWs and GaN NW ensembles in particular by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. NWs are often considered as potential building blocks for future nanometer-scaled devices. This vision is based on several attractive features that are generally ascribed to NWs. For instance, they are expected to grow virtually free of strain and defects even on substrates with a large structural mismatch. In the first part of the thesis, some of these expectations are examined using semiconductor NWs of different materials. On the basis of the temperature-dependent PL of Au- and selfassisted GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell NWs, the influence of foreign catalyst particles on the optical properties of NWs is investigated. For the Au-assisted NWs, we find a thermally activated, nonradiative recombination channel, possibly related to Auatoms incorporated from the catalyst. These results indicate the limited suitability of catalyst-assisted NWs for optoelectronic applications. The effect of the substrate choice is studied by comparing the PL of ZnO NWs grown on Si, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO substrates. Their virtually identical optical characteristics indicate that the synthesis of NWs may indeed overcome the constraints that limit the heteroepitaxial deposition of thin films. The major part of this thesis discusses the optical properties of GaN NWs grown on Si substrates. The investigation of the PL of single GaN NWs and GaN NW ensembles reveals the significance of their large surface-to-volume ratio. Differences in the recombination behavior of GaNNW ensembles and GaN layers are observed. First, the large surface-to-volume ratio is discussed to be responsible for the different recombination mechanisms apparent in NWs. Second, certain optical features are only found in the PL of GaN NWs, but not in that of GaN layers. An unexpected broadening of the donor

  13. Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S D; Fyodorov, V B; Tsvetkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed. (review)

  14. Self-etching ceramic primer versus hydrofluoric acid etching: Etching efficacy and bonding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Damanhoury, Hatem M; Gaintantzopoulou, Maria D

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of pretreatment of hybrid and glass ceramics using a self-etching primer on the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface topography, in comparison to pretreatment with hydrofluoric acid and silane. 40 rectangular discs from each ceramic material (IPS e.max CAD;EM, Vita Mark II;VM, Vita Enamic;VE), were equally divided (n=10) and assigned to one of four surface pretreatment methods; etching with 4.8% hydrofluoric acid followed by Monobond plus (HFMP), Monobond etch & prime (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MEP), No treatment (NT) as negative control and Monobond plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) with no etching (MP) as positive control. SBS of resin cement (Multilink-N, Ivoclar Vivadent) to ceramic surfaces was tested following a standard protocol. Surface roughness was evaluated using an Atomic force microscope (AFM). Surface topography and elemental analysis were analyzed using SEM/EDX. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Bonferroni test at a significance level of α=0.05. Pretreatment with HFMP resulted in higher SBS and increased surface roughness in comparison to MEP and MP. Regardless the method of surface pretreatment, the mean SBS values of EM ceramic was significantly higher (pceramics for resin-luting cementation. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The optical constants of the organic thin films in the case of xanthats adsorption at the surface of semiconductors minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoran, Radu; Todoran, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    The paper present the determinations of some kinetic parameters that characterize the kinetics of the adsorption phenomenon of some organic xanthate molecule on the surface of some natural semiconductor mineral (galena, sphalerite) in order to understand the inward mechanism of this phenomenon. Among the methods of inquiry that allow kinetics determination in situ the optical ones were chosen relying on the change of the liquid-mineral semiconductor interface, and permitting continuous inquires without disturbing the inward development of the processes. Into the computation, we took into the consideration the physical values which feature the roughness of the solid surface, the diffusion into liquid media and the energetic non-homogeneities of the surface. The R s /R p =f(θ) characteristic helps us to establish the thickness of the adsorbed layer, as well as to determine the optical parameters of the thin film. the experimental results allow us to get some information on the mineral and mineral-solution of xanthate, as well allow us to get some information on the parameters which, in correlation with other proportions experimentally determined - could had as to estimations of the dynamic of the surface of a semiconductor solid body. (Author)

  16. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik, E-mail: cgamja@snu.ac.kr

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~ 300 to 400 nm and a width of ~ 60 to 70 nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. - Highlights: • A micro-nano-hierarchical (MNH) surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI was fabricated via TIPS

  17. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~ 300 to 400 nm and a width of ~ 60 to 70 nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. - Highlights: • A micro-nano-hierarchical (MNH) surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI was fabricated via TIPS

  18. Rational design of organic semiconductors for texture control and self-patterning on halogenated surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jeremy W.; Li, Ruipeng; Obaid, Abdulmalik; Payne, Marcia M.; Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Anthony, John Edward; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2014-01-01

    new materials. Here, the influence of the interactions at the interface between a halogenated organic semiconductor (OSC) thin film and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer on the formation of the crystalline texture directly affecting

  19. Properties of the membranes with various number of asymmetrical pores obtained using the method of etching in the presence of a surface-active agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapeeva, A.; Orelovich, O.; Zielinska, K.; Apel', P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we prepared the asymmetric track membranes with various thickness and number of pores. Pores with bullet-like tip were obtained using the method of etching in the presence of a surface-active agent. In electrolyte solution obtained nanopores are cation selective and rectify the ionic current. The current-voltage characteristics of nanopores are strongly non-linear at low and moderate electrolyte concentrations and close to linear in the electrolyte concentrations of 1-3 mol/L. A high level of heterogeneity of single asymmetrical nanopores was observed. This is due to the nonuniformity of semicrystalline polyethylene terephthalate in the nanometer scale. It was found that longer pores exhibit higher maximum rectification ratio values. (authors)

  20. Etched track technique to measure sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn fluxes on soil surface

    CERN Document Server

    Csige, I

    2003-01-01

    sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn in the human environment are considered to be a risk factor because of the radiation dose due to the inhalation of their short-lived daughters. Main source of radon is usually the soil; therefore the measurement of fluxes of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn on soil surfaces is often a relevant parameter to characterise building site radon potential. An etched track detector technique was developed to measure long-time average sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn fluxes. (R.P.)

  1. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  2. Mixed nano/micro-sized calcium phosphate composite and EDTA root surface etching improve availability of graft material in intrabony defects: an in vivo scanning electron microscopy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Ahmed Y; Iacono, Vincent J

    2013-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles of graft materials may lead to breakthrough applications for periodontal regeneration. However, due to their small particle size, nanoparticles may be eliminated from periodontal defects by phagocytosis. In an attempt to improve nanoparticle retention in periodontal defects, the present in vivo study uses scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the potential of micrograft particles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to enhance the binding and retention of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (nHA) on EDTA-treated and non-treated root surfaces in periodontal defects after 14 days of healing. Sixty patients having at least two hopeless periodontally affected teeth designated for extraction were randomly divided into four treatment groups (15 patients per group). Patients in group 1 had selected periodontal intrabony defects grafted with nHA of particle size 10 to 100 nm. Patients in group 2 were treated in a similar manner but had the affected roots etched for 2 minutes with a neutral 24% EDTA gel before grafting of the associated vertical defects with nHA. Patients in group 3 had the selected intrabony defects grafted with a composite graft consisting of equal volumes of nHA and β-TCP (particle size 63 to 150 nm). Patients in group 4 were treated as in group 3 but the affected roots were etched with neutral 24% EDTA as in group 2. For each of the four groups, one tooth was extracted immediately, and the second tooth was extracted after 14 days of healing for SEM evaluation. Fourteen days after surgery, all group 1 samples were devoid of any nanoparticles adherent to the root surfaces. Group 2 showed root surface areas 44.7% covered by a single layer of clot-blended grafted particles 14 days following graft application. After 14 days, group 3 samples appeared to retain fibrin strands devoid of grafted particles. Immediately extracted root samples of group 4 had adherent graft particles that covered a considerable area of the root surfaces

  3. Etch Defect Characterization and Reduction in Hard-Mask-Based Al Interconnect Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Hung, C.L.; Leng, C.H.; Lian, N.T.; Young, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the defect adders, for example, post hard-mask etch residue, post metal etch residue, and blocked etch metal island and investigates the removal characteristics of these defects within the oxide-masked Al etching process sequence. Post hard-mask etch residue containing C atom is related to the hardening of photoresist after the conventional post-RIE ashing at 275 degree C. An in situ O 2 -based plasma ashing on RIE etcher was developed to prevent the photoresist hardening from the high-ashing temperature; followed wet stripping could successfully eliminate such hardened polymeric residue. Post metal etch residue was caused from the attack of the Al sidewall by Cl atoms, and too much CHF 3 addition in the Al main etch step passivated the surface of Al resulting in poor capability to remove the Al-containing residue. The lower addition of CHF 3 in the Al main etch step would benefit from the residue removal. One possibility of blocked etch metal island creating was due to the micro masking formed on the opening of Ti N during the hard-mask patterning. We report that an additional Ti N surface pretreatment with the Ar/CHF 3 /N 2 plasmas could reduce the impact of the micro masking residues on blocked metal etch.

  4. Photochemical properties and sensor applications of modified yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) covalently attached to the surfaces of etched optical fibers (EOFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, Alexey A; Abraham, Bobin George; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Karp, Matti T; Tkachenko, Nikolai V

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins have the inherent ability to act as sensing components which function both in vitro and inside living cells. We describe here a novel study on a covalent site-specific bonding of fluorescent proteins to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the surface of etched optical fibers (EOFs). Deposition of fluorescent proteins on EOFs gives the opportunity to increase the interaction of guided light with deposited molecules relative to plane glass surfaces. The EOF modification is carried out by surface activation using 3-aminopropylthrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and bifunctional crosslinker sulfosuccinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC) which exposes sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups followed by covalent site-specific coupling of modified yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Steady-state and fluorescence lifetime measurements confirm the formation of SAM. The sensor applications of YPF SAMs on EOF are demonstrated by the gradual increase of emission intensity upon addition of Ca(2+) ions in the concentration range from a few tens of micromolars up to a few tens of millimolars. The studies on the effect of pH, divalent cations, denaturing agents, and proteases reveal the stability of YFP on EOFs at normal physiological conditions. However, treatments with 0.5% SDS at pH 8.5 and protease trypsin are found to denaturate or cleave the YFP from fiber surfaces.

  5. Laser etching as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Kelly, R.

    1989-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are removed from surfaces by intense laser beams. This fact has been known almost since the discovery of the laser. Within the present overall area of interest, namely understanding ion-beam-induced sputtering, it is equally important both to contrast laser etching to ion sputtering and to understand the underlying physics taking place during laser etching. Beyond some initial broad observations, the specific discussion is limited to, and aimed at, two areas: (i) short wavelength, UV, laser-pulse effects and (ii) energy fluences sufficiently small that only monolayers (and not microns) of material are removed per pulse. 38 refs.; 13 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Solid spectroscopy: semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1983-01-01

    Photoemission as technique of study of the semiconductor electronic structure is shortly discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductors, where volume and surface electronic structure, core levels and O and H chemisorption in GaAs, Schottky barrier are treated, respectively. Amorphous semiconductors are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Theory of tamm surface states on the boundary between Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te type semimetal and narrow-gap semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhtiyev, M.A.; Kalina, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The conditions of appearance of tamm surface states and their energy spectrum on the boundary of semimetals and narrow-gap semiconductors are considered. By the Green function method the equation for surface state energy is obtained. The solution of the latter is analyzed in particular cases when energy of heavy hole zones of the semimetal and semiconductor is the same and when the heavy hole gap of the semiconductor is shifted down relatively to the semimetal of the same name gap as well as accurate computer calculation. It is shown that neither in parabolic limits, nor in cases of a strongly unparabolic semiconductor (semimetal) and a parabolic semimetal (semiconductor) the equation obtained has no solutions at small quasipulse values i.e. there are no surface states. In the case when the heavy hole zone of a semiconductor is shifted down for the value of the order of narrow-gap semiconductor the effective mass of surface states turns to be twice heavier than that of the semimetal volumetrical electrons [ru

  8. Switchable Super-Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Film Surfaces on Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Textured Si Wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Litao, Yao; Kim, Bonghwan

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a surface texturing process for pyramidal surface features along with an indium tin oxide (ITO) coating process to fabricate super-hydrophilic conductive surfaces. The contact angle of a water droplet was less than 5 degrees, which means that an extremely high wettability is achievable on super-hydrophilic surfaces. We have also fabricated a super-hydrophobic conductive surface using an additional coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the ITO layer coated on the textured Si surface; the ITO and PTFE films were deposited by using a conventional sputtering method. We found that a super-hydrophilic conductive surface is produced by ITO coated on the pyramidal Si surface (ITO/Si), with contact angles of approximately 0 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm. These values are highly dependent on the substrate temperature during the sputtering process. We also found that the super-hydrophobic conductive surface produced by the additional coating of PTFE on the pyramidal Si surface with an ITO layer (PTFE/ITO/Si) has a contact angle of almost 160 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm, with a reflectance lower than 9%. Therefore, these processes can be used to fabricate multifunctional features of ITO films for switchable super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  9. Shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel with additional phosphoric acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Guhr, Silke; Schilke, Reinhard; Borchers, Lothar; Geurtsen, Werner; Günay, Hüsamettin

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel and the effect of additional phosphoric acid etching. Seventy sound human molars were randomly divided into three test groups and one control group. The enamel surfaces of the control group (n=10) were treated with Syntac Classic (SC). Each test group was subdivided into two groups (each n=10). In half of each test group, ground enamel surfaces were coated with the self-etch adhesives AdheSe (ADH), Xeno III (XE) or Futurabond NR (FNR). In the remaining half of each test group, an additional phosphoric acid etching of the enamel surface was performed prior to applying the adhesives. The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute after storing the samples in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Fracture modes were determined by SEM examination. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA and the two-sided Dunnett Test were used (p>0.05). Additional phosphoric etching significantly increased the shear bond strength of all the examined self-etch adhesives (padhesive fractures. For all the self-etch adhesives, a slight increase in mixed fractures occurred after conditioning with phosphoric acid. An additional phosphoric acid etching of enamel should be considered when using self-etch adhesives. More clinical studies are needed to evaluate the long-term success of the examined adhesives.

  10. Photocatalysis of irradiated semiconductor surfaces: Its application to water splitting and some organic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, T

    1985-05-01

    Hydrogen production from organic compounds and water was investigated using powdered semiconductor photocatalysts. The complete decomposition observed for several organic compounds demonstrated that water is involved in the reactions as an oxidizing agent. Photocatalyses of dyes and semiconductors were found to be applicable to amino acid synthesis. The quantum yields of photocatalytic amino acid synthesis using visible light are about 20%-40% in the absence of a metal catalyst such as platinum. Moreover the reactions are highly selective and depend strongly on the type of semiconductor. This method was applied to the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids using asymmetric catalysts. Rather high optical yields of 50% were achieved for the synthesis of L-phenylalanine.

  11. Soft liquid phase adsorption for fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuri; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a soft liquid-phase adsorption (SLPA) technique for the fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates using toluene/water emulsions. Wettability-patterned substrates were obtained by the UV-ozone treatment of self-assembled monolayers of silane coupling agents on glass plates using a metal mask. Organic semiconductor polymer films were formed selectively on the hydrophobic part of the wettability-patterned substrates. The thickness of the films fabricated by the SLPA technique is significantly larger than that of the films fabricated by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The film thickness can be controlled by adjusting the volume ratio of toluene to water, immersion angle, immersion temperature, and immersion time. The SLPA technique allows for the direct production of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates with minimized material consumption and reduced number of fabrication steps.

  12. Preparation of InAs(0 0 1) surface for spin injection via a chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L J; Oliver, R A; Barber, Z H; Eustace, D A; McComb, D W; Clowes, S K; Gilbertson, A M; Magnus, F; Branford, W R; Cohen, L F; Buckle, L; Buckle, P D; Ashley, T

    2007-01-01

    A wet chemical surface treatment for InAs epilayers is investigated to remove the native semiconductor oxide prior to growth of a MgO tunnel barrier and Co ferromagnetic electrode by dc magnetron sputtering. Use of a HCl etch followed by (NH 4 ) 2 S as the pre-growth surface treatment resulted in pinhole-like features in the tunnel barrier, as observed by conducting atomic force microscopy, but this detrimental effect is avoided if the etch procedure is repeated twice. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the etched samples had uniform tunnel barriers and reducing the growth temperature of the barrier from 200 to 100 0 C significantly improved the abruptness of the semiconductor/barrier interface. Electrical characterization of barrier properties illustrated that all the etched samples showed parabolic differential conductance curves indicative of tunnelling behaviour at 300 K

  13. Reverse Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Demonstrate That Surface Passivation Controls Thermal Transport at Semiconductor-Solvent Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Daniel C; Gezelter, J Daniel; Schaller, Richard D; Schatz, George C

    2015-06-23

    We examine the role played by surface structure and passivation in thermal transport at semiconductor/organic interfaces. Such interfaces dominate thermal transport in semiconductor nanomaterials owing to material dimensions much smaller than the bulk phonon mean free path. Utilizing reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate the interfacial thermal conductance (G) between a hexane solvent and chemically passivated wurtzite CdSe surfaces. In particular, we examine the dependence of G on the CdSe slab thickness, the particular exposed crystal facet, and the extent of surface passivation. Our results indicate a nonmonotonic dependence of G on ligand-grafting density, with interfaces generally exhibiting higher thermal conductance for increasing surface coverage up to ∼0.08 ligands/Å(2) (75-100% of a monolayer, depending on the particular exposed facet) and decreasing for still higher coverages. By analyzing orientational ordering and solvent penetration into the ligand layer, we show that a balance of competing effects is responsible for this nonmonotonic dependence. Although the various unpassivated CdSe surfaces exhibit similar G values, the crystal structure of an exposed facet nevertheless plays an important role in determining the interfacial thermal conductance of passivated surfaces, as the density of binding sites on a surface determines the ligand-grafting densities that may ultimately be achieved. We demonstrate that surface passivation can increase G relative to a bare surface by roughly 1 order of magnitude and that, for a given extent of passivation, thermal conductance can vary by up to a factor of ∼2 between different surfaces, suggesting that appropriately tailored nanostructures may direct heat flow in an anisotropic fashion for interface-limited thermal transport.

  14. A comparative study on surface morphology from the HgI2 semiconductors prepared by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Joao F.T.; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M.

    2013-01-01

    The impurity effect in the surface morphology quality of HgI 2 crystals was evaluated, aiming a future application of these crystals as room temperature radiation semiconductor detector. The crystals were purified and grown by two techniques: (1) physical vapor transport (PVT) and (2) saturated solution from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) complexes. Systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. The best quality of surface morphology was found for the crystals purified and grown by the PVT technique. Significant decrease in the impurity concentration was found, purifying the crystal by means of two successive growths by the PVT technique, while a Si contamination in the HgI 2 crystal was observed, during its growth by the DMSO method. Thus, for DMSO technique was not possible to identify the peaks of the other trace elements present as impurities in the PVT crystal, due to the high intensity of the Si peak in the DMSO crystal. It was demonstrated the impurities affect significantly the surface morphology quality from the HgI 2 crystal. Key Words: Semiconductor crystal, Radiation detector, Mercury Iodide crystal, surface morphology. (author)

  15. SU-8 etching in inductively coupled oxygen plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jensen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Structuring or removal of the epoxy based, photo sensitive polymer SU-8 by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was investigated as a function of plasma chemistry, bias power, temperature, and pressure. In a pure oxygen plasma, surface accumulation of antimony from the photo......-initiator introduced severe roughness and reduced etch rate significantly. Addition of SF6 to the plasma chemistry reduced the antimony surface concentration with lower roughness and higher etch rate as an outcome. Furthermore the etch anisotropy could be tuned by controlling the bias power. Etch rates up to 800 nm...

  16. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Yang, Yang; Ng, Tien Khee; Dursun, Ibrahim; Shi, Dong; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Priante, Davide; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability

  17. Controlling and modelling the wetting properties of III-V semiconductor surfaces using re-entrant nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing H; Lu, Yao; Liu, Huiyun; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P; Kenyon, Anthony J

    2018-02-23

    Inorganic semiconductors such as III-V materials are very important in our everyday life as they are used for manufacturing optoelectronic and microelectronic components with important applications span from energy harvesting to telecommunications. In some applications, these components are required to operate in harsh environments. In these cases, having waterproofing capability is essential. Here we demonstrate design and control of the wettability of indium phosphide based multilayer material (InP/InGaAs/InP) using re-entrant structures fabricated by a fast electron beam lithography technique. This patterning technique enabled us to fabricate highly uniform nanostructure arrays with at least one order of magnitude shorter patterning times compared to conventional electron beam lithography methods. We reduced the surface contact fraction significantly such that the water droplets may be completely removed from our nanostructured surface. We predicted the wettability of our patterned surface by modelling the adhesion energies between the water droplet and both the patterned surface and the dispensing needle. This is very useful for the development of coating-free waterproof optoelectronic and microelectronic components where the coating may hinder the performance of such devices and cause problems with semiconductor fabrication compatibility.

  18. Elucidating the role of surface passivating ligand structural parameters in hole wave function delocalization in semiconductor cluster molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Meghan B; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Dutta, Poulami; Pu, Jingzhi; Muhoberac, Barry B; Sardar, Rajesh; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2017-09-28

    This article describes the mechanisms underlying electronic interactions between surface passivating ligands and (CdSe) 34 semiconductor cluster molecules (SCMs) that facilitate band-gap engineering through the delocalization of hole wave functions without altering their inorganic core. We show here both experimentally and through density functional theory calculations that the expansion of the hole wave function beyond the SCM boundary into the ligand monolayer depends not only on the pre-binding energetic alignment of interfacial orbitals between the SCM and surface passivating ligands but is also strongly influenced by definable ligand structural parameters such as the extent of their π-conjugation [π-delocalization energy; pyrene (Py), anthracene (Anth), naphthalene (Naph), and phenyl (Ph)], binding mode [dithiocarbamate (DTC, -NH-CS 2 - ), carboxylate (-COO - ), and amine (-NH 2 )], and binding head group [-SH, -SeH, and -TeH]. We observe an unprecedentedly large ∼650 meV red-shift in the lowest energy optical absorption band of (CdSe) 34 SCMs upon passivating their surface with Py-DTC ligands and the trend is found to be Ph- wave function delocalization rather than carrier trapping and/or phonon-mediated relaxation. Taken together, knowledge of how ligands electronically interact with the SCM surface is crucial to semiconductor nanomaterial research in general because it allows the tuning of electronic properties of nanomaterials for better charge separation and enhanced charge transfer, which in turn will increase optoelectronic device and photocatalytic efficiencies.

  19. A procedure to analyze surface profiles of the protein molecules visualized by quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka [Division of Biomolecular Imaging, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Oguchi, Yosuke [Department of Electric Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Ichise, Norihiko [Department of Visual Communication, Komazawa Women' s University, Inagi, Tokyo 206-8511 (Japan); Baba, Norio [Department of Electric Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Katayama, Eisaku [Division of Biomolecular Imaging, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)]. E-mail: ekatayam@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-01-15

    Quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy gives high contrast snapshots of individual protein molecules under physiological conditions in vitro or in situ. The images show delicate internal pattern, possibly reflecting the rotary-shadowed surface profile of the molecule. As a step to build the new system for the 'Structural analysis of single molecules', we propose a procedure to quantitatively characterize the structural property of individual molecules; e.g. conformational type and precise view-angle of the molecules, if the crystallographic structure of the target molecule is available. This paper presents a framework to determine the observed face of the protein molecule by analyzing the surface profile of individual molecules visualized in freeze-replica specimens. A comprehensive set of rotary-shadowed views of the protein molecule was artificially generated from the available atomic coordinates using light-rendering software. Exploiting new mathematical morphology-based image filter, characteristic features were extracted from each image and stored as template. Similar features were extracted from the true replica image and the most likely projection angle and the conformation of the observed particle were determined by quantitative comparison with a set of archived images. The performance and the robustness of the procedure were examined with myosin head structure in defined configuration for actual application.

  20. A procedure to analyze surface profiles of the protein molecules visualized by quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Oguchi, Yosuke; Ichise, Norihiko; Baba, Norio; Katayama, Eisaku

    2007-01-01

    Quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy gives high contrast snapshots of individual protein molecules under physiological conditions in vitro or in situ. The images show delicate internal pattern, possibly reflecting the rotary-shadowed surface profile of the molecule. As a step to build the new system for the 'Structural analysis of single molecules', we propose a procedure to quantitatively characterize the structural property of individual molecules; e.g. conformational type and precise view-angle of the molecules, if the crystallographic structure of the target molecule is available. This paper presents a framework to determine the observed face of the protein molecule by analyzing the surface profile of individual molecules visualized in freeze-replica specimens. A comprehensive set of rotary-shadowed views of the protein molecule was artificially generated from the available atomic coordinates using light-rendering software. Exploiting new mathematical morphology-based image filter, characteristic features were extracted from each image and stored as template. Similar features were extracted from the true replica image and the most likely projection angle and the conformation of the observed particle were determined by quantitative comparison with a set of archived images. The performance and the robustness of the procedure were examined with myosin head structure in defined configuration for actual application

  1. Methods of removal of defects arising at liquid etching of polycrystalline silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanchykou A. E.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of generation of defects having the form of spots on the surface of the polycrystalline silicon during processing of semiconductor wafers with hydrofluoric acid based etchant, and a model of removal of such defects in chemical solutions. The authors investigate how the centrifuge speed during drying and the relief of structures, produced on the plate, effect the number of defects. It is shown that there is a possibility to remove defects by chemical treatment in the peroxide-ammonia solutions (PAS and also by sequence of chemical cleaning in Karo mixture, SiO2 etching and treatment in PAS.

  2. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.Y.; Duan, J.L.; Maekawa, Y.; Koshikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2004-01-01

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm -1 . Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  3. ARTICLES: Nonlinear interaction of infrared waves on a VO2 surface at a semiconductor-metal phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskiĭ, V. V.

    1984-04-01

    The use of a semiconductor-metal phase transition for wavefront reversal of laser radiation was proposed. An investigation was made of nonlinear reflection of CO2 laser radiation at a phase transition in VO2. A three-wave interaction on a VO2 surface was achieved using low-power cw and pulsed CO2 lasers. In the first case, the intensity reflection coefficient was 0.5% for a reference wave intensity of 0.9 W/cm2 and in the second case, it was 42% for a threshold reference wave energy density of 0.6-0.8 mJ/cm2.

  4. Characterization of electric discharge machining, subsequent etching and shot-peening as a surface treatment for orthopedic implants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stráský, J.; Havlíková, Jana; Bačáková, Lucie; Harcuba, P.; Mhaede, M.; Janeček, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 213, Sep 15 (2013), s. 73-78 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/12/1025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Ti-6A1-4V * surface treatment * cell proliferation * orthopedics Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  5. A cellular automata simulation study of surface roughening resulting from multi-atom etch pit generation during sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Y S; Nobes, M J; Carter, G [Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)

    1992-04-01

    A two-dimensional square matrix of pseudo-atomic positions is erected and atom removal from the ''surface'' is effected randomly. Either single atoms or groups of atoms (to simulate multi-atom pit generation) are removed. The characteristics of the evolving roughened, terraced ''surface'' are evaluated as a function of the total number of atoms, or equivalent numbers of atomic layers, removed. These characteristics include the ''mean'' position of the sputtered surface, the standard deviation of terrace length about the mean and the form of the terrace length distributions. The results of the single-atom removal mode compare exactly with theoretical predictions in that, for large numbers of atoms removed the depth position of the mean of the terrace length distribution is identical to the mean sputtered depth and the standard deviation increases as the square root of this depth. For multi-atom removal modes (which cannot be predicted theoretically) the standard deviation also increases as the square root of the mean sputtered depth but with a larger proportionality constant. The implications of these observations for the evolution of surface morphology during high yield sputtering is discussed. (orig.).

  6. Inductively coupled plasma etching of III-V antimonides in BCl3/SiCl4 etch chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, K.; Janardhanan, P.E.; Sulima, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaSb using BCl 3 /SiCl 4 etch chemistry has been investigated. The etch rates were studied as a function of bias power, inductively coupled plasma source power, plasma chemistry and chamber pressure. The etched surfaces remain smooth and stoichiometric over the entire range of plasma conditions investigated. The knowledge gained in etching GaSb was applied to etching AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb in order to fabricate heterojunction phototransistors. As expected, InGaAsSb etch rate was much lower compared to the corresponding value for GaSb, mainly due to the relatively low volatility of indium chlorides. For a wide range of plasma conditions, the selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb was close to unity, which is desirable for fabricating etched mirrors and gratings for Sb-based mid-infrared laser diodes. The surface roughness and the etch profile were examined for the etched GaSb, AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb samples using scanning electron microscope. The high etch rates achieved (∼ 4 μm/min) facilitated deep etching of GaSb. A single layer, soft mask (AZ-4903 photoresist) was used to etch GaSb, with etch depth ∼ 90 μm. The deep dry etching of GaSb has many important applications including etching substrate windows for backside-illuminated photodetectors for the mid-infrared wavelength range

  7. Control of magnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As films by surface decoration of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiong, Peng; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    The responses of magnetic moments to external stimuli such as magnetic-field, heat, light and electric-field have been utilized to manipulate the magnetism in magnetic semiconductors, with many of the novel ideas applied even to ferromagnetic metals. Here, we review a new experimental development on the control of magnetism in (Ga,Mn)As thin films by surface decoration of organic molecules: Molecules deposited on the surface of (Ga,Mn)As thin films are shown to be capable of significantly modulating their saturation magnetization and Curie temperature. These phenomena are shown to originate from the carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As and the surface molecules acting as acceptors or donors depending on their highest occupied molecular orbitals, resembling the charge transfer mechanism in a pn junction in which the equilibrium state is reached on the alignment of Fermi levels.

  8. Control of magnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,MnAs films by surface decoration of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of magnetic moments to external stimuli such as magnetic-field, heat, light and electric-field have been utilized to manipulate the magnetism in magnetic semiconductors, with many of the novel ideas applied even to ferromagnetic metals. Here, we review a new experimental development on the control of magnetism in (Ga,MnAs thin films by surface decoration of organic molecules: Molecules deposited on the surface of (Ga,MnAs thin films are shown to be capable of significantly modulating their saturation magnetization and Curie temperature. These phenomena are shown to originate from the carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in (Ga,MnAs and the surface molecules acting as acceptors or donors depending on their highest occupied molecular orbitals, resembling the charge transfer mechanism in a pn junction in which the equilibrium state is reached on the alignment of Fermi levels.

  9. Research on plasma etching of nuclear fuel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Min, Jin Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Based on the experimental result that the highest etching rate is obtained at 20% O{sub 2} mole fraction regardless of r.f. power and temperature and the RGA analysis result that major reaction product is UF{sub 6}, overall reaction of UO{sub 2} reaction in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} plasma is established: 8UO{sub 2} + 12CF{sub 4} + 3O{sub 2} {yields} 8UF{sub 6} + 12CO{sub 2-X} XPS confirms that at lower O{sub 2} mole fraction than 20%, the reaction is retarded by carbon residual on the surface, while XRD demonstrates that at higher O{sub 2} mole fraction than 20% U atom forms hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2} such as U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and UO{sub 3}, rather than interacts to form volatile uranium fluoride. The reaction of UO{sub 2} with CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} plasma follows a linear kinetics law with time, a surface-reaction controlling step, and the activation energy, 2.98 kcal/mol,is derived at 150 {approx} 450 deg C based on the kinetics. The maximum etching rate is 1100 monolayers/min. at 370 deg C under r.f. power of 150W, which is equivalent to 0.4 {mu}m/min. This etching rate is as fast as that of Si wafer in the semi-conductor processing, therefore, it is conclusively expected that CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} mixed gas plasma process may be highly applicable to remove TRU coming form DUPIC fuel manufacturing process and enough to reduce residual TRU less than 0.01%. (author). 26 refs., 50 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. High rate dry etching of InGaZnO by BCl3/O2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wanjae; Whang, Ki-Woong; Gwang Yoon, Young; Hwan Kim, Jeong; Rha, Sang-Ho; Seong Hwang, Cheol

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the results of the high-rate dry etching of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) at room temperature using BCl3/O2 plasma. We achieved an etch rate of 250 nm/min. We inferred from the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis that BOx or BOClx radicals generated from BCl3/O2 plasma cause the etching of the IGZO material. O2 initiates the etching of IGZO, and Ar removes nonvolatile byproducts from the surface during the etching process. Consequently, a smooth etched surface results when these gases are added to the etch gas.

  11. Effect of surface states on electrical characteristic of metal - insulator - semiconductor (MIS) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altindal, S.; Doekme, I.; Tataroglu, A.; Sahingoez, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) Schottky barrier diodes which is consider distribution of interface states in equilibrium with semiconductor were determined at two (low and high) temperature. The interface states were responsible for non-ideal behavior of the forward I-V characteristic of diodes. Both diodes (n and p type Si) showed non-ideal behavior with an ideality factor 1.6 and 1.85 respectively at room temperature. The higher values of n-type Si were attributed to an order of magnitude higher density of interface states in the both diodes. The effect of an interfacial insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor are also studied. The high density of interface states also caused a reduction in the barrier height of the MIS diode. It is shown that by using Norde function at low and high temperature, barrier height □ b , series resistance R s and ideality factor n can be determined even in the case 1 s obtained from Norde function strongly depend on temperature, and decrease with increasing temperature. In addition, the potential barrier height increases with increasing temperature. The mean density of interface states N ss decreases with increasing temperature. Particularly at low temperature the I-V characteristics are controlled by interface states density

  12. Contributions of electron microscopy to the understanding of reactions on compound semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, T.

    1986-01-01

    Reacted films on compound semiconductor substrates present challenging materials characterization problems which often require the application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In this paper, both the problem - solving potential of the TEM techniques and the limits imposed by preparation of thin film/compound semiconductor TEM specimens are discussed. Studies of the Ni/GaAs, CuCl/aq)/CdS and Pd/GaAs reactions exemplify the role of TEM in identifying and determining the spatial distribution of interface - stabilized polymorphs and new ternary phases (e.g. tetragonal Cu/sub 2/S, Ni/sub 3/GaAs and Pd/sub x/GaAs). These examples also serve to clarify the relationship between TEM and complementary analysis techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy and glancing-angle x-ray diffraction. In particular, it is argued that a combination of (1) high-spatial-resolution information obtained by TEM and (2) an indication of the ''average'' behavior provided by data from a complementary characterization technique provide the minimum quality and quantity of data necessary to understand most reactions on compound semiconductor substrates

  13. Features of copper etching in chlorine-argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.M.; Svettsov, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine mixtures with inert gases including argon exhibit promise as plasma feed gases for etching metals and semiconductors in the microelectronics industry. It was shown that even strong dilution of reactive gas with an inert gas (up to 80-90% of the latter) has virtually no effect in decreasing the rate of plasma etching of materials such as silicon and gallium arsenide, compared to etching in pure chlorine. The principal reactive species responsible for etching these substrates are chlorine atoms therefore, a possible explanation of the effect is an increase in the rate of bulk generation of chlorine atoms in the presence of argon. In this work the authors studied the influence of argon on the rate of copper etching in chlorine, because copper, unlike the above substrates, reacts effectively not only with the atoms but with the ground-state molecules of chlorine

  14. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  15. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarasa, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chaitra, N L; Swarna, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using self-etch adhesive (SEA) Clearfil SE bond system on intact enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid were compared. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to intact enamel and to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on bond formation of self-etch adhesives on intact enamel. Labial surfaces of 40 caries free permanent upper central and lateral incisors were cleaned, sectioned of their roots. All specimens were mounted on acrylic block and divided randomly into four groups. In two groups the application of self-etch adhesive, Clearfil SE bond was carried as per manufacturer's instructions, composite cylinders were built, whereas in the other two groups, 37% phosphoric acid etching was done before the application of self-etching adhesives. Then the resin tags were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength was measured using Instron universal testing machine. When phosphoric acid was used, there was significant increase in the depth of penetration of resin tags and in the Shear Bond Strength of composite to enamel. The results indicate that out of both treatment groups, pre-etching the intact enamel with 37% phosphoric acid resulted in formation of longer resin tags and higher depth of penetration of resin tags of the Clearfil SE bond, and attaining higher bond strength of the Clearfil SE bond to intact enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tuning optoelectronic properties of small semiconductor nanocrystals through surface ligand chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katie N.

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (SNCs) are a class of material with one dimension wave function 1) into the ligand monolayer using metal carboxylates and 2) beyond the ligand monolayer to provide strong inter-SNC electronic coupling using poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG)-thiolate was explored. Passivation of the Se sites of metal chalcogenide SNCs by metal carboxylates provided a two-fold outcome: (1) facilitating the delocalization of exciton wave functions into ligand monolayers (through appropriate symmetry matching and energy alignment) and (2) increasing fluorescence quantum yield (through passivation of midgap trap states). An ˜240 meV red-shift in absorbance was observed upon addition of Cd(O2CPh)2, as well as a ˜260 meV shift in emission with an increase in PL-QY to 73%. Through a series of control experiments, as well as full reversibility of our system, we were able to conclude that the observed bathochromic shifts were the sole consequence of delocalization, not a change in size or relaxation of the inorganic core, as previously reported. Furthermore, the outstanding increase in PL-QY was found to be a product of both passivation and delocalization effects. Next we used poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG)-thiolate ligands to passivate the SNC and provide unique solubility properties in both aqueous and organic solvents as well as utilized their highly conductive nature to explore inter-SNC electronic coupling. The electronic coupling was studied: 1) as a function of SNC size where the smallest SNC exhibited the largest coupling energy (170 meV) and 2) as a function of annealing temperature, where an exceptionally large (˜400 meV) coupling energy was observed. This strong electronic coupling in self-organized films could facilitate the large-scale production of highly efficient electronic materials for advanced optoelectronic device applications. Strong inter-SNC electronic coupling together with high solubility, such as that provided by PEG-thiolate-coated CdSe SNCs

  17. Etching patterns on the micro‐ and nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Herstrøm, Berit; Stöhr, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    ‐ray beam down to a spot size of some 100 nm, the sidewalls of the cavities etched down to 300 μm into a silicon wafer must be perfectly straight and normal to the surface and have minimum roughness.The range of possible applications of the silicon etches is greatly extended if combined with electroplating...... and polymer injection molding. High precision patterns of, for instance microfluidic devices, are etched intosilicon which is then electroplated with nickel that will serve as a stamp in the polymer injection molding tool where thousands of devices may be replicated. In addition to silicon and its derived...

  18. Spatially-Resolved Ion Trajectory Measurements During Cl2 Reactive Ion Beam Etching and Ar Ion Beam Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vawter, G. Allen; Woodworth, Joseph R.; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    The angle of ion incidence at the etched wafer location during RIBE and IBE using Cl 2 , Ar and O 2 ion beams has been characterized using an ion energy and angle analyzer. Effects of beam current and accelerator grid bias on beam divergence and the spatial uniformity of the spread of incident angles are measured. It is observed that increased total beam current can lead to reduced current density at the sample stage due to enhanced beam divergence at high currents. Results are related to preferred etch system design for uniform high-aspect-ratio etching across semiconductor wafers

  19. Effect of Water Vapor and Surface Morphology on the Low Temperature Response of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Maier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the low temperature response of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors is analyzed. Important characteristics of this low-temperature response are a pronounced selectivity to acid- and base-forming gases and a large disparity of response and recovery time constants which often leads to an integrator-type of gas response. We show that this kind of sensor performance is related to the trend of semiconductor gas sensors to adsorb water vapor in multi-layer form and that this ability is sensitively influenced by the surface morphology. In particular we show that surface roughness in the nanometer range enhances desorption of water from multi-layer adsorbates, enabling them to respond more swiftly to changes in the ambient humidity. Further experiments reveal that reactive gases, such as NO2 and NH3, which are easily absorbed in the water adsorbate layers, are more easily exchanged across the liquid/air interface when the humidity in the ambient air is high.

  20. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-16

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  1. The theory of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on semiconductor nanoparticles; toward the optimization of SERS sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, John R

    2017-12-04

    We present an expression for the lowest order nonzero contribution to the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum obtained from a system of a molecule adsorbed on a semiconductor nanoparticle. Herzberg-Teller vibronic coupling of the zero-order Born-Oppenheimer states results in an expression which may be regarded as an extension of the Albrecht A-, B-, and C-terms to SERS substrates. We show that the SERS enhancement is caused by combinations of several types of resonances in the combined system, namely, surface, exciton, charge-transfer, and molecular resonances. These resonances are coupled by terms in the numerator, which provide selection rules that enable various tests of the theory and predict the relative intensities of the Raman lines. Furthermore, by considering interactions of the various contributions to the SERS enhancement, we are able to develop ways to optimize the enhancement factor by tailoring the semiconductor nanostructure, thereby adjusting the locations of the various contributing resonances. This provides a procedure by which molecular sensors can be constructed and optimized. We provide several experimental examples on substrates such as monolayer MoS 2 and GaN nanorods.

  2. Atomic Layer Etching : What can we learn from Atomic Layer Deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraz, T.; Roozeboom, F.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Current trends in semiconductor device manufacturing impose extremely stringent requirements on nanoscale processing techniques, both in terms of accurately controlling material properties and in terms of precisely controlling nanometer dimensions. To take nanostructuring by dry etching to the next

  3. Atomic layer etching : what can we learn from atomic layer deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraz, T.; Roozeboom, F.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Current trends in semiconductor device manufacturing impose extremely stringent requirements on nanoscale processing techniques, both in terms of accurately controlling material properties and in terms of precisely controlling nanometer dimensions. To take nanostructuring by dry etching to the next

  4. Thermal history-based etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.

    2017-11-28

    A method for adjusting an etchability of a first borosilicate glass by heating the first borosilicate glass; combining the first borosilicate glass with a second borosilicate glass to form a composite; and etching the composite with an etchant. A material having a protrusive phase and a recessive phase, where the protrusive phase protrudes from the recessive phase to form a plurality of nanoscale surface features, and where the protrusive phase and the recessive phase have the same composition.

  5. Advanced dry etching studies for micro- and nano-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted

    and even contaminate the surface with metal flakes after resist removal. Ion beam etching has also been used for etching of steel without any problems with redeposition. For steel the etch rate was low which reduced the selectivity to the photo resist. Sapphire, a crystal of aluminum oxide, has a very low....... However, just generating an oxygen plasma does not result in a controllable etch and may give rise to a poor surface for later use. It may be necessary to introduce other gases such as SF6 to reduce surface roughness. Roughness can also be introduced by the mask in the form of redeposition of material...

  6. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  7. Controlled ion track etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  8. Plasma etching of patterned tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franssila, S.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma etching of tungsten is discussed from the viewpoint of thin film structure and integrated circuit process engineering. The emphasis is on patterned tungsten etching for silicon device and X-ray mask fabrication. After introducing tungsten etch chemistries and mechanisms, microstructural aspects of tungsten films (crystal structure, grain size, film density, defects, impurities) in relation to etching are discussed. Approaches to etch process optimization are presented, and the current state-of-the-art of patterned tungsten etching is reviewed. (orig.)

  9. Si etching with reactive neutral beams of very low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuhiro [Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-chou, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwata, Naotaka; Hara, Tamio [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    A Si etching process has been investigated with reactive neutral beams (NBs) extracted using a low acceleration voltage of less than 100 V from CF{sub 4} and Ar mixed plasmas. The etched Si profile shows that the etching process is predominantly anisotropic. The reactive NB has a constant Si etching rate in the acceleration voltage range from 20 V to 80 V. It is considered that low-energy NBs can trigger Si etching because F radicals adsorb onto the Si surface and weaken Si–Si bonds. The etching rate per unit beam flux is 33 times higher than that with Ar NB. These results show that the low-energy reactive NB is useful for damage-free high speed Si etching.

  10. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate

  11. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO{sub 2} ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO{sub 2} from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to SiO{sub 2} ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO{sub 2} to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as compared to Si

  12. Theoretical aspects of studies of oxide and semiconductor surfaces using low energy positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Maddox, W. B.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical study of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation characteristics of surface trapped positrons at the oxidized Cu(100) single crystal and at both As- and Ga-rich reconstructed GaAs(100) surfaces. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the surfaces associated with oxidation and reconstructions and the charge redistribution at the surfaces are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface-state wave functions. The computed positron binding energy, work function, and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the surfaces. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with relevant core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface and the As- and Ga-rich reconstructed GaAs(100) surfaces are compared with experimental ones estimated from the positron annihilation induced Auger peak intensities measured from these surfaces.

  13. Study on deep levels in near-surface region of Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, V.V.; Vojtsekhovskij, A.V.; Kazak, E.P.; Lanskaya, O.G.; Pakhorukov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigation into MOS-structures on the basis of narrow-band n-Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(X)Te semiconductor was conducted. Anode-oxide film, grown in 0.1N KOH solution in ethylenglycol was used as dielectric laer, olt-farad characteristics of the MOS- structures, measured, at different frequencies of test voltage, testify to the presence of deep monoenergetic levels (Esub(t)) in near surface region of semicondUctor located within the limits of the energy gap of Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te. Two types of levels are observed in the n-Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te-base MOS-structures at x approximately equal to 0.21: Isub(t)=0.105-0.096 eV and Esub(t)=0.045-0.042 eV (with respect to the valent zone ceiling). The frequency dependence of the equivalent parallel conductivity of the Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te-base MOS-structure different voltages on a field electrode was used to show, that the observed deep level has the bulk nature. Results of numeral estimations of the state densities on the impurity center and of capture cross-section of a positive charge (deltasub(p)=6.7x10 -17 -1.4x10 -16 )sm 2 ) are given

  14. Methods of etching a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmo, J J; Gambino, R J; Harper, J M.E.

    1979-05-16

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail.

  15. Methods of etching a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Harper, J.M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail. (U.K.)

  16. Electronic properties of adsorbates and clean surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper surveys recent progress in experimental studies on electronic properties of adsorbates and clean metal surfaces. Electron spectroscopy and particularly angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy appears to be a very powerful tool to get informations on electronic levels of adsorbates or clean surfaces. Moreover this technique may also give informations about the atomic geometry of the surface. Experimental investigation about surface plasmons, surface states, core level shifts are presented for clean surfaces. As examples of adsorbate covered surfaces two typical cases are chosen: two dimensional band structure and oriented molecules. Finally the photoelectron diffraction may be used for surface structure determination either in the case of an adsorbate or a clean metal surface [fr

  17. In vitro bonding effectiveness of three different one-step self-etch adhesives with additional enamel etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Charu; Nagpal, Rajni; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Udai Pratap; Manuja, Naveen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of additional enamel etching on the shear bond strength of three self-etch adhesives. Class II box type cavities were made on extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into one control group of etch and rinse adhesive and three test groups of self-etch adhesives (Clearfil S3 Bond, Futurabond NR, Xeno V). The teeth in the control group (n = 10) were treated with Adper™ Single Bond 2. The three test groups were further divided into two subgroups (n = 10): (i) self-etch adhesive was applied as per the manufacturer's instructions; (ii) additional etching of enamel surfaces was done prior to the application of self-etch adhesives. All cavities were restored with Filtek Z250. After thermocycling, shear bond strength was evaluated using a Universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using anova independent sample's 't' test and Dunnett's test. The failure modes were evaluated with a stereomicroscope at a magnification of 10×. Additional phosphoric acid etching of the enamel surface prior to the application of the adhesive system significantly increased the shear bond strength of all the examined self-etch adhesives. Additional phosphoric acid etching of enamel surface significantly improved the shear bond strength. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Dry etching of thin chalcogenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Kiril [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Gergo; Vassilev, Venceslav, E-mail: kpetkov@clf.bas.b [Department of Semiconductors, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Fluorocarbon plasmas (pure and mixtures with Ar) were used to investigate the changes in the etching rate depending on the chalcogenide glasses composition and light exposure. The experiments were performed on modified commercial HZM-4 vacuum equipment in a diode electrode configuration. The surface microstructure of thin chalcogenide layers and its change after etching in CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasmas were studied by SEM. The dependence of the composition of As-S-Ge, As-Se and multicomponent Ge-Se-Sb-Ag-I layers on the etching rate was discussed. The selective etching of some glasses observed after light exposure opens opportunities for deep structure processing applications.

  19. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  20. Wet-etch sequence optimisation incorporating time dependent chemical maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruif, B.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Wafer fabrication is the major cost contributor in semiconductor manufacturing. One of the steps in the fabrication is the removal of exposed layers in an automatic wet-etch station with chemicals. In time, these chemicals get polluted and their effectiveness decreases. Therefore, the chemicals in

  1. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  2. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILM OF TiO2 ON GRAPHITE SUBSTRATE BY Cu-ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphite/TiO2 has been done by mean of Cu electrodeposition. This research aims to study the effect of Cu electrodeposition on photocatalytic enhancing of TiO2. Electrodeposition has been done using CuSO4 0,4 M as the electrolyte at controlled current. The XRD pattern of modified TiO2 thin film on graphite substrate exhibited new peaks at 2θ= 43-44o and 2θ= 50-51o that have been identified as Cu with crystal cubic system, face-centered crystal lattice and crystallite size of 26-30 nm. CTABr still remains in the material as impurities. Meanwhile, based on morphological analysis, Cu particles are dissipated in the pore of thin film. Graphite/TiO2/Cu has higher photoconversion efficiency than graphite/TiO2.   Keywords: semiconductor, graphite/TiO2, Cu electrodeposition

  3. Etching in microsystem technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Microcomponents and microdevices are increasingly finding application in everyday life. The specific functions of all modern microdevices depend strongly on the selection and combination of the materials used in their construction, i.e., the chemical and physical solid-state properties of these materials, and their treatment. The precise patterning of various materials, which is normally performed by lithographic etching processes, is a prerequisite for the fabrication of microdevices.The microtechnical etching of functional patterns is a multidisciplinary area, the basis for the etching p

  4. Charge transfer rates for xenon Rydberg atoms at metal and semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, F.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS 61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)]. E-mail: fbd@rice.edu; Wethekam, S. [Institut fuer Physik der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Dunham, H.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS 61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States); Lancaster, J.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS 61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Recent progress in the study of charge exchange between xenon Rydberg atoms and surfaces is reviewed. Experiments using Au(1 1 1) surfaces show that under appropriate conditions each incident atom can be detected as an ion. The ionization dynamics, however, are strongly influenced by the perturbations in the energies and structure of the atomic states that occur as the ion collection field is applied and as the atom approaches the surface. These lead to avoided crossings between different atomic levels causing the atom to successively assume the character of a number of different states and lose much of its initial identity. The effects of this mixing are discussed. Efficient surface ionization is also observed at Si(1 0 0) surfaces although the ion signal is influenced by stray fields present at the surface.

  5. Characterization of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces by high energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narusawa, Tadashi; Kobayashi, K.L.I.; Nakashima, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    The use of surface peak, which appears in MeV ion channeling experiments, is demonstrated as a local probe for direct and quantitative measurements of atomic displacements smaller than --0.1A. The atomic structures of GaAs(001)-c(4x4) clean surface and hydrogen-absorbed (1x1) surface are analyzed by this technique as well as the interface atomic structures of GaAs(001)-SiOsub(x) and Si(111)-Pd systems. (author)

  6. Porous and Nanoporous Semiconductors and Emerging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pores in single-crystalline semiconductors can be produced in a wide range of geometries and morphologies, including the “nanometer” regime. Porous semiconductors may have properties completely different from the bulk, and metamaterials with, for example, optical properties not encountered in natural materials are emerging. Possible applications of porous semiconductors include various novel sensors, but also more “exotic” uses as, for example, high explosives or electrodes for micro-fuel cells. The paper briefly reviews pore formation (including more applied aspects of large area etching, properties of porous semiconductors, and emerging applications.

  7. Evolution of the Novalux extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (NECSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Novalux Inc was an enterprise founded by Aram Mooradian in 1998 to commercialise a novel electrically pumped vertical extended cavity semiconductor laser platform, initially aiming to produce pump lasers for optical fiber telecommunication networks. Following successful major investment in 2000, the company developed a range of single- and multi-mode 980 nm pump lasers emitting from 100-500 mW with excellent beam quality and efficiency. This rapid development required solution of several significant problems in chip and external cavity design, substrate and DBR mirror optimization, thermal engineering and mode selection. Output coupling to single mode fiber was exceptional. Following the collapse of the long haul telecom market in late 2001, a major reorientation of effort was undertaken, initially to develop compact 60-100 mW hybrid monolithically integrated pumplets for metro/local amplified networks, then to frequency-doubled blue light emitters for biotech, reprographics and general scientific applications. During 2001-3 I worked at Novalux on a career break from University College Cork, first as R&D Director managing a small group tasked with producing new capabilities and product options based on the NECSEL platform, including high power, pulsed and frequency doubled versions, then in 2002 as Director of New Product Realization managing the full engineering team, leading the transition to frequency doubled products.

  8. Bulk and surface band structure of the new family of semiconductors BiTeX (X=I, Br, Cl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreschini, L.; Autès, G.; Crepaldi, A.; Moser, S.; Johannsen, J.C.; Kim, K.S.; Berger, H.; Bugnon, Ph.; Magrez, A.; Denlinger, J.; Rotenberg, E.; Bostwick, A.; Yazyev, O.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We provide an ARPES comparison between the three tellurohalides BiTeX (X = I, Br, Cl). • They present a similar band structure with namely spin-split bulk and surface states. • They offer, except for BiTeCl, the possibility of ambipolar conduction. • They can be easily doped. • From the data appeared so far, BiTeBr may be the most appealing for applications. - Abstract: We present an overview of the new family of semiconductors BiTeX (X = I, Br, Cl) from the perspective of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The strong band bending occurring at the surface potentially endows them with a large flexibility, as they are capable of hosting both hole and electron conduction, and can be modified by inclusion or adsorption of foreign atoms. In addition, their trigonal crystal structure lacks a center of symmetry and allows for both bulk and surface spin-split bands at the Fermi level. We elucidate analogies and differences among the three materials, also in the light of recent theoretical and experimental work

  9. Plenary lectures of the divisions semiconductor physics, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, U.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of plenary and invited lectures of the Solid State Division spring meeting of the DPG (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft) 1992 in Regensburg. The constribution come mainly from five fields of the physics of condensed matter: doped fullerenes and high Tc superconductors, surfaces, time-resolved on nonlinear optics, polymer melts, and low-dimensional semiconductor systems. (orig.)

  10. Method of manufacturing a semiconductor device and semiconductor device obtained with such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device (10) with a semiconductor body (1) which is provided with at least one semiconductor element, wherein on the surface of the semiconductor body (1) a mesa- shaped semiconductor region (2) is formed, a masking layer (3) is

  11. Manifestation of surface phonons in far infrared reflectivity of diamond-type semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, F.L.; Perez-Rodriguez, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2004-11-01

    The coupling of surface phonons with light at (001) surfaces of diamond-structure crystals and its manifestation in far-infrared anisotropy spectra are theoretically studied. We apply the adiabatic bond charge model to describe short-range mechanical interactions together with long-range Coulomb forces and radiation fields, and we solve the corresponding system of coupled equations for the electromagnetic field and the lattice vibrations. We calculate far-infrared normal reflectance spectra of (001) surfaces of semi-infinite diamond-type crystals. In particular, we analyse reflectance spectra for the Si(001) (2 x 1) surface, which exhibit a resonance structure associated with the excitation of surface phonon modes. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  13. Modeling of the angular dependence of plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the angular dependence of etching yield is essential to investigate the origins of sidewall roughness during plasma etching. In this article the angular dependence of polysilicon etching in Cl 2 plasma was modeled as a combination of individual angular-dependent etching yields for ion-initiated processes including physical sputtering, ion-induced etching, vacancy generation, and removal. The modeled etching yield exhibited a maximum at ∼60 degree sign off-normal ion angle at low flux ratio, indicative of physical sputtering. It transformed to the angular dependence of ion-induced etching with the increase in the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. Good agreement between the modeling and the experiments was achieved for various flux ratios and ion energies. The variation of etching yield in response to the ion angle was incorporated in the three-dimensional profile simulation and qualitative agreement was obtained. The surface composition was calculated and compared to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The modeling indicated a Cl areal density of 3x10 15 atoms/cm 2 on the surface that is close to the value determined by the XPS analysis. The response of Cl fraction to ion energy and flux ratio was modeled and correlated with the etching yields. The complete mixing-layer kinetics model with the angular dependence effect will be used for quantitative surface roughening analysis using a profile simulator in future work.

  14. Dry etching technologies for the advanced binary film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoshinori; Karyu, Makoto; Ita, Hirotsugu; Yoshimori, Tomoaki; Azumano, Hidehito; Muto, Makoto; Nonaka, Mikio

    2011-11-01

    ABF (Advanced Binary Film) developed by Hoya as a photomask for 32 (nm) and larger specifications provides excellent resistance to both mask cleaning and 193 (nm) excimer laser and thereby helps extend the lifetime of the mask itself compared to conventional photomasks and consequently reduces the semiconductor manufacturing cost [1,2,3]. Because ABF uses Ta-based films, which are different from Cr film or MoSi films commonly used for photomask, a new process is required for its etching technology. A patterning technology for ABF was established to perform the dry etching process for Ta-based films by using the knowledge gained from absorption layer etching for EUV mask that required the same Ta-film etching process [4]. Using the mask etching system ARES, which is manufactured by Shibaura Mechatronics, and its optimized etching process, a favorable CD (Critical Dimension) uniformity, a CD linearity and other etching characteristics were obtained in ABF patterning. Those results are reported here.

  15. Reversible electrochemical modification of the surface of a semiconductor by an atomic-force microscope probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukhov, A. S., E-mail: antonkozhukhov@yandex.ru; Sheglov, D. V.; Latyshev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    A technique for reversible surface modification with an atomic-force-microscope (AFM) probe is suggested. In this method, no significant mechanical or topographic changes occur upon a local variation in the surface potential of a sample under the AFM probe. The method allows a controlled relative change in the ohmic resistance of a channel in a Hall bridge within the range 20–25%.

  16. Comparison of Self-Etch Primers with Conventional Acid Etching System on Orthodontic Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Amit; Zope-Khalekar, Yogita; Chitko, Shrikant S.; Kerudi, Veerendra V.; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Jaltare, Pratik; Dolas, Siddhesh G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The self-etching primer system consists of etchant and primer dispersed in a single unit. The etching and priming are merged as a single step leading to fewer stages in bonding procedure and reduction in the number of steps that also reduces the chance of introduction of error, resulting in saving time for the clinician. It also results in smaller extent of enamel decalcification. Aim To compare the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of orthodontic bracket bonded with Self-Etch Primers (SEP) and conventional acid etching system and to study the surface appearance of teeth after debonding; etching with conventional acid etch and self-etch priming, using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods Five Groups (n=20) were created randomly from a total of 100 extracted premolars. In a control Group A, etching of enamel was done with 37% phosphoric acid and bonding of stainless steel brackets with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California). Enamel conditioning in left over four Groups was done with self-etching primers and adhesives as follows: Group B-Transbond Plus (3M Unitek), Group C Xeno V+ (Dentsply), Group D-G-Bond (GC), Group E-One-Coat (Coltene). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was also evaluated. Additionally, the surface roughness using profilometer were observed. Results Mean SBS of Group A was 18.26±7.5MPa, Group B was 10.93±4.02MPa, Group C was 6.88±2.91MPa while of Group D was 7.78±4.13MPa and Group E was 10.39±5.22MPa respectively. In conventional group ARI scores shows that over half of the adhesive was remaining on the surface of tooth (score 1 to 3). In self-etching primer groups ARI scores show that there was no or minor amount of adhesive remaining on the surface of tooth (score 4 and 5). SEP produces a lesser surface roughness on the enamel than conventional etching. However, statistical analysis shows significant correlation (pbracket bonding after enamel conditioning with any of the SEPs tested. The SEPs used in Groups C (Xeno V

  17. Luminescence evolution of porous GaN thin films prepared via UV-assisted electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, S.F.; Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Yam, F.K.; Abu Hassan, H.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Porous gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different surface morphologies and free carriers properties were fabricated from Si-doped GaN thin films using ultra-violet assisted electrochemical etching approach under various etching voltages. Fluctuation of luminescence signals was observed in the photoluminescence spectra of porous GaN thin films. Taking advantage of the spectral sensitivity of infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy on semiconductor materials, roles of free carriers and porous structure in controlling luminescence properties of GaN were investigated thoroughly. The results revealed that enhancement in luminescence signal is not always attained upon porosification. Although porosification is correlated to the luminescence enhancement, however, free carrier is the primary factor to enhance luminescence intensity. Due to unavoidable significant reduction of free carriers from Si-doped GaN in the porosification process, control of etching depth (i.e., thickness of porous layer formed from the Si-doped layer) is critical in fabricating porous GaN thin film with enhanced luminescence response. - Highlights: • Various pore morphologies with free carrier properties are produced by Si-doped GaN. • Free carriers are important to control the luminescence signal of porous GaN. • Enhancement of luminescence signal relies on the pore depth of Si-doped layer

  18. Fabrication of high quality GaN nanopillar arrays by dry and wet chemical etching

    OpenAIRE

    Paramanik, Dipak; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Kryluk, Sergi; Davydov, Albert V.; Talin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    We study strain relaxation and surface damage of GaN nanopillar arrays fabricated using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and post etch wet chemical treatment. We controlled the shape and surface damage of such nanopillar structures through selection of etching parameters. We compared different substrate temperatures and different chlorine-based etch chemistries to fabricate high quality GaN nanopillars. Room temperature photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements were carried ...

  19. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Cs., E-mail: vasscsaba@physx.u-szeged.hu [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ{sub FWHM} = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm{sup 2}, while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  20. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Cs.; Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B.

    2013-01-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ FWHM = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm 2 , while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm 2 . The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  1. Effects of etching time on enamel bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, P T; Swift, E J; Mudgil, A; Levine, A

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of etching time on bond strengths of composite to enamel. Proximal surfaces of extracted molars were etched with either a conventional etchant (35% phosphoric acid) or one of two dentin/enamel conditioners, 10% maleic acid (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Etchant), or a solution of oxalic acid, aluminum nitrate, and glycine (Gluma 1 & 2 Conditioner). Each agent was applied for 15, 30, or 60 seconds. Specimens etched with 35% phosphoric acid had the highest mean bond strengths at each etching time. At the manufacturer's recommended application times, the other two agents gave significantly lower shear bond strengths than phosphoric acid.

  2. Highly doped semiconductor plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for polarization selective broadband surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barho, Franziska B.; Gonzalez-Posada, Fernando; Milla, Maria-Jose; Bomers, Mario; Cerutti, Laurent; Tournié, Eric; Taliercio, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Tailored plasmonic nanoantennas are needed for diverse applications, among those sensing. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using adapted nanoantenna substrates is an efficient technique for the selective detection of molecules by their vibrational spectra, even in small quantity. Highly doped semiconductors have been proposed as innovative materials for plasmonics, especially for more flexibility concerning the targeted spectral range. Here, we report on rectangular-shaped, highly Si-doped InAsSb nanoantennas sustaining polarization switchable longitudinal and transverse plasmonic resonances in the mid-infrared. For small array periodicities, the highest reflectance intensity is obtained. Large periodicities can be used to combine localized surface plasmon resonances (SPR) with array resonances, as shown in electromagnetic calculations. The nanoantenna arrays can be efficiently used for broadband SEIRA spectroscopy, exploiting the spectral overlap between the large longitudinal or transverse plasmonic resonances and narrow infrared active absorption features of an analyte molecule. We demonstrate an increase of the vibrational line intensity up to a factor of 5.7 of infrared-active absorption features of vanillin in the fingerprint spectral region, yielding enhancement factors of three to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, an optimized readout for SPR sensing is proposed based on slightly overlapping longitudinal and transverse localized SPR.

  3. Highly doped semiconductor plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for polarization selective broadband surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barho Franziska B.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tailored plasmonic nanoantennas are needed for diverse applications, among those sensing. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA spectroscopy using adapted nanoantenna substrates is an efficient technique for the selective detection of molecules by their vibrational spectra, even in small quantity. Highly doped semiconductors have been proposed as innovative materials for plasmonics, especially for more flexibility concerning the targeted spectral range. Here, we report on rectangular-shaped, highly Si-doped InAsSb nanoantennas sustaining polarization switchable longitudinal and transverse plasmonic resonances in the mid-infrared. For small array periodicities, the highest reflectance intensity is obtained. Large periodicities can be used to combine localized surface plasmon resonances (SPR with array resonances, as shown in electromagnetic calculations. The nanoantenna arrays can be efficiently used for broadband SEIRA spectroscopy, exploiting the spectral overlap between the large longitudinal or transverse plasmonic resonances and narrow infrared active absorption features of an analyte molecule. We demonstrate an increase of the vibrational line intensity up to a factor of 5.7 of infrared-active absorption features of vanillin in the fingerprint spectral region, yielding enhancement factors of three to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, an optimized readout for SPR sensing is proposed based on slightly overlapping longitudinal and transverse localized SPR.

  4. High-Speed Semiconductor Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Data-Transmission Systems (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The main problems of providing a high-speed operation semiconductor lasers with a vertical microcavity (so-called "vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers") under amplitude modulation and ways to solve them have been considered. The influence of the internal properties of the radiating active region and the electrical parasitic elements of the equivalent circuit of lasers are discussed. An overview of approaches that lead to an increase of the cutoff parasitic frequency, an increase of the differential gain of the active region, the possibility of the management of mode emission composition and the lifetime of photons in the optical microcavities, and reduction of the influence of thermal effects have been presented. The achieved level of modulation bandwidth of ˜30 GHz is close to the maximum achievable for the classical scheme of the direct-current modulation, which makes it necessary to use a multilevel modulation format to further increase the information capacity of optical channels constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  5. Determination of etching parameters for pulsed XeF2 etching of silicon using chamber pressure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipta; Baboly, M. G.; Elahi, M. M.; Abbas, K.; Butner, J.; Piñon, D.; Ward, T. L.; Hieber, Tyler; Schuberth, Austin; Leseman, Z. C.

    2018-04-01

    A technique is presented for determination of the depletion of the etchant, etched depth, and instantaneous etch rate for Si etching with XeF2 in a pulsed etching system in real time. The only experimental data required is the pressure data collected temporally. Coupling the pressure data with the knowledge of the chemical reactions allows for the determination of the etching parameters of interest. Using this technique, it is revealed that pulsed etching processes are nonlinear, with the initial etch rate being the highest and monotonically decreasing as the etchant is depleted. With the pulsed etching system introduced in this paper, the highest instantaneous etch rate of silicon was recorded to be 19.5 µm min-1 for an initial pressure of 1.2 Torr for XeF2. Additionally, the same data is used to determine the rate constant for the reaction of XeF2 with Si; the reaction is determined to be second order in nature. The effect of varying the exposed surface area of Si as well as the effect that pressure has on the instantaneous etch rate as a function of time is shown applying the same technique. As a proof of concept, an AlN resonator is released using XeF2 pulses to remove a sacrificial poly-Si layer.

  6. Ion-beam etching of ramps in thin film heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, P. B.; Mozhaeva, Ju. E.; Komissinskii, P. V.

    2002-01-01

    Ion-beam patterning of thin films and heterostructures is one of the most common processes of fabrication of thin film devices and structures. 'Directed' nature of ion-beam etching provides a possibility to form certain profiles on the films surface, like shallow ramps, when etching is performed at some inclination angle. A simple geometrical model is presented, describing the formation of a ramp as a shadow of the mask on the film surface. Good agreement with the experiment can be obtained if the mask etching is taken into account. The etching at the opposite direction ('high-angle etching') also can be satisfactory described by the model. The profile of the slope - positive or negative curvature, pits near the end of the ramp - is discussed as a function of the etch rate dependence on the incidence angle. Such etch rate dependences for some often used materials were measured. An area of instability of the resulting ramp shape is found for the 'high-angle etching'. The model is compared with the experimental data reported by other groups. Finally ion-beam etching of a rotating sample at non-normal incidence is discussed, the results are compared with experimental data. (Authors)

  7. Introduction to semiconductor manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    IC chip manufacturing processes, such as photolithography, etch, CVD, PVD, CMP, ion implantation, RTP, inspection, and metrology, are complex methods that draw upon many disciplines. [i]Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies, Second Edition[/i] thoroughly describes the complicated processes with minimal mathematics, chemistry, and physics; it covers advanced concepts while keeping the contents accessible to readers without advanced degrees. Designed as a textbook for college students, this book provides a realistic picture of the semiconductor industry and an in-depth discuss

  8. On the surface recombination current of metal-insulator semiconductor inversion layer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto M.

    1981-01-01

    voltages Voc were found to be lower than for ~ cells. The measured differences in Voc were higher than expected from the dark characteristics which is explained as a difference in the surface recombination current due to a higher interface state density Nss of ~ cells. Journal of Applied Physics...

  9. Miniaturized Quantum Semiconductor Surface Plasmon Resonance Platform for Detection of Biological Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Dubowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a portable, inexpensive and semi-automated biosensing platform, or lab-on-a-chip, is a vision shared by many researchers and venture industries. Under this scope, we have investigated the application of optical emission from quantum well (QW microstructures for monitoring surface phenomena on gold layers remaining in proximity (<300 nm with QW microstructures. The uncollimated QW radiation excites surface plasmons (SP and through the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect allows for detection of small perturbation in the density surface adsorbates. The SPR technology is already commonly used for biochemical characterization in pharmaceutical industries, but the reduction of the distance between the SP exciting source and the biosensing platform to a few hundreds of nanometers is an innovative approach enabling us to achieve an ultimate miniaturization of the device. We evaluate the signal quality of this nanophotonic QW-SPR device using hyperspectral-imaging technology, and we compare its performance with that of a standard prism-based commercial system. Two standard biochemical agents are employed for this characterization study: bovine serum albumin and inactivated influenza A virus. With an innovative conical method of SPR data collection, we demonstrate that individually collected SPR scan, each in less than 2.2 s, yield a resolution of the detection at 1.5 × 10−6 RIU.

  10. Surface etching mechanism of carbon-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material in fluorocarbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lanlan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Li, Le; Guo, Tianqi; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Recently, carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (CGST) phase change material has been widely researched for being highly promising material for future phase change memory application. In this paper, the reactive-ion etching of CGST film in CF{sub 4}/Ar plasma is studied. Compared with GST, the etch rate of CGST is relatively lower due to the existence of carbon which reduce the concentration of F or CF{sub x} reactive radicals. It was found that Argon plays an important role in defining the sidewall edge acuity. Compared with GST, more physical bombardment is required to obtain vertical sidewall of CGST. The effect of fluorocarbon gas on the damage of the etched CGST film was also investigated. A Ge- and Sb-deficient layer with tens of nanometers was observed by TEM combining with XPS analysis. The reaction between fluorocarbon plasma and CGST is mainly dominated by the diffusion and consumption of reactive fluorine radicals through the fluorocarbon layer into the CGST substrate material. The formation of damage layer is mainly caused by strong chemical reactivity, low volatility of reaction compounds and weak ion bombardment. (orig.)

  11. Reactive ion etching of microphotonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Vanajek, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Fabrication of microphotonic structures such as planar waveguides and other periodic structures based on silicon technology has become increasingly important due to the potential for integration of planar optical devices. We have fabricated various periodic microstructures on silicon wafers using standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). For optical applications the surface roughness and the sidewall angle or steepness of microstructures are the most critical factors. In particular, sidewall roughness of the etched waveguide core accounts for most of the optical propagation loss. We show that by varying the main RIE parameters such as gas pressure, RF power and CF 4 /Ar/O 2 gas composition it is possible to produce microstructures with near-vertical sidewalls and very smooth surfaces. In addition to plasma etching conditions, poor edge quality of the mask often causes sidewall roughness. We employed Ni/Cr metal masks in these experiments for deep etching, and used Ar + ion milling instead of wet chemical etching to open the mask. This improves the edge quality of the mask and ultimately results in smooth sidewalls

  12. Cardiomyocyte differentiation of embryonic stem cells on the surface of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, Sergio; Barra, Mario; Manganelli, Genesia; Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Filosa, Stefania; Cassinese, Antonio; Guido, Stefano

    2013-06-25

    Electrically active supports provide new horizons for bio-sensing and artificial organ design. Cell-based electrochemical biosensors can be used as bio-microactuators, applied to the biorobotics. Microchip-based bioassay systems can provide real-time cell analysis for preclinical drug design or for intelligent drug delivery devices. In regenerative medicine, electrically active supports can be used as bio-reactors to monitor cell activity, optimize the stem cell differentiation and control cell and tissue morphology. Biocompatibility and direct interaction of the electrically active surface with the cell surface is a critical aspect of this technology.
 In this work embryonic stem cells (AK7 ES) have been cultivated on the surface of thin films achieved through the evaporation of two aromatic compounds (T6 and PDI-8CN2 ) of particular interest for the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFET). One of the potential advantages offered by the application of OFETs as bio-electronic supports is that they represent a powerful tool for the detection of bio-signals because their electrically active surface is an organic film.
 The cell morphology on T6 and PDI-8CN2 surface shows to be similar to the usual cell appearance, as obtained when standard culture support (petri dish) are employed. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate that stem cells can be lead to differentiation up to "beating" cardiomyocytes even on these electrically-active organic films.
 This investigation encourages the perspective to develop OFET-based biosensors in order to accurately characterize stem cells during the cardiac differentiation process and eventually increase their differentiation efficiency.

  13. Theoretical study of the noble metals on semiconductor surfaces and Ti-base shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yungui.

    1994-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of the (√3 x √3) R30 degrees Ag/Si(111) and (√3 x √3) R30 degrees Au/Si(111) surfaces are investigated using first principles total energy calculations. We have tested almost all experimentally proposed structural models for both surfaces and found the energetically most favorable model for each of them. The lowest energy model structure of the (√3 x √3) R30 degrees Ag/Si(111) surface consists of a top layer of Ag atoms arranged as ''honeycomb-chained-trimers'' lying above a distorted ''missing top layer'' Si(111) substrate. The coverage of Ag is 1 monolayer (ML). We find that the honeycomb structure observed in STM images arise from the electronic charge densities of an empty surface band near the Fermi level. The electronic density of states of this model gives a ''pseudo-gap'' around the Fermi level, which is consistent with experimental results. The lowest energy model for the (√3 x √3) R30 degrees Au/Si(111) surface is a conjugate honeycomb-chained-trimer (CHCT-1) configuration which consists of a top layer of trimers formed by 1 ML Au atoms lying above a ''missing top layer'' Si(111) substrate with a honeycomb-chained-trimer structure for its first layer. The structures of Au and Ag are in fact quite similar and belong to the same class of structural models. However, small variation in the structural details gives rise to quite different observed STM images, as revealed in the theoretical calculations. The electronic charge density from bands around the Fermi level for the (√3 x √3) R30 degrees, Au/Si(111) surface also gives a good description of the images observed in STM experiments. First principles calculations are performed to study the electronic and structural properties of a series of Ti-base binary alloys TiFe, TiNi, TiPd, TiMo, and TiAu in the B2 structure

  14. Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mu-Tian; Liu, Shao-Ding; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2008-04-01

    We theoretically investigated the dynamics of exciton populations [ρyy(t ) and ρxx(t )] on two orthogonal polarization eigenstates (∣x⟩ and ∣y⟩) and the polarization ratio P(t )=[ρyy(t )-ρxx(t )]/[ρyy(t )+ρxx(t )] of an anisotropic InGaAs quantum dot modulated by the surface plasmon of an Au nanorod (NR). In the resonance of longitudinal surface plasmon of AuNR, the polarization ratio P(t ) increases from 0.22 to 0.99 during the excitation due to the efficient enhancement of Rabi frequency of the transition between the ∣y⟩ and vacuum states, and decreases from 0.02 to -0.92 after the excitation pulse due to the enhancement of decay rate of the ∣y⟩ state. This offers an approach to modulate the dynamic polarization ratio of radiative emissions.

  15. Biexciton relaxation associated with dissociation into a surface polariton pair in semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Matsuura, Shimpei; Uchiyama, Shoichi; Saito, Kentarao; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Ajiki, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    We study the biexciton relaxation process in CuCl films ranging from 6 to 200 nm. The relaxation time is measured as the dephasing time and the lifetime. We observe a unique thickness dependence of the biexciton relaxation time and also obtain an ultrafast relaxation time with a timescale as short as 100 fs, while the exciton lifetime monotonically decreases with increasing thickness. By analyzing the exciton-photon coupling energy for a surface polariton, we theoretically calculate the biexciton relaxation time as a function of the thickness. The calculated dependence qualitatively reproduces the observed relaxation time, indicating that the biexciton dissociation into a surface polariton pair is one of the major biexciton relaxation processes.

  16. Plasmonic reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles on a semiconductor surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosobukin, V. A.; Korotchenkov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    A theory of plasmonic differential anisotropic reflection of light from nanoparticles located near the interface between media is developed. The model of a monolayer consisting of identical ellipsoidal metal particles occupying sites of a rectangular lattice is investigated. Effective plasmonic polarizabilities of nanoparticles in the layer are calculated self-consistently using the Green's function technique in the quasipoint dipole approximation. The local-field effect caused by anisotropic dipole plasmons of particles in the layer and their image dipoles is taken into account. The lately observed resonant reflectance anisotropy spectra of indium nanoclusters on InAs surface are explained by the difference between frequencies of plasmons with the orthogonal polarizations in the surface plane. The difference between the plasmon frequencies is attributed to anisotropy of the particles shape or/and the layer structure; the signs of frequency difference for the two types of anisotropy being different.

  17. Local emission spectroscopy of surface micrograins in A{sup III}B{sup V} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, N. D., E-mail: ndzhukov@rambler.ru; Gluhovskoy, E. G.; Mosiyash, D. S. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The density-of-states spectra and the parameters of levels of electron states in locally chosen surface micrograins of indium antimonide and arsenide and gallium arsenide are studied with a tunneling electron microscope in the field-emission mode of measurements. By correlating the current–voltage characteristics with the formula for the probability of emission via levels, the activation energies of the levels (ψ) and the lifetimes of electrons at the levels (τ) are determined. Two types of levels for electron localization are identified. These are levels in the micrograin bulk (ψ ≈ 0.75, 1.15, and 1.59 eV for n-InSb, n-InAs, and n-GaAs, respectively; τ ~ 10{sup –8}–10{sup –7} s) and in the surface region of an i-InSb micrograin (ψ ~ 0.73, 1.33, 1.85, 2.15, 5.1 eV; τ ≈ 5 × 10{sup –8}–3 × 10{sup –7} s). A physical model involving the Coulomb-interaction-induced localization of light electrons and their size quantization determined by the electron effective mass, energy, and concentration and by the surface curvature of the micrograin is proposed.

  18. Cyclic etching of tin-doped indium oxide using hydrogen-induced modified layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akiko; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2018-06-01

    The rate of etching of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and the effects of a hydrogen-induced modified layer on cyclic, multistep thin-layer etching were investigated. It was found that ITO cyclic etching is possible by precisely controlling the hydrogen-induced modified layer. Highly selective etching of ITO/SiO2 was also investigated, and it was suggested that cyclic etching by selective surface adsorption of Si can precisely control the etch rates of ITO and SiO2, resulting in an almost infinite selectivity for ITO over SiO2 and in improved profile controllability.

  19. Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor

  20. Atomic layer deposition precursor step repetition and surface plasma pretreatment influence on semiconductor–insulator–semiconductor heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talkenberg, Florian, E-mail: florian.talkenberg@ipht-jena.de; Illhardt, Stefan; Schmidl, Gabriele; Schleusener, Alexander; Sivakov, Vladimir [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Radnóczi, György Zoltán; Pécz, Béla [Centre for Energy Research, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly-Thege Miklós u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Dikhanbayev, Kadyrjan; Mussabek, Gauhar [Department of Physics and Engineering, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Ave., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Gudovskikh, Alexander [Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre, St. Petersburg Academic University, Russian Academy of Sciences, Hlopina Str. 8/3, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Semiconductor–insulator–semiconductor heterojunction solar cells were prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The silicon surface was treated with oxygen and hydrogen plasma in different orders before dielectric layer deposition. A plasma-enhanced ALD process was applied to deposit dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the plasma pretreated n-type Si(100) substrate. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO or AZO) was deposited by thermal ALD and serves as transparent conductive oxide. Based on transmission electron microscopy studies the presence of thin silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) layer was detected at the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. The SiO{sub x} formation depends on the initial growth behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and has significant influence on solar cell parameters. The authors demonstrate that a hydrogen plasma pretreatment and a precursor dose step repetition of a single precursor improve the initial growth behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and avoid the SiO{sub x} generation. Furthermore, it improves the solar cell performance, which indicates a change of the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface states.

  1. Intersubband surface plasmon polaritons in all-semiconductor planar plasmonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZałuŻny, M.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically discuss properties of intersubband surface plasmon polaritons (ISPPs) supported by the system consisting of a multiple quantum well (MQW) slab embedded into planar resonator with highly doped semiconducting claddings playing the role of cavity mirrors. Symmetric structures, where the MQW slab occupies the whole space between the claddings and asymmetric structures, where the MQW occupy only half of the space between mirrors, are considered. We focus mainly on the nearly degenerate structures where intersubband frequency is close to frequency of the surface plasmon of the mirrors. The ISPP characteristics are calculated numerically using a semiclassical approach based on the transfer matrix formalism and the effective-medium approximation. The claddings are described by the lossless Drude model. The possibility of engineering the dispersion of the ISPP branches is demonstrated. In particular, for certain parameters of the asymmetric structures we observe the formation of the multimode ISPP branches with two zero group velocity points. We show that the properties of the ISPP branches are reasonably well interpreted employing quasiparticle picture provided that the concept of the mode overlap factor is generalized, taking into account the dispersive character of the mirrors. In addition to this, we demonstrate that the lossless dispersion characteristics of the ISPP branches obtained in the paper are consistent with the angle-resolved reflection-absorption spectra of the GaAlAs-based realistic plasmonic resonators.

  2. Ab initio-based approach to structural change of compound semiconductor surfaces during MBE growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomonori; Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji

    2009-01-01

    Phase diagrams of GaAs and GaN surfaces are systematically investigated by using our ab initio-based approach in conjunction with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The phase diagrams are obtained as a function of growth parameters such as temperature and beam equivalent pressure (BEP). The versatility of our approach is exemplified by the phase diagram calculations for GaAs(0 0 1) surfaces, where the stable phases and those phase boundaries are successfully determined as functions of temperature and As 2 and As 4 BEPs. The initial growth processes are clarified by the phase diagram calculations for GaAs(1 1 1)B-(2×2). The calculated results demonstrate that the As-trimer desorption on the GaAs(1 1 1)B-(2×2) with Ga adatoms occurs beyond 500-700 K while the desorption without Ga adatoms does beyond 800-1000 K. This self-surfactant effect induced by Ga adsorption crucially affects the initial growth of GaAs on the GaAs(1 1 1)B-(2×2). Furthermore, the phase diagram calculations for GaN(0 0 0 1) suggests that Ga adsorption or desorption during GaN MBE growth can easily change the pseudo-(1×1) to the (2×2)-Ga via newly found (1×1) and vice versa. On the basis of this finding, the possibility of ghost island formation during MBE growth is discussed.

  3. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  4. Development of scanning electrochemical microscopy for the investigation of photocatalysis at semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Sofia Margarida Martins Costa da

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development and application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to investigate interfacial photoelectrochemical processes occurring at supported TiO 2 surfaces. The new SECM approach, involving both amperometric and potentiometric electrodes, was used to monitor interfacial photoprocesses with high spatial resolution. A new in situ photoelectrochemical approach to chemical actinometry has been developed and used to determine the light flux through a quartz fibre employed in the SECM system. In this system an ultramicroelectrode (UME) probe is positioned with high precision at a known distance close to a TiO 2 -coated fibre and used to detect reactants or products of the ongoing photodegradation process. The microelectrochemical actinometry approach was developed using the well-known liquid phase potassium ferrioxalate actinometer. The approach involved recording the steady-state current for Fe(lll) reduction at an SECM tip positioned close to the fibre. A step function in the light flux (off-on) was then applied and the resulting chronoamperometric behaviour due to the reduction of Fe(lll) at the UME was recorded as a function of tip-fibre separation distance. A theoretical model has been developed to simulate experimental current-time profiles, which allowed the light flux through the quartz fibre to be quantified. An experimental approach to investigating the photoelectrochemical reduction of oxygen at UV-illuminated TiO 2 surfaces, in aqueous aerated and oxygenated electrolyte solutions, in the absence and presence of hole scavengers, has been developed. In this new approach the chronoamperometric behaviour for oxygen reduction was recorded at an UME tip after stepping the light flux at a back-illuminated TiO 2 film on and off. The kinetics of the reduction process were interpreted through various theoretical models proposed in the literature. This experimental approach demonstrated a significant depletion of the

  5. Inductively coupled plasma etching of III-V antimonides in BCl{sub 3}/SiCl{sub 4} etch chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)], E-mail: swaminak@ece.osu.edu; Janardhanan, P.E.; Sulima, O.V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaSb using BCl{sub 3}/SiCl{sub 4} etch chemistry has been investigated. The etch rates were studied as a function of bias power, inductively coupled plasma source power, plasma chemistry and chamber pressure. The etched surfaces remain smooth and stoichiometric over the entire range of plasma conditions investigated. The knowledge gained in etching GaSb was applied to etching AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb in order to fabricate heterojunction phototransistors. As expected, InGaAsSb etch rate was much lower compared to the corresponding value for GaSb, mainly due to the relatively low volatility of indium chlorides. For a wide range of plasma conditions, the selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb was close to unity, which is desirable for fabricating etched mirrors and gratings for Sb-based mid-infrared laser diodes. The surface roughness and the etch profile were examined for the etched GaSb, AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb samples using scanning electron microscope. The high etch rates achieved ({approx} 4 {mu}m/min) facilitated deep etching of GaSb. A single layer, soft mask (AZ-4903 photoresist) was used to etch GaSb, with etch depth {approx} 90 {mu}m. The deep dry etching of GaSb has many important applications including etching substrate windows for backside-illuminated photodetectors for the mid-infrared wavelength range.

  6. Optimization of permanganic etching of polyethylenes for scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, K.L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The permanganic etching technique has been studied as a function of time, temperature, and concentration for a series of polyethylenes. Kinetic studies show that a film of reaction products builds up on the surface, impeding further etching, an effect which is greatest for the lowest-crystallinity polymers. SEM studies combined with EDS show that the film contains sulfur, potassium and some manganese. An artifact is produced by the etching process which is impossible to remove by washing procedures if certain limits of time, temperature, and concentration are exceeded. For lower-crystallinity polyethylenes multiple etching and washing steps were required for optimal resolution. Plastic deformation during specimen preparation, whether from scratches or freeze fracturing, enhances artifact formation. When appropriate procedures are used, virtually artifact-free surfaces can be produced allowing a combination of permanganic etching and scanning electron microscopy to give a rapid method for detailed morphological characterization of bulk specimens

  7. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  8. Unveiling the wet chemical etching characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane film for soft micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, A; Maji, D; Das, S

    2017-01-01

    Micromachining of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure by wet chemical etching is explored for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic applications. A 100 µ m thick PDMS film was patterned with different microstructure designs by wet chemical etching using a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 16 H 36 FN) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (C 5 H 9 NO) mixture solution with 3:1 volume ratio after lithography for studying etching characteristics. The patterning parameters, such as etch rate, surface roughness, pH of etchant solution with time, were thoroughly investigated. A detailed study of surface morphology with etching time revealed nonlinear behaviour of the PDMS surface roughness and etch rate. A maximum rate of 1.45 µ m min −1 for 10 min etching with surface roughness of 360 nm was achieved. A new approach of wet chemical etching with pH controlled doped etchant was introduced for lower surface roughness of etched microstructures, and a constant etch rate during etching. Variation of the etching rate and surface roughness by pH controlled etching was performed by doping 5–15 gm l −1 of silicic acid (SiO 2xH2 O) into the traditional etchant solution. PDMS etching by silicic acid doped etchant solution showed a reduction in surface roughness from 400 nm to 220 nm for the same 15 µ m etching. This study is beneficial for micromachining of various MEMS and microfluidic structures such as micropillars, microchannels, and other PDMS microstructures. (paper)

  9. The chemical and electrochemical anisotropic etching of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, E.

    1997-06-01

    The success of silicon IC technology in producing a wide variety of microstructures relies heavily on the orientation dependant etching observed for silicon in alkaline media. Despite the rapid growth of this industry, the chemical and electrochemical mechanisms by which anisotropic etching occurs remain poorly understood. The most common etchant systems in use are ethylenediamine-pyrocatechol-water (EPW) and potassium hydroxide-isopropanol-water (KOH-IPA), and whilst these systems are highly plane selective they each have distinct disadvantages. The occurrence of inhomogeneities such as micropyramids and pits on the surface of etched substrates is a particularly disadvantageous characteristic of many alkaline etching systems. A complete understanding of the chemical and electrochemical anisotropic etching mechanisms is essential in order to obtain more reproducible etching, improved etch rate ratios and the development of more reliable etching baths. Wet chemical etching experiments to evaluate the etching rates for the different alkali metal cations have shown that similar etch rates are observed for LiOH, NaOH and KOH but those of RbOH and CsOH are significantly lower. The presence of impurities was shown to worsen the etched wafer's surface finish obtained in these etching baths. Additives have been shown to dramatically improve the surface finish with the presence of IPA in conjunction with etchant oxygenation virtually eliminating all surface defects. Electrochemical experiments were used to assess the electrochemical behaviour of Si p-(100) in of a wide variety of etchants and variations were seen according to the etchant used. A.C impedance spectroscopy showed a variation in the flat-band potential (V FB ) according to alkali metal hydroxide etchant used. These trends were similarly observed in the presence of isopropanol. Oxygenation was observed to reproducibly alter the flat-band potentials. A.c impedance spectroscopic studies additionally confirmed the

  10. Electron spectroscopy of the interface carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the layered semiconductor In4Se3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiy, P.V.; Musyanovych, A.V.; Nenchuk, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the interface carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the layered semiconductor In 4 Se 3 crystals are presented. The carbon coating formation occurs as the result of interaction of the air and residual gases atmosphere in ultra high vacuum (UHV) Auger spectrometer chamber with atomic clean interlayer cleavage surfaces of the crystals. The kinetics and peculiarities of interfacial carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the crystals, elemental and phase composition of the interface have been studied by quantitative XPS, AES and mass-spectroscopy

  11. Engineering interfacial properties of organic semiconductors through soft-contact lamination and surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Andrew Leo

    Organic electronics is a topic of interest due to its potential for low temperature and solution processing for large area and flexible applications. Examples of organic electronic devices are already available on the market; however these are, in general, still rather expensive. In order to fully realize inexpensive and efficient organic electronics, the properties of organic films need to be understood and strategies developed to take advantage of these properties to improve device performance. This work focuses on two strategies that can be used to control charge transport at interfaces with active organic semiconducting thin films. These strategies are studied and verified with a range of photoemission spectroscopy, surface probe microscopy, and electrical measurements. Vacuum evaporated molecular organic devices have long used layer stacking of different materials as a method of dividing roles in a device and modifying energy level alignment to improve device performance and efficiency. Applying this type of architecture for solution-processed devices, on the other hand, is nontrivial, as an issue of removal of or mixing with underlying layers arises. We present and examine here soft-contact lamination as a viable technique for depositing solution-processed multilayer structures. The energetics at homojunctions of a couple of air-stable polymers is investigated. Charge transport is then compared between a two-layer film and a single-layer film of equivalent thicknesses. The interface formed by soft-contact lamination is found to be transparent with respect to electronic charge carriers. We also propose a technique for modifying electronic level alignment at active organic-organic heterojunctions using dipolar self-assembled monolayers (SAM). An ultra-thin metal oxide is first deposited via a gentle low temperature chemical vapor deposition as an adhesion layer for the SAM. The deposition is shown to be successful for a variety of organic films. A series of

  12. Experimental study of a RF plasma source with helicon configuration in the mix Ar/H_2. Application to the chemical etching of carbon materials surfaces in the framework of the plasma-wall interactions studies of ITER's divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, T.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of the interaction wall-plasma is important in thermonuclear devices. The purpose of this work is to design a very low pressure atomic plasma source in order to study chemical etching of carbon surfaces in the same conditions as edge plasma in tokamaks. The experimental work has consisted in 2 stages: first, the characterisation of the new helicon configuration reactor developed for this research and secondly the atomic hydrogen source used for the chemical etching. The first chapter recalls what thermonuclear fusion is. The helicon configuration reactor as well as its diagnostics (optical emission spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence - LIF, and Langmuir probe) are described in the second chapter. The third chapter deals with the different coupling modes (RF power and plasma) identified in pure argon plasmas and how they are obtained by setting experimental parameters such as injected RF power, magnetic fields or pressure. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the study of the difference in behavior between the electronic density and the relative density of metastable Ar"+ ions. The last chapter presents the results in terms of mass losses of the carbon material surfaces obtained with the atomic hydrogen source. (A.C.)

  13. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  14. Crystal growth vs. conventional acid etching: A comparative evaluation of etch patterns, penetration depths, and bond strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanna Raghu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. Twenty percent sulfated polyacrylic acid provided adequate tensile bond strength. It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength.

  15. MBE System for Antimonide Based Semiconductor Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lester, Luke

    1999-01-01

    .... SLR-770 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing system. The SLR-770 has been invaluable in the study of plasma etching of AlGaAsSb and GaSb-materials that form the backbone of antimonide-based semiconductor lasers...

  16. Scanning tunnel microscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, C.

    1997-09-01

    In this work a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is utilized as a surface sensitive tool for local characterization of internal potential profiles of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. The STM is operated at variable temperatures under ambient conditions, i.e. either in air or in the variable temperature insert of a cryostat. Distinct local differences between current-voltage curves taken on inverted heterostructures, which were patterned by wet chemically etching, are found. The spectroscopic differences can be ascribed to the internal potential profile in the subsurface regions of the sample. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) is applied to study quantum wire regions. It is found that the magnitude of the CITS-current is an indirect measure of edge depletion zones, which are much larger at 4.2 K. Direct measurements of relevant energy levels in quantum structures were obtained by ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM). It is shown that this 3-terminal technique is an excellent tool for transport characterization of minibands formed in semiconductor superlattices. Furthermore, low dimensional electron gases are shown to act as very efficient collector electrodes at low temperatures. For the first time, BEEM experiments were performed at 4.2 K. The enhanced thermal resolution at 4.2 K allows an analysis of the relevant scattering processes. It is found that the collector current is strongly influenced by diffusive scattering at the metal/semiconductor interface. (author)

  17. Thermal etching of silver: Influence of rolling defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollivier, M., E-mail: o.maelig@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Harker, R.M. [AWE Aldermaston, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Chater, R.J.; Gourlay, C.M. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Silver is well known to be thermally etched in an oxygen-rich atmosphere and has been extensively studied in the laboratory to understand thermal etching and to limit its effect when this material is used as a catalyst. Yet, in many industrial applications the surface of rolled silver sheets is used without particular surface preparation. Here, it is shown by combining FIB-tomography, FIB-SIMS and analytical SEM that the kinetics of thermal etch pitting are significantly faster on rolled Ag surfaces than on polished surfaces. This occurs due to range of interacting phenomena including (i) the reaction of subsurface carbon-contamination with dissolved oxygen to form pores that grow to intersect the surface, (ii) surface reconstruction around corrosion pits and surface scratches, and (iii) sublimation at low pressure and high temperature. A method to identify subsurface pores is developed to show that the pores have (111) and (100) internal facets and may be filled with a gas coming from the chemical reaction of oxygen and carbon contamination. - Highlights: Thermal etching of industrial silver sheets vs. polished silver sheets Effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal etching of silver: surface and subsurface characterization Link between etch pitting and defects induced by rolling. FIB-tomography coupled with EBSD for determining crystal planes of the facets of subsurface pores. FIB-SIMS characterization to probe the gas confined inside subsurface pores.

  18. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M. P.; Hihn, J. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  19. Enhanced photoluminescence from porous silicon by hydrogen-plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Gu, C.Z.; Li, J.J.; Wang, Z.L.; Shi, C.Y.; Xu, P.; Zhu, K.; Liu, Y.L.

    2005-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) was etched by hydrogen plasma. On the surface a large number of silicon nanocone arrays and nanocrystallites were formed. It is found that the photoluminescence of the H-etched porous silicon is highly enhanced. Correspondingly, three emission centers including red, green, and blue emissions are shown to contribute to the enhanced photoluminescence of the H-etched PS, which originate from the recombination of trapped electrons with free holes due to Si=O bonding at the surface of the silicon nanocrystallites, the quantum size confinement effect, and oxygen vacancy in the surface SiO 2 layer, respectively. In particular, the increase of SiO x (x<2) formed on the surface of the H-etched porous silicon plays a very important role in enhancing the photoluminescence properties

  20. Metal-assisted chemical etch porous silicon formation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2004-09-14

    A thin discontinuous layer of metal such as Au, Pt, or Au/Pd is deposited on a silicon surface. The surface is then etched in a solution including HF and an oxidant for a brief period, as little as a couple seconds to one hour. A preferred oxidant is H.sub.2 O.sub.2. Morphology and light emitting properties of porous silicon can be selectively controlled as a function of the type of metal deposited, Si doping type, silicon doping level, and/or etch time. Electrical assistance is unnecessary during the chemical etching of the invention, which may be conducted in the presence or absence of illumination.

  1. Consideration of correlativity between litho and etching shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2012-03-01

    We developed an effective method for evaluating the correlation of shape of Litho and Etching pattern. The purpose of this method, makes the relations of the shape after that is the etching pattern an index in wafer same as a pattern shape on wafer made by a lithography process. Therefore, this method measures the characteristic of the shape of the wafer pattern by the lithography process and can predict the hotspot pattern shape by the etching process. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used wafer CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and lithography management, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the semiconductor business. 2-dimensional shape of wafer quantification is important as optimal solution over these problems. Although 1-dimensional shape measurement has been performed by the conventional technique, 2-dimensional shape management is needed in the mass production line under the influence of RET. We developed the technique of analyzing distribution of shape edge performance as the shape management technique. In this study, we conducted experiments for correlation method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional litho and etch evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a litho and etch was considered. It is possible to analyze variability of the edge of the same position with high precision.

  2. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching on Fatigue Limits of Self-etching Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Scheidel, D D; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue limit (SFL) testing to determine the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel and dentin prior to application of self-etch adhesives for bonding resin composite to these substrates. Three self-etch adhesives--1) G- ænial Bond (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); 2) OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp, Orange, CA, USA); and 3) Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE Dental Products, St Paul, MN, USA)--were used to bond Z100 Restorative resin composite to enamel and dentin surfaces. A stainless-steel metal ring with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm was used to bond the resin composite to flat-ground (4000 grit) tooth surfaces for determination of both SBS and SFL. Fifteen specimens each were used to determine initial SBS to human enamel/dentin, with and without pre-etching with a 35% phosphoric acid (Ultra-Etch, Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT, USA) for 15 seconds prior to the application of the adhesives. A staircase method of fatigue testing (25 specimens for each test) was then used to determine the SFL of resin composite bonded to enamel/dentin using a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test were used for analysis of SBS data, and a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for the SFL data. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the area of the bonded restorative/tooth interface. For all three adhesive systems, phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel demonstrated significantly higher (padhesives clearly demonstrated different tendencies between enamel and dentin. The effect of using phosphoric acid, prior to the application of the self-etching adhesives, on SBS and SFL was dependent on the adhesive material and tooth substrate and should be carefully considered in clinical situations.

  3. Future developments in etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many laboratories engaged in the field of personal neutron dosimetry are interested in developing better etching processes and improving the CR-39 detecting materials. To know how much effort must still be devoted to the development of etch track dosimetry, it is necessary to understand the advantages. limitations and degree of exploitation of the currently available techniques. So much has been learned about the chemical and electrochemical etching processes that an optimised combination of etching processes could make possible the elimination of many of the existing shortcomings. Limitations of etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry arise mainly because the registration occurs only on the detector surface. These damage type detectors are based on radiation induced chain scission processes in polymers, which result in hole-type tracks in solids. The converse approach, yet to be discovered, would be the development of cure-track detectors, where radiation induced cross linking between organic polymer chains could result in solid tracks in liquids. (author)

  4. Etch characteristics of BCB film using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Pil Seung; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il; Kim, Sang Gi

    2003-01-01

    The etching characteristics and mechanism of BCB thin films were investigated as a function of CF 4 /O 2 mixing ratio in ICP system. Maximum etch rate of 830 nm/min is obtained at the mixture of O 2 /CF 4 (=80%/20%). OES actinometry results showed that volume density of oxygen atoms fallows the same extreme behavior with the BCB etch rate, while the density of fluorine atoms changes monotonously. Therefore chemical destruction of BCB by oxygen atoms was proposed as the dominant etch mechanism. XPS analysis showed that the addition of CF 4 to O 2 helps to volatilize silicon atoms containing in BCB but leads to the formation of F-containing polymer layer. The profile of etched BCB film was close to 90 .deg. and the surface was clean

  5. Photonic jet μ-etching: from static to dynamic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrochman, A.; Lecler, S.; Zelgowski, J.; Mermet, F.; Fontaine, J.; Tumbelaka, B. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Photonic jet etching is a direct-laser etching method applying photonic jet phenomenon to concentrate the laser beam onto the proceeded material. We call photonic jet the phenomenon of the localized sub-wavelength propagative beam generated at the shadow-side surfaces of micro-scale dielectric cylinders or spheres, when they are illuminated by an electromagnetic plane-wave or laser beam. This concentration has made possible the laser to yield sub-μ etching marks, despite the laser was a near-infrared with nano-second pulses sources. We will present these achievements from the beginning when some spherical glasses were used for static etching to dynamic etching using an optical fiber with a semi-elliptical tip.

  6. On the use of the plasma in III-V semiconductor processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.; Capezzuto, P.; Losurdo, M. [C.N.R.-Centro di Studio per la Chimica dei Plasmi Dipartimento di Chimica-Universita di Bari via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    The manufacture of usable devices based on III-V semiconductor materials is a complex process requiring epilayer growth, anisotropic etching, defect passivation, surface oxidation and substrate preparation processes. The combination of plasma based methods with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) offers some real advantages: {ital in} {ital situ} production and preactivation of PH{sub 3} and sample preparation using H-atom. The detailed understanding and use of the plasma (using mass spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy, laser reflectance interferometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry) as applied to InP material is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  8. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang@semi.ac.cn; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua [Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integrated Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  9. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  10. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-03-01

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  11. Effects of surface plasma treatment on threshold voltage hysteresis and instability in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) AlGaN/GaN heterostructure HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Z. H.; Lee, K. B.; Roberts, J. W.; Guiney, I.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Cheong, J. S.; Li, P.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Chalker, P. R.; Houston, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    In a bid to understand the commonly observed hysteresis in the threshold voltage (VTH) in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors during forward gate bias stress, we have analyzed a series of measurements on devices with no surface treatment and with two different plasma treatments before the in-situ Al2O3 deposition. The observed changes between samples were quasi-equilibrium VTH, forward bias related VTH hysteresis, and electrical response to reverse bias stress. To explain these effects, a disorder induced gap state model, combined with a discrete level donor, at the dielectric/semiconductor interface was employed. Technology Computer-Aided Design modeling demonstrated the possible differences in the interface state distributions that could give a consistent explanation for the observations.

  12. The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by KOH anisotropic wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikida, M; Inagaki, N; Sasaki, H; Amakawa, H; Fukuzawa, K; Sato, K

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of selective corrugation removal by anisotropic wet etching—which reduces a periodic corrugation, called 'scalloping', formed on the sidewalls of microstructures by the Bosch process in deep reactive-ion etching (D-RIE)—was investigated. In particular, the corrugation-removal mechanism was analyzed by using the etching rate distribution pattern, and two equations for predicting the corrugation-removal time by the etching were derived. A Si{1 0 0} wafer was first etched by D-RIE at a depth of 29.4 µm (60 cycles) to form the corrugation on the sidewall surface. The height and pitch of the corrugation were 196 and 494 nm, respectively. Selective removal of the corrugation by using 50% KOH (40 °C) was experimentally tried. The corrugation formed on Si{1 0 0} sidewall surfaces was gradually reduced in size as the etching progressed, and it was completely removed after 5 min of etching. Similarly, the corrugation formed on a Si{1 1 0} sidewall surface was also selectively removed by KOH etching (etching time: 3 min). The roughness value of the sidewall surface was reduced from 17.6 nm to a few nanometers by the etching. These results confirm that the corrugation-removal mechanism using anisotropic wet etching can be explained in terms of the distribution pattern of etching rate

  13. Particle precipitation in connection with KOH etching of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Christensen, Carsten; Pedersen, Casper

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show that the precipi......This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show...... that the precipitation is independent of KOH etching time, but that the amount of deposited material varies with dopant type and dopant concentration. The experiments also suggest that the precipitation occurs when the silicon wafers are removed from the KOH etching solution and not during the etching procedure. When...... not removed, the iron oxide particles cause etch pits on the Si surface when later processed and exposed to phosphoric acid. It has been found that the particles can be removed in an HCl solution, but not completely in an H2SO4- H2O2 solution. The paper discusses the involved precipitation mechanism in terms...

  14. An interatomic potential model for molecular dynamics simulation of silicon etching by Br+-containing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, H.; Iwakawa, A.; Eriguchi, K.; Ono, K.

    2008-01-01

    An interatomic potential model for Si-Br systems has been developed for performing classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This model enables us to simulate atomic-scale reaction dynamics during Si etching processes by Br + -containing plasmas such as HBr and Br 2 plasmas, which are frequently utilized in state-of-the-art techniques for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. Our potential form is based on the well-known Stillinger-Weber potential function, and the model parameters were systematically determined from a database of potential energies obtained from ab initio quantum-chemical calculations using GAUSSIAN03. For parameter fitting, we propose an improved linear scheme that does not require any complicated nonlinear fitting as that in previous studies [H. Ohta and S. Hamaguchi, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6679 (2001)]. In this paper, we present the potential derivation and simulation results of bombardment of a Si(100) surface using a monoenergetic Br + beam

  15. Metal-assisted etch combined with regularizing etch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Joanne; Miller, Jeff; Jura, Michael; Black, Marcie R.; Forziati, Joanne; Murphy, Brian; Magliozzi, Lauren

    2018-03-06

    In an aspect of the disclosure, a process for forming nanostructuring on a silicon-containing substrate is provided. The process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) performing a clean, including partial or total removal of the metal used to assist the chemical etch, and (c) performing an isotropic or substantially isotropic chemical etch subsequently to the metal-assisted chemical etch of step (a). In an alternative aspect of the disclosure, the process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) cleaning the substrate, including removal of some or all of the assisting metal, and (c) performing a chemical etch which results in regularized openings in the silicon substrate.

  16. Sputter etching of polymer fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Hill, A.E.; Nobes, M.J.; Jeffries, R.; Simmens, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fibres of polyamide, polyester and an aromatic polyamide (Kevlar) have been subjected to Ar + ion bombardment erosion in an ion accelerator or an rf discharge system. In the case of the former two polymers, cones are observed to develop upon the fibre surface and these are associated with etch protection resulting from the presence of particles of titanium dioxide pigment. This effect is absent in the third, unpigmented, fibre. In all cases ripple structures with a habit transverse to the fibre axes and of wavelength of approximately 1000 Angstrom are gradually developed during ion bombardment. It is suggested that this morphology results from an underlying periodicity of the fibre structure either inherent in the fibre structure or induced by the irradiation. (author)

  17. Electronegativity-dependent tin etching from thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachecka, M., E-mail: m.pachecka@utwente.nl; Sturm, J. M.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    The influence of a thin film substrate material on the etching of a thin layer of deposited tin (Sn) by hydrogen radicals was studied. The amount of remaining Sn was quantified for materials that cover a range of electronegativities. We show that, for metals, etching depends on the relative electronegativity of the surface material and Sn. Tin is chemically etched from surfaces with an electronegativity smaller than Sn, while incomplete Sn etching is observed for materials with an electronegativity larger than Sn. Furthermore, the amount of remaining Sn increases as the electronegativity of the surface material increases. We speculate, that, due to Fermi level differences in the material’s electronic structure, the energy of the two conduction bands shift such that the availability of electrons for binding with hydrogen is significantly reduced.

  18. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  19. Epitaxial Growth, Surface, and Electronic Properties of Unconventional Semiconductors: RE-V/III-V Nanocomposites and Semiconducting Half Heusler Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    10.1103/PhysRevLett.45.494. [2] D.C. Tsui, H.L. Stormer , and A.C. Gossard. Two-dimensional magnetotransport in the extreme quantum limit. Phys. Rev. Lett...5] R. Dingle, H. L. Stormer , A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann. Electron mobil- ities in modulation-doped semiconductor heterojunction superlattices

  20. Integration, gap formation, and sharpening of III-V heterostructure nanowires by selective etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesoe, C.; Mølhave, Kristian; Larsen, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of heterostructure nanowires allows for the definition of narrow sections with specific semiconductor composition. The authors demonstrate how postgrowth engineering of III-V heterostructure nanowires using selective etching can form gaps, sharpening of tips, and thin sections...... lithography is used for deposition of catalyst particles on trench sidewalls and the lateral growth of III-V nanowires is achieved from such catalysts. The selectivity of a bromine-based etch on gallium arsenide segments in gallium phosphide nanowires is examined, using a hydrochloride etch to remove the III...

  1. Technique for etching monolayer and multilayer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Conley, Raymond P.; Divan, Ralu; Macrander, Albert

    2015-10-06

    A process is disclosed for sectioning by etching of monolayers and multilayers using an RIE technique with fluorine-based chemistry. In one embodiment, the process uses Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) alone or in combination with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) using fluorine-based chemistry alone and using sufficient power to provide high ion energy to increase the etching rate and to obtain deeper anisotropic etching. In a second embodiment, a process is provided for sectioning of WSi.sub.2/Si multilayers using RIE in combination with ICP using a combination of fluorine-based and chlorine-based chemistries and using RF power and ICP power. According to the second embodiment, a high level of vertical anisotropy is achieved by a ratio of three gases; namely, CHF.sub.3, Cl.sub.2, and O.sub.2 with RF and ICP. Additionally, in conjunction with the second embodiment, a passivation layer can be formed on the surface of the multilayer which aids in anisotropic profile generation.

  2. Pulsed high-density plasmas for advanced dry etching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banna, Samer; Agarwal, Ankur; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Pargon, Erwine; Joubert, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Plasma etching processes at the 22 nm technology node and below will have to satisfy multiple stringent scaling requirements of microelectronics fabrication. To satisfy these requirements simultaneously, significant improvements in controlling key plasma parameters are essential. Pulsed plasmas exhibit considerable potential to meet the majority of the scaling challenges, while leveraging the broad expertise developed over the years in conventional continuous wave plasma processing. Comprehending the underlying physics and etching mechanisms in pulsed plasma operation is, however, a complex undertaking; hence the full potential of this strategy has not yet been realized. In this review paper, we first address the general potential of pulsed plasmas for plasma etching processes followed by the dynamics of pulsed plasmas in conventional high-density plasma reactors. The authors reviewed more than 30 years of academic research on pulsed plasmas for microelectronics processing, primarily for silicon and conductor etch applications, highlighting the potential benefits to date and challenges in extending the technology for mass-production. Schemes such as source pulsing, bias pulsing, synchronous pulsing, and others in conventional high-density plasma reactors used in the semiconductor industry have demonstrated greater flexibility in controlling critical plasma parameters such as ion and radical densities, ion energies, and electron temperature. Specifically, plasma pulsing allows for independent control of ion flux and neutral radicals flux to the wafer, which is key to eliminating several feature profile distortions at the nanometer scale. However, such flexibility might also introduce some difficulty in developing new etching processes based on pulsed plasmas. Therefore, the main characteristics of continuous wave plasmas and different pulsing schemes are compared to provide guidelines for implementing different schemes in advanced plasma etching processes based on

  3. Optimization of silver-assisted nano-pillar etching process in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Ayu Wazira; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Desa, Mohd Khairunaz Mat; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a respond surface methodology (RSM) model is developed using three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) technique. This model is developed to investigate the influence of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process variables on the nanopillars profiles created in single crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. Design-Expert® software (version 7.1) is employed in formulating the RSM model based on five critical process variables: (A) concentration of silver (Ag), (B) concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF), (C) concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (D) deposition time, and (E) etching time. This model is supported by data from 46 experimental configurations. Etched profiles as a function of lateral etching rate, vertical etching rate, height, size and separation between the Si trenches and etching uniformity are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). A quadratic regression model is developed to correlate critical process variables and is validated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) methodology. The model exhibits near-linear dependence of lateral and vertical etching rates on both the H2O2 concentration and etching time. The predicted model is in good agreement with the experimental data where R2 is equal to 0.80 and 0.67 for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. The optimized result shows minimum lateral etching with the average pore size of about 69 nm while the maximum etching rate is estimated at around 360 nm/min. The model demonstrates that the etching process uniformity is not influenced by either the etchant concentration or the etching time. This lack of uniformity could be attributed to the surface condition of the wafer. Optimization of the process parameters show adequate accuracy of the model with acceptable percentage errors of 6%, 59%, 1.8%, 38% and 61% for determination of the height, separation, size, the pore size and the etching rate respectively.

  4. Inter-subband optical absorption in an inversion layer on a semiconductor surface in tilted magnetic fields. Progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Cyclotron-resonance experiments on inversion layer electrons in Si (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) have produced many surprising and unexplained results. This has motivated the investigation of the use of other magneto-optical phenomena in MOS systems. Emphasis has been on the Faraday rotation effect. The conditions necessary for achieving a null Faraday rotation, as well as a null ellipticity have been examined. The calculation of theta for the Appel-Overhauser model for the surface space-charge layer in Si has also been studied

  5. High temperature reactive ion etching of iridium thin films with aluminum mask in CF4/O2/Ar plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive ion etching (RIE technology for iridium with CF4/O2/Ar gas mixtures and aluminum mask at high temperatures up to 350 °C was developed. The influence of various process parameters such as gas mixing ratio and substrate temperature on the etch rate was studied in order to find optimal process conditions. The surface of the samples after etching was found to be clean under SEM inspection. It was also shown that the etch rate of iridium could be enhanced at higher process temperature and, at the same time, very high etching selectivity between aluminum etching mask and iridium could be achieved.

  6. Studies on surface structures and mechanism of photocatalytic action of semiconductor oxides; Handotai hikari shokubai no hyomen kozo seigyo to sayo kiko kaimei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H; Sona, S; Koike, H; Hori, H; Negishi, N; Kohara, H; Ibusuki, A [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Vakhtin, A; Borovkov, V [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Studies are made to define the working mechanism of semiconductor photocatalysts such as TiO2 and to establish designing guidelines for improving on their activity and functions. TiO2 in the air actively produces oxygen seeds for the oxidation and removal of NOx, etc. It is desired that a catalyst have a specific surface area large enough to retain the product of its action. To meet the need, a thin-film photocatalyst which is an aggregate of TiO2 crystals is produced by burning a film of a sol/gel system of reaction doped with macromolecules. This product has a larger specific surface area and is higher in pollutant-removing performance, and may be put into practical use. In another experiment, metal-carrying particles TiO2 suspended in water are employed for the reduction of CO2. Though the main product of catalysts carrying Pt or Pd is methane, a photocatalyst carrying RuO2 produces acetic acid mainly and loses less activity with the passage of time. A hybrid photocatalyst is composed of an organic pigment and inorganic semiconductor, synthesized through a covalent bond between a sililated-surface thin TiO2 film and porphyrin. It is confirmed that the newly developed process brings about an increase in electron migration efficiency. 3 figs.

  7. A comparison of orthodontic bracket shear bond strength on enamel deproteinized by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite using total etch and self-etch primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkowidjaja, F.; Soegiharto, B. M.; Purbiati, M.

    2017-08-01

    The shear bond strength (SBS) can be increased by removing protein pellicles from the enamel surface by deproteinization using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The SBS of a self-etch primer is lower than that of a total etch primer; nonetheless, it prevents white spot lesions. This study aimed to assess the SBS of the Anyetch (AE) total etch primer and FL-Bond II Shofu (FL) self-etch primer after enamel deproteinization using 5.25% NaOCl. Forty eight human maxillary first premolars were extracted, cleaned, and divided into four groups. In group A, brackets were bonded to the enamel without deproteinization before etching (A1: 10 teeth using total etch primer (AE); A2: 10 teeth using self-etch primer (FL)). In group B, brackets were bonded to the enamel after deproteinization with 5.25% NaOCl before etching (B1: 10 teeth using total etch primer (AE); B2: 10 teeth using self-etch primer (FL)). Brackets were bonded using Transbond XT, stored in artificial saliva for 24 h at 37°C, mounted on acrylic cylinders, and debonded using a Shimadzu AG-5000 universal testing machine. There were no significant differences in SBS between the total etch (AE) groups (p > 0.05) and between the self-etch (FL) groups (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in SBS between groups A and B. The mean SBS for groups A1, A2, B1, and B2 was 12.91±3.99, 4.46±2.47, 13.06±3.66, and 3.62±2.36 MPa, respectively. Deproteinization using NaOCl did not affect the SBS of the total etch primer (AE) group; it reduced the SBS of the self-etch primer (FL) group, but not with a statistically significant difference.

  8. ICP dry etching ITO to improve the performance of GaN-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Lili; Chen Yixin; Ma Li; Liu Zike; Shen Guangdi

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the light efficiency of the conventional GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the indium tin oxide (ITO) film is introduced as the current spreading layer and the light anti-reflecting layer on the p-GaN surface. There is a big problem with the ITO thin film's corrosion during the electrode preparation. In this paper, at least, the edge of the ITO film was lateral corroded 3.5 μm width, i.e. 6.43%-1/3 of ITO film's area. An optimized simple process, i.e. inductively couple plasma (ICP), was introduced to solve this problem. The ICP process not only prevented the ITO film from lateral corrosion, but also improved the LED's light intensity and device performance. The edge of the ITO film by ICP dry etching is steep, and the areas of ITO film are whole. Compared with the chip by wet etching, the areas of light emission increase by 6.43% at least and the chip's lop values increase by 45.9% at most. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  10. On one peculiarity of the model describing the interaction of the electron beam with the semiconductor surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepovich, M. A.; Amrastanov, A. N.; Seregina, E. V.; Filippov, M. N.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of heat distribution in semiconductor materials irradiated with sharply focused electron beams in the absence of heat exchange between the target and the external medium is considered by mathematical modeling methods. For a quantitative description of energy losses by probe electrons a model based on a separate description of the contributions of absorbed in the target and backscattered electrons and applicable to a wide class of solids and a range of primary electron energies is used. Using the features of this approach, the nonmonotonic dependence of the temperature of the maximum heating in the target on the energy of the primary electrons is explained. Some modeling results are illustrated for semiconductor materials of electronic engineering.

  11. Experimental investigation of energy resolution in a semiconductor detector (surface barrier and Si (Li) detector) in the detection of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordborg, C.

    1974-05-01

    The action of electronic effects on the energy resolution of the detector is investigated. The results are applicable not only to protons but also to heavier charged particles. It should be possible to reach a resolution of about 6 to 7 keV for 10 MeV protons with electronic detectors. Magnetic spectrometers could achieve a resolution of 2 to 3 keV. It is convenient to use Peltier elements for cooling semiconductor spectrometers. (Auth.)

  12. Magnetic excitations in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furdyna, J.K.; Liu, X.; Zhou, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic excitations in a series of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor films were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Using the FMR approach, multi-mode spin wave resonance spectra have been observed, whose analysis provides information on magnetic anisotropy (including surface anisotropy), distribution of magnetization precession within the GaMnAs film, dynamic surface spin pinning (derived from surface anisotropy), and the value of exchange stiffness constant D. These studies illustrate a combination of magnetism and semiconductor physics that is unique to magnetic semiconductors

  13. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  14. Optical diagnostics for plasma etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, T.H.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; de Zeeuw, C.J.H.; Timmermans, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several optical diagnostics were used to det. plasma properties and etch rates in an single wafer etch reactor. Results of UV-visible spectroscopy and IR absorption spectroscopy, indicating different mol. species and their densities are presented. The construction of an interferometer to det. the

  15. Feedback control of chlorine inductively coupled plasma etch processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chaung; Leou, K.-C.; Shiao, K.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control has been applied to poly-Si etch processing using a chlorine inductively coupled plasma. Since the positive ion flux and ion energy incident upon the wafer surface are the key factors that influence the etch rate, the ion current and the root mean square (rms) rf voltage on the wafer stage, which are measured using an impedance meter connected to the wafer stage, are adopted as the controlled variables to enhance etc