WorldWideScience

Sample records for semiconductor quantum emission

  1. Influence of phonons on semiconductor quantum emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldtmann, Thomas

    2009-07-06

    A microscopic theory of interacting charge carriers, lattice vibrations, and light modes in semiconductor systems is presented. The theory is applied to study quantum dots and phonon-assisted luminescence in bulk semiconductors and heterostructures. (orig.)

  2. Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, M.; Jahnke, F.; Hoyer, W.; Koch, S. W.

    1999-11-01

    A fully quantum-mechanical theory for the interaction of light and electron-hole excitations in semiconductor quantum-well systems is developed. The resulting many-body hierarchy for the correlation functions is truncated using a dynamical decoupling scheme leading to coupled semiconductor luminescence and Bloch equations. For incoherent excitation conditions, the theory is used to describe nonlinear excitonic emission properties of single-quantum wells, optically coupled multiple quantum-well systems, and quantum wells in a microcavity. Resonant coherent optical excitation leads to a direct coupling between the induced coherent polarization and photoluminescence. The resulting quantum corrections to the semiclassical semiconductor Bloch equations and the coherent contributions to the semiconductor luminescence equations are discussed. The secondary emission in directions deviating from the coherent excitation direction after femtosecond-pulse excitation is studied. Coherent control and quadrature squeezing for the light emission are analyzed.

  3. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  4. Periodic dark pulse emission induced by delayed feedback in a quantum well semiconductor laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation of periodic dark pulse emission in a quantum-well semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback. We found that under appropriate operation conditions the laser can also emit a stable train of dark pulses. The repetition frequency of the dark pulse is determined by the external cavity length. Splitting of the dark pulse was also observed. We speculate that the observed dark pulse is a kind of temporal cavity soliton formed in the laser.

  5. Threshold for photoelectric emission from a quantum ring of narrow-gap semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.; Sen, Susmita

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the threshold energy required for photoelectric emission of electrons from a torroidal quantum ring of degenerate narrow-gap semiconductor. Current density due to electrons emitted from the ring illuminated by normal radiation has been calculated considering the effect of band non-parabolicity of the narrow-gap semiconductor. The computed results show that the current density increases in a staircase manner with the increase of incident photon energy. The band non-parabolicity causes the increase in threshold energy for photoelectric emission of electrons. The photoemission becomes an oscillatory function of the cross-sectional radius of the ring, and may serve as an important tool for estimating parameters like cross-sectional radius, doping density and band non-parabolicity

  6. Coherent manipulation of spontaneous emission spectra in coupled semiconductor quantum well structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aixi

    2014-11-03

    In triple coupled semiconductor quantum well structures (SQWs) interacting with a coherent driving filed, a coherent coupling field and a weak probe field, spontaneous emission spectra are investigated. Our studies show emission spectra can easily be manipulated through changing the intensity of the driving and coupling field, detuning of the driving field. Some interesting physical phenomena such as spectral-line enhancement/suppression, spectral-line narrowing and spontaneous emission quenching may be obtained in our system. The theoretical studies of spontaneous emission spectra in SQWS have potential application in high-precision spectroscopy. Our studies are based on the real physical system [Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201112 (2005)], and this scheme might be realizable with presently available techniques.

  7. Quantum correlations in semiconductor microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, M.; Hoyer, W.; Koch, S. W.; Brick, P.; Ell, C.; Hübner, M.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.

    2003-10-01

    The quantum mechanical nature of the light field in semiconductor microcavities leads to non-classical coupling effects between photons and electron-hole excitations. It is shown that these quantum correlations give rise to characteristic corrections of the semiclassical light-matter coupling dynamics. Examples of quantum correlation signatures include entanglement effects in the probe reflection of a microcavity system and squeezing in the incoherent emission.

  8. Statistical analysis of time-resolved emission from ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots: interpretations of exponantial decay models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, A.F.; Nikolaev, I.; Vergeer, P.; Lodahl, P.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Vos, Willem L.

    2007-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters and the

  9. Quantum Optical Effects in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.

    Quantum optical effects in semiconductors are studied using a density-matrix approach which takes into account the many-body Coulomb interaction among the charge carriers, coupling to lattice vibrations, and the quantum nature of light. The theory provides a consistent set of equations which is used to compute photoluminescence spectra, predict the emission of squeezed light, investigate correlations between photons emitted by quantum-well structures, and to show examples where light-matter entanglement influences experiments done with classical optical fields.

  10. Statistical analysis of time-resolved emission from ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots: Interpretation of exponential decay models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Driel, A.F.; Nikolaev, I.S.; Vergeer, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters and the in......We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters...... decay component is multiplied by its radiative decay rate. A central result of our paper is the derivation of the emission decay curve when both radiative and nonradiative decays are independently distributed. In this case, the well-known emission quantum efficiency can no longer be expressed...... by a single number, but is also distributed. We derive a practical description of non-single-exponential emission decay curves in terms of a single distribution of decay rates; the resulting distribution is identified as the distribution of total decay rates weighted with the radiative rates. We apply our...

  11. Coherent effects in semiconductor light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, M.; Jahnke, Frank; Hoyer, W.; Koch, Stephan W.

    2000-03-01

    Coherent signatures in the semiconductor light emission are studied using a fully quantum mechanical theory for the system of photons and Coulomb interacting electron-hole pairs. The dominant light-matter correlations couple the semiconductor Bloch and luminescence equations yielding significant quantum corrections. A coherent excitation leads to squeezing of the emitted light as well as to entanglement between light and matter.

  12. Low threshold amplified spontaneous emission from tin oxide quantum dots: a instantiation of dipole transition silence semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu Sheng; Yu, Siu Fung; Zhang, Wen Fei; Zhu, Hai; Lu, Wei; Jin, Li Min

    2013-12-07

    Direct bandgap semiconductors, such as In2O3, Cu2O, and SnO2, have enormous applications in photochemistry, photovoltaics, and optoelectronics. Due to the same parity of conduction and valence bands, the dipole transition is silent in these direct bandgap semiconductors. The low band-to-band transition efficiency prevents them from high intensity light emission or absorption. Here, we report the fabrication of SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) with sizes less than the exciton Bohr radius by a facile "top-down" strategy based on laser fragmentation of SnO in water. The SnO2 QDs shows exciton emission at ∼300 nm with a high quantum yield of ~17%. Amplified spontaneous exciton emission is also achieved from a thin layer of SnO2 QDs dispersed in PEG400 on a quartz substrate. Therefore, we have shown that SnO2 QDs can be a potential luminescent material suitable for the realization of ultraviolet B lasing devices.

  13. Silver Nanoshell Plasmonically Controlled Emission of Semiconductor Quantum Dots in the Strong Coupling Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2016-04-26

    Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.

  14. Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Various Quantum Mechanical Concepts for Confinements in Semiconductor Nanocrystals. Jayakrishna Khatei Karuna Kar Nanda. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 771-776 ...

  15. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsford, Kim E.; Pons, Thomas; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recently developed class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping to create a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest for biosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow size-tunable photoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching and chemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapti...

  16. Quantum Confined Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    RCR    , (5) which considers all elastic scattering events on the energy shell kk EEE   , which is appropriate for all scattering...fluctuations in semiconductor superlattices using a magneto -transport technique,” Superlattices and Microstructures 15, 225-228 (1994). 12. I. Dharssi and...εyy is consistently slightly tensile (≈ -1%), which agreed with theoretical calculations of εyy based on published values of elastic constants. An

  17. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  18. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  19. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings ({delta}E<{proportional_to}5 meV) and a multi-exciton-based, Auger-like process for larger detunings ({delta}E >{proportional_to}5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of

  20. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings (ΔE ∝5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to

  1. Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.

  2. Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Yongxiang; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-07-28

    Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.

  3. Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth M.; Beams, Ryan; Vamivakas, A. Nick

    2015-06-01

    Although semiconductor defects can often be detrimental to device performance, they are also responsible for the breadth of functionality exhibited by modern optoelectronic devices. Artificially engineered defects (so-called quantum dots) or naturally occurring defects in solids are currently being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to high-resolution metrology. In parallel, the quantum confinement exhibited by atomically thin materials (semi-metals, semiconductors and insulators) has ushered in an era of flatland optoelectronics whose full potential is still being articulated. In this Letter we demonstrate the possibility of leveraging the atomically thin semiconductor tungsten diselenide (WSe2) as a host for quantum dot-like defects. We report that this previously unexplored solid-state quantum emitter in WSe2 generates single photons with emission properties that can be controlled via the application of external d.c. electric and magnetic fields. These new optically active quantum dots exhibit excited-state lifetimes on the order of 1 ns and remarkably large excitonic g-factors of 10. It is anticipated that WSe2 quantum dots will provide a novel platform for integrated solid-state quantum photonics and quantum information processing, as well as a rich condensed-matter physics playground with which to explore the coupling of quantum dots and atomically thin semiconductors.

  4. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Mattoussi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs are a recentlydeveloped class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping tocreate a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest forbiosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow sizetunablephotoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching andchemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for severalpredominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, asgeneralized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when workingwith QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s and appropriate strategies forattaching biomolecules to the QDs.

  5. Spontaneous emission of semiconductors in the Wigner approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filinov, V. S.; Hoyer, W.; Bonitz, M.; Kira, M.; Fortov, V. E.; Koch, S. W.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a first step towards combining two well-established methods used in semiconductor physicsmdashsemiconductor Bloch equations and the Wigner approach to quantum transport. This combination provides the possibility of including spontaneous emission, i.e., the spontaneous recombination of excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors, into the Wigner approach, which so far has been used only for systems with fixed particle number. The theory is presented and first numerical results for a three-dimensional system are shown.

  6. Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, R.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding and controlling the behavior of the spin degree of freedom of single electrons, confined in semiconductor quantum dots. This research work is motivated by the prospects of using the electron spin as a quantum bit (qubit), the basic

  7. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 1. Many electron effects in ... Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, ... Our calculations have been performed in a three-dimensional quantum dot. We have carried out a study of ...

  8. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Tillmann Christoph

    2009-11-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to theoretically predict the stationary charge and spin transport in mesoscopic semiconductor quantum devices in the presence of phonons and device imperfections. It is well known that the nonequilibrium Green's function method (NEGF) is a very general and all-inclusive scheme for the description of exactly this kind of transport problem. Although the NEGF formalism has been derived in the 1960's, textbooks about this formalism are still rare to find. Therefore, we introduce the NEGF formalism, its fundamental equations and approximations in the first part of this thesis. Thereby, we extract ideas of several seminal contributions on NEGF in literature and augment this by some minor derivations that are hard to find. Although the NEGF method has often been numerically implemented on transport problems, all current work in literature is based on a significant number of approximations with often unknown influence on the results and unknown validity limits. Therefore, we avoid most of the common approximations and implement in the second part of this thesis the NEGF formalism as exact as numerically feasible. For this purpose, we derive several new scattering self-energies and introduce new self-adaptive discretizations for the Green's functions and self-energies. The most important improvements of our NEGF implementation, however, affect the momentum and energy conservation during incoherent scattering, the Pauli blocking, the current conservation within and beyond the device and the reflectionless propagation through open device boundaries. Our uncommonly accurate implementation of the NEGF method allows us to analyze and assess most of the common approximations and to unveil numerical artifacts that have plagued previous approximate implementations in literature. Furthermore, we apply our numerical implementation of the NEGF method on the stationary electron transport in THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and answer

  9. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  10. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika

    2013-01-01

    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor...... materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconductor solar cell even further than the Landsberg limit. The results are derived from purely thermodynamical...

  11. Microscopic theory of semiconductor light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, M.; Jahnke, Frank; Hoyer, W.; Koch, Stephan W.

    2000-07-01

    A fully quantum mechanical theory for a system of photons and Coulomb interacting electron-hole pairs in semiconductors is investigated. The resulting semiconductor luminescence equations are discussed and evaluated for a variety of examples. For a quantum-well system, it is shown how luminescence at the exciton resonance can result from an incoherent electron-hole plasma. Also changes in carrier lifetimes due to radiative recombination are studied.

  12. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Broadband light emitters operation, which covers multiple wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, has been established as an indispensable element to the human kind, continuously advancing the living standard by serving as sources in important multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which are bulky, and energy hungry. \\tRecent demonstration of ultra-broadband emission from semiconductor light sources in the form of superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs) has paved way in realization of broadband emitters on a completely novel platform, which offered compactness, cost effectiveness, and comparatively energy efficient, and are already serving as a key component in medical imaging systems. The low power-bandwidth product is inherent in SLDs operating in the amplified spontaneous emission regime. A quantum leap in the advancement of broadband emitters, in which high power and large bandwidth (in tens of nm) are in demand. Recently, the birth of a new class of broadband semiconductor laser diode (LDs) producing multiple wavelength light in stimulated emission regime was demonstrated. This very recent manifestation of a high power-bandwidth-product semiconductor broadband LDs relies on interband optical transitions via quantum confined dot/dash nanostructures and exploiting the natural inhomogeneity of the self-assembled growth technology. This concept is highly interesting and extending the broad spectrum of stimulated emission by novel device design forms the central focus of this dissertation. \\tIn this work, a simple rate equation numerical technique for modeling InAs/InP quantum dash laser incorporating the properties of inhomogeneous broadening effect on lasing spectra was developed and discussed, followed by a comprehensive experimental analysis

  13. Superconducting detectors for semiconductor quantum photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reithmaier, Guenther M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present the first successful on-chip detection of quantum light, thereby demonstrating the monolithic integration of superconducting single photon detectors with individually addressable semiconductor quantum dots in a prototypical quantum photonic circuit. Therefore, we optimized both the deposition of high quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs substrates and the fabrication of superconducting detectors and successfully integrated these novel devices with GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides loaded with self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots.

  14. Auger Processes Mediating the Nonresonant Optical Emission from a Semiconductor Quantum Dot Embedded Inside an Optical Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Kær; Lund, Anders Mølbjerg

    2013-01-01

    perform microscopic calculations of the effect treating the wetting layer as a non-Markovian reservoir interacting with the coupled quantum dot-cavity system through Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, cavity feeding has been observed in the asymmetric detuning range of -10 to +45 meV. We show...

  15. Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.

    2011-01-01

    An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.

  16. Quantum Electrodynamics with Semiconductor Quantum Dots Coupled to Anderson‐localized Random Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the spontaneous emission decay rate of semiconductor quantum dots can be strongly modified by the coupling to disorder-induced Anderson-localized photonic modes. We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the enhancement of the spontan...

  17. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the ...

  18. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G.P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R.M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free-induction decay and spin-echo simulations

  19. Single electron-spin memory with a semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert J; Dewhurst, Samuel J; Stevenson, R Mark; Atkinson, Paola; Bennett, Anthony J; Ward, Martin B; Cooper, Ken; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    We show storage of the circular polarization of an optical field, transferring it to the spin-state of an individual electron confined in a single semiconductor quantum dot. The state is subsequently read out through the electronically-triggered emission of a single photon. The emitted photon shares the same polarization as the initial pulse but has a different energy, making the transfer of quantum information between different physical systems possible. With an applied magnetic field of 2 T, spin memory is preserved for at least 1000 times more than the exciton's radiative lifetime

  20. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  1. Quantum theory of the optical and electronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    This invaluable textbook presents the basic elements needed to understand and research into semiconductor physics. It deals with elementary excitations in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors, including quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. The basic principles underlying optical nonlinearities are developed, including excitonic and many-body plasma effects. Fundamentals of optical bistability, semiconductor lasers, femtosecond excitation, the optical Stark effect, the semiconductor photon echo, magneto-optic effects, as well as bulk and quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effects, are covered. The material is presented in sufficient detail for graduate students and researchers with a general background in quantum mechanics.This fifth edition includes an additional chapter on 'Quantum Optical Effects' where the theory of quantum optical effects in semiconductors is detailed. Besides deriving the 'semiconductor luminescence equations' and the expression for the stationary luminescence spectrum, the resu...

  2. Introductory quantum mechanics for semiconductor nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Mann

    2010-01-01

    The result of the nano education project run by the Korean Nano Technology Initiative, this has been recommended for use as official textbook by the Korean Nanotechnology Research Society. The author is highly experienced in teaching both physics and engineering in academia and industry, and naturally adopts an interdisciplinary approach here. He is short on formulations but long on applications, allowing students to understand the essential workings of quantum mechanics without spending too much time covering the wide realms of physics. He takes care to provide sufficient technical background and motivation for students to pursue further studies of advanced quantum mechanics and stresses the importance of translating quantum insights into useful and tangible innovations and inventions. As such, this is the only work to cover semiconductor nanotechnology from the perspective of introductory quantum mechanics, with applications including mainstream semiconductor technologies as well as (nano)devices, ranging from photodetectors, laser diodes, and solar cells to transistors and Schottky contacts. Problems are also provided to test the reader's understanding and supplementary material available includes working presentation files, solutions and instructors manuals. (orig.)

  3. Guiding effect of quantum wells in semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshkin, V Ya; Dikareva, Natalia V; Dubinov, A A; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Nekorkin, S M; Yablonskii, A N

    2013-05-31

    The guiding effect of InGaAs quantum wells in GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that such waveguides can be effectively used in laser structures with a large refractive index difference between the quantum well material and semiconductor matrix and a large number of quantum wells (e.g. in InP-based structures). (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)

  4. Quantum Confined Semiconductors for High Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures, where at least one dimension is small enough to produce quantum confinement effects, provide new pathways for controlling energy flow and therefore have the potential to increase the efficiency of the primary photon-to-free energy conversion step. In this discussion, I will present the current status of research efforts towards utilizing the unique properties of colloidal quantum dots (NCs confined in three dimensions) in prototype solar cells and demonstrate that these unique systems have the potential to bypass the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit for solar photon conversion. The solar cells are constructed using a low temperature solution based deposition of PbS or PbSe QDs as the absorber layer. Different chemical treatments of the QD layer are employed in order to obtain good electrical communication while maintaining the quantum-confined properties of the QDs. We have characterized the transport and carrier dynamics using a transient absorption, time-resolved THz, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. I will discuss the interplay between carrier generation, recombination, and mobility within the QD layers. A unique aspect of our devices is that the QDs exhibit multiple exciton generation with an efficiency that is ~ 2 to 3 times greater than the parental bulk semiconductor.

  5. The Quantum Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Devices: Theory and Computations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Carl

    1998-01-01

    .... This "smooth" quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model is derived specifically to handle in a mathematically rigorous way the discontinuities in the classical potential energy which occur at heterojunction barriers in quantum semiconductor devices...

  6. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan

    2009-03-10

    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  7. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit π/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10 -3 to 10 -4 in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

  8. Stimulated secondary emission from semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Mizeikis, V.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2001-01-01

    We find strong influence of final-state stimulation on the time-resolved light emission dynamics from semiconductor microcavities after pulsed excitation allowing angle-resonant polariton-polariton scattering on the lower-polariton branch. The polariton dynamics can be controlled by injection...

  9. Electron transport and coherence in semiconductor quantum dots and rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wiel, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments on electron transport and coherence in semiconductor vertical and lateral quantum dots and semiconductor rings is described. Quantum dots are often referred to as "artificial atoms", because of their similarities with real atoms. Examples of such atom-like properties that

  10. The electronic properties of semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.A.

    2000-10-01

    This work is an investigation into the electronic behaviour of semiconductor quantum dots, particularly self-assembled quantum dot arrays. Processor-efficient models are developed to describe the electronic structure of dots, deriving analytic formulae for the strain tensor, piezoelectric distribution and diffusion- induced evolution of the confinement potential, for dots of arbitrary initial shape and composition profile. These models are then applied to experimental data. Transitions due to individual quantum dots have a narrow linewidth as a result of their discrete density of states. By contrast, quantum dot arrays exhibit inhomogeneous broadening which is generally attributed to size variations between the individual dots in the ensemble. Interpreting the results of double resonance spectroscopy, it is seen that variation in the indium composition of the nominally InAs dots is also present. This result also explains the otherwise confusing relationship between the spread in the ground-state and excited-state transition energies. Careful analysis shows that, in addition to the variations in size and composition, some other as yet unidentified broadening mechanism must also be present. The influence of rapid thermal annealing on dot electronic structure is also considered, finding that the experimentally observed blue-shift and narrowing of the photoluminescence linewidth may both be explained in terms of normal In/Ga interdiffusion. InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots are commonly assumed to have a pyramidal geometry, so that we would expect the energy separation of the ground-state electron and hole levels in the dot to be largest at a positive applied field. This should also be the case for any dot of uniform composition whose shape tapers inwards from base to top, counter to the results of experimental Stark-shift spectroscopy which show a peak transition energy at a negative applied field. It is demonstrated that this inversion of the ground state

  11. Semiconductor Nanomembranes for Quantum Photonics: Quantum Light Sources and Optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin

    This thesis describes the fabrication and characterizations of semiconductor nanomembranes, i.e., gallium arsenide (GaAs) photonic crystal (PC) and optomechanical nanomemebranes. Processing techniques are developed and optimized in order to fabricate PC membranes for quantum light sources......-record mechanical Q-factor up to 1 million have been fabricated with two step selective wet etches. These optomechanical naonmembranes exhibit superb performances in cavity optomechanical cooling experiments in which a mechanical mode has been cooled from room temperature to 4 K. The interaction between single...... quantum dots (QDs) and PC cavities has been modeled in the framework of Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with the focus on single artificial atom lasers. In the experiments, a highly efficient single photon source with a collection efficiency up to 38% has been achieved and detailed measurements suggest...

  12. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  13. Optical properties of semiconductors quantum microcavity structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    The principal phenomenon investigated in this thesis is vacuum Rabi coupling in semiconductor microcavity structures. In these structures quantum well excitons are embedded in a Fabry - Perot like cavity, defined by two semiconductor dielectric mirrors. In such a system the coupled exciton and cavity photon mode form a mixed - mode polariton, where on - resonance there are two branches, each having 50% exciton and 50% photon character. The separation between the upper and lower branches is a measure of the coupling strength where the strength is dependent on the exciton oscillator strength. This interaction is known as vacuum Rabi coupling, and clear anticrossing is seen when the exciton is tuned through the cavity. In our reflectivity experiments we demonstrate control of the coupling between the cavity mode and the exciton by varying temperature, applied electric or magnetic field. Modelling of the reflectivity spectra and the tuning was done using a Transfer Matrix Reflectivity (TMR) model or a linear dispersion model, where in both cases the excitons are treated as Lorentz oscillators. Temperature tuning is achieved because exciton energy decreases with temperature at a much faster rate than the cavity mode. We have demonstrated vacuum Rabi coupling of the cavity mode with both the heavy - hole and light - hole excitons. Electric field tuning is achieved via the quantum confined Stark effect which decreases the exciton energy with increasing field, whilst at the same time the cavity mode energy remains constant. A study of how the electric field reduction of exciton oscillator strength reduces the vacuum Rabi coupling strength is performed. We report the first observation in a semiconductor structure of motional narrowing, seen in both electric field and in temperature tuning experiments at high magnetic field. In magnetic field studies we show how magnetic field induced increase in exciton oscillator strength affects the vacuum Rabi coupling. We also show by

  14. Directional Secondary Emission of a Semiconductor Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the time-resolved secondary emission of a homogeneously broadened microcavity after resonant excitation. The sample consists of a 25nm GaAs single quantum well (QW) in the center of a wedged ¥ë cavity with AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg reflectors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At zero...

  15. Quantum Thermal Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Kai

    Modern semiconductor devices scale down to the nanometer range. Heat dissipation becomes a critical issue in the chip design. From a different perspective, energy conservation has attracted much of attention from researchers. The essence of heat dissipation and energy conservation is the heat transport. Thermal properties of semiconductors have been under intense investigation in recent decades. Classical models fail to consider the quantum effects in devices on the scale of nanometers. First-principle methods only can deal with small devices and is computationally intensive. Instead, a modified valence force field (VFF) model is applied to reproduce the phonon properties of different materials and devices. Phonon transport is explored using the Green's functions. The concept of a Buttiker probe model is first used to mimic the scattering mechanisms in phonon transport. This energy conservation model is straightforward and efficient in describing scattering. In the quasiparticle approximation, phonon scattering will cause a phonon energy shift. This energy shift is represented by the scattering self-energy in a retarded Green's function. Phonon lifetime is extracted from the scattering self-energy expression. Different relaxation time approximation (RTA) models are studied and coupled with the phonon Green's function method for the first time. We prove that the widely used and proven RTA models in the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) survive in the atomistic Green's function method. This method can give accurate thermal properties agreeing closely with the experimental results for bulk devices. This atomistic method can also consider quantum confinement effects at the nanoscale. The heat transport across a Si/Ge interface is introduced in this work as an example for this application. The heat transfer across metal/semiconductor (MS) interfaces is investigated as well. Relaxation at the interface can be done in two different ways. Using VFF model to relax the

  16. Electronic states of semiconductor-metal-semiconductor quantum-well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, M. L.; Maserjian, J.

    1988-01-01

    Quantum-size effects are calculated in thin layered semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures using an ideal free-electron model for the metal layer. The results suggest new quantum-well structures having device applications. Structures with sufficiently high-quality interfaces should exhibit effects such as negative differential resistance due to tunneling between allowed states. Similarly, optical detection by intersubband absorption may be possible. Ultrathin metal layers are predicted to behave as high-density dopant sheets.

  17. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  18. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and gain characteristic of a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influencedby the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled. (semiconductor devices)

  19. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  20. Rainbow Emission from an Atomic Transition in Doped Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Abhijit; Pandey, Anshu; Sarma, D D

    2014-07-03

    Although semiconductor quantum dots are promising materials for displays and lighting due to their tunable emissions, these materials also suffer from the serious disadvantage of self-absorption of emitted light. The reabsorption of emitted light is a serious loss mechanism in practical situations because most phosphors exhibit subunity quantum yields. Manganese-based phosphors that also exhibit high stability and quantum efficiency do not suffer from this problem but in turn lack emission tunability, seriously affecting their practical utility. Here, we present a class of manganese-doped quantum dot materials, where strain is used to tune the wavelength of the dopant emission, extending the otherwise limited emission tunability over the yellow-orange range for manganese ions to almost the entire visible spectrum covering all colors from blue to red. These new materials thus combine the advantages of both quantum dots and conventional doped phosphors, thereby opening new possibilities for a wide range of applications in the future.

  1. Microwave mediated synthesis of semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrasiabi, Roodabeh; Sugunan, Abhilash; Shahid, Robina; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun [Division of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Colloidal quantum dots (QD) have tuneable optoelectronic properties and can be easily handled by simple solution processing techniques, making them very attractive for a wide range of applications. Over the past decade synthesis of morphology controlled high quality (crystalline, monodisperse) colloidal QDs by thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors has matured and is well studied. Recently, synthesis of colloidal QDs by microwave irradiation as heating source is being studied due to the inherently different mechanisms of heat transfer, when compared to solvent convection based heating. Under microwave irradiation, polar precursor molecules directly absorb the microwave energy and heat up more efficiently. Here we report synthesis of colloidal II-VI semiconductor QDs (CdS, CdSe, CdTe) by microwave irradiation and compare it with conventional synthesis based on convection heating. Our findings show that QD synthesis by microwave heating is more efficient and the chalcogenide precursor strongly absorbs the microwave radiation shortening the reaction time and giving a high reaction yield (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous emission of quantum dots in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of single semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide with engineered disorder. Random high-Q cavities, that are signature of Anderson localization, are measured in photoluminescence experiments and appear in th...

  3. Fowler-Nordheim field emission effects in semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sitangshu

    2012-01-01

    This monograph solely presents the Fowler-Nordheim field emission (FNFE) from semiconductors and their nanostructures. The materials considered are quantum confined non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, carbon nanotubes, PtSb2, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bi2Te3, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe superlattices with graded interfaces and effective mass superlattices under magnetic quantization and quantum wires of the aforementioned superlattices. The FNFE in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The importance of band gap measurements in opto-electronic materials in the presence of external fields is discussed from this perspective. This monograph contains 200 open research problems which form the very core and are useful for Ph. D students and researchers. The boo...

  4. Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu

    2009-01-01

    The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design

  5. Quantum confined laser devices optical gain and recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor laser, invented over 50 years ago, has had an enormous impact on the digital technologies that now dominate so many applications in business, commerce and the home. The laser is used in all types of optical fibre communication networks that enable the operation of the internet, e-mail, voice and skype transmission. Approximately one billion are produced each year for a market valued at around $5 billion. Nearly all semiconductor lasers now use extremely thin layers of light emitting materials (quantum well lasers). Increasingly smaller nanostructures are used in the form of quantum dots. The impact of the semiconductor laser is surprising in the light of the complexity of the physical processes that determine the operation of every device. This text takes the reader from the fundamental optical gain and carrier recombination processes in quantum wells and quantum dots, through descriptions of common device structures to an understanding of their operating characteristics. It has a consistent...

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of multicolored semiconductor quantum dots towards efficient blue, green, red and full color optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Li Qian; Di Xiaowei; Liu Zhiliang; Xu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Multicolored semiconductor quantum dots have shown great promise for construction of miniaturized light-emitting diodes with compact size, low weight and cost, and high luminescent efficiency. The unique size-dependent luminescent property of quantum dots offers the feasibility of constructing single-color or full-color output light-emitting diodes with one type of material. In this paper, we have demonstrated the facile fabrication of blue-, green-, red- and full-color-emitting semiconductor quantum dot optical films via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The optical films were constructed by alternative deposition of different colored quantum dots with a series of oppositely charged species, in particular, the new use of cationic starch on glass substrates. Semiconductor ZnSe quantum dots exhibiting blue emission were deposited for fabrication of blue-emitting optical films, while semiconductor CdTe quantum dots with green and red emission were utilized for construction of green- and red-emitting optical films. The assembly of integrated blue, green and red semiconductor quantum dots resulted in full-color-emitting optical films. The luminescent optical films showed very bright emitting colors under UV irradiation, and displayed dense, smooth and efficient luminous features, showing brighter luminescence in comparison with their corresponding quantum dot aqueous colloid solutions. The assembled optical films provide the prospect of miniaturized light-emitting-diode applications.

  7. Gain dynamics and saturation in semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2004-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-based semiconductor optical amplifiers offer unique properties compared with conventional devices based on bulk or quantum well material. Due to the bandfilling properties of QDs and the existence of a nearby reservoir of carriers in the form of a wetting layer, QD semiconductor...... optical amplifiers may be operated in regimes of high linearity, i.e. with a high saturation power, but can also show strong and fast nonlinearities by breaking the equilibrium between discrete dot states and the continuum of wetting layer states. In this paper, we analyse the interplay of these two...

  8. Exciton coherence in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sasaki, Masahide; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ema, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of excitons in InAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated in the telecommunication wavelength range using a transient four-wave mixing technique. The sample was fabricated on an InP(311)B substrate using strain compensation to control the emission wavelength. This technique also enabled us to fabricate a 150-layer stacked QD structure for obtaining a high S/N in the four-wave mixing measurements, although no high-sensitive heterodyne detection was carried out. The dephasing time and transition dipole moment were precisely estimated from the polarization dependence of signals, taking into account their anisotropic properties. The population lifetimes of the excitons were also measured by using a polarization-dependent pumpprobe technique. A quantitative comparison of these anisotropies demonstrates that in our QDs, non-radiative population relaxation, polarization relaxation and pure dephasing are considerably smaller than the radiative relaxation. A comparison of the results of the four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements revealed that the pure dephasing could be directly estimated with an accuracy of greater than 0.1 meV by comparing the results of four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Quantum statistical theory of semiconductor junctions in thermal equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1977-01-01

    Free carrier and electric field distributions of one-dimensional semiconductor junctions are evaluated using a quantum mechanical phase-space distribution and its corresponding Boltzmann equation. Attention is given to quantum and exchange corrections in cases of high doping concentrations when carrier densities become degenerate. Quantitative differences between degenerate and classical junction characteristics, e.g., maximum electric field and built-in voltage and carrier concentration within the transition region, are evaluated numerically.

  10. Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching provides a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10-nm size regime. For example, quantum dots (QDs) can be QSC-PEC-etched from epitaxial InGaN thin films using narrowband laser photoexcitation, and the QD sizes (and hence bandgaps and photoluminescence wavelengths) are determined by the photoexcitation wavelength.

  11. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers for optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Uskov, A. V.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum dot semiconductor amplifiers are investigated theoretically with respect to the potential for ultrafast signal processing. The high-speed signal processing capacity of these devices is found to be limited by the wetting layer dynamics in case of electrical pumping, while...... optical pumping partly removes this limitation. Also, the possibility of using spectral hole burning for signal processing is discussed....

  13. Ultrafast Dynamics of Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2007-01-01

    We report on a series of experiments on the dynamical properties of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. We show how the amplifier responds to one or several ultrafast (170 fs) pulses in rapid succession and our results demonstrate applicability and ultimate limitations to application...

  14. Magnetospatial dispersion of semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, L. V.; Kats, V. N.; Platonov, A. V.; Kochereshko, V. P.; André, R.; Golub, L. E.

    2018-03-01

    Polarization conversion of light reflected from quantum wells governed by both magnetic field and light propagation direction is observed. We demonstrate that the polarization conversion is caused by the magnetospatial dispersion in quantum wells which manifests itself in the reflection coefficient contribution bilinear in the in-plane components of the magnetic field and the light wave vector. The magnetospatial dispersion is shown to arise due to structure inversion asymmetry of the quantum wells. The effect is resonantly enhanced in the vicinity of the heavy-hole exciton. We show that microscopically the magnetospatial dispersion is caused by the mixing of heavy- and light-hole states in the quantum well due to both orbital effect of the magnetic field and the in-plane hole motion. The degree of the structure inversion asymmetry is determined for GaAs/AlGaAs and CdTe quantum wells.

  15. A quantum energy transport model for semiconductor device simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sho, Shohiro, E-mail: shoshohiro@gmail.com [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Odanaka, Shinji [Computer Assisted Science Division, Cybermedia Center, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes numerical methods for a quantum energy transport (QET) model in semiconductors, which is derived by using a diffusion scaling in the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. We newly drive a four-moments QET model similar with a classical ET model. Space discretization is performed by a new set of unknown variables. Numerical stability and convergence are obtained by developing numerical schemes and an iterative solution method with a relaxation method. Numerical simulations of electron transport in a scaled MOSFET device are discussed. The QET model allows simulations of quantum confinement transport, and nonlocal and hot-carrier effects in scaled MOSFETs.

  16. Quantum computation in semiconductor quantum dots of electron-spin asymmetric anisotropic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiang; Zhu Shiqun

    2007-01-01

    The universal quantum computation is obtained when there exists asymmetric anisotropic exchange between electron spins in coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The asymmetric Heisenberg model can be transformed into the isotropic model through the control of two local unitary rotations for the realization of essential quantum gates. The rotations on each qubit are symmetrical and depend on the strength and orientation of asymmetric exchange. The implementation of the axially symmetric local magnetic fields can assist the construction of quantum logic gates in anisotropic coupled quantum dots. This proposal can efficiently use each physical electron spin as a logical qubit in the universal quantum computation

  17. Tunnelling and relaxation in semiconductor double quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.

    1997-01-01

    Double quantum wells are among the simplest semiconductor heterostructures exhibiting tunnel coupling. The existence of a quantum confinement effect for the energy levels of a narrow single quantum well has been largely studied. In double quantum wells, in addition to these confinement effects which characterize the levels of the isolated wells, one faces the problem of describing the eigenstates of systems interacting weakly through a potential barrier. In addition, the actual structures differ from the ideal systems studied in the quantum mechanics textbooks in many aspects. The presence of defects leads, for instance, to an irreversible time evolution for a population of photocreated carriers. This irreversible transfer is now clearly established experimentally. The resonant behaviour of the transfer has also been evidenced, from the study of biased structures. If the existence of an interwell transfer is now clearly established from the experimental point of view, its theoretical description, however, is not fully satisfactory. This review focuses on the theoretical description of the energy levels and of the interwell assisted transfer in double quantum wells. We shall firstly outline the problem of tunnel coupling in semiconductor heterostructures and then discuss the single particle and exciton eigenstates in double quantum wells. In the remaining part of the review we shall present and critically review a few theoretical models used to describe the assisted interwell transfer in these structures. (author)

  18. Pulse train amplification and regeneration based on semiconductor quantum dots waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides.......We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides....

  19. Light Emission and Energy Transfer in Nanoscale Semiconductor Photonic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolbas, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this experimental program is to control the light emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms in nanoscale semiconductor structures in order to realize new or improved photonic devices...

  20. Optical gain and laser properties of semiconductor quantum-dot systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorke, Michael

    2008-12-17

    For practical applications of quantum dots in light emitters as well as for fundamental studies of their emission properties, the understanding of many-body processes plays a central role. We employ a microscopic theory to study the optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots. The excitation-induced polarization dephasing due to carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier Coulomb interaction as well as the corresponding lineshifts of the optical interband transitions are determined on the basis of a quantum-kinetic treatment of correlation processes. Our theoretical model includes non-Markovian effects as well as renormalized single-particle states. Thus we achieve an accurate description of the partial compensation between different dephasing contributions and are able to systematically study their temperature and density dependencies. Applications of this theoretical model include optical gain spectra for quantum-dot systems that reveal a novel effect, not present in other gain materials. For large carrier densities, the maximum gain can decrease with increasing carrier density. This behavior arises from a delicate balancing of state filling and dephasing, and implies the necessity of an accurate treatment of the carrier-density dependence of correlations. Measurements of the coherence properties of the light emitted from semiconductor quantum-dot lasers have raised considerable attention in recent years. We study the correlations between individual emission events on the basis of a microscopic semiconductor laser theory. This allows for a study of effects like Pauli blocking, modifications to the source term of spontaneous emission, and the absence of complete inversion, that strongly influence the emission characteristics of quantum dot based devices. A new and challenging material system for applications in the visible spectral range are nitride semiconductors. As crystal symmetry and bandmixing effects strongly influence the optical selection rules, the single

  1. Physical models of semiconductor quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The science and technology relating to nanostructures continues to receive significant attention for its applications to various fields including microelectronics, nanophotonics, and biotechnology. This book describes the basic quantum mechanical principles underlining this fast developing field. From the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to nanomaterial properties, from device physics to research and development of new systems, this title is aimed at undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and researchers.

  2. Quantum theory of the electronic and optical properties of low-dimensional semiconductor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wayne Heung

    This thesis examines the electronic and optical properties of low-dimensional semiconductor systems. A theory is developed to study the electron-hole generation-recombination process of type-II semimetallic semiconductor heterojunctions based on a 3 x 3 k·p matrix Hamiltonian (three-band model) and an 8 x 8 k·p matrix Hamiltonian (eight-band model). A novel electron-hole generation and recombination process, which is called activationless generation-recombination process, is predicted. It is demonstrated that the current through the type-II semimetallic semiconductor heterojunctions is governed by the activationless electron-hole generation-recombination process at the heterointerfaces, and that the current-voltage characteristics are essentially linear. A qualitative agreement between theory and experiments is observed. The numerical results of the eight-band model are compared with those of the threeband model. Based on a lattice gas model, a theory is developed to study the influence of a random potential on the ionization equilibrium conditions for bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) in III--V semiconductor heterostructures. It is demonstrated that ionization equilibrium conditions for bound electron-hole pairs change drastically in the presence of strong disorder. It is predicted that strong disorder promotes dissociation of excitons in III--V semiconductor heterostructures. A theory of polariton (photon dressed by phonon) spontaneous emission in a III--V semiconductor doped with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) or quantum wells (QWs) is developed. For the first time, superradiant and subradiant polariton spontaneous emission phenomena in a polariton-QD (QW) coupled system are predicted when the resonance energies of the two identical QDs (QWs) lie outside the polaritonic energy gap. It is also predicted that when the resonance energies of the two identical QDs (QWs) lie inside the polaritonic energy gap, spontaneous emission of polariton in the polariton

  3. Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2000-01-01

    Resonant second-harmonic generation is observed at room temperature in reflection from self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. The detected second-harmonic signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm corresponding to the quantum-dot photoluminescence maximum....... In addition, the second-harmonic spectrum exhibits another smaller but well-pronounced peak at 765 nm not found in the linear experiments. We attribute this peak to the generation of second-harmonic radiation in the AlGaAs spacer layer enhanced by the local symmetry at the quantum-dot interface. We further...... observe that second-harmonic images of the quantum-dot surface structure show wavelength-dependent spatial variations. Imaging at different wavelength is used to demonstrate second-harmonic generation from the semiconductor quantum dots. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Direct self-assembling and patterning of semiconductor quantum dots on transferable elastomer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, Sara [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); Vespini, Veronica, E-mail: v.vespini@isasi.cnr.it [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); Olivieri, Federico [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy); University of Naples Federico II, Department of Chemical Materials and Production Engineering, Piazzale Tecchio 80, Naples 80125 (Italy); Nasti, Giuseppe; Todino, Michele; Mandracchia, Biagio; Pagliarulo, Vito; Ferraro, Pietro [Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent System- CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 (Italy)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A quantum dots self-patterning on micrometrical polymeric array is proposed. • The effect of a quantum dots mix on the array is evaluated. • A PDMS membrane is exploited to transfer the pattern on it. - Abstract: Functionalization of thin and stretchable polymer layers by nano- and micro-patterning of nanoparticles is a very promising field of research that can lead to many different applications in biology and nanotechnology. In this work, we present a new procedure to self-assemble semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) nanoparticles by a simple fabrication process on a freestanding flexible PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) membrane. We used a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal to imprint a micrometrical pattern on the PDMS membrane that drives the QDs self-structuring on its surface. This process allows patterning QDs with different wavelength emissions in a single step in order to tune the overall emission spectrum of the composite, tuning the QDs mixing ratio.

  5. Band structures of graphene hexagonal lattice semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Li, Shu-Shen

    2010-12-01

    Electronic structures of coupled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) arranged as graphene hexagonal lattice are studied theoretically using the tight-binding method. In our calculations, the electrons can hop to the third-nearest-neighbors, and the overlap matrix as well as the multicenter integral are taken into account. The novel two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations in graphene are found in these artificial planar QD structures. The results provide the theoretical basis for searching Dirac fermions in QD materials and have great significance for investigating and making semiconductor QD devices.

  6. Full quantum treatment of charge dynamics in amorphous molecular semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Xander; Friederich, Pascal; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Coehoorn, Reinder; Bobbert, Peter A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a treatment of charge dynamics in amorphous molecular semiconductors that accounts for the coupling of charges to all intramolecular phonon modes in a fully quantum mechanical way. Based on ab initio calculations, we derive charge transfer rates that improve on the widely used semiclassical Marcus rate and obtain benchmark results for the mobility and energetic relaxation of electrons and holes in three semiconductors commonly applied in organic light-emitting diodes. Surprisingly, we find very similar results when using the simple Miller-Abrahams rate. We conclude that extracting the disorder strength from temperature-dependent charge transport studies is very possible but extracting the reorganization energy is not.

  7. Quantum theory of the optical and electronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Hartmut

    1990-01-01

    The current technological revolution in the development of computing devices has created a demand for a textbook on the quantum theory of the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. This book successfully fulfills this need. Based on lectures given by the authors, it is a comprehensive introduction for researchers or graduate-level students to the subject. Certain sections can also serve as a graduate-level textbook for use in solid state physics courses or for more specialized courses. The final chapters establish a direct link to current research in sem

  8. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  9. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  10. Quantifying aluminum and semiconductor industry perfluorocarbon emissions from atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooil; Fraser, Paul J.; Li, Shanlan; Mühle, Jens; Ganesan, Anita L.; Krummel, Paul B.; Steele, L. Paul; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2014-07-01

    The potent anthropogenic perfluorocarbon greenhouse gases tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6) are emitted to the atmosphere mainly by the aluminum and semiconductor industries. Global emissions of these perfluorocarbons (PFCs) calculated from atmospheric measurements are significantly greater than expected from reported national and industry-based emission inventories. In this study, in situ measurements of the two PFCs in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment network are used to show that their emission ratio varies according to the relative regional presence of these two industries, providing an industry-specific emission "signature" to apportion the observed emissions. Our results suggest that underestimated emissions from the global semiconductor industry during 1990-2010, as well as from China's aluminum industry after 2002, account for the observed differences between emissions based on atmospheric measurements and on inventories. These differences are significant despite the large uncertainties in emissions based on the methodologies used by these industries.

  11. Quantum computing based on semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolov, S.M.; Plissard, S.R.; Nadj-Perge, S.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A quantum computer will have computational power beyond that of conventional computers, which can be exploited for solving important and complex problems, such as predicting the conformations of large biological molecules. Materials play a major role in this emerging technology, as they can enable

  12. Development and Application of Semiconductor Quantum Dots to Quantum Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steel, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    .... Several major milestones were achieved during the present program including the demonstration of optically induced and detected quantum entanglement of two qubits, Rabi oscillation (one bit rotation...

  13. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  14. THz quantum-confined Stark effect in semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an instantaneous all-optical manipulation of optical absorption at the ground state of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) via a quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) induced by the electric field of incident THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 200 kV/cm in the free space...

  15. Dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under applied electric bias has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The bias-dependent polarization of PL (P PL ) was measured at different temperatures. The P PL was found to decay with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias, with an exception occurred for a low value of the negative bias. The P PL was also found to depend on the temperature. The P PL in the presence of a transverse magnetic field was also studied. The results showed that P PL in the magnetic field oscillates under an applied bias, demonstrating that the dephasing of electron spin occurs during the drift transport in semiconductor quantum wells.

  16. Dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M., E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-15

    The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under applied electric bias has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The bias-dependent polarization of PL (P{sub PL}) was measured at different temperatures. The P{sub PL} was found to decay with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias, with an exception occurred for a low value of the negative bias. The P{sub PL} was also found to depend on the temperature. The P{sub PL} in the presence of a transverse magnetic field was also studied. The results showed that P{sub PL} in the magnetic field oscillates under an applied bias, demonstrating that the dephasing of electron spin occurs during the drift transport in semiconductor quantum wells.

  17. Optical generation and control of quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Slavcheva, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented control of coherence that can be exercised in quantum optics of atoms and molecules has stimulated increasing efforts in extending it to solid-state systems. One motivation to exploit the coherent phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm, however many more potential device applications ranging from novel lasers to spintronics are all bound up with issues in coherence. The book focuses on recent advances in the optical control of coherence in excitonic and polaritonic systems as model systems for the complex semiconductor dynamics towards the goal

  18. Electron Liquids in Semiconductor Quantum Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinczuk, Aron

    2009-01-01

    The groups led by Stormer and Pinczuk have focused this project on goals that seek the elucidation of novel many-particle effects that emerge in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) as the result from fundamental quantum interactions. This experimental research is conducted under extreme conditions of temperature and magnetic field. From the materials point of view, the ultra-high mobility systems in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum structures continue to be at the forefront of this research. The newcomer materials are based on graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. The graphene research is attracting enormous attention from many communities involved in condensed matter research. The investigated many-particle phenomena include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, composite fermions, and Dirac fermions, and a diverse group of electron solid and liquid crystal phases. The Stormer group performed magneto-transport experiments and far-infrared spectroscopy, while the Pinczuk group explores manifestations of such phases in optical spectra.

  19. Electron Liquids in Semiconductor Quantum Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aron Pinczuk

    2009-05-25

    The groups led by Stormer and Pinczuk have focused this project on goals that seek the elucidation of novel many-particle effects that emerge in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) as the result from fundamental quantum interactions. This experimental research is conducted under extreme conditions of temperature and magnetic field. From the materials point of view, the ultra-high mobility systems in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum structures continue to be at the forefront of this research. The newcomer materials are based on graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. The graphene research is attracting enormous attention from many communities involved in condensed matter research. The investigated many-particle phenomena include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, composite fermions, and Dirac fermions, and a diverse group of electron solid and liquid crystal phases. The Stormer group performed magneto-transport experiments and far-infrared spectroscopy, while the Pinczuk group explores manifestations of such phases in optical spectra.

  20. Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-10-06

    By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.

  1. Field-emission from quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Gong, Xiwen; Sabatini, Randy P; Liu, Min; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Pang, Yuangjie; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sinton, David; Sargent, Edward

    2017-03-24

    Quantum dot and well architectures are attractive for infrared optoelectronics, and have led to the realization of compelling light sensors. However, they require well-defined passivated interfaces and rapid charge transport, and this has restricted their efficient implementation to costly vacuum-epitaxially grown semiconductors. Here we report solution-processed, sensitive infrared field-emission photodetectors. Using quantum-dots-in-perovskite, we demonstrate the extraction of photocarriers via field emission, followed by the recirculation of photogenerated carriers. We use in operando ultrafast transient spectroscopy to sense bias-dependent photoemission and recapture in field-emission devices. The resultant photodiodes exploit the superior electronic transport properties of organometal halide perovskites, the quantum-size-tuned absorption of the colloidal quantum dots and their matched interface. These field-emission quantum-dot-in-perovskite photodiodes extend the perovskite response into the short-wavelength infrared and achieve measured specific detectivities that exceed 10 12 Jones. The results pave the way towards novel functional photonic devices with applications in photovoltaics and light emission.

  2. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  3. Property analysis of colloidal quantum dot in semiconductor nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nusrat Irin Chowdhury; Islam, Md. Ariful

    2017-12-01

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (Semiconductor self-assembled QD), as a result of their fully quantized electronic states and high radiative efficiencies, which enable major advances in fundamental physics studies of electrons in zero-dimensionality semiconductor systems and in a variety of novel device applications. This paper reviews the analysis, covering the simulation reading of conical quantum dot with both-single QD and multi-layer QD structure as well as the analytical model for exploration of conical QD waveshape of the quantum-confined systems with different light polarized absorption and sweep parameters. The corresponding temperature of the electron Fermi level with different boundary conditions with the X, Y, and Z - dimensional of the QD conical structure is a responsible for unlike eigen-energy states. The paper shows a comprehensive understanding of the quantum confined 0D electronic structure with its conduction and valence energy band and with varying eigen-energy states, this dynamic process underpins the various device applications.

  4. Semiconductor-inspired design principles for superconducting quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2016-03-17

    Superconducting circuits offer tremendous design flexibility in the quantum regime culminating most recently in the demonstration of few qubit systems supposedly approaching the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Competition in the solid-state comes from semiconductor qubits, where nature has bestowed some very useful properties which can be utilized for spin qubit-based quantum computing. Here we begin to explore how selective design principles deduced from spin-based systems could be used to advance superconducting qubit science. We take an initial step along this path proposing an encoded qubit approach realizable with state-of-the-art tunable Josephson junction qubits. Our results show that this design philosophy holds promise, enables microwave-free control, and offers a pathway to future qubit designs with new capabilities such as with higher fidelity or, perhaps, operation at higher temperature. The approach is also especially suited to qubits on the basis of variable super-semi junctions.

  5. Impact of Relativistic Electron Beam on Hole Acoustic Instability in Quantum Semiconductor Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Areeb, F.; Javed, Asif; Sumera, P.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of the classical relativistic beam of electrons on the hole acoustic wave (HAW) instability exciting in the semiconductor quantum plasmas. We conducted this study by using the quantum-hydrodynamic model of dense plasmas, incorporating the quantum effects of semiconductor plasma species which include degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential and Bohm potential. Analysis of the quantum characteristics of semiconductor plasma species along with relativistic effect of beam electrons on the dispersion relation of the HAW is given in detail qualitatively and quantitatively by plotting them numerically. It is worth mentioning that the relativistic electron beam (REB) stabilises the HAWs exciting in semiconductor (GaAs) degenerate plasma.

  6. Near-field optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, D.; Harris, T. D.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss low temperature near-field scanning optical spectroscopical studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. We use the enhanced spatial resolution of near-field microscopy, to spectroscopically investigate these single wires, which are inaccessible to conventional far-field optical spectroscopy. We thus performed a direct experimental comparison between a two-dimensional quantum system and a single genuine one-dimensional quantum system. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of three enhancement in the optical absorption of a wire, in comparison with that of a similar well, is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  7. A Novel Laser Technology for Nanostructure Formation in Elementary Semiconductors: Quantum Confinement Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Medvids, A; Onufrijevs, P; Dmitruk, M; Dmitruk, I; Pundyk, I

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, nanostructures are one of the most investigated objects in solid-state physics, especially Quantum confinement effect in quantum dots, quantum wires and quantum wells. In the case of nanosize structures the energy band diagram of semiconductor has strongly changed. This leads to a crucial change of semiconductor properties such as: electrical (due to the change of free charge carrier concentration and electrons’ and holes’ mobility); optical (absorption coefficient, reflectivity in...

  8. Photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in dielectric environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, A.

    2006-08-11

    The experimental studies presented in this thesis deal with the photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in different dielectric environments. Detailed analysis of intermittency statistics from single capped CdSe/ZnS, uncapped CdSe and water dispersed CdSe/ZnS QDs in different matrices provide experimental evidence for the model of photoionization with a charge ejected into the surrounding matrix as the source of PL intermittency phenomenon. We propose a self-trapping model to explain the increase of dark state lifetimes with the dielectric constant of the matrix. (orig.)

  9. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J [Chapel Hill, NC; Sykora, Milan [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-04

    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  10. Quantum simulation of a Fermi-Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgens, T.; Fujita, T.; Janssen, L.; Li, Xiao; van Diepen, C. J.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Das Sarma, S.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2017-08-01

    Interacting fermions on a lattice can develop strong quantum correlations, which are the cause of the classical intractability of many exotic phases of matter. Current efforts are directed towards the control of artificial quantum systems that can be made to emulate the underlying Fermi-Hubbard models. Electrostatically confined conduction-band electrons define interacting quantum coherent spin and charge degrees of freedom that allow all-electrical initialization of low-entropy states and readily adhere to the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Until now, however, the substantial electrostatic disorder of the solid state has meant that only a few attempts at emulating Fermi-Hubbard physics on solid-state platforms have been made. Here we show that for gate-defined quantum dots this disorder can be suppressed in a controlled manner. Using a semi-automated and scalable set of experimental tools, we homogeneously and independently set up the electron filling and nearest-neighbour tunnel coupling in a semiconductor quantum dot array so as to simulate a Fermi-Hubbard system. With this set-up, we realize a detailed characterization of the collective Coulomb blockade transition, which is the finite-size analogue of the interaction-driven Mott metal-to-insulator transition. As automation and device fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots continue to improve, the ideas presented here will enable the investigation of the physics of ever more complex many-body states using quantum dots.

  11. Quantum simulation of a Fermi-Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgens, T; Fujita, T; Janssen, L; Li, Xiao; Van Diepen, C J; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Das Sarma, S; Vandersypen, L M K

    2017-08-02

    Interacting fermions on a lattice can develop strong quantum correlations, which are the cause of the classical intractability of many exotic phases of matter. Current efforts are directed towards the control of artificial quantum systems that can be made to emulate the underlying Fermi-Hubbard models. Electrostatically confined conduction-band electrons define interacting quantum coherent spin and charge degrees of freedom that allow all-electrical initialization of low-entropy states and readily adhere to the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Until now, however, the substantial electrostatic disorder of the solid state has meant that only a few attempts at emulating Fermi-Hubbard physics on solid-state platforms have been made. Here we show that for gate-defined quantum dots this disorder can be suppressed in a controlled manner. Using a semi-automated and scalable set of experimental tools, we homogeneously and independently set up the electron filling and nearest-neighbour tunnel coupling in a semiconductor quantum dot array so as to simulate a Fermi-Hubbard system. With this set-up, we realize a detailed characterization of the collective Coulomb blockade transition, which is the finite-size analogue of the interaction-driven Mott metal-to-insulator transition. As automation and device fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots continue to improve, the ideas presented here will enable the investigation of the physics of ever more complex many-body states using quantum dots.

  12. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2017-06-20

    In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP) and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction.

  13. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction.

  14. Intermixing effects on emission properties of InGaN/GaN coupled Quantum wells

    KAUST Repository

    Susilo, Tri B.

    2015-02-01

    Intermixing processes in quantum wells have been extensively studied in order to modify characteristic of semiconductor devices such as LEDs. Controlling the band gap of material by introducing intermixing process can be used to enable broadband and controllable emission of LEDs. Quantum well intermixing (QWI) in InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) is discussed in this paper. By varying the interdiffusion and separation lengths, the effects of intermixing process on the quantum eigen energies of the wells are studied. The investigation is carried out using a homegrown Quantum-FDTD simulator. © 2015 IEEE.

  15. (DARPA) Topologically Protected Quantum Information Processing In Spin-Orbit Compled Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    tunneling peak experiments performed in our proposed semiconductor heterostructures in detail, explaining the absence of the gap closing signatures...true smoking-gun signature of MFs in spin-orbit coupled semiconductor nanowires in terms of a charge tunneling quantum interference experiment...5) Unambiguous determination of Majorana fermions: Charge tunneling interference in semiconductor nanowires : Using the fractionalization property

  16. Artificially Structured Semiconductors to Model Novel Quantum Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinczuk, Aron [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Wind, Shalom J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics

    2018-01-13

    Award Period: September 1st, 2013 through February 15th, 2017 Submitted to the USDOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences By Aron Pinczuk and Shalom J. Wind Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Columbia University New York, NY 10027 January 2017 Award # DE-SC0010695 ABSTRACT Research in this project seeks to design, create and study a class of tunable artificial quantum structures in order to extend the range and scope of new and exciting physical phenomena and to explore the potential for new applications. Advanced nanofabrication was used to create an external potential landscape that acts as a lattice of confinement sites for electrons (and/or holes) in a two-dimensional electron gas in a high perfection semiconductor in such a manner that quantum interactions between different sites dictate the significant physics. Our current focus is on ‘artificial graphene’ (AG) in which a set of quantum dots (or sites) are patterned in a honeycomb lattice. The combination of leading edge nanofabrication with ultra-pure semiconductor materials in this project extends the frontier for small period, low-disorder AG systems, enabling the exploration of graphene physics in a semiconductor platform. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Contemporary condensed matter science has entered an era of discovery of new low-dimensional materials, such as graphene and other atomically thin materials, that exhibit exciting new physical phenomena that were previously inaccessible. Concurrent with the discovery and development of these new materials are impressive advancements in nanofabrication, which offer an ever-expanding toolbox for creating a myriad of high quality patterns at nanoscale dimensions. This project started about four years ago. Among its major achievements are the realizations of very small period artificial lattices with honeycomb topology in GaAs quantum wells. In our most recent work the periods of the ‘artificial graphene’ (AG) lattices extend down to 40 nm. These

  17. Quantum correlation control for two semiconductor microcavities connected by an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.-B. A.; Eleuch, H.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the quantum correlations for two coupled quantum wells. Each quantum well is inside a semiconductor microcavity. The two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. The study of quantum correlations, namely the geometric quantum discord, measurement-induced non-locality and negativity, reveals sudden death and sudden birth phenomena. These effects depend not only on the initial states, coupling strengths of the cavity-fiber and cavity-exciton constants, but also on the dissipation rates of the semiconductor microcavities. We show that the coupling constants control the quantum correlations.

  18. Development of segmented semiconductor arrays for quantum imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    The field of pixel detectors has grown strongly in recent years through progress in CMOS technology, which permits many hundreds of transistors to be implemented in an area of 50-200 um2. Pulse processing electronics with noise of the order of 100 e- RMS permits to distinguish photons of a few keV from background noise. Techniques are under development, which should allow single chip systems (area ~1 cm2) to be extended to larger areas. This paper gives an introduction into the concept of quantum imaging using direct conversion in segmented semiconductor arrays. An overview of projects from this domain using strip, pad and in particular hybrid pixel detectors will be presented. One of these projects, the Medipix project, is described in more detail. The effect of different correction methods like threshold adjustment and flat field correction is illustrated and new measurement results and images presented.

  19. Polarized emission in II–VI and perovskite colloidal quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isarov, Maya; Tan, Liang Z.; Tilchin, Jenya; Rabouw, Freddy T.; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.; Moes, Relinde; Carmi, Rotem; Barak, Yahel; Kostadinov, Alyssa; Meir, Itay; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2017-01-01

    The polarized emission of colloidal quantum dots from II–VI and perovskite semiconductors were investigated thoroughly, revealing information about the optical transitions in these materials and their potential use in various opto-electronic or spintronic applications. The studies included recording

  20. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, T.A.; Eendebak, P.T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the

  1. Electron field emission from amorphous semiconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    The flat panel display market requires new and improved technologies in order to keep up with the requirements of modem lifestyles. Electron field emission from thin film amorphous semiconductors is potentially such a technology. For this technology to become viable, improvements in the field emitting properties of these materials must be achieved. To this end, it is important that a better understanding of the emission mechanisms responsible is attained. Amorphous carbon thin films, amorphous silicon thin films and other materials have been deposited, in-house and externally. These materials have been characterised using ellipsometry, profilometry, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. An experimental system for evaluating the electron field emitting performance of thin films has been developed. In the process of developing thin film cathodes in this study, it has been possible to add a new and potentially more useful semiconductor, namely amorphous silicon, to the family of cold cathode emitters. Extensive experimental field emission data from amorphous carbon thin films, amorphous silicon thin films and other materials has been gathered. This data has been used to determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed electron emission. Preliminary computer simulations using appropriate values for the different material properties have exhibited emission mechanisms similar to those identified by experiment. (author)

  2. Optical Design of Dilute Nitride Quantum Wells Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A. Chaqmaqchee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available III-V semiconductors components such as Gallium Arsenic (GaAs, Indium Antimony (InSb, Aluminum Arsenic (AlAs and Indium Arsenic (InAs have high carrier mobilities and direct energy gaps. This is making them indispensable for today’s optoelectronic devices such as semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers at 1.3 μm wavelength operation. In fact, these elements are led to the invention of the Gallium Indium Nitride Arsenic (GaInNAs, where the lattice is matched to GaAs for such applications. This article is aimed to design dilute nitride GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs enclosed between top and bottom of Aluminum (Gallium Arsenic Al(GaAs distributed bragg mirrors (DBRs using MATLAB® program. Vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs structures are based on Fabry Perot (FP method to design optical gain and bandwidth gain to be operated in reflection and transmission modes. The optical model gives access to the contact layer of epitaxial structure and the reflectivity for successive radiative modes, their lasing thresholds, emission wavelengths and optical field distributions in the laser cavity.

  3. Theory of photovoltaic characteristics of semiconductor quantum dot solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuchang; Asryan, Levon V.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a comprehensive rate equations model for semiconductor quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs). The model is based on the continuity equations with a proper account for quantum dots (QDs). A general analytical expression for the total current density is obtained, and the current-voltage characteristic is studied for several specific situations. The degradation in the open circuit voltage of the QDSC is shown to be due to strong spontaneous radiative recombination in QDs. Due to small absorption coefficient of the QD ensemble, the improvement in the short circuit current density is negligible if only one QD layer is used. If spontaneous radiative recombination would be suppressed in QDs, a QDSC with multiple QD layers would have significantly higher short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency than its conventional counterpart. The effects of photoexcitation of carriers from discrete-energy states in QDs to continuum-energy states are discussed. An extended model, which includes excited states in QDs, is also introduced.

  4. Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Bastian, E-mail: BHerzog@physik.tu-berlin.de; Owschimikow, Nina; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Woggon, Ulrike [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-16

    Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.

  5. Magnetoexcitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Oliveira, Luiz E.

    2004-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of excitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots (QD). In these systems the confinement of electrons inside the QD and the hole outside the QD produces a ring-like structure [1-2]. Recently, Ribeiro et al [3], in a magnetophotoluminescence study of type-II InP/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, observed Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations characteristic of the ring topology for neutral excitons. Using a simple model they have derived the groundstate hole energy as a function of the magnetic field, and obtained values for the ring parameters which are in good agreement with the measured values. However, some of the features observed experimentally, in the photoluminescence intensity, can not be well explained under that approach. In this work we present a more realistic model which considers the finite width of the ring and the electron-hole interaction included via a perturbative approach. The calculations are performed within the oneparticle formalism using the effective mass approximation. The confinement potential for electrons is modelled as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction, and a parabolic lateral confinement potential. The energies for the hole in the ring plane are calculated using the method of reference [4]. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results of reference [3] provided that excitonic effects are properly taken into account. References 1. A.O. Govorov et al., Physica E 13 , 297 (2002). 2. K. L. Janssens et al. Phys. Rev B64, 155324 (2001), and Phys. Rev. B66, 075314 (2002). 3. E. Ribeiro, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, and W.Carvalho Jr., and A.O. Govorov, condmat/0304092 (2003). 4. Z. Barticevic, G. Fuster, and M. Pacheco,Phys. Rev. B 65, 193307 (2002).

  6. Opto-electronic and quantum transport properties of semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabathil, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a novel and efficient method for the calculation of the ballistic transport properties of open semiconductor nanostructures connected to external reservoirs is presented. It is based on the Green's function formalism and reduces the effort to obtain the transmission and the carrier density to a single solution of a hermitian eigenvalue problem with dimensions proportional to the size of the decoupled device and the multiple inversion of a small matrix with dimensions proportional to the size of the contacts to the leads. Using this method, the 4-band GaAs hole transport through a 2-dimensional three-terminal T-junction device, and the resonant tunneling current through a 3-dimensional InAs quantum dot molecule embedded into an InP heterostructure have been calculated. The further extension of the method into a charge self-consistent scheme enables the efficient prediction of the IV-characteristics of highly doped nanoscale field effect transistors in the ballistic regime, including the influence of quasi bound states and the exchange-correlation interaction. Buettiker probes are used to emulate the effect of inelastic scattering on the current for simple 1D devices, systematically analyzing the dependence of the density of states and the resulting self-consistent potential on the scattering strength. The second major topic of this work is the modeling of the optical response of quantum confined neutral and charged excitons in single and coupled self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. For this purpose the existing device simulator nextnano{sup 3} has been extended to incorporate particle-particle interactions within the means of density functional theory in local density approximation. In this way the exciton transition energies for neutral and charged excitons as a function of an externally applied electric field have been calculated, revealing a systematic reduction of the intrinsic dipole with the addition of extra holes to the exciton, a finding

  7. Self-trapped excitonic green emission from layered semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of layered semiconductor are grown by Bridgman technique and are studied them under two-photon excitation by a Q-switched 20-ns pulse laser. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the crystals are measured at various pumping powers and temperatures. The PL spectra appear broad and structureless emissions with their peaks in the green spectral region. The characteristic emissions are from self-trapped excitons of the crystals. An analysis of the spectra measured at various pumping powers shows a quadratic dependence of the PL peak intensity on the power, confirming a biphotonic process of the two-photon pumping. The temperature dependence shows an enhancement of the nonlinear response at low temperatures. The activation energy is estimated and found to be 2.4 meV. The roles of the bound excitons in the observed PL are discussed briefly.

  8. Self-trapped excitonic green emission from layered semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-08-15

    Crystals of layered semiconductor are grown by Bridgman technique and are studied them under two-photon excitation by a Q-switched 20-ns pulse laser. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the crystals are measured at various pumping powers and temperatures. The PL spectra appear broad and structureless emissions with their peaks in the green spectral region. The characteristic emissions are from self-trapped excitons of the crystals. An analysis of the spectra measured at various pumping powers shows a quadratic dependence of the PL peak intensity on the power, confirming a biphotonic process of the two-photon pumping. The temperature dependence shows an enhancement of the nonlinear response at low temperatures. The activation energy is estimated and found to be 2.4 meV. The roles of the bound excitons in the observed PL are discussed briefly.

  9. Instantaneous amplitude and frequency dynamics of coherent wave mixing in semiconductor quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors. Section II discusses theory of coherent wave mixing in semiconductors, with emphasis on resonant excitation with only one exciton state. Section III reviews recent experimental investigations of amplitude and phase of coherent wave-mixing resonant with quasi-2d excitons in GaAs quantum wells

  10. Quantum dynamical phenomena of independent electrons in semiconductor superlattices subject to a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Bloch oscillations and other dynamical phenomena of electrons in semiconductor superlattices; solvable dynamical model of an electron in a one-dimensional aperiodic lattice subject to a uniform electric field; and quantum dynamical phenomena of electrons in aperiodic semiconductor superlattices

  11. Dimensionality effects on the conductance of semiconductor quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacal, Luis C.O.; Damiao, Alvaro Jose; Andrada e Silva, E.A. de

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 'Spintronics' is a new kind of electronics based on the spin instead of charge of electrons [1]. It opens the possibility for faster devices and reduction of power consuming. This new field of research has received great attention from scientists in recent years [2]. Within the Kane model, spin-orbit interaction couples the three spatial coordinates dynamics for electrons in semiconductor heterostructures [3]. As a consequence, the control of spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures requires a three-dimensional description of the system. Strictly two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) descriptions are known in literature [4], but no attention has been devoted to the transition between them. In this work, we address this question calculating the conductance of a quantum wire with infinite contacts in a strictly 2D, quasi-2D and strictly 3D models. This study allows to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to the conductance in absence of spin-orbit interaction. We consider ballistic quantum regime, the same material for contacts and wire and we employ Landauer-Buttiker formula, 'mode matching' technique [4] and envelope function formalism. Our results reproduce the typical conductance oscillations and the well known mode degeneracy for 3D systems [4]. We prove that the critical parameters controlling the amplitude of these oscillations are the ratios between the wire and contacts transversal lengths, while the wire longitudinal length determines the position and shape of the peaks. This work is supported by FAPESP and CNPq. [1] Min Ouyang and David D. Awschalom, Science 301, 1074 (2003); Shuichi Murakami, Naoto Nagaosa, and Shou-Cheng Zhang, Science 301, 1348 (2003) [2] Proceedings of the 2002 PASPS, Wuerzburg, Germany, Journal of Superconductivity, Special Issue, April 2003[3] E. A. de Andrada e Silva, G. C. La Rocca and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8523 (1994) [4] George Kirczenow, Phys. Rev. B 39, 10452 (1989); Karl

  12. Plasmon-enhanced second harmonic generation in semiconductor quantum dots close to metal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Bragas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the enhancement of the optical second harmonic signal in non-centrosymmetric semiconductor CdS quantum dots, when they are placed in close contact with isolated silver nanoparticles. The intensity enhancement is about 1000. We also show that the enhancement increases when the incoming laser frequency $omega$ is tuned toward the spectral position of the silver plasmon at $2omega$, proving that the silver nanoparticle modifies the nonlinear emission.Received: 8 March 2011, Accepted: 30 May 2011; Edited by: L. Viña; Reviewed by: R. Gordon, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; DOI: 10.4279/PIP.030002Cite as: P. M. Jais, C. von Bilderling, A. V. Bragas, Papers in Physics 3, 030002 (2011

  13. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Patrick D.; Souza, João B.; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2016-06-28

    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I-parallel to/I-perpendicular to= 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  14. Optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu:ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Herein quantum dots (QDs) of diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu:ZnS have been synthesized via a simple chemical synthesis method. A single phase solid solution is formed up to x = 0.1 which confirmed by using X-ray diffraction. Crystal structure and microstructure analyses were performed by Rietveld refinement. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra were recorded for pure and Cu doped ZnS QDs excited at 268 and 228 nm respectively. PL emission and excitation spectra were investigated in different wavelength regions within the range of 200-900 nm. PL results in the range of 220-300 nm emission band reveals that the band gap of pure ZnS QDs is about 4.43 eV which greater than that of bulk ZnS (3.7 eV). The band gap of Cu:ZnS QDs is tunable with Cu content (x) as well as the crystalline size, and it is peaked around 4.47 eV. PL emission in the range of 350-650 nm exhibits a green fluorescence band peaking around 552 nm for pure ZnS QDs, which confirms the characteristic feature of Zn2+ as luminescent centers in the lattice, while blue emission bands peaked around 471 nm for Cu:ZnS QDs that is attributed to the transition of electrons from conduction band of ZnS to the Cu impurity level. The blue shift of the absorption peak directly reflects the effect of quantum confinement. The PL results have been supported by X-ray phase analysis, high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM and SEM), compositional evaluation (EDX) and magnetic measurements (VSM).

  15. Optical dynamics in low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures. Quantum dots and quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Carsten

    2008-07-01

    This work is focused on the optical dynamics of mesoscopic semiconductor heterostructures, using as prototypes zero-dimensional quantum dots and quantum cascade lasers which consist of quasitwo- dimensional quantum wells. Within a density matrix theory, a microscopic many-particle theory is applied to study scattering effects in these structures: the coupling to external as well as local fields, electron-phonon coupling, coupling to impurities, and Coulomb coupling. For both systems, the investigated effects are compared to experimentally observed results obtained during the past years. In quantum dots, the three-dimensional spatial confinement leads to the necessity to consider a quantum kinetic description of the dynamics, resulting in non-Markovian electron-phonon effects. This can be seen in the spectral phonon sidebands due to interaction with acoustic phonons as well as a damping of nonlinear Rabi oscillations which shows a nonmonotonous intensity and pulse duration dependence. An analysis of the inclusion of the self-interaction of the quantum dot shows that no dynamical local field terms appear for the simple two-level model. Considering local fields which have their origin in many quantum dots, consequences for a two-level quantum dot such as a zero-phonon line broadening and an increasing signal in photon echo experiments are found. For the use of quantum dots in an optical spin control scheme, it is found that the dephasing due to the electron-phonon interaction can be dominant in certain regimes. Furthermore, soliton and breather solutions are studied analytically in nonlinear quantum dot ensembles. Generalizing to quasi-two-dimensional structures, the intersubband dynamics of quantum cascade laser structures is investigated. A dynamical theory is considered in which the temporal evolution of the subband populations and the current density as well as the influence of scattering effects is studied. In the nonlinear regime, the scattering dependence and

  16. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.

  17. Towards quantum optics and entanglement with electron spin ensembles in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Caspar H.; Sladkov, Maksym

    We discuss a technique and a material system that enable the controlled realization of quantum entanglement between spin-wave modes of electron ensembles in two spatially separated pieces of semiconductor material. The approach uses electron ensembles in GaAs quantum wells that are located inside

  18. Plasmonic Control of Radiation and Absorption Processes in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiella, Roberto [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Moustakas, Theodore D. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This document reviews a research program funded by the DOE Office of Science, which has been focused on the control of radiation and absorption processes in semiconductor photonic materials (including III-nitride quantum wells and quantum dots), through the use of specially designed metallic nanoparticles (NPs). By virtue of their strongly confined plasmonic resonances (i.e., collective oscillations of the electron gas), these nanostructures can concentrate incident radiation into sub-wavelength “hot spots” of highly enhanced field intensity, thereby increasing optical absorption by suitably positioned absorbers. By reciprocity, the same NPs can also dramatically increase the spontaneous emission rate of radiating dipoles located within their hot spots. The NPs can therefore be used as optical antennas to enhance the radiation output of the underlying active material and at the same time control the far-field pattern of the emitted light. The key accomplishments of the project include the demonstration of highly enhanced light emission efficiency as well as plasmonic collimation and beaming along geometrically tunable directions, using a variety of plasmonic excitations. Initial results showing the reverse functionality (i.e., plasmonic unidirectional absorption and photodetection) have also been generated with similar systems. Furthermore, a new paradigm for the near-field control of light emission has been introduced through rigorous theoretical studies, based on the use of gradient metasurfaces (i.e., optical nanoantenna arrays with spatially varying shape, size, and/or orientation). These activities have been complemented by materials development efforts aimed at the synthesis of suitable light-emitting samples by molecular beam epitaxy. In the course of these efforts, a novel technique for the growth of III-nitride quantum dots has also been developed (droplet heteroepitaxy), with several potential advantages in terms of compositional and geometrical

  19. Charge Carrier Dynamics of Quantum Confined Semiconductor Nanoparticles Analyzed via Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Arthur Joseph, III

    Semiconductor nanoparticles are tiny crystalline structures (typically range from 1 - 100 nm) whose shape in many cases can be dictated through tailored chemical synthesis with atomic scale precision. The small size of these nanoparticles often results in quantum confinement (spatial confinement of wave functions), which imparts the ability to manipulate band-gap energies thus allowing them to be optimally engineered for different applications (i.e., photovoltaics, photocatalysis, imaging). However, charge carriers excited within these nanoparticles are often involved in many different processes: trapping, trap migration, Auger recombination, non-radiative relaxation, radiative relaxation, oxidation / reduction, or multiple exciton generation. Broadband ultrafast transient absorption laser spectroscopy is used to spectrally resolve the fate of excited charge carriers in both wavelength and time, providing insight as to what synthetic developments or operating conditions will be necessary to optimize their efficiency for certain applications. This thesis outlines the effort of resolving the dynamics of excited charge carriers for several Cd and Si based nanoparticle systems using this experimental technique. The thesis is organized into five chapters and two appendices as indicated below. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the photophysics of semiconductor nanoparticles. It begins by defining what nanoparticles, semiconductors, charge carriers, and quantum confinement are. From there it details how the study of charge carrier dynamics within nanoparticles can lead to increased efficiency in applications such as photocatalysis. Finally, the experimental methodology associated with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is introduced and its power in mapping charge carrier dynamics is established. Chapter 2 (JPCC, 19647, 2011) introduces the first of the studied samples: water-solubilized 2D CdSe nanoribbons (NRs), which were synthesized in the Osterloh

  20. Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J; Treutlein, Philipp

    2017-08-11

    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δf=0.66  GHz, the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure η_{e2e}^{50  ns}=3.4(3)% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency η_{int}=17(3)%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to η_{e2e}≈35%; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9×10^{-3} photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ_{1}=0.27(4) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.

  1. Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2017-08-01

    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δ f =0.66 GHz , the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure ηe2 e 50 ns=3.4 (3 )% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency ηint=17 (3 )%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to ηe 2 e≈35 %; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9 ×10-3 photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ1=0.27 (4 ) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.

  2. Measurement of the emission spectrum of a semiconductor laser using laser-feedback interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Freeman, Joshua; Bertling, Karl; Lim, Yah L; Mohandas, Reshma A; Taimre, Thomas; Li, Lianhe H; Indjin, Dragan; Rakić, Aleksandar D; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul

    2017-08-03

    The effects of optical feedback (OF) in lasers have been observed since the early days of laser development. While OF can result in undesirable and unpredictable operation in laser systems, it can also cause measurable perturbations to the operating parameters, which can be harnessed for metrological purposes. In this work we exploit this 'self-mixing' effect to infer the emission spectrum of a semiconductor laser using a laser-feedback interferometer, in which the terminal voltage of the laser is used to coherently sample the reinjected field. We demonstrate this approach using a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser operating in both single- and multiple-longitudinal mode regimes, and are able to resolve spectral features not reliably resolved using traditional Fourier transform spectroscopy. We also investigate quantitatively the frequency perturbation of individual laser modes under OF, and find excellent agreement with predictions of the excess phase equation central to the theory of lasers under OF.

  3. Secondary electron emission from metals and semi-conductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Susumu; Kanaya, Koichi

    1979-01-01

    Attempt was made to present the sufficient solution of the secondary electron yield of metals and semiconductor compounds except insulators, applying the free electron scattering theory to the absorption of secondary electrons generated within a solid target. The paper is divided into the sections describing absorption coefficient and escape depth, quantitative characteristics of secondary yield, angular distribution of secondary electron emission, effect of incident angle to secondary yield, secondary electron yield transmitted, and lateral distribution of secondary electron emission, besides introduction and conclusion. The conclusions are as follows. Based on the exponential power law for screened atomic potential, secondary electron emission due to both primary and backscattered electrons penetrating into metallic elements and semi-conductive compounds is expressed in terms of the ionization loss in the first collision for escaping secondary electrons. The maximum yield and the corresponding primary energy can both consistently be derived as the functions of three parameters: atomic number, first ionization energy and backscattering coefficient. The yield-energy curve as a function of the incident energy and the backscattering coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental results. The energy dependence of the yield in thin films and the lateral distribution of secondary yield are derived as the functions of the backscattering coefficient and the primary energy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Broadband microwave phase shifter based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a scheme to achieve tunable ~180 degrees microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.......We present a scheme to achieve tunable ~180 degrees microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  5. Nonlinear structures: Cnoidal, soliton, and periodical waves in quantum semiconductor plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, R. E., E-mail: tolba-math@yahoo.com; El-Bedwehy, N. A., E-mail: nab-elbedwehy@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Moslem, W. M., E-mail: wmmoslem@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Labany, S. K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Yahia, M. E., E-mail: meyahia@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, International University of Sarajevo (IUS), 71210 Ilidža, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2016-01-15

    Properties and emerging conditions of various nonlinear acoustic waves in a three dimensional quantum semiconductor plasma are explored. A plasma fluid model characterized by degenerate pressures, exchange correlation, and quantum recoil forces is established and solved. Our analysis approach is based on the reductive perturbation theory for deriving the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation from the fluid model and solving it by using Painlevé analysis to come up with different nonlinear solutions that describe different pulse profiles such as cnoidal, soliton, and periodical pulses. The model is then employed to recognize the possible perturbations in GaN semiconductor.

  6. Enhancing slow- and fast-light effects in quantum dot semiconductor waveguides through ultrafast dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review our theoretical work on slow and fast light effects in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD SOAs), in particular we investigate the carrier dynamical contributions to the dynamic gain grating and cross gain modulation induced by unique ultrafast inter-subband c......In this paper we review our theoretical work on slow and fast light effects in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD SOAs), in particular we investigate the carrier dynamical contributions to the dynamic gain grating and cross gain modulation induced by unique ultrafast inter...

  7. Optical properties of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in dielectric media: A natural potential well approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hwajun; Shin, Seung Koo

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots exhibit size-dependent optical properties due to quantum and dielectric confinements at the semiconductor/solvent boundary. To consider both confinement effects, we take a natural potential well approach that assumes separate potential wells for electron and hole which are surrounded by dielectric media. The potential well depths for electron and hole are set by the band offsets at the semiconductor/solvent heterojunction. The kinetic energy is calculated using an effective mass approximation and the electron-hole interaction energy is obtained by taking image charges into account. For cadmium chalcogenides, resulting transition energies agree well with size-dependent optical bandgaps from experiments.

  8. The effect of multi active junctions on broadband emission from InAs/InGaAlAs quantum-dash structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the importance of multi active layer stacking in realizing a semiconductor broadband quantum-dash-in-well laser. The photoluminescence measurements show the negligible factor of largely localized inhomogeneous quantum-dash ensembles in producing ultra-wide envelope of emission. © 2009 IEEE.

  9. Spectroscopy of size dependent many-particle effects in single self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Savio, C.

    2006-02-20

    Single InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown with the Stranski-Krastanov method in a In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As quantum well embedded in GaAs and emitting in the near infrared have been optically investigated. To perform QD spectroscopy at low temperatures a very stable micro-photoluminescence ({mu}-PL) microscope set-up fully integrated in a liquid helium (LHe) cryostate has been successfully developed. The system is based on the cold finger technique and a Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometer combined with a nitrogen cooled Ge detector. Photoluminescence of the QDs was excited non resonantly with a He-Ne laser and single dot spectroscopy was carried out at temperatures below 60 K. The experimental set-up allows mapping of the optical emission by recording spectra for every point of a scan grid. This mapping mode is used to acquire optical images and to locate a particular dot for investigation. Series of measurement on a single QD were normally performed over a long time (from a few days to a week), with the need of daily adjustment in the sub-micrometer range. At low excitation power a single sharp line (E{sub x}) arising from recombination of a single exciton in the dot is observed. Varying the excitation density the spectra become more complex, with appearance of the biexciton emission line (E{sub xx}) on the lower energies side of the E{sub x} line, followed by emission from excitons occupying higher shells in the dot. Measured biexciton binding energies and power dependence are in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The temperature dependence of the optical emission was investigated. The energy shows the characteristic decrease related to the shrinking of the semiconductor band gap, while the linewidth evolution is compatible with broadening due to coupling with acoustic and optical phonons. A statistics of biexciton binding energies over a dozen of dots was acquired and the results compared with single QD spectroscopy data available in the

  10. Investigation of coherent molecular resonances in quantum dot–metallic nanoparticle systems using their spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, S.M.; Patty, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of metallic nanoparticles the nature of the optical excitations (pumping) of semiconductor quantum dots can be determined by their molecular states and resonances formed via coherent coupling of excitons and plasmons. We show that the spontaneous emission of such quantum dots can provide key information regarding formation and characteristics of such molecular properties. This includes an ultra-fast switching process associated with optical transition between the molecular states of the quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle system or its plasmonic meta-resonance when the intensity of the laser field responsible for the exciton–plasmon coupling reaches a critical value. We also show that by varying the intensity of this laser, the spontaneous emission exhibits characteristic features indicating tunability of the molecular resonances and excitation-power dependence of plasmonic fields of the metallic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Investigation of collective molecular properties of quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems. • Impact of such collective properties on the optical excitation of quantum dots. • Effects of exciton–plasmon coupling in the spontaneous emission of the quantum dots. • Signatures of plasmonic meta-resonances in the fluorescence of quantum dots

  11. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  12. Generic Hubbard model description of semiconductor quantum-dot spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Wang, Xin; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-04-01

    We introduce a Hubbard model as the simple quantum generalization of the classical capacitance circuit model to study semiconductor quantum-dot spin qubits. We prove theoretically that our model is equivalent to the usual capacitance circuit model in the absence of quantum fluctuations. However, our model naturally includes quantum effects such as hopping and spin exchange. The parameters of the generalized Hubbard model can either be directly read off from the experimental plot of the stability diagram or be calculated from the microscopic theory, establishing a quantitative connection between the two. We show that, while the main topology of the charge stability diagram is determined by the ratio between intersite and on-site Coulomb repulsion, fine details of the stability diagram reveal information about quantum effects. Extracting quantum information from experiments using our Hubbard model approach is simple, but would require the measurement resolution to increase by an order of magnitude.

  13. Magnetosonic solitons in semiconductor plasmas in the presence of quantum tunneling and exchange correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2018-01-01

    Low frequency magnetosonic wave excitations are investigated in semiconductor hole-electron plasmas. The quantum mechanical effects such as Fermi pressure, quantum tunneling, and exchange-correlation of holes and electrons in the presence of the magnetic field are considered. The two fluid quantum magnetohydrodynamic model is used to study magnetosonic wave dynamics, while electric and magnetic fields are coupled via Maxwell equations. The dispersion relation of the magnetosonic wave in electron-hole semiconductor plasma propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is obtained, and its dispersion effects are discussed. The Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV) for magnetosonic solitons is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. For numerical analysis, the plasma parameters are taken from the semiconductors such as GaAs, GaSb, GaN, and InP already existing in the literature. It is found that the phase velocity of the magnetosonic wave is increased with the inclusion of exchange-correlation force in the model. The soliton dip structures of the magnetosonic wave in GaN semiconductor plasma are obtained, which satisfy the quantum plasma conditions for electron and hole fluids. The magnetosonic soliton dip structures move with speed less than the magnetosonic wave phase speed in the lab frame. The effects of exchange-correlation force in the model and variations of magnetic field intensity and electron/hole density on the magnetosonic wave dip structures are also investigated numerically for illustration.

  14. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  15. Spectroscopic quantum imaging using pixel-level ADCS in Semiconductor-based Hybrid pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of a microelectronic system that can be used to build a spectroscopic imaging system, in particular a spectroscopic quantum imaging using pixel-level ADCs in semiconductor-based hybrid pixel detectors. In such a system the signal generated in the sensor by a photon

  16. Self-slowdown and -advancement of fs pulses in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate changes in the propagation time of 180 femtosecond pulses in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier as function of pulse input power and bias current. The results interpreted as a result of pulse reshaping by gain saturation but are also analogous to coherent population osci...

  17. Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...

  18. High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    developed in the study of single quantum dots, characterized by sharp atomic-like transition lines revealing their zero-dimensional density of states. Substantial information about the fundamental properties of individual quantum dots, as well as their interactions with other dots and the host lattice, can...

  19. QCAD simulation and optimization of semiconductor double quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Kalashnikova, Irina; Muller, Richard Partain; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Young, Ralph Watson

    2013-12-01

    We present the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) simulator that targets modeling quantum devices, particularly silicon double quantum dots (DQDs) developed for quantum qubits. The simulator has three di erentiating features: (i) its core contains nonlinear Poisson, e ective mass Schrodinger, and Con guration Interaction solvers that have massively parallel capability for high simulation throughput, and can be run individually or combined self-consistently for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices; (ii) the core solvers show superior convergence even at near-zero-Kelvin temperatures, which is critical for modeling quantum computing devices; (iii) it couples with an optimization engine Dakota that enables optimization of gate voltages in DQDs for multiple desired targets. The Poisson solver includes Maxwell- Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics, supports Dirichlet, Neumann, interface charge, and Robin boundary conditions, and includes the e ect of dopant incomplete ionization. The solver has shown robust nonlinear convergence even in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, and has been extensively used to quickly obtain the semiclassical electrostatic potential in DQD devices. The self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver has achieved robust and monotonic convergence behavior for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices at very low temperatures by using a predictor-correct iteration scheme. The QCAD simulator enables the calculation of dot-to-gate capacitances, and comparison with experiment and between solvers. It is observed that computed capacitances are in the right ballpark when compared to experiment, and quantum con nement increases capacitance when the number of electrons is xed in a quantum dot. In addition, the coupling of QCAD with Dakota allows to rapidly identify which device layouts are more likely leading to few-electron quantum dots. Very efficient QCAD simulations on a large number of fabricated and proposed Si DQDs have made it possible to provide fast feedback for design

  20. Temperature-dependent resonance energy transfer from semiconductor quantum wells to graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Keun Soo; Nam, Jungtae; Kwon, Se Ra; Byun, Hyeryoung; Lee, Kwanjae; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Dupuis, Russell D; Kim, Jeomoh; Ahn, Gwanghyun; Ryu, Sunmin; Ryu, Mee-Yi; Kim, Jin Soo

    2015-02-11

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) has been employed for interpreting the energy interaction of graphene combined with semiconductor materials such as nanoparticles and quantum-well (QW) heterostructures. Especially, for the application of graphene as a transparent electrode for semiconductor light emitting diodes, the mechanism of exciton recombination processes such as RET in graphene-semiconductor QW heterojunctions should be understood clearly. Here, we characterized the temperature-dependent RET behaviors in graphene/semiconductor QW heterostructures. We then observed the tuning of the RET efficiency from 5% to 30% in graphene/QW heterostructures with ∼60 nm dipole-dipole coupled distance at temperatures of 300 to 10 K. This survey allows us to identify the roles of localized and free excitons in the RET process from the QWs to graphene as a function of temperature.

  1. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Defined in Low-Dimensional Semiconductor Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on electron transport in single and double quantum dots defined in low-dimensional, narrow-band-gap III-V semiconductor materials. Fabrication schemes are presented for defining single and double quantum dots in lateral InGaAs/InP heterostructures, either by a combination of etching and local gating or solely by local top gating. The quantum dots are here electrostatically confined in at least one dimension. This allows for insitu control of the tunnel coupling of the quan...

  2. Spin dynamics and hyperfine interaction in InAs semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, B.; Krebs, O.; Voisin, P.; Lemaitre, A.; Kudelski, A.; Braun, P.F.; Lombez, L.; Marie, X.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Lagarde, D.; Renucci, P.; Kowalik, K.; Kalevich, V.K.; Kavokin, K.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the hyperfine interaction between carrier and nuclear spins in InAs semiconductor quantum dots. Time resolved measurements on excitons in positively charged quantum dots show the electron spin relaxation due to random fluctuations of the spin orientation of the nuclei in the quantum dot. A complimentary aspect of the hyperfine interaction can be uncovered in single dot continuous wave photoluminescence experiments in a weak magnetic field, namely the Overhauser shift due to the dynamic polarisation of the nuclei following excitation with circularly polarised light. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Emission of twisted photons from quantum vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Emission of twisted photons, carrying orbital angular momentum, from QED vacuum is considered. This is a new type of radiation which can be excited by a Gaussian laser pulse propagating along the axis of a magnetic wiggler. We consider quantum vacuum as described by the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian, and assume propagation of an ultra-intense laser pulse in a static magnetic structure. We show that, in such a configuration, vacuum emission of electromagnetic vortices can occur, at a frequency much larger than that of the intense laser pulse, which can eventually be tuned from the visible up to the XUV range. This new configuration could eventually be useful to reduce classical noise in future experiments.

  4. Andreev molecules in semiconductor nanowire double quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoen; Tacla, Alexandre B; Hocevar, Moïra; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Daley, Andrew J; Pekker, David; Frolov, Sergey M

    2017-09-19

    Chains of quantum dots coupled to superconductors are promising for the realization of the Kitaev model of a topological superconductor. While individual superconducting quantum dots have been explored, control of longer chains requires understanding of interdot coupling. Here, double quantum dots are defined by gate voltages in indium antimonide nanowires. High transparency superconducting niobium titanium nitride contacts are made to each of the dots in order to induce superconductivity, as well as probe electron transport. Andreev bound states induced on each of dots hybridize to define Andreev molecular states. The evolution of these states is studied as a function of charge parity on the dots, and in magnetic field. The experiments are found in agreement with a numerical model.Quantum dots in a nanowire are one possible approach to creating a solid-state quantum simulator. Here, the authors demonstrate the coupling of electronic states in a double quantum dot to form Andreev molecule states; a potential building block for longer chains suitable for quantum simulation.

  5. Using metal complex-labeled peptides for charge transfer-based biosensing with semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medintz, Igor L.; Pons, Thomas; Trammell, Scott A.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Philip E.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2009-02-01

    Luminescent colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have unique optical and photonic properties and are highly sensitive to charge transfer in their surrounding environment. In this study we used synthetic peptides as physical bridges between CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and some of the most common redox-active metal complexes to understand the charge transfer interactions between the metal complexes and QDs. We found that QD emission underwent quenching that was highly dependent on the choice of metal complex used. We also found that quenching traces the valence or number of metal complexes brought into close proximity of the nanocrystal surface. Monitoring of the QD absorption bleaching in the presence of the metal complex provided insight into the charge transfer mechanism. The data suggest that two distinct charge transfer mechanisms can take place. One directly to the QD core states for neutral capping ligands and a second to surface states for negatively charged capping ligands. A basic understanding of the proximity driven charge-transfer and quenching interactions allowed us to construct proteolytic enzyme sensing assemblies with the QD-peptide-metal complex conjugates.

  6. Coherently driven semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunication wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We proposed and demonstrate use of optical driving pulses at a telecommunication wavelength for exciton-based quantum gate operation. The exciton in a self-assembled quantum dot is coherently manipulated at 1.3 microm through Rabi oscillation. The telecom-band exciton-qubit system incorporates standard optical fibers and fiber optic devices. The coherent manipulation of the two-level system compatible with flexible and stable fiber network paves the way toward practical optical implementation of quantum information processing devices.

  7. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...

  8. Color-selective photodetection from intermediate colloidal quantum dots buried in amorphous-oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Sang; Heo, Keun; Baik, Chan-Wook; Choi, Jun Young; Jeong, Heejeong; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2017-10-10

    We report color-selective photodetection from intermediate, monolayered, quantum dots buried in between amorphous-oxide semiconductors. The proposed active channel in phototransistors is a hybrid configuration of oxide-quantum dot-oxide layers, where the gate-tunable electrical property of silicon-doped, indium-zinc-oxide layers is incorporated with the color-selective properties of quantum dots. A remarkably high detectivity (8.1 × 10 13 Jones) is obtained, along with three major findings: fast charge separation in monolayered quantum dots; efficient charge transport through high-mobility oxide layers (20 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ); and gate-tunable drain-current modulation. Particularly, the fast charge separation rate of 3.3 ns -1 measured with time-resolved photoluminescence is attributed to the intermediate quantum dots buried in oxide layers. These results facilitate the realization of efficient color-selective detection exhibiting a photoconductive gain of 10 7 , obtained using a room-temperature deposition of oxide layers and a solution process of quantum dots. This work offers promising opportunities in emerging applications for color detection with sensitivity, transparency, and flexibility.The development of highly sensitive photodetectors is important for image sensing and optical communication applications. Cho et al., report ultra-sensitive photodetectors based on monolayered quantum dots buried in between amorphous-oxide semiconductors and demonstrate color-detecting logic gates.

  9. Nodal ground states and orbital textures in semiconductor quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, J.; Výborný, Karel; Han, J.E.; Žutič, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), "045315-1"-"045315-17" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  10. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  11. Nanobubble induced formation of quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Gabriella D.; Ajayi, Obafunso A.; Li, Xiangzhi; Zhu, X.-Y.; Hone, James; Strauf, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The recent discovery of exciton quantum emitters in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has triggered renewed interest of localized excitons in low-dimensional systems. Open questions remain about the microscopic origin previously attributed to dopants and/or defects as well as strain potentials. Here we show that the quantum emitters can be deliberately induced by nanobubble formation in WSe2 and BN/WSe2 heterostructures. Correlations of atomic-force microscope and hyperspectral photoluminescence images reveal that the origin of quantum emitters and trion disorder is extrinsic and related to 10 nm tall nanobubbles and 70 nm tall wrinkles, respectively. We further demonstrate that ‘hot stamping’ results in the absence of 0D quantum emitters and trion disorder. The demonstrated technique is useful for advances in nanolasers and deterministic formation of cavity-QED systems in monolayer materials.

  12. Large-area field emission diode for semiconductor annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luches, A.; Nassisi, V.; Perrone, A.; Perrone, M. R.

    1981-03-01

    We report the characteristics of a low energy electron beam generator used for annealing of materials of interest as electron devices and photovoltaic cells. The high voltage pulser is a two-stage Marx circuit which supplies 10-50 kV pulses. A Blumlein line gives the pulses an almost square shape and a length of 50 ns. This short pulse is applied to a field emission diode. Various kinds of cathodes are used. They deliver electron pulses of up to 20 kA. Tungsten needles are used for small-area beams and blade arrays or graphite cathodes for large-area beams. Consequently, the beam diameter can vary from 2 to 120 mm with a good beam homogeneity. The anode is movable to vary the vacuum diode impedance and consequently the current-voltage characteristic of the electron beam. Energy densities varying from 0.1 to 100 J/cm 2 are obtained on the anode. The anode can be formed by a semiconductor monocrystalline wafer. We used crystalline silicon wafers covered by a thin (≈100 nm) layer of vacuum deposited near-noble and refractory metals. Under electron beam bombardment with discharge energy densities ranging from 0.4 to 10 J/cm 2, silicide formation is evident over all the annealed anodes. Metastable compounds are formed because of the fast heating and cooling rates. Silicon monocrystalline wafers, doped with 10 14-10 15 ions/cm 2 of B or P ions exhibit a complete recovery of their crystalline structure after a single discharge.

  13. Closed-loop design of active semiconductor quantum well material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, J. V.; Hader, J.; Koch, S. W.

    2005-10-01

    Semiconductor quantum well active structures are pervasive in many applications of defense related systems ranging from low power edge (DFB), VCSEL and VCSEL emitter arrays to high power low brightness broad area emitters and diode bars. Recent breakthroughs in the development of a new class of high brightness vertical external cavity (VECSEL) emitters offers the potential to replace solid state YAG kW-class laser weapons systems. Remarkably, despite the maturity and dramatic improvement in quality of semiconductor QW growth over the past three decades, there has been no truly predictive means of designing the semiconductor active structure and fast-tracking to a final packaged device. We will describe a fully self-consistent microscopic many-body approach to calculate optical gain, absorption, refractive index spectra and nonradiative recombination rates for a broad class of semiconductor quantum well material systems. The theoretical calculations are free of ad hoc parameter adjustments and provide, for the first time, a means of designing an active semiconductor epi-structure in a predictive manner.

  14. Photon-Storage in Optical Memory Cells Based on a Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Quantum Well Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Song-Bao; Tang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong; Li, Yue-Xia; Yang, Fu-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Zeng, Yi-Ping

    2003-08-01

    We report a new type of photonic memory cell based on a semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-quantum well (QW) hybrid structure, in which photo-generated excitons can be decomposed into separated electrons and holes, and stored in QW and QDs respectively. Storage and retrieval of photonic signals are verified by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. A storage time in excess of 100 ms has been obtained at a temperature of 10 K while the switching speed reaches the order of ten megahertz.

  15. The effects of geometrical configurations on the head collision on nonlinear solitary pulses in a quantum semiconductor plasma: A case study on GaAs semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Shamy, E. F.; Gohman, F. S.; Alqahtani, M. M.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-01-01

    An investigation is presented to examine nonlinear electrostatic waves in a quantum semiconductor plasma. A quantum semiconductor plasma model consisting of electrons and holes is going to be used, which includes exchange-correlation potentials, the quantum recoil effect, and degenerate pressures of electrons and holes. Actually, a nonlinear solitary pulse can be used to represent the intrinsic coherent electrostatic wave in a quantum semiconductor plasma. The propagation and the collision of nonlinear solitary pulses are examined by the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method. Typical values for the GaAs semiconductors are employed to investigate the basic characteristics of solitary pulses. The numerical studies show that the energies and then the trajectories of nonlinear solitary pulses after the collision are significantly changed due to the effects of the exchange and correlation potentials and the variety in the studied system's geometry. The results obtained here may be useful for gaining a better understanding of the basic features of the nonlinear solitary pulses in quantum semiconductor plasmas.

  16. Exploring semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Gonzalez, L; Ripalda, J M [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Varela, M; Pennycook, S J, E-mail: sergio.molina@uca.e [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We review in this communication our contribution to the structural characterisation of semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy, both in phase-contrast and Z-contrast modes. We show how these techniques contribute to predict the preferential sites of nucleation of these nanostructures, and also determine the compositional distribution in 1D and 0D nanostructures. The results presented here were produced in the framework of the European Network of Excellence entitled {sup S}elf-Assembled semiconductor Nanostructures for new Devices in photonics and Electronics (SANDiE){sup .}

  17. Efficient calculation of dissipative quantum transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greck, Peter

    2012-11-26

    We present a novel quantum transport method that follows the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but side steps any self-consistent calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. We termed this method the multi-scattering Buettiker-Probe (MSB) method. It generalizes the so-called Buettiker-Probe model but takes into account all relevant individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully selfconsistent non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for realistic devices, yet accurately reproduces the results of the latter method as well as experimental data. This method is fairly easy to implement and opens the path towards realistic three-dimensional quantum transport calculations. In this work, we review the fundamentals of the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for quantum transport calculations. Then, we introduce our novel MSB method after briefly reviewing the original Buettiker-Probe model. Finally, we compare the results of the MSB method to NEGF calculations as well as to experimental data. In particular, we calculate quantum transport properties of quantum cascade lasers in the terahertz (THz) and the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral domain. With a device optimization algorithm based upon the MSB method, we propose a novel THz quantum cascade laser design. It uses a two-well period with alternating barrier heights and complete carrier thermalization for the majority of the carriers within each period. We predict THz laser operation for temperatures up to 250 K implying a new temperature record.

  18. Photo-Induced Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-01-17

    We experimentally investigate the dynamics of spins in GaAs quantum wells under applied electric bias by photoluminescence (PL) measurements excited with circularly polarized light. The bias-dependent circular polarization of PL (P(PL)) with and without magnetic field is studied. The P(PL) without magnetic field is found to be decayed with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias. However, P(PL) in a transverse magnetic field shows oscillations under an electric bias, indicating that the precession of electron spin occurs in quantum wells. The results are discussed based on the electron-hole exchange interaction in the electric field.

  19. Photo-Induced Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We experimentally investigate the dynamics of spins in GaAs quantum wells under applied electric bias by photoluminescence (PL measurements excited with circularly polarized light. The bias-dependent circular polarization of PL (P PL with and without magnetic field is studied. TheP PLwithout magnetic field is found to be decayed with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias. However,P PLin a transverse magnetic field shows oscillations under an electric bias, indicating that the precession of electron spin occurs in quantum wells. The results are discussed based on the electron–hole exchange interaction in the electric field.

  20. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N., E-mail: nevedom@mail.ioffe.ru; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.

  1. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix

  2. Emission from radiatively coupled periodic quantum well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, M.; Ell, C.; Brick, P.; Prineas, J.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.

    We study light emission from large number periodic quantum well (PQW) structures following nonresonant excitation into the free carrier continuum. We investigate the spectrally resolved excitonic emission from high quality InGaAs/GaAs PQW structures with up to N=100 quantum wells in dependence on the period d and the number N of quantum wells. By tuning the period in a range of up to 30% around the excitonic Bragg resonance, we find for N≥30 large normal mode splitting and a nonlinear increase of the vertical emission with the number of coupled wells. Angle dependent detection reveals a complex spatial emission.

  3. Semiconductor Quantum Dot Structures for Integrated Optic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-23

    quantum boxes. These pillars are extremely fragile at this stage and are set in place by placing a drop of BCB and spinning off the excess. After the... BCB has been cured, the top surface is cleaned off of the BCB using reactive ion etching. Another photolithographic stage is performed to delineate

  4. Ultrafast spectral interferometry of resonant secondary emmission from semiconductor quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations of secondary emission from quantum well excitons follwing resonant excitation have demonstrated an intricate interplay of coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence. We have very recently demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and time resolve the coherent...

  5. Third generation photovoltaics based on multiple exciton generation in quantum confined semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Matthew C; Luther, Joseph M; Semonin, Octavi E; Nozik, Arthur J

    2013-06-18

    Improving the primary photoconversion process in a photovoltaiccell by utilizing the excess energy that is otherwise lost as heat can lead to an increase in the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE). Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with at least one dimension small enough to produce quantum confinement effects provide new ways of controlling energy flow not achievable in thin film or bulk semiconductors. Researchers have developed various strategies to incorporate these novel structures into suitable solar conversion systems. Some of these methods could increase the PCE past the Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit of ∼33%, making them viable "third generation photovoltaic" (TGPV) cell architectures. Surpassing the SQ limit for single junction solar cells presents both a scientific and a technological challenge, and the use of semiconductor NCs to enhance the primary photoconversion process offers a promising potential solution. The NCs are synthesized via solution phase chemical reactions producing stable colloidal solutions, where the reaction conditions can be modified to produce a variety of shapes, compositions, and structures. The confinement of the semiconductor NC in one dimension produces quantum films, wells, or discs. Two-dimensional confinement leads to quantum wires or rods (QRs), and quantum dots (QDs) are three-dimensionally confined NCs. The process of multiple exciton generation (MEG) converts a high-energy photon into multiple electron-hole pairs. Although many studies have demonstrated that MEG is enhanced in QDs compared with bulk semiconductors, these studies have either used ultrafast spectroscopy to measure the photon-to-exciton quantum yields (QYs) or theoretical calculations. Implementing MEG in a working solar cell has been an ongoing challenge. In this Account, we discuss the status of MEG research and strategies towards implementing MEG in working solar cells. Recently we showed an external quantum efficiency for photocurrent of greater

  6. Enhanced terahertz emission by coherent optical absorption in ultrathin semiconductor films on metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.; Ramanandan, G.K.P.; Adam, A.J.L.; Xu, M.; Kumar, N.; Hendrikx, R.W.A.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the surprisingly strong, broadband emission of coherent terahertz pulses from ultrathin layers of semiconductors such as amorphous silicon, germanium and polycrystalline cuprous oxide deposited on gold, upon illumination with femtosecond laser pulses. The strength of the emission is

  7. Spin dynamics of an individual Cr atom in a semiconductor quantum dot under optical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente-Sampietro, A. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 305-8573 Tsukuba (Japan); Utsumi, H.; Kuroda, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 305-8573 Tsukuba (Japan); Boukari, H.; Besombes, L., E-mail: lucien.besombes@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-01

    We studied the spin dynamics of a Cr atom incorporated in a II-VI semiconductor quantum dot using photon correlation techniques. We used recently developed singly Cr-doped CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots to access the spin of an individual magnetic atom. Auto-correlation of the photons emitted by the quantum dot under continuous wave optical excitation reveals fluctuations of the localized spin with a timescale in the 10 ns range. Cross-correlation gives quantitative transfer time between Cr spin states. A calculation of the time dependence of the spin levels population in Cr-doped quantum dots shows that the observed spin dynamics is dominated by the exciton-Cr interaction. These measurements also provide a lower bound in the 20 ns range for the intrinsic Cr spin relaxation time.

  8. Ultrahigh-frequency microwave phase shifts mediated by ultrafast dynamics in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel scheme to achieve tunable microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on wavelength conversion induced by high-speed cross-gain modulation in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.......We present a novel scheme to achieve tunable microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on wavelength conversion induced by high-speed cross-gain modulation in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  9. Tests and Analysis of Electromagnetic Models for Semiconductor-Metal Quantum-Well Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Meng-Mu

    2012-03-01

    This work tests the proposed electromagnetic models for quantum-well lasers by using several materials of semiconductors and metals. Different combinations of semiconductors and metals can generate various wavelengths and mode-couplings in such semiconductor waveguide structures with built-in metal-gratings. The numerical results of these models are computed by the photonic approach and verified by the optical approach. Even for the weak mode-coupling cases, the numerical results computed by both approaches have close values. Numerical results with post-analysis can summarize how the key parameters, such as grating geometry, well thickness, and layer thickness, affect the mode-couplings. The above results can be further interpreted by physics intuition and fundamental concepts so as to provide insights into the modeling and design of lasers for more applications.

  10. Formation of strain-induced quantum dots in gated semiconductor nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Thorbeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing mystery in the field of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is: Why are there so many unintentional dots (also known as disorder dots which are neither expected nor controllable. It is typically assumed that these unintentional dots are due to charged defects, however the frequency and predictability of the location of the unintentional QDs suggests there might be additional mechanisms causing the unintentional QDs besides charged defects. We show that the typical strains in a semiconductor nanostructure from metal gates are large enough to create strain-induced quantum dots. We simulate a commonly used QD device architecture, metal gates on bulk silicon, and show the formation of strain-induced QDs. The strain-induced QD can be eliminated by replacing the metal gates with poly-silicon gates. Thus strain can be as important as electrostatics to QD device operation operation.

  11. Potential energy surface of excited semiconductors: Graphene quantum dot and BODIPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colherinhas, Guilherme [Departamento de Física-CEPAE, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia (Brazil); Fileti, Eudes Eterno [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 12231-280 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Chaban, Vitaly V., E-mail: vvchaban@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 12231-280 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-02

    Graphical abstract: Excitation of graphene quantum dot significantly alters its interaction with water. - Abstract: Binding energy (BE) is an important descriptor in chemistry, which determines thermodynamics and phase behavior of a given substance. BE between two molecules is not directly accessible from the experiment. It has to be reconstructed from cohesive energies, vaporization heats, etc. We report BE for the excited states of two semiconductor molecules – boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) and graphene quantum dot (GQD) – with water. We show, for the first time, that excitation increases BE twofold at an optimal separation (energy minimum position), whereas higher separations lead to higher differences. Interestingly, the effects of excitation are similar irrespective of the dominant binding interactions (van der Waals or electrostatic) in the complex. This new knowledge is important for simulations of the excited semiconductors by simplified interaction functions.

  12. Electron-electron scattering and mobilities in semiconductors and quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of electron-electron scattering on the mobility in semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells is examined. A general exact formula is derived for the mobility, when the electron-electron collision rate is much faster than other scattering rates such as those by ionized impurities and phonons. In this limit, the transport relaxation rate is independent of the carrier's energy and contributions to the inverse mobility from individual scattering mechanism add up. The mobility becomes significantly reduced from its value in the absence of electron-electron scattering. When the collision rates are not necessarily dominated by electron-electron scattering, the mobility is calculated by the Kohler-Sondheimer variational method in the presence of ionized-impurity scattering and acoustic-phonon scattering in a nondegenerate two-dimensional quantum well

  13. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated semiconductor quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Ghosh, B.

    2018-03-01

    Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and standard reductive perturbation method, we have investigated the formation and characteristics of space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated drifting semiconductor plasma with varying doping profiles. Through numerical analysis, it is shown that the structures of space-charge solitary waves and double layers depend significantly on electron drift and compensation parameter which measures a comparative proportion of the donor, acceptor and intrinsic ion concentrations.

  14. Mind your P's and Q's: the coming of age of semiconducting polymer dots and semiconductor quantum dots in biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Melissa; Wu, Miao; Conroy, Erin M; Algar, W Russ

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (Pdots) are brightly emissive materials that offer many advantages for bioanalysis and bioimaging, and are complementary to revolutionary advances in fluorescence technology. Within the context of biological applications, this review compares the evolution and different stages of development of these two types of nanoparticle, and addresses current perceptions about QDs. Although neither material is a wholesale replacement for fluorescent dyes, recent trends have demonstrated that both types of nanoparticle can excel in applications that are often too demanding for fluorescent dyes alone. Examples discussed in this review include single particle tracking and imaging, multicolor imaging and multiplexed detection, biosensing, point-of-care diagnostics, in vivo imaging and drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Theory of photoexcited and thermionic emission across a two-dimensional graphene-semiconductor Schottky junction

    OpenAIRE

    Trushin, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    We find that intrinsic graphene provides efficient photocarrier transport across a two-dimensional graphene-semiconductor Schottky junction as a linear response to monochromatic light with excitation energy well below the semiconductor bandgap. The operation mechanism relies both on zero-bias photoexcited and thermionic emission contributing to photoresponsivity, enabled by the extended photocarrier thermalization time in intrinsic graphene. The photoresponsivity rapidly increases with excita...

  16. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure

  17. Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers - Physics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther

    2004-01-01

    respects is comparable to those of fiber amplifiers. The possibility of inverting the optically active states to a large degree is essential in order to achieve this performance. Optical signal processing through cross gain modulation and four wave mixing is modeled and described. For both approaches...... quantum dot amplifiers are found to be able to operate with high efficiency and at high bitrates. Strong spectral hole-burning arising from a relatively slow carrier capture time, is shown to play a dominant role is this context. The results obtained numerically are compared to the properties of bulk...

  18. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, B.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Pedersen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Second-harmonic (SH) optical imaging of self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown on a GaAs(0 0 1) substrate has been accomplished at room temperature by use of respectively a scanning far-field optical microscope in reflection mode and a scanning near-field optical microscope...... in transmission mode. In both cases the SH signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm in correspondence to the maximum in the photoluminescence spectrum of the QD sample. SH near-field optical images exhibit spatial signal variations on a subwavelength scale that depend on the pump wavelength. We...

  19. Ordered Dissipative Structures in Exciton Systems in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Chernyuk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological theory of exciton condensation in conditions of inhomogeneous excitation is proposed. The theory is applied to the study of the development of an exciton luminescence ring and the ring fragmentation at macroscopical distances from the central excitation spot in coupled quantum wells. The transition between the fragmented and the continuous ring is considered. With assumption of a defect in the structure, a possibility of a localized island of the condensed phase in a fixed position is shown. Exciton density distribution is also analyzed in the case of two spatially separated spots of the laser excitation.

  20. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, B.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Pedersen, K.

    2001-01-01

    in transmission mode. In both cases the SH signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm in correspondence to the maximum in the photoluminescence spectrum of the QD sample. SH near-field optical images exhibit spatial signal variations on a subwavelength scale that depend on the pump wavelength. We......Second-harmonic (SH) optical imaging of self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown on a GaAs(0 0 1) substrate has been accomplished at room temperature by use of respectively a scanning far-field optical microscope in reflection mode and a scanning near-field optical microscope...

  1. Long coherence times in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Leosson, K.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of ultra-long coherence in self-assembled quantum dots. Transient four-wave mixing experiments at 5 K show an average dephasing time of 372 ps, corresponding to a homogeneous linewidth of 3.5 mueV, which is significantly smaller than the linewidth observed in single-dot...... luminescence. Time-resolved luminescence measurements show a lifetime of the dot ground state of 800 ps demonstrating the presence of pure dephasing at finite temperature. The homogeneous width is lifetime limited only at temperatures approaching 0 K....

  2. Influence of Carrier Cooling on the Emission Dynamics of Semiconductor Microcavity Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, M.; Hofmann, M.; Ellmers, C.; Oestreich, M.; Schneider, H. C.; Jahnke, F.; Koch, S. W.; Rühle, W. W.; Wolf, H. D.; Bernklau, D.; Riechert, H.

    1997-11-01

    We investigate the influence of carrier relaxation on the emission dynamics of a semiconductor microcavity laser. The structure is optically excited with energies of 1.477 down to 1.346 eV (resonant excitation). The stimulated emission dynamics clearly becomes faster for decreasing excitation energy and the influence of the light hole on the emission dynamics is demonstrated. Theoretical calculations reproduce the results only if the nonequilibrium carrier dynamics is treated on the basis of a microscopic model.

  3. Resonance fluorescence and electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yong

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation contains the first observation of spin-resolved resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot and its application of direct measurement of electron spin dynamics. The Mollow triplet and the Mollow quintuplet, which are the hallmarks of resonance fluorescence, are presented as the non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved resonance fluorescence spectrum, respectively. The negligible laser background contribution, the near pure radiative broadened spectrum and the anti-bunching photon statistics imply the sideband photons are background-free and near transform-limited single photons. This demonstration is a promising step towards the heralded single photon generation and electron spin readout. Instead of resolving spectrum, an alternative spin-readout scheme by counting resonance fluorescence photons under moderate laser power is demonstrated. The measurements of n-shot time-resolved resonance fluorescence readout are carried out to reveal electron spin dynamics of the measurement induced back action and the spin relaxation. Hyperfine interaction and heavy-light hole mixing are identified as the relevant mechanisms for the back action and phonon-assistant spin-orbit interaction dominates the spin relaxation. After a detailed discussion on charge-spin configurations in coupled quantum dots system, the single-shot readout on electron spin are proposed. (orig.)

  4. Resonance fluorescence and electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yong

    2009-11-18

    The work presented in this dissertation contains the first observation of spin-resolved resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot and its application of direct measurement of electron spin dynamics. The Mollow triplet and the Mollow quintuplet, which are the hallmarks of resonance fluorescence, are presented as the non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved resonance fluorescence spectrum, respectively. The negligible laser background contribution, the near pure radiative broadened spectrum and the anti-bunching photon statistics imply the sideband photons are background-free and near transform-limited single photons. This demonstration is a promising step towards the heralded single photon generation and electron spin readout. Instead of resolving spectrum, an alternative spin-readout scheme by counting resonance fluorescence photons under moderate laser power is demonstrated. The measurements of n-shot time-resolved resonance fluorescence readout are carried out to reveal electron spin dynamics of the measurement induced back action and the spin relaxation. Hyperfine interaction and heavy-light hole mixing are identified as the relevant mechanisms for the back action and phonon-assistant spin-orbit interaction dominates the spin relaxation. After a detailed discussion on charge-spin configurations in coupled quantum dots system, the single-shot readout on electron spin are proposed. (orig.)

  5. Theory of semiconductor lasers from basis of quantum electronics to analyses of the mode competition phenomena and noise

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a unified and complete theory for semiconductor lasers, covering topics ranging from the principles of classical and quantum mechanics to highly advanced levels for readers who need to analyze the complicated operating characteristics generated in the real application of semiconductor lasers.   The author conducts a theoretical analysis especially on the instabilities involved in the operation of semiconductor lasers. A density matrix into the theory for semiconductor lasers is introduced and the formulation of an improved rate equation to help understand the mode competition phenomena which cause the optical external feedback noise is thoroughly described from the basic quantum mechanics. The derivation of the improved rate equation will allow readers to extend the analysis for the different types of semiconductor materials and laser structures they deal with.   This book is intended not only for students and academic researchers but also for engineers who develop lasers for the market, ...

  6. Quantum theory of terahertz conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnický, T.; Pushkarev, V.; Němec, H.; Kužel, P.

    2018-02-01

    Efficient and controlled charge carrier transport through nanoelements is currently a primordial question in the research of nanoelectronic materials and structures. We develop a quantum-mechanical theory of the conductivity spectra of confined charge carriers responding to an electric field from dc regime up to optical frequencies. The broken translation symmetry induces a broadband drift-diffusion current, which is not taken into account in the analysis based on Kubo formula and relaxation time approximation. We show that this current is required to ensure that the dc conductivity of isolated nanostructures correctly attains zero. It causes a significant reshaping of the conductivity spectra up to terahertz or multiterahertz spectral ranges, where the electron scattering rate is typically comparable to or larger than the probing frequency.

  7. Excitonic Photoluminescence in Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Plasma versus Excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Ell, C.; Mosor, S.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.; Prineas, J. P.; Stolz, H.

    2004-02-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra after nonresonant excitation show a distinct 1s resonance, independent of the existence of bound excitons. A microscopic analysis identifies exciton and electron-hole plasma contributions. For low temperatures and low densities, the excitonic emission is extremely sensitive to details of the electron-hole-pair population making it possible to identify even minute fractions of optically active excitons.

  8. Quantum-memory effects in the emission of quantum-dot microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Huttner, U; Mootz, M; Kira, M; Koch, S W; Tempel, J-S; Aßmann, M; Bayer, M; Mintairov, A M; Merz, J L

    2014-08-29

    The experimentally measured input-output characteristics of optically pumped semiconductor microcavities exhibits unexpected oscillations modifying the fundamentally linear slope in the excitation power regime below lasing. A systematic microscopic analysis reproduces these oscillations, identifying them as a genuine quantum-memory effect, i.e., a photon-density correlation accumulated during the excitation. With the use of projected quantum measurements, it is shown that the input-output oscillations can be controlled and enhanced by an order of magnitude when the quantum fluctuations of the pump are adjusted.

  9. Optical determination of vacuum Rabi splitting in a semiconductor quantum dot induced by a metal nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2012-07-15

    We propose a theoretical scheme to determine the vacuum Rabi splitting in a single semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) induced by a metal nanoparticle (MNP). Based on cavity quantum electrodynamics, the exciton-plasmon interaction between the SQD and the MNP is considered while a strong pump laser and a weak probe laser are simultaneously presented. By decreasing the distance between them, we can increase the coupling strength. At resonance, thanks to the strong coupling, a vacuum Rabi splitting can be observed clearly in the probe absorption spectrum. The coupling strength can be obtained by measuring the vacuum Rabi splitting. This strong coupling is significant for the investigation of surface-plasmon-based quantum information processing.

  10. Phonon induced pure dephasing process of excitonic state in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tongyun; Han, Peng; Wang, Xinke; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    We present a theoretical study on the pure dephasing process of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots induced by lattice vibrations using continuum model calculations. By solving the time dependent Liouville-von Neumann equation, we present the ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitonic state and virtual state via exciton-phonon interaction and obtain the pure dephasing time from the fast decayed envelope of the Rabi oscillations. The interaction between exciton and longitudinal optical phonon vibration is found to dominate the pure dephasing process and the dephasing time increases nonlinearly with the reduction of exciton-phonon coupling strength. We further find that the pure dephasing time of large quantum dots is more sensitive to temperature than small quantum dots.

  11. Intrinsic normal Zeeman effect for spin plasmons in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Baboux, F.; Perez, F.

    2013-09-01

    The normal Zeeman effect gives rise to a three-fold splitting of atomic spectral lines in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. In n-doped semiconductor quantum wells, a similar three-fold splitting occurs in the intersubband spin plasmon resonance, as was recently demonstrated experimentally using inelastic light scattering. The plasmon splitting is caused by the interplay of intrinsic spin-orbit crystal magnetic fields and dynamical many-body effects. We show that it can be regarded as an intrinsic normal Zeeman effect in quantum wells. We present a formal framework for calculating the quantum well electronic states and their collective linear response in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, and we show how the intrinsic normal Zeeman effect of the spin plasmons can be controlled by external magnetic fields.

  12. Two stream instability in n-type gallium arsenide semiconductor quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Muley, Apurva

    2018-01-01

    By using quantum hydrodynamic model, we derive a generalized dielectric response function for two stream instability (convective only) in n-type gallium arsenide semiconductor plasma. We investigate the phase and amplification profiles of two stream instability with externally applied electric field ranging from 2600 to 4000 kV m-1 in presence of non-dimensional quantum parameter- H. In this range, a significant number of electrons in satellite valley become comparable to the number of electrons in central valley. The presence of quantum corrections in plasma medium induces two novel modes; one of it has amplifying nature and propagates in forward direction. It also modifies the spectral profile of four pre-existing modes in classical plasma. The existence of two stream instability is also established analytically by deriving the real part of longitudinal electrokinetic power flow density.

  13. Quantum tunneling and field electron emission theories

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Quantum tunneling is an essential issue in quantum physics. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years promises a lot of applications in condensed matter physics, surface science and nanodevices, which are growing interests in fundamental issues, computational techniques and potential applications of quantum tunneling. The book involves two relevant topics. One is quantum tunneling theory in condensed matter physics, including the basic concepts and methods, especially for recent developments in mesoscopic physics and computational formulation. The second part is the f

  14. Phonon emission in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midday, S.; Nag, S.; Bhattacharya, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of phonon growth in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperatures have been studied for inelastic interaction of non-equilibrium electrons with the intravalley acoustic phonons. The energy of the phonon and the full form of the phonon distribution are taken into account. The results reveal significant changes in the growth characteristics compared to the same for a non-degenerate material

  15. Electron–hole two-stream instability in a quantum semiconductor plasma with exchange-correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeba, I.; Yahia, M.E.; Shukla, P.K.; Moslem, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The electron–hole two-stream instability in a quantum semiconductor plasma has been studied including electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures of the plasma species. Typical values of GaAs and GaSb semiconductors are used to estimate the growth rate of the two-stream instability. The effects of electron– and hole–phonon collision, quantum recoil effects, the streaming velocities, and the corresponding threshold on the growth rate are investigated numerically. Considering the phonon susceptibility allows the acoustic mode to exist and the collisional instability arises in combination with drift of the holes. -- Highlights: ► Electron–hole two stream instability in quantum plasmas is presented. ► Typical values of GaAs and GaSb semiconductors are used to estimate the growth rate. ► The streaming velocities and the corresponding threshold on the growth rate are investigated numerically.

  16. Peptide mediated intracellular delivery of semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Anshika; Safi, Malak; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Medina, Scott; Palui, Goutam; Johnson, John E.; Schneider, Joel; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2017-02-01

    As control over the growth, stabilization and functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles continue to advance, interest in integrating these materials with biological systems has steadily grown in the past decade. Much attention has been directed towards identifying effective approaches to promote cytosolic internalization of the nanoparticles while avoiding endocytosis. We describe the use of NωV virus derived gamma peptide and a chemically synthesized anticancer peptide, SVS-1 peptide, as vehicles to promote the non-endocytic uptake of luminescent quantum dots (QDs) inside live cells. The gamma peptide is expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein with poly-his tagged MBP (His-MBP-γ) to allow self-assembly onto QDs via metal-histidine conjugation. Conversely, the N-terminal cysteine residue of the SVS-1 peptide is attached to the functionalized QDs via covalent coupling chemistry. Epi-fluorescence microscopy images show that the QD-conjugate staining is distributed throughout the cytoplasm of cell cultures. Additionally, the QD staining does not show co-localization with transferrin-dye-labelled endosomes or DAPI stained nuclei. The QD uptake observed in the presence of physical and pharmacological endocytosis inhibitors further suggest that a physical translocation of QDs through the cell membrane is the driving mechanism for the uptake.

  17. Novel red-emission of ternary ZnCdSe semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Shu-Ru, E-mail: srchung@nfu.edu.tw [National Formosa University, Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Green Energy Engineering (China); Wang, Kuan-Wen [National Central University, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Chen, Hong-Shuo; Chen, Hong-Hong [National Formosa University, Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Green Energy Engineering (China)

    2015-02-15

    The effect of chain lengths of fatty acids on the physical properties of CdSe and ZnCdSe semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized by the colloidal chemistry procedure is investigated. The fatty acids, lauric acid (LA), and stearic acid (SA), with different lengths of carbon chains, are used to prepare CdSe and ZnCdSe NCs when hexyldecylamine (HDA) is applied as the sole surfactant. For CdSe–SA and ZnCdSe–SA, they have the same emission wavelength at 592 nm and the same particle size of 3.3 nm; however, their quantum yield (QY) is 75 and 16 %, respectively. In contrast, the emission wavelength of CdSe–LA and ZnCdSe–LA NCs is 609 and 615 nm, the particle size is about 3.5 and 4 nm under the same reaction time, and the QY of them are 33 and 59 %, respectively. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that ZnCdSe NCs all have the wurtzite structure, and their main peaks are located between those of pure CdSe and ZnSe materials. The main phase of ZnCdSe–SA and ZnCdSe–LA is ZnSe and CdSe, respectively, implying that alloyed ZnCdSe NC can be prepared and ZnSe and CdSe phase can be promoted by SA and LA, respectively. Moreover, the QY of red-emission ZnCdSe–LA is higher than 50 %. These results suggest that the growth rate of CdSe as well as ZnCdSe NC can be enhanced by using LA as complex reagent and HDA as sole surfactant. It is expected that the reported effective synthetic strategy can be developed as a very practical, easy and not time-consuming approach to prepare red emissive NCs with high QY and high reproducibility.

  18. Emergence of the persistent spin helix in semiconductor quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koralek, Jake; Weber, Chris; Orenstein, Joe; Bernevig, Andrei; Zhang, Shoucheng; Mack, Shawn; Awschalom, David

    2008-01-01

    According to Noether's theorem, for every symmetry in nature there is a corresponding conservation law. For example, invariance with respect to spatial translation corresponds to conservation of momentum. In another well-known example, invariance with respect to rotation of the electron's spin, or SU(2) symmetry, leads to conservation of spin polarization. For electrons in a solid, this symmetry is ordinarily broken by spin-orbit (SO) coupling, allowing spin angular momentum to flow to orbital angular momentum. However, it has recently been predicted that SU(2) can be recovered in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), despite the presence of SO coupling. The corresponding conserved quantities include the amplitude and phase of a helical spin density wave termed the 'persistent spin helix' (PSH) .2 SU(2) is restored, in principle, when the strength of two dominant SO interactions, the Rashba (alpha) and linear Dresselhaus (beta 1), are equal. This symmetry is predicted to be robust against all forms of spin-independent scattering, including electron-electron interactions, but is broken by the cubic Dresselhaus term (beta 3) and spin-dependent scattering. When these terms are negligible, the distance over which spin information can propagate is predicted to diverge as alpha approaches beta 1. Here we observe experimentally the emergence of the PSH in GaAs quantum wells (QW's) by independently tuning alpha and beta 1. Using transient spin-grating spectroscopy (TSG), we find a spin-lifetime enhancement of two orders of magnitude near the symmetry point. Excellent quantitative agreement with theory across a wide range of sample parameters allows us to obtain an absolute measure of all relevant SO terms, identifying beta 3 as the main SU(2) violating term in our samples. The tunable suppression of spin-relaxation demonstrated in this work is well-suited for application to spintronics

  19. Emergence of the Persistent Spin Helix in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koralek, Jake

    2011-01-01

    According to Noether's theorem, for every symmetry in nature there is a corresponding conservation law. For example, invariance with respect to spatial translation corresponds to conservation of momentum. In another well-known example, invariance with respect to rotation of the electron's spin, or SU(2) symmetry, leads to conservation of spin polarization. For electrons in a solid, this symmetry is ordinarily broken by spin-orbit (SO) coupling, allowing spin angular momentum to flow to orbital angular momentum. However, it has recently been predicted that SU(2) can be recovered in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), despite the presence of SO coupling. The corresponding conserved quantities include the amplitude and phase of a helical spin density wave termed the 'persistent spin helix' (PSH). SU(2) is restored, in principle, when the strength of two dominant SO interactions, the Rashba (α) and linear Dresselhaus (β 1 ), are equal. This symmetry is predicted to be robust against all forms of spin-independent scattering, including electron-electron interactions, but is broken by the cubic Dresselhaus term (β 3 ) and spin-dependent scattering. When these terms are negligible, the distance over which spin information can propagate is predicted to diverge as α → β 1 . Here we observe experimentally the emergence of the PSH in GaAs quantum wells (QW's) by independently tuning α and β 1 . Using transient spin-grating spectroscopy (TSG), we find a spin-lifetime enhancement of two orders of magnitude near the symmetry point. Excellent quantitative agreement with theory across a wide range of sample parameters allows us to obtain an absolute measure of all relevant SO terms, identifying β 3 as the main SU(2) violating term in our samples. The tunable suppression of spin-relaxation demonstrated in this work is well-suited for application to spintronics.

  20. Magneto-Gyrotropic Photogalvanic Effects in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganichev, S. D.

    The spin-orbit coupling provides a versatile tool to generate and to manipulate the spin degree of freedom in low-dimensional semiconductor structures. The spin Hall effect, where an electric current drives a transverse spin current and causes a nonequilibrium spin accumulation near the sample boundary,1,2 the spin-galvanic effect, where a nonequilibrium spin polarization drives an electric current3,4 or the reverse process, in which an electrical current generates a non-equilibrium spin-polarization,5-9 are all consequences of spin-orbit coupling. In order to observe a spin Hall effect a bias driven current is an essential prerequisite. Then spin separation is caused via spin-orbit coupling either by Mott scattering (extrinsic spin Hall effect) or by spin splitting of the band structure (intrinsic spin Hall effect). Recently an elementary effect causing spin separation which is fundamentally different from that of the spin Hall effect has been observed.10 In contrast to the spin Hall effect it does not require an electric current to flow: it is spin separation achieved by spin-dependent scattering of electrons in media with suitable symmetry. It is show that by free carrier (Drude) absorption of terahertz radiation spin separation is achieved in a wide range of temperatures from liquid helium temperature up to room temperature. Moreover the experimental results demonstrate that simple electron gas heating by any means is already sufficient to yield spin separation due to spin-dependent energy relaxation processes of non-equilibrium carriers. In order to demonstrate the existence of the spin separation due to asymmetric scattering the pure spin current was converted into an electric current. It is achieved by application of a magnetic field which polarizes spins. This is analogues to spin-dependent scattering in transport experiments: spin-dependent scattering in an unpolarized electron gas causes the extrinsic spin Hall effect, whereas in a spin-polarized electron

  1. Quantum confinement in semiconductor nanofilms: Optical spectra and multiple exciton generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Igor; Makarov, Vladimir I.

    2016-04-01

    We report optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si and SnO2 nanocrystalline films in the UV-vis-NIR range, featuring discrete bands resulting from transverse quantum confinement, observed in the optical spectra of nanofilms for the first time ever. The film thickness ranged from 3.9 to 12.2 nm, depending on the material. The results are interpreted within the particle-in-a-box model, with infinite walls. The calculated values of the effective electron mass are independent on the film thickness and equal to 0.17mo (Si) and 0.21mo (SnO2), with mo the mass of the free electron. The second calculated model parameter, the quantum number n of the HOMO (valence band), was also thickness-independent: 8.00 (Si) and 7.00 (SnO2). The transitions observed in absorption all start at the level n and correspond to Δn = 1, 2, 3, …. The photoluminescence bands exhibit large Stokes shifts, shifting to higher energies with increased excitation energy. In effect, nanolayers of Si, an indirect-gap semiconductor, behave as a direct-gap semiconductor, as regards the transverse-quantized level system. A prototype Si-SnO2 nanofilm photovoltaic cell demonstrated photoelectron quantum yields achieving 2.5, showing clear evidence of multiple exciton generation, for the first time ever in a working nanofilm device.

  2. Comparative examination of the stability of semiconductor quantum dots in various biochemical buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Klaus; Bruns, Oliver T; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2006-02-09

    Due to their greater photostability compared to established organic fluorescence markers, semiconductor quantum dots provide an attractive alternative for the biolabeling of living cells. On the basis of a comparative investigation using differently sized thiol-stabilized CdTe nanocrystals in a variety of commonly used biological buffers, a method is developed to quantify the stability of such a multicomponent system. Above a certain critical size, the intensity of the photoluminescence of the nanocrystals is found to diminish with pseudo-zero-order kinetics, whereas for specific combinations of particle size, ligand, and buffer there appears to be no decay below this critical particle size, pointing out the necessity for thorough investigations of this kind in the view of prospect applications of semiconductor nanocrystals in the area of biolabeling.

  3. Critical strain region evaluation of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, D L [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Pizarro, J [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, R [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Trevisi, G [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Frigeri, P [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Nasi, L [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Franchi, S [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-28

    A novel peak finding method to map the strain from high resolution transmission electron micrographs, known as the Peak Pairs method, has been applied to In(Ga)As/AlGaAs quantum dot (QD) samples, which present stacking faults emerging from the QD edges. Moreover, strain distribution has been simulated by the finite element method applying the elastic theory on a 3D QD model. The agreement existing between determined and simulated strain values reveals that these techniques are consistent enough to qualitatively characterize the strain distribution of nanostructured materials. The correct application of both methods allows the localization of critical strain zones in semiconductor QDs, predicting the nucleation of defects, and being a very useful tool for the design of semiconductor devices.

  4. Toxicological studies of semiconductor quantum dots on immune cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricken, James Bryce; Rios, Lynette; Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Bachand, Marlene; Bachand, George David; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2008-11-01

    Nanoengineered materials hold a vast promise of enabling revolutionary technologies, but also pose an emerging and potentially serious threat to human and environmental health. While there is increasing knowledge concerning the risks posed by engineered nanomaterials, significant inconsistencies exist within the current data based on the high degree of variability in the materials (e.g., synthesis method, coatings, etc) and biological test systems (e.g., cell lines, whole organism, etc). In this project, we evaluated the uptake and response of two immune cell lines (RAW macrophage and RBL mast cells) to nanocrystal quantum dots (Qdots) with different sizes and surface chemistries, and at different concentrations. The basic experimental design followed a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial model: two Qdot sizes (Qdot 520 and 620), two surface chemistries (amine 'NH{sub 2}' and carboxylic acid 'COOH'), and three concentrations (0, 1 nM, and 1 {micro}M). Based on this design, the following Qdots from Evident Technologies were used for all experiments: Qdot 520-COOH, Qdot 520-NH{sub 2}, Qdot 620-COOH, and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2}. Fluorescence and confocal imaging demonstrated that Qdot 620-COOH and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2} nanoparticles had a greater level of internalization and cell membrane association in RAW and RBL cells, respectively. From these data, a two-way interaction between Qdot size and concentration was observed in relation to the level of cellular uptake in RAW cells, and association with RBL cell membranes. Toxicity of both RBL and RAW cells was also significantly dependent on the interaction of Qdot size and concentration; the 1 {micro}M concentrations of the larger, Qdot 620 nanoparticles induced a greater toxic effect on both cell lines. The RBL data also demonstrate that Qdot exposure can induce significant toxicity independent of cellular uptake. A significant increase in TNF-{alpha} and decrease in IL-10 release was observed in RAW cells, and suggested

  5. Optical control of the spin of a magnetic atom in a semiconductor quantum dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besombes L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of single spins in solids is a key but challenging step for any spin-based solid-state quantumcomputing device. Thanks to their expected long coherence time, localized spins on magnetic atoms in a semiconductor host could be an interesting media to store quantum information in the solid state. Optical probing and control of the spin of individual or pairs of Manganese (Mn atoms (S = 5/2 have been obtained in II-VI and IIIV semiconductor quantum dots during the last years. In this paper, we review recently developed optical control experiments of the spin of an individual Mn atoms in II-VI semiconductor self-assembled or strain-free quantum dots (QDs.We first show that the fine structure of the Mn atom and especially a strained induced magnetic anisotropy is the main parameter controlling the spin memory of the magnetic atom at zero magnetic field. We then demonstrate that the energy of any spin state of a Mn atom or pairs of Mn atom can be independently tuned by using the optical Stark effect induced by a resonant laser field. The strong coupling with the resonant laser field modifies the Mn fine structure and consequently its dynamics.We then describe the spin dynamics of a Mn atom under this strong resonant optical excitation. In addition to standard optical pumping expected for a resonant excitation, we show that the Mn spin population can be trapped in the state which is resonantly excited. This effect is modeled considering the coherent spin dynamics of the coupled electronic and nuclear spin of the Mn atom optically dressed by a resonant laser field. Finally, we discuss the spin dynamics of a Mn atom in strain-free QDs and show that these structures should permit a fast optical coherent control of an individual Mn spin.

  6. Large and tunable negative refractive index via electromagnetically induced chirality in a semiconductor quantum well nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sh.-C.; Zhang, Sh.-Y.; Xu, Y.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    Large and tunable negative refractive index (NRI) via electromagnetically induced chirality is demonstrated in a semiconductor quantum wells (SQWs) nanostructure by using the reported experimental parameters in J.F. Dynes et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157403 (2005). It is found: the large and controllable NRI with alterable frequency regions is obtained when the coupling laser field and the relative phase are modulated, which will increase the flexibility and possibility of implementing NRI in the SQWs nanostructure. The scheme rooted in the experimental results may lead a new avenue to NRI material in solid-state nanostructure.

  7. Theory of Pulse Train Amplification Without Patterning Effects in Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    A theory for pulse amplification and saturation in quantum dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is developed. In particular, the maximum bit rate at which a data stream of pulses can be amplified without significant patterning effects is investigated. Simple expressions are derived th...... energies of 0.2–0.4 pJ. The superiority of QD SOAs is based on: 1) the faster achievement of the regime of maximum gain in QD SOAs compared to QW and bulk SOAs and 2) the lower effective cross section of photon-carrier interaction in QDs....

  8. Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their

  9. Acoustically regulated optical emission dynamics from quantum dot-like emission centers in GaN/InGaN nanowire heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, S.; Chernysheva, E.; Hernández-Mínguez, A.; Santos, P. V.; van der Meulen, H. P.

    2018-03-01

    We report on experimental studies of the effects induced by surface acoustic waves on the optical emission dynamics of GaN/InGaN nanowire quantum dots. We employ stroboscopic optical excitation with either time-integrated or time-resolved photoluminescence detection. In the absence of the acoustic wave, the emission spectra reveal signatures originated from the recombination of neutral exciton and biexciton confined in the probed nanowire quantum dot. When the nanowire is perturbed by the propagating acoustic wave, the embedded quantum dot is periodically strained and its excitonic transitions are modulated by the acousto-mechanical coupling. Depending on the recombination lifetime of the involved optical transitions, we can resolve acoustically driven radiative processes over time scales defined by the acoustic cycle. At high acoustic amplitudes, we also observe distortions in the transmitted acoustic waveform, which are reflected in the time-dependent spectral response of our sensor quantum dot. In addition, the correlated intensity oscillations observed during temporal decay of the exciton and biexciton emission suggest an effect of the acoustic piezoelectric fields on the quantum dot charge population. The present results are relevant for the dynamic spectral and temporal control of photon emission in III-nitride semiconductor heterostructures.

  10. Electrically driven quantum light emission in electromechanically tuneable photonic crystal cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzella, M.; Pagliano, F. M.; Zobenica, Ž.; Birindelli, S.; Cotrufo, M.; van Otten, F. W. M.; van der Heijden, R. W.; Fiore, A.

    2017-12-01

    A single quantum dot deterministically coupled to a photonic crystal environment constitutes an indispensable elementary unit to both generate and manipulate single-photons in next-generation quantum photonic circuits. To date, the scaling of the number of these quantum nodes on a fully integrated chip has been prevented by the use of optical pumping strategies that require a bulky off-chip laser along with the lack of methods to control the energies of nano-cavities and emitters. Here, we concurrently overcome these limitations by demonstrating electrical injection of single excitonic lines within a nano-electro-mechanically tuneable photonic crystal cavity. When an electrically driven dot line is brought into resonance with a photonic crystal mode, its emission rate is enhanced. Anti-bunching experiments reveal the quantum nature of these on-demand sources emitting in the telecom range. These results represent an important step forward in the realization of integrated quantum optics experiments featuring multiple electrically triggered Purcell-enhanced single-photon sources embedded in a reconfigurable semiconductor architecture.

  11. Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, Heike

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with

  12. Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, Heike

    2012-07-04

    In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with

  13. Hard x-ray emission spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the characterization of magnetic semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Rovezzi, Mauro; Glatzel, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to introduce the x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) techniques to the materials scientist working with magnetic semiconductors (e.g. semiconductors doped with 3d transition metals) for applications in the field of spin-electronics. We focus our attention on the hard part of the x-ray spectrum (above 3 keV) in order to demonstrate a powerful element- and orbital-selective characterization tool in the study of bulk electronic struct...

  14. Doping-tunable thermal emission from plasmon polaritons in semiconductor epsilon-near-zero thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Young Chul [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Luk, Ting S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Robert Ellis, A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klem, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brener, Igal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    2014-09-29

    Here, we utilize the unique dispersion properties of leaky plasmon polaritons in epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) thin films to demonstrate thermal radiation control. Owing to its highly flat dispersion above the light line, a thermally excited leaky wave at the ENZ frequency out-couples into free space without any scattering structures, resulting in a narrowband, wide-angle, p-polarized thermal emission spectrum. We demonstrate this idea by measuring angle- and polarization-resolved thermal emission spectra from a single layer of unpatterned, doped semiconductors with deep-subwavelength film thickness (d/λ0 ~ 6 ×10-3, where d is the film thickness and λ0 is the free space wavelength). We show that this semiconductor ENZ film effectively works as a leaky wave thermal radiation antenna, which generates far-field radiation from a thermally excited mode. The use of semiconductors makes the radiation frequency highly tunable by controlling doping densities and also facilitates device integration with other components. Therefore, this leaky plasmon polariton emission from semiconductor ENZ films provides an avenue for on-chip control of thermal radiation.

  15. InGaAs Quantum Dots on Cross-Hatch Patterns as a Host for Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeravat Limwongse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage density on magnetic medium is increasing at an exponential rate. The magnetic region that stores one bit of information is correspondingly decreasing in size and will ultimately reach quantum dimensions. Magnetic quantum dots (QDs can be grown using semiconductor as a host and magnetic constituents added to give them magnetic properties. Our results show how molecular beam epitaxy and, particularly, lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy can be used to form laterally aligned, high-density semiconducting host in a single growth run without any use of lithography or etching. Representative results of how semiconductor QD hosts arrange themselves on various stripes and cross-hatch patterns are reported.

  16. The Influence of Surface Chemistry on the Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rachel Dory

    This dissertation describes the relationship between the surface chemistry of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) and their optoelectronic properties, such as photoluminescence and degree of quantum confinement. We primarily focus our efforts on one particular subset of ligands known to couple strongly to the inorganic core of the QD to decrease its quantum confinement, phenyldithiocarbamates (PTCs). We focus first on the development of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to characterize the identity and quantity of ligands (such as PTCs and oleic acid) bound to nanocrystal surfaces. When we correlate the surface chemistry information obtained from NMR with the optical spectra of our QDs, we find that for strongly-delocalizing ligands like PTC, the spatial distribution of ligands on the QD surface affects the overall degree of delocalization. In the later chapters of this thesis, we describe two avenues for exploiting the relationship between surface coverage of exciton-delocalizing ligands and quantum confinement to design strongly coupled, hierarchical nanomaterials for efficient charge transport in films or in solution. We explore the treatment of thin lead sulfide QD films with a PTC derivative to improve their overall conductivity relative to benzoic acid, a similar molecule that does not affect confinement. Finally, we describe a potential strategy to improve the yield and rate of hole transfer to a tethered phthalocyanine molecule using dithiocarbamate and thiolate linkers.

  17. Frequency doubling of an InGaAs multiple quantum wells semiconductor disk laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidan, Jiang; Renjiang, Zhu; Maohua, Jiang; Dingke, Zhang; Yuting, Cui; Peng, Zhang; Yanrong, Song

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a good beam quality 483 nm blue coherent radiation from a frequency doubled InGaAs multiple quantum wells semiconductor disk laser. The gain chip is consisted of 6 repeats of strain uncompensated InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and 25 pairs of GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. A 4 × 4 × 7 mm3 type I phase-matched BBO nonlinear crystal is used in a V-shaped laser cavity for the second harmonic generation, and 210 mW blue output power is obtained when the absorbed pump power is 3.5 W. The M2 factors of the laser beam in x and y directions are about 1.04 and 1.01, respectively. The output power of the blue laser is limited by the relatively small number of the multiple quantum wells, and higher power can be expected by increasing the number of the multiple quantum wells and improving the heat management of the laser.

  18. Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductors and Metals: From Nitride Optoelectronics to Quantum Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Prineha

    This thesis puts forth a theory-directed approach coupled with spectroscopy aimed at the discovery and understanding of light-matter interactions in semiconductors and metals. The first part of the thesis presents the discovery and development of Zn-IV nitride materials. The commercial prominence in the optoelectronics industry of tunable semiconductor alloy materials based on nitride semiconductor devices, specifically InGaN, motivates the search for earth-abundant alternatives for use in efficient, high-quality optoelectronic devices. II-IV-N2 compounds, which are closely related to the wurtzite-structured III-N semiconductors, have similar electronic and optical properties to InGaN namely direct band gaps, high quantum efficiencies and large optical absorption coefficients. The choice of different group II and group IV elements provides chemical diversity that can be exploited to tune the structural and electronic properties through the series of alloys. The first theoretical and experimental investigation of the ZnSnxGe1--xN2 series as a replacement for III-nitrides is discussed here. The second half of the thesis shows ab-initio calculations for surface plasmons and plasmonic hot carrier dynamics. Surface plasmons, electromagnetic modes confined to the surface of a conductor-dielectric interface, have sparked renewed interest because of their quantum nature and their broad range of applications. The decay of surface plasmons is usually a detriment in the field of plasmonics, but the possibility to capture the energy normally lost to heat would open new opportunities in photon sensors, energy conversion devices and switching. A theoretical understanding of plasmon-driven hot carrier generation and relaxation dynamics in the ultrafast regime is presented here. Additionally calculations for plasmon-mediated upconversion as well as an energy-dependent transport model for these non-equilibrium carriers are shown. Finally, this thesis gives an outlook on the

  19. Modeling direct band-to-band tunneling: From bulk to quantum-confined semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Ziegler, A.; Luisier, M.; Schenk, A.

    2015-06-01

    A rigorous framework to study direct band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in homo- and hetero-junction semiconductor nanodevices is introduced. An interaction Hamiltonian coupling conduction and valence bands (CVBs) is derived using a multiband envelope method. A general form of the BTBT probability is then obtained from the linear response to the "CVBs interaction" that drives the system out of equilibrium. Simple expressions in terms of the one-electron spectral function are developed to compute the BTBT current in two- and three-dimensional semiconductor structures. Additionally, a two-band envelope equation based on the Flietner model of imaginary dispersion is proposed for the same purpose. In order to characterize their accuracy and differences, both approaches are compared with full-band, atomistic quantum transport simulations of Ge, InAs, and InAs-Si Esaki diodes. As another numerical application, the BTBT current in InAs-Si nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors is computed. It is found that both approaches agree with high accuracy. The first one is considerably easier to conceive and could be implemented straightforwardly in existing quantum transport tools based on the effective mass approximation to account for BTBT in nanodevices.

  20. Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, D.

    2007-12-28

    This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2p{sub z} confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data. The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 {mu}m and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements. Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. By varying the carrier

  1. Femtosecond spectroscopy in semiconductors: a key to coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axt, V M; Kuhn, T

    2004-01-01

    The application of femtosecond spectroscopy to the study of ultrafast dynamics in semiconductor materials and nanostructures is reviewed with particular emphasis on the physics that can be learned from it. Excitation with ultrashort optical pulses in general results in the creation of coherent superpositions and correlated many-particle states. The review comprises a discussion of the dynamics of this correlated many-body system during and after pulsed excitation as well as its analysis by means of refined measurements and advanced theories. After an introduction of basic concepts-such as coherence, correlation and quantum kinetics-a brief overview of the most important experimental techniques and theoretical approaches is given. The remainder of this paper is devoted to specific results selected in order to highlight how femtosecond spectroscopy gives access to the physics of coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics involving charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. First examples deal with the dynamics of basic laser-induced coherences that can be observed, e.g. in quantum beat spectroscopy, in coherent control measurements or in experiments using few-cycle pulses. The phenomena discussed here are basic in the sense that they can be understood to a large extent on the mean-field level of the theory. Nevertheless, already on this level it is found that semiconductors behave substantially differently from atomic systems. Subsequent sections report on the occurrence of coherences and correlations beyond the mean-field level that are mediated either by carrier-phonon or carrier-carrier interactions. The corresponding analysis gives deep insight into fundamental issues such as the energy-time uncertainty, pure dephasing in quantum dot structures, the role of two-pair or even higher correlations and the build-up of screening. Finally results are presented concerning the ultrafast dynamics of resonantly coupled excitations, where a combination of different

  2. ZnSe Light Emitting Diode Quantum Efficiency and Emission Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbudin U.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe has demonstrated as a potential candidate in realizing advance LED in some appications for current and future works that utilize a cheaper preparation technique. Blue and white LEDs have been shown to spread across compound semiconductors. This II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct and wide band gap is used in the study which focused on a preparation and its characterization. The device is developed using a circular chip of ZnSe but only part of the active region is designed to allow shorter computation time. Analyses of the proposed LED are performed in an environment that allows optical transition and nonradiative recombination mechanisms. Voltage variation from 0 V to 1.5 V is maintained throughout the observation. The curent-voltage plot shows the p-n junction or diode behavior with central emissive layer. The two dimensions surface emission rate obtained indicates that voltage increment causes the emission concentration to become higher near the central pcontact. The LED efficiency is assessed in terms of internal quantum efficiency and emitting rate.

  3. Intraband dynamics and terahertz emission in biased semiconductor superlattices coupled to double far-infrared pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Li; Xian-Wu, Mi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies both the intraband polarization and terahertz emission of a semiconductor superlattice in combined dc and ac electric fields by using the superposition of two identical time delayed and phase shifted optical pulses. By adjusting the delay between these two optical pulses, our results show that the intraband polarization is sensitive to the time delay. The peak values appear again for the terahertz emission intensity due to the superposition of two optical pulses. The emission lines of terahertz blueshift and redshift in different ac electric fields and dynamic localization appears. The emission lines of THz only appear to blueshift when the biased superlattice is driven by a single optical pulse. Due to excitonic dynamic localization, the terahertz emission intensity decays with time in different dc and ac electric fields. These are features of this superlattice which distinguish it from a superlattice generated by a single optical pulse to drive it. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. A Versatile and Simple Approach to Generate Light Emission in Semiconductors Mediated by Electric Double Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang

    2017-04-18

    The light-emitting device is the primary device for current light sources. In principle, conventional light-emitting devices need heterostructures and/or intentional carrier doping to form a p-n junction. This junction formation is, however, very difficult to achieve for most emerging semiconductors, and the fabrication of light-emitting devices is invariably a significant challenge. This study proposes a versatile and simple approach to realize light-emitting devices. This proposed device requires only a semiconducting film with two electrodes that are covered with an electrolyte. This unique structure achieves light emission at a voltage slightly larger than the bandgap energy of materials. This study applies this concept to emerging direct bandgap semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers and zinc oxide single crystals. These devices generate obvious light emission and provide sufficient evidence of the formation of a dynamic p-i-n junction or tunneling junction, presenting a versatile technique to develop optoelectronic devices.

  5. Quantum interference measurement of spin interactions in a bio-organic/semiconductor device structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Vincent; Zhang, Yao; Soghomonian, Victoria; Heremans, Jean J.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum interference is used to measure the spin interactions between an InAs surface electron system and the iron center in the biomolecule hemin in nanometer proximity in a bio-organic/semiconductor device structure. The interference quantifies the influence of hemin on the spin decoherence properties of the surface electrons. The decoherence times of the electrons serve to characterize the biomolecule, in an electronic complement to the use of spin decoherence times in magnetic resonance. Hemin, prototypical for the heme group in hemoglobin, is used to demonstrate the method, as a representative biomolecule where the spin state of a metal ion affects biological functions. The electronic determination of spin decoherence properties relies on the quantum correction of antilocalization, a result of quantum interference in the electron system. Spin-flip scattering is found to increase with temperature due to hemin, signifying a spin exchange between the iron center and the electrons, thus implying interactions between a biomolecule and a solid-state system in the hemin/InAs hybrid structure. The results also indicate the feasibility of artificial bioinspired materials using tunable carrier systems to mediate interactions between biological entities.

  6. A gate defined quantum dot on the two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiang-Xiang; Liu, Di; Mosallanejad, Vahid; You, Jie; Han, Tian-Yi; Chen, Dian-Teng; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), are promising materials for future electronics owing to their unique electronic properties. With the presence of a band gap, atomically thin gate defined quantum dots (QDs) can be achieved on TMDCs. Herein, standard semiconductor fabrication techniques are used to demonstrate quantum confined structures on WSe2 with tunnel barriers defined by electric fields, therefore eliminating the edge states induced by etching steps, which commonly appear in gapless graphene QDs. Over 40 consecutive Coulomb diamonds with a charging energy of approximately 2 meV were observed, showing the formation of a QD, which is consistent with the simulations. The size of the QD could be tuned over a factor of 2 by changing the voltages applied to the top gates. These results shed light on a way to obtain smaller quantum dots on TMDCs with the same top gate geometry compared to traditional GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with further research.

  7. Brief Review of Epitaxy and Emission Properties of GaSb and Related Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhu Niu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Groups III–V semiconductors have received a great deal of attention because of their potential advantages for use in optoelectronic and electronic applications. Gallium antimonide (GaSb and GaSb-related semiconductors, which exhibit high carrier mobility and a narrow band gap (0.725 eV at 300 K, have been recognized as suitable candidates for high-performance optoelectronics in the mid-infrared range. However, the performances of the resulting devices are strongly dependent on the structural and emission properties of the materials. Enhancement of the crystal quality, adjustment of the alloy components, and improvement of the emission properties have therefore become the focus of research efforts toward GaSb semiconductors. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE is suitable for the large-scale production of GaSb, especially for high crystal quality and beneficial optical properties. We review the recent progress in the epitaxy of GaSb materials, including films and nanostructures composed of GaSb-related alloys and compounds. The emission properties of these materials and their relationships to the alloy components and material structures are also discussed. Specific examples are included to provide insight on the common general physical and optical properties and parameters involved in the synergistic epitaxy processes. In addition, the further directions for the epitaxy of GaSb materials are forecasted.

  8. Relaxation of a kinetic hole due to carrier-carrier scattering in multisubband single-quantum-well semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...

  9. Fundamentals and Applications of Semiconductor Nanocrystals : A study on the synthesis, optical properties, and interactions of quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on both the fundamental aspects as well as applications of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (QDs). Due to the unique size-dependent optical and electronic properties of QDs, they hold great promise for a wide range of applications like solar cells,

  10. Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment using fast physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Toshimori; Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Hirano, Kunihito; Someya, Hiroyuki; Okumura, Haruka; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2009-05-25

    A high speed physical random bit generator is applied for the first time to a gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution system. Random phase-modulation in a differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) system is performed using a 1-Gbps random bit signal which is generated by a physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers. Stable operation is demonstrated for over one hour, and sifted keys are successfully generated at a rate of 9.0 kbps with a quantum bit error rate of 3.2% after 25-km fiber transmission.

  11. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of semiconductor quantum dots and their bioconjugates: materials characterization and physical insights from spectrofluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungki; Jeen, Tiffany; Tran, Michael V; Algar, W Russ

    2018-02-26

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals have ideal fluorescence properties for bioanalysis and bioimaging, but these materials must be functionalized with an inorganic shell, organic ligand or polymer coating, and conjugated with biomolecules to be useful in such applications. Several different analytical techniques are used to characterize QDs and their multiple layers of functionalization. Here, we revisit poly(acrylamide) gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which has been scarcely used for the characterization of QDs and their bioconjugates in deference to the routine use of agarose gel electrophoresis. We implemented PAGE in a novel "stubby" capillary format with spectrofluorimetric detection, the combination of which enabled more rapid and more detailed characterization of QDs than was possible with both poly(acrylamide) and agarose slab gels. Correlations between the peak photoluminescence (PL) emission wavelength and electropherogram peaks, especially when combined with Ferguson analysis, provided new and significant insight into the key factors that determine the electrophoretic mobility of QDs, and helped to resolve heterogeneity and sub-populations in ensembles of QDs. The method was useful for characterization of the inorganic core/shell nanocrystals, their organic ligand and polymer coatings, and their final bioconjugates, the latter of which were in the form of peptide and protein conjugates. With further development and optimization, we anticipate that capillary PAGE with spectrofluorimetric detection will become a valuable addition to the toolbox of characterization techniques suitable for QDs, their bioconjugates, and other nanoparticle materials as well.

  12. Spin Manipulation through geometric phase in III-V semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prbahakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick

    2015-03-01

    A more robust technique is proposed to flip the spin completely through geometric phase in III-V semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). We transport the QDs adiabatically in a closed loop along the circular trajectory in the plane of two dimensional electron gas with the application of time dependent gate controlled electric fields and investigate the manipulation of Berry phase with the spin-orbit couplings. Here we show that both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus couplings are present for inducing a phase necessary for spin flip. If one of them is absent, the induced phase is trivial and irrelevant for spin-flip (Phys. Rev. B 89, 245310 (2014), Applied Physics Letters 104, 142411 (2014)). We acknowledge the funding agency: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Canada Research Chair Program.

  13. Nonlinear optics response of semiconductor quantum wells under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-07-01

    Recent investigations on the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, H, are reviewed. After some introductory material the evolution of the linear optical properties of GaAs QW's as a function of H is discussed; an examination is made of how the magneto-excitons (MX) extrapolate continuously between quasi-2D QW excitons (X) when H = 0, and pairs of Landau levels (LL) when H → ∞. Next, femtosecond time resolved investigations of their nonlinear optical response are presented; the evolution of MX-MX interactions with increasing H is stressed. Finally, how, as the dimensionality is reduced by application of H, the number of scattering channels is limited and relaxation of electron-hole pairs is affected. How nonlinear optical spectroscopy can be exploited to access the relaxation of angular momentum within magneto-excitons is also discussed

  14. High-order sideband generation in a semiconductor quantum well driven by two orthogonal terahertz fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The theory of excitonic high-order sideband generation (HSG) in a semiconductor quantum well irradiated by two orthogonal terahertz (THz) fields (one frequency is an integral multiple of the other) is presented. The exact analytical solution to the sideband spectrum is given with the help of the generalized Bessel functions. As a special case, the HSG when the frequencies of these two THz fields are the same is derived and its dependence on the ellipticity of the THz field is discussed. The theory could explain the experiments, especially concerning the sensitive dependence of HSG signals on the ellipticity of the THz field: the signals are strong when the THz field has a linear polarization and totally vanish in case of a circular polarization. More interestingly, it was found that the strongest signal is not produced in the case of linear polarization for some sidebands. The theory is supported by numerical calculations.

  15. Control of electromagnetically induced transparency via a hybrid semiconductor quantum dot-vanadium dioxide nanoparticle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Naser; Hatef, Ali; Nadgaran, Hamid; Keshavarz, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    We numerically investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of a hybrid system consisting of a three-level quantum dot (QD) in the vicinity of vanadium dioxide nanoparticle (VO2NP). VO2NP has semiconductor and metallic phases where the transition between the two phases occurs around a critical temperature. When the QD-VO2NP hybrid system interacts with continuous wave laser fields in an infrared regime, it supports a coherent coupling of exciton-polariton and exciton-plasmon polariton in semiconductor and metal phases of VO2NP, respectively. In our calculations a filling fraction factor controls the VO2NP phase transition. A probe and control laser field configuration is studied for the hybrid system to measure the absorption of QD through the filling fraction factor manipulations. We show that for the VO2NP semiconductor phase and proper geometrical configuration, the absorption spectrum profile of the QD represents an EIT with two peaks and a clear minimum. These two peaks merge to one through the VO2NP phase transition to metal. We also show that the absorption spectrum profile is modified by different orientations of the laser fields with the axis of the QD-VO2NP hybrid system. The innovation in comparison to other research in the field is that robust variation in the absorption profile through EIT is due to the phase transition in VO2NP without any structural change in the QD-VO2NP hybrid system. Our results can be employed to design nanothermal sensors, optical nanoswitches, and energy transfer devices.

  16. Acousto-optic modulation of III-V semiconductor multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Kogan, S.M.; Ruden, P.P.; Mailhiot, C.

    1996-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of surface acoustic waves (SAW close-quote s) on the optical properties of III-V semiconductor multiple quantum wells (MQW close-quote s). Modulation spectra at the fundamental and second harmonic of the SAW frequency are presented. The SAW modulates the optical properties of the MQW primarily by changing optical transition energies. The SAW generates both strains, which modulate the transition energies by deformation potential effects, and electric fields, which modulate the transition energies by the quantum confined Stark effect. We find that modulation of the transition energies by strain effects is usually more important than by electric-field effects. If large static electric fields occur in the MQW, the SAW-generated electric field can mix with the static field to give optical modulation, which is comparable in magnitude to modulation from the deformation potential effect. If there are no large static electric fields, modulation by the SAW-generated fields is negligible. A large static electric field distributes oscillator strength among the various optical transitions so that no single transition is as strong as the primary allowed transitions without a static electric field. To achieve the maximum modulation for fixed SAW parameters, it is best to modulate a strong optical transition. Thus optimum modulation occurs when there are no large static electric fields present and that modulation is primarily from deformation potential effects. We specifically consider Ga x In 1-x As/Ga x Al 1-x As MQW close-quote s grown on (100) and (111) oriented substrates, but our general conclusions apply to other type I MQW close-quote s fabricated from III-V semiconductors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Nanoscale semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell heterostructures: facile synthesis and light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gong Ping; Chen, Rui; Guo, Dong Lai; Wong, Lai Mun; Wang, Shi Jie; Sun, Han Dong; Wu, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO(2) and In(2)O(3) are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in MgO nanotubes and porous MgO nanotubes can be obtained by taking advantage of the reduced thermal stability of the ZnO core. Furthermore, after MgO shell-coating and the appropriate annealing treatment, the intensity of the ZnO near-band-edge UV emission becomes much stronger, showing a 25-fold enhancement. The intensity ratio of the UV/visible emission can be increased further by decorating the surface of the ZnO/MgO nanowires with high-density plasmonic Au nanoparticles. These heterostructured semiconductor-insulator-metal nanowires with tailored morphologies and enhanced functionalities have great potential for use as nanoscale building blocks in photonic and electronic applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Surface plasmon polariton assisted red shift in excitonic emission of semiconductor microflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Chithra; Warrier, Anita R.; Bingi, Jayachandra; Vijayan, C.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the study of metal nanoparticle-semiconductor hybrid system composed of β-indium sulfide (β-In2S3) and gold (Au) nanoparticles. β-In2S3 micron sized flower like structures (˜1 μm) and Au nanoparticles (˜10 nm) were synthesized by chemical route. These Au nanoparticles have surface plasmon resonance at ˜ 520 nm. We study the influence of Au surface plasmon polaritons on the radiative properties of the β-In2S3 microflowers. As a result of the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons and the excitons there is a red shift ˜ 50 nm in emission spectrum of hybrid β-In2S3-Au system. Such hybrid systems provide scope for a control on the optical properties of semiconductor microstructures, thus rendering them suitable for specific device applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  19. Binding of two-electron metastable states in semiconductor quantum dots under a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagiola, Mariano; Pont, Federico M.; Osenda, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Applying a strong enough magnetic field results in the binding of few-electron resonant states. The mechanism was proposed many years ago but its verification in laboratory conditions is far more recent. In this work we study the binding of two-electron resonant states. The electrons are confined in a cylindrical quantum dot which is embedded in a semiconductor wire. The geometry considered is similar to the one used in actual experimental setups. The low-energy two-electron spectrum is calculated numerically from an effective-mass approximation Hamiltonian modelling the system. Methods for binding threshold calculations in systems with one and two electrons are thoroughly studied; in particular, we use quantum information quantities to assess when the strong lateral confinement approximation can be used to obtain reliable low-energy spectra. For simplicity, only cases without bound states in the absence of an external field are considered. Under these conditions, the binding threshold for the one-electron case is given by the lowest Landau energy level. Moreover, the energy of the one-electron bounded resonance can be used to obtain the two-electron binding threshold. It is shown that for realistic values of the two-electron model parameters it is feasible to bind resonances with field strengths of a few tens of tesla.

  20. Optical response of hybrid semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system: Beyond the dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Atefeh; Miri, MirFaez

    2018-01-01

    We study the response of a semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system to an external field E 0 cos ( ω t ) . The borders between Fano, double peaks, weak transition, strong transition, and bistability regions of the phase diagram move considerably as one regards the multipole effects. The exciton-induced transparency is an artifact of the dipole approximation. The absorption of the nanoparticle, the population inversion of the quantum dot, the upper and lower limits of intensity where bistability occurs, the characteristic time to reach the steady state, and other features of the hybrid system change due to the multipole effects. The phase diagrams corresponding to the fields parallel and perpendicular to the axis of system are quite distinguishable. Thus, both the intensity and the polarization of the incident field can be used to control the system. In particular, the incident polarization can be used to switch on and switch off the bistable behavior. For applications such as miniaturized bistable devices and nanosensors sensitive to variations of the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium, multipole effects must be considered.

  1. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    -blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  2. Nonequilibrium spin transport through a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot system with noncollinear magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Minjie; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Tan, Seng Gee

    2013-01-01

    The spin-dependent transport through a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot (QD) which is coupled via magnetic tunnel junctions to two ferromagnetic leads is studied theoretically. A noncollinear system is considered, where the QD is magnetized at an arbitrary angle with respect to the leads’ magnetization. The tunneling current is calculated in the coherent regime via the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism, incorporating the electron–electron interaction in the QD. We provide the first analytical solution for the Green’s function of the noncollinear DMS quantum dot system, solved via the equation of motion method under Hartree–Fock approximation. The transport characteristics (charge and spin currents, and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR)) are evaluated for different voltage regimes. The interplay between spin-dependent tunneling and single-charge effects results in three distinct voltage regimes in the spin and charge current characteristics. The voltage range in which the QD is singly occupied corresponds to the maximum spin current and greatest sensitivity of the spin current to the QD magnetization orientation. The QD device also shows transport features suitable for sensor applications, i.e., a large charge current coupled with a high TMR ratio. - Highlights: ► The spin polarized transport through a diluted magnetic quantum dot is studied. ► The model is based on the Green’s function and the equation of motion method.► The charge and spin currents and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) are investigated. ► The system is suitable for current-induced spin-transfer torque application. ► A large tunneling current and a high TMR are possible for sensor application.

  3. Quantifying the cellular uptake of semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles by analytical electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondow, Nicole; Brown, M Rowan; Starborg, Tobias; Monteith, Alexander G; Brydson, Rik; Summers, Huw D; Rees, Paul; Brown, Andy

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot nanoparticles are in demand as optical biomarkers yet the cellular uptake process is not fully understood; quantification of numbers and the fate of internalized particles are still to be achieved. We have focussed on the characterization of cellular uptake of quantum dots using a combination of analytical electron microscopies because of the spatial resolution available to examine uptake at the nanoparticle level, using both imaging to locate particles and spectroscopy to confirm identity. In this study, commercially available quantum dots, CdSe/ZnS core/shell particles coated in peptides to target cellular uptake by endocytosis, have been investigated in terms of the agglomeration state in typical cell culture media, the traverse of particle agglomerates across U-2 OS cell membranes during endocytosis, the merging of endosomal vesicles during incubation of cells and in the correlation of imaging flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy to measure the final nanoparticle dose internalized by the U-2 OS cells. We show that a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and serial block face scanning electron microscopy can provide a comprehensive description of the internalization of an initial exposure dose of nanoparticles by an endocytically active cell population and how the internalized, membrane bound nanoparticle load is processed by the cells. We present a stochastic model of an endosome merging process and show that this provides a data-driven modelling framework for the prediction of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles in general. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Metallic nanoparticle shape and size effects on aluminum oxide-induced enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and quantum dot emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M., E-mail: seyed.sadeghi@uah.edu; Gutha, Rithvik R.; Campbell, Quinn [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Mao, Chuanbin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Sciences Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the shape and size effects of gold metallic nanoparticles on the enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and emission of semiconductor quantum dots induced via the simultaneous impact of metal-oxide and plasmonic effects. This enhancement occurs when metallic nanoparticle arrays are separated from the quantum dots by a layered thin film consisting of a high index dielectric material (silicon) and aluminum oxide. Our results show that adding the aluminum oxide layer can increase the degree of polarization of quantum dot emission induced by metallic nanorods by nearly two times, when these nanorods have large aspect ratios. We show when the aspect ratio of these nanorods is reduced to half, the aluminum oxide loses its impact, leading to no improvement in the degree of polarization. These results suggest that a silicon/aluminum oxide layer can significantly enhance exciton-plasmon coupling when quantum dots are in the vicinity of metallic nanoantennas with high aspect ratios.

  5. Experimental study of the photomagnetoelectric effect near the threshold of the stimulated emission in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, T.X.; Nhung, T.H.; Thanh, D.X.; Hung, N.D.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of correlations between the photomagnetoelectric (PME) current and the emitted light in the direct band-gap semiconductor n-CdSe is reported. The exciting source was a pulsed low-pressure N 2 laser. The luminescence light and the PME current of n-CdSe monocrystals were measured simultaneously. It can be concluded that the saturation of the PME current at the threshold of stimulated emission is experimentally observed for the first time in CdSe. The saturated surface concentration of carriers at the lasing threshold is found to be n s = 4.8 x 10 17 cm -3 at 80 K

  6. Emission channeling with short-lived isotopes lattice location of impurities in semiconductors and oxides

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to perform emission channeling lattice location experiments in a number of semiconductor and oxide systems of technological relevance: \\\\- The lattice location of the transition metal probes $^{56}$Mn ($\\textit{t}_{1/2}$=2.6 h), $^{59}$Fe (45 d), $^{61}$Co (1.6 h) and $^{65}$Ni (2.5 h) is to be investigated in materials of interest as dilute magnetic semiconductors, such as GaMnAs, GaMnN, GaFeN, AlGaN, SiC, and in a number of oxides that are candidates for “single ion ferromagnetism”, in particular SrTiO$_3$ and LiNbO$_3$.\\\\- The topic of $\\textit{p}$-type doping of nitride semiconductors shall be addressed by studying the lattice sites of the acceptor dopants Mg and Be in GaN and AlN using the short-lived probes $^{27}$Mg (9.5 min) and $^{11}$Be (13.8 s). The aim is to reach a lattice location precision around 0.05 Å in order to provide critical tests for recent theoretical models which e.g. have predicted displacements of the Mg atom from the ideal substitutional Ga and Al sites of the order...

  7. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yields in Organic Semiconductor-Perovskite Composite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Giulia; La-Placa, Maria-Grazia; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Henk J

    2017-10-09

    One of the obstacles towards efficient radiative recombination in hybrid perovskites is a low exciton binding energy, typically in the orders of tens of meV. It has been shown that the use of electron-donor additives can lead to a substantial reduction of the non-radiative recombination in perovskite films. Herein, the approach using small molecules with semiconducting properties, which are candidates to be implemented in future optoelectronic devices, is presented. In particular, highly luminescent perovskite-organic semiconductor composite thin films have been developed, which can be processed from solution in a simple coating step. By tuning the relative concentration of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3 ) and 9,9spirobifluoren-2-yl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide (SPPO1), it is possible to achieve photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQYs) as high as 85 %. This is attributed to the dual functions of SPPO1 that limit the grain growth while passivating the perovskite surface. The electroluminescence of these materials was investigated by fabricating multilayer LEDs, where charge injection and transport was found to be severely hindered for the perovskite/SPPO1 material. This was alleviated by partially substituting SPPO1 with a hole-transporting material, 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), leading to bright electroluminescence. The potential of combining perovskite and organic semiconductors to prepare materials with improved properties opens new avenues for the preparation of simple lightemitting devices using perovskites as the emitter. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Single-electron-occupation metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots formed from efficient poly-silicon gate layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; rochette, sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, A. -M.; Curry, Matthew Jon; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Carr, Stephen M; Ward, Daniel Robert; Lilly, Michael; pioro-ladriere, michel

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot structure that achieves dot-reservoir tunnel coupling control without a dedicated barrier gate. The elementary structure consists of two accumulation gates separated spatially by a gap, one gate accumulating a reservoir and the other a quantum dot. Control of the tunnel rate between the dot and the reservoir across the gap is demonstrated in the single electron regime by varying the reservoir accumulation gate voltage while compensating with the dot accumulation gate voltage. The method is then applied to a quantum dot connected in series to source and drain reservoirs, enabling transport down to the single electron regime. Finally, tuning of the valley splitting with the dot accumulation gate voltage is observed. This split accumulation gate structure creates silicon quantum dots of similar characteristics to other realizations but with less electrodes, in a single gate stack subtractive fabrication process that is fully compatible with silicon foundry manufacturing.

  9. Quantum theory of spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Alexandre; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Arnold, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a quantization scheme that can be applied to surface waves propagating along a plane interface. An important result is the derivation of the energy of the surface wave for dispersive nonlossy media without invoking any specific model for the dielectric constant. Working in Coulomb's gauge, we use a modal representation of the fields. Each mode can be associated with a quantum harmonic oscillator. We have applied the formalism to derive quantum mechanically the spontaneous emission rate of surface plasmon by a two-level system. The result is in very good agreement with Green's tensor approach in the nonlossy case. Green's approach allows also to account for losses, so that the limitations of a quantum approach of surface plasmons are clearly defined. Finally, the issue of stimulated versus spontaneous emission has been addressed. Because of the increasing density of states near the asymptote of the dispersion relation, it is quantitatively shown that the stimulated emission probability is too small to obtain gain in this frequency region.

  10. On high-speed cross-gain modulation without pattern effects in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, A.V.; Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    In the regime with maximum linear gain in a quantum dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), instantaneous gain modulation by change of the photon density is possible due to spectral hole burning effects. This, in turn, leads to the opportunity of ultrafast cross-gain modulation (XGM) with......) without pattern effects at modulation bit-rates much higher than the interband relaxation rate. The maximum bit-rate for this pattern-effect-free XGM grows with increasing pump current density of the QD SOA.......In the regime with maximum linear gain in a quantum dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), instantaneous gain modulation by change of the photon density is possible due to spectral hole burning effects. This, in turn, leads to the opportunity of ultrafast cross-gain modulation (XGM...

  11. Quantum transport through complex networks - from light-harvesting proteins to semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisbeck, Christoph

    2012-06-18

    Electron transport through small systems in semiconductor devices plays an essential role for many applications in micro-electronics. One focus of current research lies on establishing conceptually new devices based on ballistic transport in high mobility AlGaAs/AlGa samples. In the ballistic regime, the transport characteristics are determined by coherent interference effects. In order to guide experimentalists to an improved device design, the characterization and understanding of intrinsic device properties is crucial. We develop a time-dependent approach that allows us to simulate experimentally fabricated, complex devicegeometries with an extension of up to a few micrometers. Particularly, we explore the physical origin of unexpected effects that have been detected in recent experiments on transport through Aharonov-Bohm waveguide-interferometers. Such interferometers can be configured as detectors for transfer properties of embedded quantum systems. We demonstrate that a four-terminal waveguide-ring is a suitable setup for measuring the transmission phase of a harmonic quantum dot. Quantum effects are not restricted exclusively to artificial devices but have been found in biological systems as well. Pioneering experiments reveal quantum effects in light-harvesting complexes, the building blocks of photosynthesis. We discuss the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, which is a network of coupled bacteriochlorophylls. It acts as an energy wire in the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. Recent experimental findings suggest that energy transfer takes place in the form of coherent wave-like motion, rather than through classical hopping from one bacteriochlorophyll to the next. However, the question of why and how coherent transfer emerges in light-harvesting complexes is still open. The challenge is to merge seemingly contradictory features that are observed in experiments on two-dimensional spectroscopy into a consistent theory. Here, we provide such a

  12. Green Stimulated Emission Boosted by Nonradiative Resonant Energy Transfer from Blue Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Yu, Guannan; Wang, Yue; Dang, Cuong; Sum, Tze Chien; Sun, Handong; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2016-07-21

    Thanks to their tunability and versatility, the colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) made of II-VI semiconductor compound offer the potential to bridge the "green gap" in conventional semiconductors. However, when the CQDs are pumped to much higher initial excitonic states compared to their bandgap, multiexciton interaction is enhanced, leading to a much higher stimulated emission threshold. Here, to circumvent this drawback, for the first time, we show a fully colloidal gain in green enabled by a partially indirect pumping approach assisted by Förster resonance energy transfer process. By introducing the blue CQDs as exciton donors, the lasing threshold of the green CQDs, is reduced dramatically. The blue CQDs thus serve as an energy-transferring buffer medium to reduce excitation energy from pumping photons in a controlled way by injecting photoinduced excitons into green CQDs. Our newly developed colloidal pumping scheme could enable efficient CQD lasers of full visible colors by a single pump source and cascaded exciton transfer. This would potentially pave the way for an efficient multicolor laser for lighting and display applications.

  13. Bioengineered II-VI semiconductor quantum dot-carboxymethylcellulose nanoconjugates as multifunctional fluorescent nanoprobes for bioimaging live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Mansur, Rafael L.; de Carvalho, Fernanda G.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are light-emitting ultra-small nanoparticles, which have emerged as a new class of nanoprobes with unique optical properties for bioimaging and biomedical diagnostic. However, to be used for most biomedical applications the biocompatibility and water-solubility are mandatory that can achieved through surface modification forming QD-nanoconjugates. In this study, semiconductor II-VI quantum dots of type MX (M = Cd, Pb, Zn, X = S) were directly synthesized in aqueous media and at room temperature using carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) behaving simultaneously as stabilizing and surface biofunctional ligand. These nanoconjugates were extensively characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. The results demonstrated that the biopolymer was effective on nucleating and stabilizing the colloidal nanocrystals of CdS, ZnS, and PbS with the average diameter ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 nm depending on the composition of the semiconductor core, which showed quantum-size confinement effect. These QD/polysaccharide conjugates showed luminescent activity from UV-visible to near-infrared range of the spectra under violet laser excitation. Moreover, the bioassays performed proved that these novel nanoconjugates were biocompatible and behaved as composition-dependent fluorescent nanoprobes for in vitro live cell bioimaging with very promising perspectives to be used in numerous biomedical applications and nanomedicine.

  14. A Versatile and Simple Approach to Generate Light Emission in Semiconductors Mediated by Electric Double Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiang; Fujimoto, Taiyo; Ohasi, Yuki; Kimura, Shota; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi

    2017-06-01

    The light-emitting device is the primary device for current light sources. In principle, conventional light-emitting devices need heterostructures and/or intentional carrier doping to form a p-n junction. This junction formation is, however, very difficult to achieve for most emerging semiconductors, and the fabrication of light-emitting devices is invariably a significant challenge. This study proposes a versatile and simple approach to realize light-emitting devices. This proposed device requires only a semiconducting film with two electrodes that are covered with an electrolyte. This unique structure achieves light emission at a voltage slightly larger than the bandgap energy of materials. This study applies this concept to emerging direct bandgap semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers and zinc oxide single crystals. These devices generate obvious light emission and provide sufficient evidence of the formation of a dynamic p-i-n junction or tunneling junction, presenting a versatile technique to develop optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  16. Space- and time-dependent quantum dynamics of spatially indirect excitons in semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasselli, Federico, E-mail: federico.grasselli@unimore.it; Goldoni, Guido, E-mail: guido.goldoni@unimore.it [Department of Physics, Informatics and Mathematics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); CNR-NANO S3, Institute for Nanoscience, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Bertoni, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bertoni@nano.cnr.it [CNR-NANO S3, Institute for Nanoscience, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-01-21

    We study the unitary propagation of a two-particle one-dimensional Schrödinger equation by means of the Split-Step Fourier method, to study the coherent evolution of a spatially indirect exciton (IX) in semiconductor heterostructures. The mutual Coulomb interaction of the electron-hole pair and the electrostatic potentials generated by external gates and acting on the two particles separately are taken into account exactly in the two-particle dynamics. As relevant examples, step/downhill and barrier/well potential profiles are considered. The space- and time-dependent evolutions during the scattering event as well as the asymptotic time behavior are analyzed. For typical parameters of GaAs-based devices, the transmission or reflection of the pair turns out to be a complex two-particle process, due to comparable and competing Coulomb, electrostatic, and kinetic energy scales. Depending on the intensity and anisotropy of the scattering potentials, the quantum evolution may result in excitation of the IX internal degrees of freedom, dissociation of the pair, or transmission in small periodic IX wavepackets due to dwelling of one particle in the barrier region. We discuss the occurrence of each process in the full parameter space of the scattering potentials and the relevance of our results for current excitronic technologies.

  17. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  18. Confinement effect on hole polarization in (Ga,Mn)As/AlAs diluted magnetic semiconductor multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriev, G. S.; Sapega, V. F.; Averkiev, N. S.; Panaiotti, I. E.; Ploog, K. H.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of quantum confinement on the spin polarization of holes in ferromagnetic multiple quantum wells based on (Ga,Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductor has been investigated. It is shown that the spin polarization of holes in the impurity band is more likely determined by the magnetic properties of GaMnAs rather than the quantum-confinement effect. The model of Mn acceptor in a QW, describing the polarization characteristics of photoluminescence in GaAs: Mn/AlAs QWs, has been developed. Experimental data and theoretical analysis show that the spin polarization of holes in (Ga, Mn)As/AlAs QWs can be explained within a model, which suggests that holes are localized in the impurity band.

  19. Emission Channeling Investigation of Implantation Defects and Impurities in II-VI-Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Trojahn, I; Malamud, G; Straver, J; Ronnqvist, C; Jahn, S-G; Restle, M

    2002-01-01

    Detailed knowledge on the behaviour of implantation damage and its influence on the lattice position and environment of implanted dopants in II-VI-compound semiconductors is necessary for a clear interpretation of results from other investigation methods and finally for technical utilization. Besides, a precise localization of impurities could help to clarify the discussion about the instability of the electrical properties of some dopants, called " aging ".\\\\ \\\\We intend to use the emission channeling method to investigate: \\\\ \\\\i) The behaviour of implantation damage which shall be probed by the lattice location of isoelectronic isotopes (Zn,Cd,Hg,Se,Te) directly after implantation at different temperatures, doses and vacancy densities and after annealing treatments, and ii) the precise lattice sites of the acceptor Ag and donor In under different conditions by implanting precursors Cd and In isotopes. \\\\ \\\\Further on we would like to test the application of a two-dimensional position and energy sensitive e...

  20. Controlling the Photophysical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Arrays by Strategically Altering Their Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ashley R.

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are interesting materials that, after less than 40 years of research, are used in commercial products. QDs are now found in displays, such as Samsung televisions and the Kindle Fire, and have applications in lighting, bio-imaging, quantum computing, and photovoltaics. They offer a large range of desirable properties: a controllable band gap, solution processability, controlled energy levels, and are currently the best materials for multiple exciton generation. The tunable optoelectronic properties of QDs can be controlled using size, shape, composition, and surface treatments--as shown here. Due to the quasi-spherical shape of QDs the surface to volume ratio is high, i.e. many of the constituent atoms are found on the QD surface. This makes QDs highly sensitive to surface chemistry modifications. This thesis encompasses the effects of surface treatments for QDs of two semiconducting materials: lead chalcogenides and CsPbI3. Our group developed a new synthetic technique for lead chalcogenide QDs via the cation exchange of cadmium chalcogenides. An in-depth chemical analysis is paired with optical and electrical studies and we find that metal halide residue contributes to the oxidative stability and decreased trap state density in cation-exchanged PbS QDs. We exploit these properties to make air-stable QD photovoltaic devices from both PbS and PbSe QD materials. Beyond the effects of residual atoms left from the synthetic technique, I investigated how to controllably add atoms onto the surface of QDs. I found that by introducing metal halides as a post-treatment in an electronically coupled array I am able to control the performance parameters in QD photovoltaic devices. These treatments fully infiltrate the assembled film, even under short exposure times and allow me to add controlled quantities of surface atoms to study their effects on film properties and photovoltaic device performance. Finally, I sought to apply the knowledge of

  1. Synthesis, characterization, Raman, and surface enhanced Raman studies of semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi

    The major contributions and discoveries of the dissertation include: (1) Homogeneous nucleation processes for the formation of nanocrystals can occur at low temperature and do not need to proceed at high temperature to overcome a high energy barrier. Monodisperse PbS quantum dots (QDs) obtained with nucleation and growth at 45°C support this finding. (2) Monodisperse single elemental Se QDs can be produced by simple solution crystallization from TDE (1-tetradecene) or ODE (1-octadecene). (3) TDE is a better non-coordinating solvent compare to ODE. STDE (S dissolved in TDE) and SeTDE (Se dissolved in TDE) are stable reagents with long storage time. They can be used as universal precursors for S-containing and Se-containing QDs. (4) QDs synthesis can be carried out at low temperature and relatively short reaction time using the simple, non-injection, one-pot synthetic method. (5) The one-pot method can be extended for the synthesis of QDs and graphene oxide nanocomposites and metal and graphene oxide nanocomposites. (6) PbCl2-OLA (oleylamine) is a universal system for the synthesis of Pb-chaclogenides QDs. (7) Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is used to probe both size and wave length dependent quantum confinement effects (QCEs) of PbS QDs. (8) Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to elucidate crystal structure of Se nanoclusters with size of 1--2 nm. Semiconductor QDs have attracted considerable attention due to their potential for energy-efficient materials in optoelectronic and solar cell applications. When the radius of a QD is decreased to that of the exciton Bohr radius, the valence and conduction bands are known to split into narrower bands due to QCEs. QCEs are both size and wave length dependent. We have developed, synthesized and characterized a series of Pb-chaclogenide QDs, which all the sizes of the QDs are monodisperse and smaller than their respective exciton Bohr radius, to study the QCEs of these QDs. SERS is used as a crucial tool to

  2. Spin and Optical Characterization of Defects in Group IV Semiconductors for Quantum Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brendon Charles

    This thesis is focused on the characterization of highly coherent defects in both silicon and diamond, particularly in the context of quantum memory applications. The results are organized into three parts based on the spin system: phosphorus donor electron spins in silicon, negatively charged nitrogen vacancy color centers in diamond (NV-), and neutrally charged silicon vacancy color centers in diamond (SiV0). The first part on phosphorus donor electron spins presents the first realization of strong coupling with spins in silicon. To achieve this, the silicon crystal was made highly pure and highly isotopically enriched so that the ensemble dephasing time, T2*, was long (10 micros). Additionally, the use of a 3D resonator aided in realizing uniform coupling, allowing for high fidelity spin ensemble manipulation. These two properties have eluded past implementations of strongly coupled spin ensembles and have been the limiting factor in storing and retrieving quantum information. Second, we characterize the spin properties of the NV- color center in diamond in a large magnetic field. We observe that the electron spin echo envelope modulation originating from the central 14N nuclear spin is much stronger at large fields and that the optically induced spin polarization exhibits a strong orientation dependence that cannot be explained by the existing model for the NV- optical cycle, we develop a modification of the existing model that reproduces the data in a large magnetic field. In the third part we perform characterization and stabilization of a new color center in diamond, SiV0, and find that it has attractive, highly sought-after properties for use as a quantum memory in a quantum repeater scheme. We demonstrate a new approach to the rational design of new color centers by engineering the Fermi level of the host material. The spin properties were characterized in electron spin resonance, revealing long spin relaxation and spin coherence times at cryogenic

  3. Peptide-coated semiconductor quantum dots and their applications in biological imaging of single molecules in live cells and organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Fabien Florent

    2007-12-01

    A new surface chemistry has been developed for the solubilization and biofunctionalization of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals fluorescent probes, also known as quantum dots. This chemistry is based on the surface coating of quantum dots with custom-designed polycysteine peptides and yields water-soluble, small, monodispersed and colloidally stable probes that remain bright and photostable in complex biological milieus. This peptide coating strategy was successfully tested on several types of core and core-shell quantum dots emitting from the visible (e.g. CdSe/ZnS) to the NIR spectrum range (e.g. CdTe/CdSe/ZnS). By taking advantage of the versatile physico-chemical properties of peptides, a peptide "toolkit" was designed and employed to impart several biological functions to individual quantum dots and control their biochemical activity at the nanometer scale. These biofunctionalized peptide-coated quantum dots were exploited in very diverse biological applications. Near-infrared emitting quantum dot probes were engineered with optimized blood circulation and biodistribution properties for in vivo animal imaging. Visible emitting quantum dots were used for single molecule tracking of raft-associated GPI-anchored proteins in live cells. This last application revealed the presence of discrete and non-caveolar lipid microdomains capable of impeding free lateral diffusions in the plasma membrane of Hela cells. Imaging and tracking of peptide-coated quantum dots provided the first direct evidence that microdomains having the composition and behavior expected for lipid rafts can induce molecular compartmentalization in the membrane of living cells.

  4. Maximum field emission current density of CuO nanowires: theoretical study using a defect-related semiconductor field emission model and in situ measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zufang; Zhao, Peng; Ye, Peng; Chen, Yicong; Gan, Haibo; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we proposed a theoretical model for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs), taking account of the defect-related electrical transport process. The maximum emission current density was calculated by considering the influence of Joule heating, using a one-dimensional heat equation. The field emission properties of individual CuO NWs with different electrical properties were studied using an in situ experimental technique. The experimental results for maximum emission current density agreed well with the theoretical predictions and suggested that multiple conduction mechanisms were active. These may be induced by the concentration of defects in the CuO NW. The concentration of defects and the transport mechanisms were found to be key factors influencing the maximum field emission current density of the semiconductor NW. As is limited by the change of resistivity with temperature, only thermal runaway can trigger breakdown in CuO NWs.

  5. Emission properties of colloidal quantum dots on polyelectrolyte multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarala, Vamsi K [Semiconductor Photonics Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Rakovich, Yury P [Semiconductor Photonics Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Bradley, A Louise [Semiconductor Photonics Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Byrne, Stephen J [School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of (Ireland); Corr, Serena A [School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of (Ireland); Gun' ko, Yurii K [School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-08-28

    We present steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of differently charged CdTe quantum dots (QDs) adsorbed onto a polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer. The PE multilayer is built up using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. We find that the diffusion of the QDs into the PE multilayer is an important factor in the case of 3-mercapto-1, 2-propanediol stabilized QDs (neutral surface charge), resulting in a {approx}31-fold enhancement in PL intensity accompanied by a blue shift in the PL spectra and an increase in decay lifetime from 3.74 ns to a maximum of 11.65 ns. These modified emission properties are attributed to the enhanced surface related emission resulting from the interaction of the QD's surface with the PE. We find that diffusion does not occur for thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilized QDs (negative surface charge) or 2-mercaptoethylamine stabilized QDs (positive surface charge), indicating localization of the QDs on top of the PE multilayer. However, the PL lifetime of the TGA stabilized QDs decreases from 9.58 to 5.78 ns with increasing PE multilayer thickness. This provides evidence for increased intrinsic exciton recombination relative to surface related emission, which results in an overall reduction in the average lifetime. Our studies indicate the importance of the QD surface charge in determining the interaction with the PE multilayers and the subsequent modification of the QD emission properties.

  6. Anomalous Light Emission and Wide Photoluminescence Spectra in Graphene Quantum Dot: Quantum Confinement from Edge Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Shi, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-He; Zhong, Hong-Xia; Ding, Yi-Min; Cao, Xiong; Wu, Meng; Lu, Jing

    2016-08-04

    The physical origin of the observed anomalous photoluminescence (PL) behavior, that is, the large-size graphene quantum dots (GQDs) exhibiting higher PL energy than the small ones and the broadening PL spectra from deep ultraviolet to near-infrared, has been debated for many years. Obviously, it is in conflict with the well-accepted quantum confinement. Here we shed new light on these two notable debates by state-of-the-art first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory. We find that quantum confinement is significant in GQDs with remarkable size-dependent exciton absorption/emission. The edge environment from alkaline to acidic conditions causes a blue shift of the PL peak. Furthermore, carbon vacancies are inclined to assemble at the GQD edge and form the tiny edge microstructures. The bound excitons, localized inside these edge microstructures, determine the anomalous PL behavior (blue and UV emission) of large-size GQDs. The bound excitons confined in the whole GQD lead to the low-energy transition.

  7. Optically Active 3-Dimensional Semiconductor Quantum Dot Assemblies in Heterogeneous Nanoscale Hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmikko, Arto V [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Division of Engineering

    2017-05-07

    Synthesis of semiconductor nanomaterials by low-cost, solution-based methods is shown to lead to new classes of thin film light emitting materials. These materials have been integrated to demonstrative compact laser device testbeds to illustrate their potential for coherent emitters across the visible spectrum to disrupt established photonics technologies, particularly semiconductor lasers?

  8. Phase- and Polarization-Controlled Two-Photon Rabi Oscillation of the Biexciton State in a Semiconductor Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under a degenerate two-photon resonant excitation, the Rabi oscillation of the four-level biexciton system in a semiconductor quantum dot is theoretically investigated. The influence of the laser phases on the state manipulation is modeled and numerically calculated. Due to the interference between different excitation paths, the laser phase plays an important role and can be utilized as an alternate control knob to coherently manipulate the biexciton state. The phase control can be facilely implemented by changing the light polarization via a quarter-wave plate.

  9. An enzymatically-sensitized sequential and concentric energy transfer relay self-assembled around semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Anirban; Walper, Scott A; Susumu, Kimihiro; Dwyer, Chris L; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-05-07

    The ability to control light energy within de novo nanoscale structures and devices will greatly benefit their continuing development and ultimate application. Ideally, this control should extend from generating the light itself to its spatial propagation within the device along with providing defined emission wavelength(s), all in a stand-alone modality. Here we design and characterize macromolecular nanoassemblies consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), several differentially dye-labeled peptides and the enzyme luciferase which cumulatively demonstrate many of these capabilities by engaging in multiple-sequential energy transfer steps. To create these structures, recombinantly-expressed luciferase and the dye-labeled peptides were appended with a terminal polyhistidine sequence allowing for controlled ratiometric self-assembly around the QDs via metal-affinity coordination. The QDs serve to provide multiple roles in these structures including as central assembly platforms or nanoscaffolds along with acting as a potent energy harvesting and transfer relay. The devices are activated by addition of coelenterazine H substrate which is oxidized by luciferase producing light energy which sensitizes the central 625 nm emitting QD acceptor by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The sensitized QD, in turn, acts as a relay and transfers the energy to a first peptide-labeled Alexa Fluor 647 acceptor dye displayed on its surface. This dye then transfers energy to a second red-shifted peptide-labeled dye acceptor on the QD surface through a second concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Alexa Fluor 700 and Cy5.5 are both tested in the role of this terminal FRET acceptor. Photophysical analysis of spectral profiles from the resulting sequential BRET-FRET-FRET processes allow us to estimate the efficiency of each of the transfer steps. Importantly, the efficiency of each step within this energy transfer cascade can be controlled to

  10. Hole emission mechanism in Ge/Si quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniewska, M.; Zaremba, G.; Kaczmarczyk, M.; Wzorek, M.; Czerwinski, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Engstroem, O. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 9, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Karmous, A.; Kirfel, O.; Kasper, E. [Institute for Semiconductor Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Raeissi, B.; Piscator, J. [Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 9, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Surma, B.; Wnuk, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    The mechanisms determining emission of holes in self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in the p-type Si matrix have been investigated. Specimens were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Electrical methods such as deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements were used for the study. The emission mechanisms were identified by measuring a QD-related signal as a function of the repetition frequency of the filling pulses with the reverse voltage and the pulse voltage as a parameter. An observed shift of the signal position or its absence versus the voltage parameters was interpreted in terms of thermal, tunnelling and mixed processes and attributed to the presence of a Coulomb barrier formed as a result of the charging effect. Thermal emission properties of the QDs were characterized under such measurement conditions that tunnelling contributions to the DLTS spectra could be neglected (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Ultrafast spectral interferometry of resonant secondary emission from quantum wells: From Rayleigh scattering to coherent emission from biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations of secondary emission from quantum well excitons following ultrafast resonant excitation have demonstrated an intricate interplay of coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence. We have very recently demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and time resolve t...

  12. High Quality Manganese-Doped Zinc Sulfide Quantum Rods with Tunable Dual-Color and Multi-Photon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengtao; Tong, Ling; Flores, Marco; Lin, Su; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, fast and green phosphine-free colloidal chemistry to synthesize high quality wurtzite-type Mn-doped ZnS quantum rods (QRs) with tunable diameters (1.6 nm to 5.6 nm), high aspect ratios (up to 50), variable Mn doping levels (0.18% to 1.60%), and high quantum yields (up to 45%). The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with modeling reveal the successful doping of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions in the host ZnS QRs. The Mn-doped ZnS QRs demonstrate tunable dual color (orange and blue) emissions by tuning the doping levels and UV excitation wavelengths. The orange emission with long decay lifetime (3.3 millisecond) originates from the doped Mn2+ states, while the blue emission with fast decay lifetime (0.31 nanosecond) is attributed to the QR surface states. The bright two- and three-photon excitation upconversion luminescence (2PL and 3PL) from the Mn-doped ZnS QRs have been observed using tunable near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond (fs) laser. Our strategy provides a versatile route to programmably control the optical properties of anisotropic semiconductor nanomaterials, which may create new opportunities for photonic devices and bioimaging applications. PMID:21405017

  13. Single photon emission and quantum ring-cavity coupling in InAs/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, E; Nowak, A K; Sanvitto, D; Meulen, H P van der; Calleja, J M [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); MartInez, L J; Prieto, I; Alija, A R; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; GarcIa, J M; Postigo, P A [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de MicrotecnologIa, CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Sarkar, D, E-mail: eva.gallardo@uam.e [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    Different InAs/GaAs quantum rings embedded in a photonic crystal microcavity are studied by quantum correlation measurements. Single photon emission, with g{sup (2)}(0) values around 0.3, is demonstrated for a quantum ring not coupled to the microcavity. Characteristic rise-times are found to be longer for excitons than for biexcitons, resulting in the time asymmetry of the exciton-biexciton cross-correlation. No antibunching is observed in another quantum ring weakly coupled to the microcavity.

  14. Evaluation of scintillators and semiconductor detectors to image three-photon positron annihilation for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuelhia, E.; Spyrou, N.M.; Kacperski, K.; College University, Middlesex Hospital, London

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly becoming the main nuclear imaging modality of the present century. The future of PET instrumentation relies on semiconductor detectors because of their excellent characteristics. Three-photon positron annihilation has been recently investigated as a novel imaging modality, which demands the crucial high energy resolution of semiconductor detector. In this work the evaluation of the NaI(Tl) scintillator and HPGe and CdZTe semiconductor detectors, to construct a simple three-photon positron annihilation scanner has been explored. The effect of detector and scanner size on spatial resolution (FWHM) is discussed. The characteristics: energy resolution versus count rate and point-spread function of the three-photon positron annihilation image profile from triple coincidence measurements were investigated. (author)

  15. Ballistic electron emissions microscopy (BEEM) of ferromagnet-semiconductor interfaces; Ballistische Elektronen Emissions Mikroskopie (BEEM) an Ferromagnet-Halbleitergrenzflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obernhuber, S.

    2007-04-15

    For current research on spin-transistors it is important to know the characteristics of ferromagnet semiconductor interfaces. The ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) is a method to investigate such a buried interface with nanometer resolution. In this work several ferromagnet/GaAs(110) interfaces have been analysed concerning their homogeneity and mean local Schottky-barrier heights (SBH) have been determined. In Addition, the resulting integral SBH was calculated from the distribution of the local SBHs and compared with the SBH determined from voltage/current characteristics. The areas with a low SBH dominate the current conduction across the interface. Additional BEEM measurements on (AlGaAs/GaAs) heterostructures have been performed. This heterostructures consist of 50 nm AlGaAs/GaAs layers. The results of the BEEM measurements indicate, that the GaAs QWs are defined by AlGaAs barriers. The transition from AlGaAs to GaAs is done within 10 nm. (orig.)

  16. Polarization anisotropy of the emission from type-II quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klenovský, P.; Hemzal, D.; Steindl, P.; Zíková, Markéta; Křápek, V.; Humlíček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 24 (2015), 1-5, č. článku 241302. ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dot * type II heterostructure * polarization anisotropy * III-V semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  17. Fabrication of highly nonlinear germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots using atomization doping process and its optical nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Han, Won-Taek

    2011-01-31

    Germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in the core was fabricated by using the atomization process in modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The absorption bands attributed to PbTe semiconductor quantum dots in the fiber core were found to appear at around 687 nm and 1055 nm. The nonlinear refractive index measured by the long-period fiber grating (LPG) pair method upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm was estimated to be ~1.5 × 10(-16) m2/W.

  18. Properties of nanocones formed on a surface of semiconductors by laser radiation: quantum confinement effect of electrons, phonons, and excitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvid Artur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On the basis of the analysis of experimental results, a two-stage mechanism of nanocones formation on the irradiated surface of semiconductors by Nd:YAG laser is proposed for elementary semiconductors and solid solutions, such as Si, Ge, SiGe, and CdZnTe. Properties observed are explained in the frame of quantum confinement effect. The first stage of the mechanism is characterized by the formation of a thin strained top layer, due to redistribution of point defects in temperature-gradient field induced by laser radiation. The second stage is characterized by mechanical plastic deformation of the stained top layer leading to arising of nanocones, due to selective laser absorption of the top layer. The nanocones formed on the irradiated surface of semiconductors by Nd:YAG laser possessing the properties of 1D graded bandgap have been found for Si, Ge, and SiGe as well, however QD structure in CdTe was observed. The model is confirmed by "blue shift" of bands in photoluminescence spectrum, "red shift" of longitudinal optical line in Raman back scattering spectrum of Ge crystal, appearance of Ge phase in SiGe solid solution after irradiation by the laser at intensity 20 MW/cm2, and non-monotonous dependence of Si crystal micro-hardness as function of the laser intensity.

  19. Cavity quantum electrodynamics in the Anderson-localized regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission decay rate of single semiconductor quantum dots coupled to disorder-induced Anderson-localized modes with efficiencies reaching 94%....

  20. Decoherence of spin states induced by Rashba coupling for an electron confined to a semiconductor quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poszwa, A.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate quantum decoherence of spin states caused by Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling for an electron confined to a planar quantum dot (QD) in the presence of a magnetic field (B). The Schrödinger equation has been solved in a frame of second-order perturbation theory. The relationship between the von Neumann (vN) entropy and the spin polarization is obtained. The relation is explicitly demonstrated for the InSb semiconductor QD.

  1. Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  2. Single-electron regime and Pauli spin blockade in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Sophie; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots are promising candidates for quantum information processing as spin qubits with long coherence time. We present electrical transport measurements on a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) double quantum dot (DQD). First, Coulomb diamonds measurements demonstrate the one-electron regime at a relatively high temperature of 1.5 K. Then, the 8 mK stability diagram shows Pauli spin blockade with a large singlet-triplet separation of approximatively 0.40 meV, pointing towards a strong lifting of the valley degeneracy. Finally, numerical simulations indicate that by integrating a micro-magnet to those devices, we could achieve fast spin rotations of the order of 30 ns. Those results are part of the recent body of work demonstrating the potential of Si MOS DQD as reliable and long-lived spin qubits that could be ultimately integrated into modern electronic facilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Microscopic theory of phonon-induced effects on semiconductor quantum dot decay dynamics in cavity QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the electron-phonon interaction on the decay dynamics of a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We show that the electron-phonon interaction has important consequences on the dynamics, especially when the quantum dot and cavity are tuned out of resonance...

  4. Far-field nanoscopy on a semiconductor quantum dot via a rapid-adiabatic-passage-based switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewey, Timo; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Valentin, Sascha R.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2018-02-01

    The diffraction limit prevents a conventional optical microscope from imaging at the nanoscale. However, nanoscale imaging of molecules is possible by exploiting an intensity-dependent molecular switch1-3. This switch is translated into a microscopy scheme, stimulated emission depletion microscopy4-7. Variants on this scheme exist3,8-13, yet all exploit an incoherent response to the lasers. We present a scheme that relies on a coherent response to a laser. Quantum control of a two-level system proceeds via rapid adiabatic passage, an ideal molecular switch. We implement this scheme on an ensemble of quantum dots. Each quantum dot results in a bright spot in the image with extent down to 30 nm (λ/31). There is no significant loss of intensity with respect to confocal microscopy, resulting in a factor of 10 improvement in emitter position determination. The experiments establish rapid adiabatic passage as a versatile tool in the super-resolution toolbox.

  5. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka, E-mail: uddandaraopriyanka@gmail.com; B, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  6. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka; B, Raj Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  7. Bistable four-wave mixing response in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Xiao, Si; Liang, Shan; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Kim, Nam-Chol; Chen, Li-Qun

    2017-10-16

    We perform a theoretical study of the bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) response in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity in which the SQD is embedded. It is shown that the shape of the FWM spectrum can switch among single-peaked, double-peaked, triple-peaked, and four-peaked arising from the vacuum Rabi splitting and the exciton-nanocavity coupling. Especially, we map out bistability phase diagrams within a parameter subspace of the system, and find that it is easy to turn on or off the bistable FWM response by only adjusting the excitation frequency or the pumping intensity. Our results offer a feasible means for measuring the SQD-PC nanocavity coupling strength and open a new avenue to design optical switches and memories.

  8. Overview of antimonide based III-V semiconductor epitaxial layers and their applications at the center for quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, M.

    2003-09-01

    The properties of Sb-based III-V semiconductor compounds for optoelectronic applications in the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range were reviewed. The growths of the Sb-based binary, ternary and quaternary were studied by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The structural, optical and electrical characterizations were carried out. Focal plane array, photoconductors and photodiodes were fabricated for the MWIR and LWIR range. Doublehetero structure (DH), multi-quantum well (MQW) and strained superlattice (SSL) lasers in the 3 5 μm range were fabricated. InAs-GaSb type-II superlattices were designed, grown and fabricated into photodetectors for the MWIR and LWIR range.

  9. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2006-05-10

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.

  10. Phase control of the quantum statistics of collective emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleinert, M.-O.; von Zanthier, J.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report nonclassical aspects of the collective behavior of two atoms in a cavity by investigating the photon statistics and photon distribution over a very broad domain of parameters. Starting with the dynamics of two atoms radiating in phase into the cavity, we study the photon statistics for arbitrary interatomic phases as revealed by the second-order intensity correlation function at zero time, g(2 )(0 ) , and the Mandel Q parameter. We find that the light field can be tuned from antibunched to (super-)bunched as well as nonclassical to classical behavior by merely modifying the atomic position. The highest nonclassicality in the sense of the smallest Q parameter is found when spontaneous emission, cavity decay, coherent pumping, and atom-cavity coupling are of comparable magnitude. We introduce a quantum version of the negative binomial distribution with its parameters directly related to Q and g(2 )(0 ) and discuss its range of applicability. We also examine the Klyshko parameter, which highlights the nonclassicality of the photon distribution.

  11. To decay or not to decay - or both ! quantum mechanics of spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Lodahl, Peter; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We discuss calculations of spontaneous emission from quantum dots in photonic crystals and show how the decay depends on the intrinsic properties of the emitter as well as the position. A number of fundamentally different types of spontaneous decay dynamics are shown to be possible, including...... counter intuitive situations in which the quantum dot decays only partially....

  12. Semiconductor Modeling Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This book describes the key theoretical techniques for semiconductor research to quantitatively calculate and simulate the properties. It presents particular techniques to study novel semiconductor materials, such as 2D heterostructures, quantum wires, quantum dots and nitrogen containing III-V alloys. The book is aimed primarily at newcomers working in the field of semiconductor physics to give guidance in theory and experiment. The theoretical techniques for electronic and optoelectronic devices are explained in detail.

  13. Relaxation of electron energy in the polar semiconductor double quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Khás, Zdeněk; Zdeněk, Petr; Čerňanský, Marian; Lin, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 314, - (2002), s. 490-493 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010113; GA MŠk OC P5.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum dots * relaxation * double quantum dots * electron-photon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2002

  14. Measurements of gain and index dynamics in quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds.......Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds....

  15. Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A.; Rimada, J. C.; Hernandez, L.; Connolly, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%

  16. Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A. [Academic Unit of Physics, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Czda. Solidaridad y Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rimada, J. C. [Solar Cell Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMRE), University of Havana, Zapata y G, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, L., E-mail: luisman@fisica.uh.cu [Faculty of Physics, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria. 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Connolly, J. P. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%.

  17. Single photon emission from charged excitons in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    We report on micro-photoluminescence studies of individual self-organized CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots intended for single-photon-source applications in a visible spectral range. The quantum dots surface density below 1010 per cm2 was achieved by using a thermally activated regime of molecular beam epitaxy that allowed fabrication of etched mesa-structures containing only a few emitting quantum dots. The single photon emission with the autocorrelation function g(2)(0)<0.2 was detected and identified as recombination of charged excitons in the individual quantum dot.

  18. Conductance enhancement in quantum-point-contact semiconductor-superconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flensberg, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    We present numerical calculations of the conductance of an interface between a phase-coherent two-dimensional electron gas and a superconductor with a quantum point contact in the normal region. Using a scattering matrix approach we reconsider the geometry of De Raedt, Michielsen, and Klapwijk...... [Phys. Rev. B 50, 631 (1994)] which was studied within the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism. We find that the factor-of-2 enhancement of the conductance G(NS) compared to the normal state conductance GN for ideal interfaces may be suppressed for interfaces with a quantum point contact...

  19. Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells; Estudo teorico de complexos excitonicos em pocos quanticos de semicondutores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando

    2001-08-01

    A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)

  20. Quantum-dot nano-cavity lasers with Purcell-enhanced stimulated emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Lorke, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present a rate equation model for quantum-dot light-emitting devices that take into account Purcell enhancement of both spontaneous emission and stimulated emission as well as the spectral profile of the optical and electronic density-of-states. We find that below threshold the b-factor in a q...

  1. Semiconductors and semimetals intersubband transitions in quantum wells physics and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Eicke R; Liu, H C

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The Willardson and Beer series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in producing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Pro

  2. Semiconductor quantum wells with BenDaniel–Duke boundary conditions: approximate analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsan, Victor; Ciornei, Mihaela-Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The Schrödinger equation for a particle moving in a square well potential with BenDaniel–Duke boundary conditions is solved. Using algebraic approximations for trigonometric functions, the transcendental equations of the bound states energy are transformed into tractable, algebraic equations. For the ground state and the first excited state, they are cubic equations; we obtain simple formulas for their physically interesting roots. The case of higher excited states is also analysed. Our results have direct applications in the physics of type I and type II semiconductor heterostructures. (paper)

  3. Semiconductor quantum wells with BenDaniel-Duke boundary conditions: approximate analytical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Victor; Ciornei, Mihaela-Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The Schrödinger equation for a particle moving in a square well potential with BenDaniel-Duke boundary conditions is solved. Using algebraic approximations for trigonometric functions, the transcendental equations of the bound states energy are transformed into tractable, algebraic equations. For the ground state and the first excited state, they are cubic equations; we obtain simple formulas for their physically interesting roots. The case of higher excited states is also analysed. Our results have direct applications in the physics of type I and type II semiconductor heterostructures.

  4. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... intermixing inside the quantum dots....

  5. Piezoelectric and deformation potential effects of strain-dependent luminescence in semiconductor quantum well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Aihua; Peng, Mingzeng; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of strain-dependent luminescence is important for the rational design of pressure-sensing devices. The interband momentum-matrix element is the key quantity for understanding luminescent phenomena. We analytically solved an infinite quantum well (IQW) model with strain...

  6. Absence of quantized energy-states local diffusion in semiconductor quantum-dash structures

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of InAs/InAlGaAs/InP quantum-dash structures utilizing different degrees of postgrowth-lattice-disordering. The observation of digital transitions among quantized states discards the origins of multiple excited states from a single group of dash ensembles.

  7. Proposed Coupling of an Electron Spin in a Semiconductor Quantum Dot to a Nanosize Optical Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majumdar, Arka; Nielsen, Per Kær; Bajcsy, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme to efficiently couple a single quantum dot electron spin to an optical nano-cavity, which enables us to simultaneously benefit from a cavity as an efficient photonic interface, as well as to perform high fidelity (nearly 100%) spin initialization and manipulation achievable in...

  8. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Lähnemann, J.; Vu, TTT; Jöns, K.D.; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M. A.; Akopian, N.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Haverkort, J. E.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the

  9. Controllable synthesis of dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescence quantum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; He, Guoxing; Mei, Shiliang; Zhu, Jiatao; Zhang, Wanlu; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Guilin; Guo, Ruiqian

    2017-11-01

    Dual emissive Cd-free quantum dots (QDs) are in great demand for various applications. However, their synthesis has been faced with challenges. Here, we demonstrate the dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) up to 75% and their PL dependence on the reaction temperature, reaction time, the different ZnX2 (X = I, Cl, and Br) precursors, the ratio of In/Zn and the Ag dopant concentration. The as-prepared Ag:InP/ZnS QDs exhibit dual emission with one peak position of about 492 nm owing to the intrinsic emission, and the other peak position of about 575 nm resulting from Ag-doped emission. These dual emissive QDs are integrated with the commercial GaN-based blue LEDs, and the simulation results show that the Ag:InP/ZnS QDs-based white LEDs could realize bright natural white-lights with the luminous efficacy (LE) of 94.2-98.4 lm/W, the color rendering index (CRI) of 82-83 and the color quality scale (CQS) of 82-83 at different correlated color temperatures (CCT). This unique combination of the above properties makes this new class of dual emissive QDs attractive for white LED applications.

  10. Photoinduced electron transfer from semiconductor quantum dots to metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvrdy, Kevin; Frantsuzov, Pavel A; Kamat, Prashant V

    2011-01-04

    Quantum dot-metal oxide junctions are an integral part of next-generation solar cells, light emitting diodes, and nanostructured electronic arrays. Here we present a comprehensive examination of electron transfer at these junctions, using a series of CdSe quantum dot donors (sizes 2.8, 3.3, 4.0, and 4.2 nm in diameter) and metal oxide nanoparticle acceptors (SnO(2), TiO(2), and ZnO). Apparent electron transfer rate constants showed strong dependence on change in system free energy, exhibiting a sharp rise at small driving forces followed by a modest rise further away from the characteristic reorganization energy. The observed trend mimics the predicted behavior of electron transfer from a single quantum state to a continuum of electron accepting states, such as those present in the conduction band of a metal oxide nanoparticle. In contrast with dye-sensitized metal oxide electron transfer studies, our systems did not exhibit unthermalized hot-electron injection due to relatively large ratios of electron cooling rate to electron transfer rate. To investigate the implications of these findings in photovoltaic cells, quantum dot-metal oxide working electrodes were constructed in an identical fashion to the films used for the electron transfer portion of the study. Interestingly, the films which exhibited the fastest electron transfer rates (SnO(2)) were not the same as those which showed the highest photocurrent (TiO(2)). These findings suggest that, in addition to electron transfer at the quantum dot-metal oxide interface, other electron transfer reactions play key roles in the determination of overall device efficiency.

  11. Theory of single quantum dot lasers: Pauli-blocking-enhanced anti-bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yumian; Bimberg, Dieter; Carmele, Alexander; Richter, Marten; Knorr, Andreas; Lüdge, Kathy; Schöll, Eckehard

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of a single semiconductor quantum dot interacting with a microcavity system. The confined quantum dot levels are pumped electrically via a carrier reservoir. The investigated dynamics includes semiconductor-specific, reservoir-induced Pauli-blocking terms in the equations of the photon probability functions. This enables a direct study of the photon statistics of the quantum light emission in dependence on the different pumping rates

  12. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Ayesha; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Jones, Geb A. C.; Ritchie, David A.; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ward, Martin B.; Ellis, David J. P.; Shields, Andrew J.; Schwagmann, Andre; Brody, Yarden

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12% ± 5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits

  13. The detrimental effect of spontaneous emission in quantum free electron lasers: A discrete Wigner model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, H.; Piovella, N.; Robb, G. R. M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the spontaneous emission in high-gain free-electron lasers operating in the quantum regime and its detrimental effect on coherent emission. A quantum model describing the coherent and spontaneous emission in free electron lasers has been recently proposed and investigated [G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio, Phys. Plasmas 19, 073101 (2012)]. The model is based on a Wigner distribution describing the electron beam dynamics, coupled to Maxwell equations for the emitted radiation field. Here, we rephrase the model in a more rigorous way, considering a discrete Wigner distribution defined for a periodic space coordinate for which the electron momentum is discrete. From its numerical solution, we find good agreement with the approximate continuous model. In the quantum regime of the free-electron laser, we obtain a simple density matrix equation for two momentum states, where the role of the spontaneous emission has a clear interpretation in terms of coherence decay and population transfer.

  14. Tuning Single Quantum Dot Emission with a Micromirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gangcheng; Gómez, Daniel; Kirkwood, Nicholas; Mulvaney, Paul

    2018-02-14

    The photoluminescence of single quantum dots fluctuates between bright (on) and dark (off) states, also termed fluorescence intermittency or blinking. This blinking limits the performance of quantum dot-based devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, the origins of the blinking remain unresolved. Here, we use a movable gold micromirror to determine both the quantum yield of the bright state and the orientation of the excited state dipole of single quantum dots. We observe that the quantum yield of the bright state is close to unity for these single QDs. Furthermore, we also study the effect of a micromirror on blinking, and then evaluate excitation efficiency, biexciton quantum yield, and detection efficiency. The mirror does not modify the off-time statistics, but it does change the density of optical states available to the quantum dot and hence the on times. The duration of the on times can be lengthened due to an increase in the radiative recombination rate.

  15. Model of fragmentation of the exciton inner ring in semiconductor quantum wells

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyuk, A. A.; Sugakov, V. I.; Tomylko, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of the non-homogeneous structures of the indirect exciton density distribution in the region of the quantum well (in the region of the inner ring) is explained. The structure (the fragmentation) occurs due to the exciton condensed phase formation because of interaction between excitons. The formation of the structure is related with the non-equalibrity of the system, which is caused by the exciton finite lifetime and the presence of the pumpimg. The structure emerges in the sha...

  16. Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in InAs/InP quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier operating at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Ouri; Capua, Amir; Eisenstein, Gadi; Sichkovskyi, Vitalii; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2013-11-04

    We report direct observations of Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in a quantum dot optical amplifier operating at room temperature. The experiments make use of pulses whose durations are shorter than the coherence time which are characterized using Cross-Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating. A numerical model which solves the Maxwell and Schrödinger equations and accounts for the inhomogeneously broadened nature of the quantum dot gain medium confirms the experimental results. The model is also used to explain the relationship between the observability of Rabi oscillations, the pulse duration and the homogeneous and inhomogeneous spectral widths of the semiconductor.

  17. Emissions of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) from East Asian Aluminum and Semiconductor Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Li, S.; Muhle, J.; Fang, X.; Manning, A. J.; Arnold, T.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) are among the most potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), with atmospheric lifetimes of 50,000 and 10,000 years and 100-year Global Warming Potentials of 7,490 and 12,200, respectively. The Chinese aluminum smelting (AL) industry, accounting for 39% of the global aluminum production in 2010, has become a significant emitter of these compounds to the atmosphere, . The AL industry has estimated its Chinese emissions averaged over 2008-2010 at 1.4 Gg/yr of CF4 and 0.06 Gg/yr of C2F6. In this study we combine East Asian measurements of C2F6 at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea), Hateruma, and Ochi-Ishi (Japan) and of CF4 at Gosan, using inversion techniques and two Lagrangian particle dispersion models (FLEXPART and NAME), to estimate the emissions of these two compounds from China and East Asia. Our results yield total emissions from China for the 2008-2010 period of approximately 4 × 0.5 Gg/yr for CF4 and 0.8 × 0.1 Gg/yr for C2F6. These results may be reconciled if emissions of these compounds from China's semiconductor (SC) industry are larger than currently estimated. However, evidence presented in the analysis of the inversion results and in the C2F6/CF4 emission ratios observed for China suggest that China's AL industry emissions are likely to be the dominant source of the discrepancy between reported emissions and those inferred from atmospheric measurements. As the AL and SC industries evolve toward new manufacturing technologies that reduce GHG emissions, continued and improved atmospheric measurements and modeling in this region will be useful in assessing the effectiveness of these changes.

  18. Ultrathin One- and Two-Dimensional Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Pushing Quantum Confinement to the Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Research on ultrathin nanomaterials is one of the fastest developing areas in contemporary nanoscience. The field of ultrathin one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) is still in its infancy, but offers the prospect of production of ultrathin nanomaterials in liquid-phase at relatively low costs, with versatility in terms of composition, size, shape, and surface control. In this Perspective, the state of the art in the field is concisely outlined and critically discussed to highlight the essential concepts and challenges. We start by presenting a brief overview of the ultrathin colloidal 1D and 2D semiconductor NCs prepared to date, after which the synthesis strategies and formation mechanisms of both 1D and 2D NCs are discussed. The properties of these low-dimensional materials are then reviewed, with emphasis on the optical properties of luminescent NCs. Finally, the future prospects for the field are addressed. PMID:28799764

  19. Distinguishing quantum dot-like localized states from quantum well-like extended states across the exciton emission line in a quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Sumi; Mondal, Richarj; Pal, Bipul; Bansal, Bhavtosh

    2018-03-01

    We have closely examined the emission spectrum at the heavy-hole exciton resonance in a high-quality GaAs multi-quantum well sample using picosecond excitation-correlation photoluminescence (ECPL) spectroscopy. Dynamics of the ECPL signal at low and high energy sides of the excitonic photoluminescence (PL) peak show complementary behavior. The ECPL signal is positive (negative) below (above) the PL peak and it changes sign within a narrow band of energy lying between the excitonic absorption and emission peaks. The energy at which this sign change takes place is interpreted as the excitonic mobility edge as it separates localized excitons in quantum dot-like states from mobile excitons in quantum well-like states.

  20. Non-Markovian spontaneous emission from a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2011-01-01

    We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system....

  1. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-06-08

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks.

  2. Simulation and design of the emission wavelength of multiple quantum well structures fabricated by selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioda, Tomonari; Doi, Takeshi; Al Amin, Abdullah; Song Xueliang; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (SA-MOCVD) is effective for the monolithic integration of semiconductor optical devices. Using appropriate patterns of SiO 2 masks on a substrate, we can fabricate multiple quantum wells (MQWs) of In 1-x Ga x As y P 1-y alloys with various emission wavelengths. Therefore, we can fabricate both passive elements and active components for different wavelengths on a substrate by a single growth. To make the best use of this SA-MOCVD process, we need a simulation tool that predicts the performance of the grown layer for a given mask pattern. We constructed a simulation that predicts the emission wavelength of MQW structures grown by SA-MOCVD. The simulation took into account the gas-phase diffusion of the precursors of In and Ga and their incorporation to the growth area. The rate parameters of these processes were extracted from the growth-rate profile in the SA-MOCVD of InP and GaAs. Based on these data, we simulated the photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelength of (1) In 1-x Ga x As y P 1-y bulk films and (2) MQWs consisting of these quaternary alloys. The simulated results agreed with experimental results, indicating the feasibility of computer-assisted design (CAD) of the mask patterns for SA-MOCVD

  3. Spontaneous emission of two quantum dots in a single-mode cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Liu; Zhang Ke; Li Zhi-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneous emission spectrum from two quantum dots (QDs) that are strongly coupled with a single-mode nanocavity is investigated using rigorous numerical calculations and simple analytical solutions of quantum dynamics. The emission spectra both from the side and along the axis of the cavity are considered. Modification of two parameters, the coupling strength and the detuning between the transition frequencies of the two quantum dots, allows us to efficiently control the shape of the spontaneous emission spectrum. Different profiles and their physical origins can be well understood in the dressed-state picture for the light—QD interaction in the on-resonance and off-resonance situations. In the on-resonance situation, the emission spectra exhibit symmetric features, and they are not altered by the asymmetry in the coupling parameters. The axis spectra show two emission peaks while the side spectra have three emission peaks. In the off-resonance situation, the emission spectra always show an asymmetrical three-peak feature. When the two QDs have different decay parameters, singular features (a peak or a dip) can take place at the frequency of the cavity mode, and this is attributed to the unbalanced process of the emission and absorption of a single photon. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Theory of resonant donor-impurity magnetopolaron in semiconductor quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, F.A.P.; Maialle, M.Z.; Hipolito, O.

    1989-11-01

    We report for the first time a theoretical calculation for the resonant donor impurity magnetopolaron in GaAs-GA 1-x Al x As quantum-well structures. The intra donor 1s → 2p, transition frequencies are calculated as a function of the magnetic field, by taking into account the polaron effects and nonparabolicity of the conduction band. We found a pinning behaviour due to interaction with LO phonons as suggested by the experimentalists. Our results for the peak positions of those transitions are in very good agreement with recent experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig

  5. Decoherence processes during optical manipulation of excitonic qubits in semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Q.; Muller, A.; Bianucci, P.; Rossi, E.; Xue, Q. K.; Takagahara, T.; Piermarocchi, C.; MacDonald, A. H.; Shih, C. K.

    2005-07-01

    Using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we have investigated the nature of Rabi oscillation damping during optical manipulation of excitonic qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Rabi oscillations were recorded by varying the pulse amplitude for fixed pulse durations between 4ps and 10ps . Up to five periods are visible, making it possible to quantify the excitation dependent damping. We find that this damping is more pronounced for shorter pulse widths and show that its origin is the nonresonant excitation of carriers in the wetting layer, most likely involving bound-to-continuum and continuum-to-bound transitions.

  6. Super-Resolution Definition of Coordinates of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystal (Quantum Dot: Luminescence Intensity Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremchev M. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research a relation between the accuracy of restoration of the single quantum dots (QD CdSe/CdS/ZnS cross-cut coordinates and luminescence intensity was investigated. It was shown that the limit of the accuracy of determining the coordinates of a single QD for a considerable total amount of registered photons approaches its limiting value that is comparable to the size of the QD. It also means that the installation used in the research is mechanically stable enough to reach the limiting values of determination accuracy of point emitters coordinates.

  7. Circularly polarized lasing in chiral modulated semiconductor microcavity with GaAs quantum wells

    OpenAIRE

    Demenev, A. A.; Kulakovskii, V. D.; Schneider, C.; Brodbeck, S.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Lobanov, S. V.; Weiss, T.; Gippius, N. A.; Tikhodeev, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    This work has been funded by Russian Scientific Foundation (Grant No. 14-12-01372) and State of Bavaria. We report close to circularly polarized lasing at ћω = 1.473 and 1.522 eV from an AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg microcavity, with 12 GaAs quantum wells in the active region and chirally etched upper distributed Bragg refractor under optical pump at room temperature. The advantage of using the chiral photonic crystal with a large contrast of dielectric permittivities is its giant optical activity, a...

  8. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  9. Enriching 28Si beyond 99.9998 % for semiconductor quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, K J; Pomeroy, J M; Simons, D S; Steffens, K L; Lau, J W

    2014-01-01

    Using a laboratory-scale apparatus, we enrich 28 Si and produce material with 40 times less residual 29 Si than previously reported. Starting from natural abundance silane gas, we offer an alternative to industrial gas centrifuges for providing materials critical for long spin coherence times in quantum information devices. Using a mass spectrometry approach, silicon ions are produced from commercial silane gas and the isotopes are separated in a magnetic sector analyzer before deposition onto a Si(1 0 0) substrate. Isotope fractions for 29 Si and 30 Si of <1 × 10 −6 are found in the deposited films using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additional assessments of the deposited films are also presented as we work to develop substrates and source material to support the growing silicon quantum computing community. Finally, we demonstrate modulation of the 29 Si concentration in a deposited film as a precursor to dual enrichment of heterostructures and compound materials such as 28 Si 74 Ge. (paper)

  10. Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETS) of semiconductor quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, Andrea

    2015-01-14

    Terahertz spectroscopy has vast potentialities in sensing a broad range of elementary excitations (e.g., collective vibrations of molecules, phonons, excitons, etc.). However, the large wavelength associated with terahertz radiation (about 300 μm at 1 THz) severely hinders its interaction with nano-objects, such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes, and large molecules of biological relevance, practically limiting terahertz studies to macroscopic ensembles of these compounds, in the form of thick pellets of crystallized molecules or highly concentrated solutions of nanomaterials. Here we show that chains of terahertz dipole nanoantennas spaced by nanogaps of 20 nm allow retrieving the spectroscopic signature of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots, a significant portion of the signal arising from the dots located within the antenna nanocavities. A Fano-like interference between the fundamental antenna mode and the phonon resonance of the quantum dots is observed, accompanied by an absorption enhancement factor greater than one million. NETS can find immediate applications in terahertz spectroscopic studies of nanocrystals and molecules at extremely low concentrations. Furthermore, it shows a practicable route toward the characterization of individual nano-objects at these frequencies.

  11. Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETS) of semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Andrea; Tuccio, Salvatore; Prato, Mirko; De Donato, Francesco; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Marras, Sergio; Liberale, Carlo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Lupi, Stefano; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Razzari, Luca

    2015-01-14

    Terahertz spectroscopy has vast potentialities in sensing a broad range of elementary excitations (e.g., collective vibrations of molecules, phonons, excitons, etc.). However, the large wavelength associated with terahertz radiation (about 300 μm at 1 THz) severely hinders its interaction with nano-objects, such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes, and large molecules of biological relevance, practically limiting terahertz studies to macroscopic ensembles of these compounds, in the form of thick pellets of crystallized molecules or highly concentrated solutions of nanomaterials. Here we show that chains of terahertz dipole nanoantennas spaced by nanogaps of 20 nm allow retrieving the spectroscopic signature of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots, a significant portion of the signal arising from the dots located within the antenna nanocavities. A Fano-like interference between the fundamental antenna mode and the phonon resonance of the quantum dots is observed, accompanied by an absorption enhancement factor greater than one million. NETS can find immediate applications in terahertz spectroscopic studies of nanocrystals and molecules at extremely low concentrations. Furthermore, it shows a practicable route toward the characterization of individual nano-objects at these frequencies.

  12. Progress towards Spin-Based Light Emission in Group IV Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano De Cesari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin-optoelectronics is an emerging technology in which novel and advanced functionalities are enabled by the synergetic integration of magnetic, optical and electronic properties onto semiconductor-based devices. This article reviews the possible implementation and convergence of spintronics and photonics concepts on group IV semiconductors: the core materials of mainstream microelectronics. In particular, we describe the rapid pace of progress in the achievement of lasing action in the notable case of Ge-based heterostructures and devote special attention to the pivotal role played by optical investigations in advancing the understanding of the rich spin physics of group IV materials. Finally, we scrutinize recent developments towards the monolithic integration on Si of a new class of spin-based light emitting devices having prospects for applications in fields such as cryptography and interconnects.

  13. Emission and absorption quantum noise measurement with an on-chip resonant circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, J; Bouchiat, H; Deblock, R

    2010-10-15

    Using a quantum detector, a superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction, we probe separately the emission and absorption noise in the quantum regime of a superconducting resonant circuit at equilibrium. At low temperature the resonant circuit exhibits only absorption noise related to zero point fluctuations, whereas at higher temperature emission noise is also present. By coupling a Josephson junction, biased above the superconducting gap, to the same resonant circuit, we directly measure the noise power of quasiparticles tunneling through the junction at two resonance frequencies. It exhibits a strong frequency dependence, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  14. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral measurements and that the quantum dot is rather weakly coupled to the cavity. We suggest that the observed Rabi splitting is due to cavity feeding by other quantum dots and/or multi...

  15. Surface defect assisted broad spectra emission from CdSe quantum dots for white LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Boni; Mathew, S.; Anand, V. R.; Correya, Adrine Antony; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Mujeeb, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports, broadband photoluminescence from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under the excitation of 403 nm using fluorimeter and 403 nm CW laser excitation. The broad spectrum obtained from the colloidal quantum dots was ranges from 450 nm to 800 nm. The broadness of the spectra was attributed to the merging of band edge and defect driven emissions from the QDs. Six different sizes of particles were prepared via kinetic growth method by using CdO and elemental Se as sources of Cd and Se respectively. The particle sizes were measured from TEM images. The size dependent effect on broad emission was also studied and the defect state emission was found to be predominant in very small QDs. The defect driven emission was also observed to be redshifted, similar to the band edge emission, due to quantum confinement effect. The emission corresponding to different laser power was also studied and a linear relation was obtained. In order to study the colour characteristics of the emission, CIE chromaticity coordinate, CRI and CCT of the prepared samples were measured. It is observed that, these values were tunable by the addition of suitable intensity of blue light from the excitation source to yield white light of various colour temperatures. The broad photoluminescence spectrum of the QDs, were compared with that of a commercially available white LED. It was found that the prepared QDs are good alternatives for the phosphor in phosphor converted white LEDs, to provide good spectral tunability.

  16. Theory of the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, S. W.; Meier, T.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.

    2002-04-01

    A microscopic many-body theory describing the optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures is briefly reviewed. At the semiclassical level, the optical response is computed using Maxwell's equations together with the semiconductor Bloch equations which describe the dynamics of the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms of the reduced single-particle density matrix. These equations include the coupling between the semiconductor and the optical field as well as Coulomb many-body interactions among the optically excited carriers. Under quasi-equilibrium conditions, luminescence spectra can be obtained from absorption spectra on the basis of the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger relation for conditions usually limited to the regime of optical gain (lasers). More generally, light emission has to be computed at a fully quantum mechanical level leading to semiconductor luminescence equations.

  17. Model of fragmentation of the exciton inner ring in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyuk, A. A.; Sugakov, V. I.; Tomylko, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of nonhomogeneous structures of the indirect exciton density distribution in the region of the quantum well (in the region of the inner ring) is explained. The structure (the fragmentation) occurs due to the exciton condensed phase formation because of the interaction between excitons. The formation of the struc-ture is related with the nonequalibrity of the system, which is caused by the exciton finite lifetime and the presence of the pumping. The structure emerges in the shape of a set of islands or circles of the condensed phase. The structure type depends on the pumping intensity, the size of the laser spot, and disappears with increasing the temperature. The merging of two structures, created by different laser spots, is investigated at decreasing the distance between the centers of the spots.

  18. Quantum transport in III-V-semiconductor nanocolumns; Quantentransport in III-V-Halbleiternanosaeulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensorra, Jakob

    2009-03-20

    The goal of this work has been to investigate und understand the electronic transport properties of vertical GaAs/AlAs nanocolumn resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) and field effect transistors (RTTs) as well as of vertical InAs nanocolumn phase interference diodes. Besides the fabrication and electrical characterization of the devices, numerical calculations, simulations and quantum transport models represent the second important part of the work. GaAs/AlAs and InAs nanocolumns with lateral dimensions down to 30 nm have been processed by top-down approach. Room temperature DC electrical measurements on the nano-RTDs show a distinct negative differential resistance in the I-V characteristics for devices down to 30 nm lateral dimension. The miniaturization of the RTDs leads to the degradation of the transport properties, especially of the peak to valley current ratio (PVR), due to the increased surface scattering. Apart from the main current peak, new substructures can be observed in the I-V characteristics. These are shoulder like features for columns with diameters between 80 nm and 100 nm but become clear peaks when the column diameters are in the 55-75 nm range. For sub-65 nm column lateral dimensions, a strong increase of the PVR and a sharp single peak is observed. A local maximum of the PVR of 3 is reached for columns with 50 nm diameter. The sub-40 nm devices show only space charge limited currents in the I-V characteristics. This behavior can be shifted to smaller or larger diameters by increasing or reduction of the channel doping. For the smallest nanocolumns the lateral quantum confinement, caused by the low dimensionality of the system, leads to the formation of a 3D quantum-point-contact (QPC) in front of the DBQW structure. The quantization in this QPC depends on the column diameter and for a 50 nm column it exceeds the room temperature thermal broadening of the Fermi distribution function of about 25 meV. The measurements of the nano-RTTs indicate a

  19. Optical studies of charged excitons in II-VI semiconductor quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Kossacki, P

    2003-01-01

    A brief review is given of optical studies of doped II-VI quantum wells. The properties of exciton states, neutral as well as positively and negatively charged, are discussed. A wide range of optical measurements is presented: CW as well as picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation. The experiments were performed at various carrier concentrations (> 10 sup 1 sup 1 cm sup - sup 2) and temperatures (up to a few tens of kelvins). This review is limited to zero or low magnetic fields, used only to polarize spins of carriers. We discuss the obtained values of various fundamental parameters of the excitonic states: energies, optical transition probabilities and characteristic times of their formation, thermalization and decay. (topical review)

  20. Emissive ZnO-graphene quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Ick; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Park, Dong Hee; Seo, Won-Seon; Yi, Yeonjin; Angadi, Basavaraj; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Choi, Won Kook

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid nanostructures combining inorganic materials and graphene are being developed for applications such as fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and sensors. However, the absence of a bandgap in graphene has restricted the electrical and optical characteristics of these hybrids, particularly their emissive properties. Here, we use a simple solution method to prepare emissive hybrid quantum dots consisting of a ZnO core wrapped in a shell of single-layer graphene. We then use these quantum dots to make a white-light-emitting diode with a brightness of 798 cd m-2. The strain introduced by curvature opens an electronic bandgap of 250 meV in the graphene, and two additional blue emission peaks are observed in the luminescent spectrum of the quantum dot. Density functional theory calculations reveal that these additional peaks result from a splitting of the lowest unoccupied orbitals of the graphene into three orbitals with distinct energy levels. White emission is achieved by combining the quantum dots with other emissive materials in a multilayer light-emitting diode.

  1. High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangauer, Andreas; Spinner, Georg; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

    2014-09-22

    Both intensity- (IM) and frequency-modulation (FM) behavior of a directly modulated quantum cascade laser (QCL) are measured from 300 Hz to 1.7 GHz. Quantitative measurements of tuning coefficients has been performed and the transition from thermal- to electronic-tuning is clearly observed. A very specific FM behavior of QCLs has been identified which allows for optical quasi single sideband (SSB) modulation through current injection and has not been observed in directly modulated semiconductor lasers before. This predestines QCLs in applications where SSB is required, such as telecommunication or high speed spectroscopy. The experimental procedure and theoretical modeling for data extraction is discussed.

  2. Modulation response of quantum dot nanolight-emitting-diodes exploiting purcell-enhanced spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels; Lorke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The modulation bandwidth for a quantum dot light-emitting device is calculated using a detailed model for the spontaneous emission including the optical and electronic density-of-states. We show that the Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate depends critically on the degree...... of inhomogeneous broadening relative to the cavity linewidth and can improve the modulation speed only within certain parameter regimes....

  3. Terahertz emission of Bloch oscillators excited by electromagnetic field in lateral semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, E.P.; Zharov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the strong high-frequency electromagnetic field on the lateral semiconductor superlattice is considered on the basis of the quasi-classical theory on the electron transport in the self-consistent wave arrangement. It is theoretically identified, that the lateral superlattice in the strong feed-up wave field may emit the terahertz radiation wave trains, which are associated with the periodical excitation of the Bloch oscillations in the superlattice. The conditions, required for the Bloch oscillators radiation observation, are determined. The spectral composition of the radiation, passing through the superlattice, and energy efficiency of multiplying the frequency, related to the Bloch oscillator excitation, are calculated [ru

  4. Semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating VCSELs: new concept of emission mirror enabling vertical current injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-02-01

    We propose semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating (SMSG) which can be implemented as VCSEL mirror. Such new type of SMSG plays a double role of the electric contact and mirror simultaneously. It facilitates high optical power reflectance, perfectly vertical current injection. Such construction eliminates the inbuilt current confinement and allows scaling of emitted power by simple variation of SMSG spatial dimensions. To give the credibility to proposed design we perform numerical analysis of VCSEL with SMSG using fully vectorial optical model. We discuss properties of the proposed design realized in arsenide-based material configuration.

  5. Single-walled carbon nanohorns decorated with semiconductor quantum dots to evaluate intracellular transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A.; Inglefield, David L.; Zhang, Jianfei; Dorn, Harry C.; Long, Timothy E.; Rylander, Christopher G.; Rylander, M. Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) have great potential to enhance thermal and chemotherapeutic drug efficiencies for cancer therapies. Despite their diverse capabilities, minimal research has been conducted so far to study nanoparticle intracellular transport, which is an important step in designing efficient therapies. SWNHs, like many other carbon nanomaterials, do not have inherent fluorescence properties making intracellular transport information difficult to obtain. The goals of this project were to (1) develop a simple reaction scheme to decorate the exohedral surface of SWNHs with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) and improve conjugate stability, and (2) evaluate SWNH-QD conjugate cellular uptake kinetics and localization in various cancer cell lines of differing origins and morphologies. In this study, SWNHs were conjugated to CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs using a unique approach to carbodiimide chemistry. Transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy verified the conjugation of SWNHs and QDs. Cellular uptake kinetics and efficiency were characterized in three malignant cell lines: U-87 MG (glioblastoma), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and AY-27 (bladder transitional cell carcinoma) using flow cytometry. Cellular distribution was verified by confocal microscopy, and cytotoxicity was also evaluated using an alamarBlue assay. Results indicate that cellular uptake kinetics and efficiency are highly dependent on cell type, highlighting the significance of studying nanoparticle transport at the cellular level. Nanoparticle intracellular transport investigations may provide information to optimize treatment parameters (e.g., SWNH concentration, treatment time, etc.) depending on tumor etiology.

  6. Investigating Optical Properties of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Containing Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mokhtarnejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined MQWs made of InGaAs/GaAs, InAlAs/InP, and InGaAs/InP in terms of their band structure and reflectivity. We also demonstrated that the reflectivity of MQWs under normal incident was at maximum, while both using a strong pump and changing incident angle reduced it. Reflectivity of the structure for a weak probe pulse depends on polarization, intensity of the pump pulse, and delay between the probe pulse and the pump pulse. So this system can be used as an ultrafast all-optical switch which is inspected by the transfer matrix method. After studying the band structure of the one-dimensional photonic crystal, the optical stark effect (OSE was considered on it. Due to the OSE on virtual exciton levels, the switching time can be in the order of picoseconds. Moreover, it is demonstrated that, by introducing errors in width of barrier and well as well as by inserting defect, the reflectivity is reduced. Thus, by employing the mechanism of stark effect MQWs band-gaps can be easily controlled which is useful in designing MWQ based optical switches and filters. By comparing the results, we observe that the reflectivity of MWQ containing 200 periods of InAlAs/InP quantum wells shows the maximum reflectivity of 96%.

  7. The role of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on bound polaron in semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussaouy, A.; Ouchani, N.

    2014-01-01

    We studied theoretically the effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the binding energy of shallow hydrogenic impurity in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) using a variational approach within the effective mass approximation. The hydrostatic stress was applied along the QD growth axis. The interactions between the charge carriers and confined longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes are taken into account. The numerical computation for GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As QD has shown that the binding energy with and without the polaronic correction depends on the location of the impurity and the pressure effect and it is more pronounced for impurities in the QD center. Both the binding energy and the polaronic contribution increase linearly with increasing stress. For each pressure value, these energies are also found to decrease as the temperature increases. The results obtained show that in experimental studies of optical and electronic properties of QDs, the effects of pressure, temperature and polaronic correction on donor impurity binding energy should be taken into consideration

  8. Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2017-03-28

    Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe 3 O 4 /CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (H E ) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.

  9. Electron - polar acoustical phonon interactions in nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well via hot electron magnetotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering

  10. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  11. Continuous Emission Monitoring of Tetrafluoromethane Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geiser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in quantum cascade lasers have enabled the development of new sensors for in-situ applications that have so far only been possible with extractive systems. In this work, a sensor is presented using a unique Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy approach to measure tetrafluoromethane, a strong greenhouse gas. The sensor was characterized in a laboratory environment indicating a long-term detection limit of 20 ppb·m and a short-term value of well below 10 ppb·m. To demonstrate the feasibility of the sensor in a real-world environment, it was installed at an Alcoa aluminum smelter. A co-located Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer allowed direct comparison measurements of both systems. General agreement between the two methods was observed, leading to the conclusion that the developed in-situ quantum cascade laser based sensor has the potential to continuously measure tetrafluoromethane at aluminum smelters.

  12. Dual-channel spontaneous emission of quantum dots in magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Manuel; Staude, Isabelle; Shishkin, Ivan I; Samusev, Kirill B; Parkinson, Patrick; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Minovich, Alexander; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Zvyagin, Andrei; Jagadish, Chennupati; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media realized by subwavelength nano-structuring, have become a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space, allowing for independent control of both electric and magnetic responses of the material. Whereas most metamaterials studied so far are limited to passive structures, the need for active metamaterials is rapidly growing. However, the fundamental question on how the energy of emitters is distributed between both (electric and magnetic) interaction channels of the metamaterial still remains open. Here we study simultaneous spontaneous emission of quantum dots into both of these channels and define the control parameters for tailoring the quantum-dot coupling to metamaterials. By superimposing two orthogonal modes of equal strength at the wavelength of quantum-dot photoluminescence, we demonstrate a sharp difference in their interaction with the magnetic and electric metamaterial modes. Our observations reveal the importance of mode engineering for spontaneous emission control in metamaterials, paving a way towards loss-compensated metamaterials and metamaterial nanolasers.

  13. Plasmonic emission enhancement of colloidal quantum dots in the presence of bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, S. M., E-mail: seyed.sadeghi@uah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Nano and Micro Device Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Hatef, A.; Meunier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Laser Processing and Plasmonics Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Nejat, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Marys Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Campbell, Q. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We studied plasmonic features of bimetallic nanostructures consisting of gold nanoisland cores semi-coated with a chromium layer and explored how they influence emission of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. We showed that, compared with chromium-covered glass substrates without the gold cores, the bimetallic nanostructures could significantly enhance the emission of the quantum dots. We studied the impact of the excitation intensity and thickness of the chromium layer on this process and utilized numerical means to identify the mechanisms behind it. Our results suggest that when the chromium layer is thin, the enhancement process is the result of the bimetallic plasmonic features of the nanostructures. As the chromium layer becomes thick, the impact of the gold cores is screened and the enhancement mostly happens mostly via the field enhancement of chromium nanoparticles in the absence of significant energy transfer from the quantum dots to these nanoparticles.

  14. Spontaneous emission and quantum discord: Comparison of Hilbert–Schmidt and trace distance discord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakóbczyk, Lech, E-mail: ljak@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2014-09-12

    Hilbert–Schmidt and trace norm geometric quantum discord are compared with regard to their behavior during local time evolution. We consider the system of independent two-level atoms with time evolution given by the dissipative process of spontaneous emission. It is explicitly shown that the Hilbert–Schmidt norm discord has nonphysical properties with respect to such local evolution and cannot serve as a reasonable measure of quantum correlations and the better choice is to use trace norm discord as such a measure. - Highlights: • We compare Hilbert–Schmidt and trace norm geometric quantum discord. • We consider the system of independent two-level atoms with time evolution given by spontaneous emission. • We show explicitly that Hilbert–Schmidt norm discord has nonphysical properties.

  15. Photomlxer for terahertz electromagnetic wave emission comprising quantum dots in a laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photomixer for generating terahertz electromagnetic radiation in response to illumination by a time-modulated optical signal. The photomixer (300) comprises a carrier substrate (310) with a plurality of quantum dots arranged in an emission region (308) thereof...

  16. Fast pixelated sensors for radiation detection and imaging based on quantum confined structures in III/V semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, M.; Biasiol, G.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R.H.; Plaisier, J.R.; Antonelli, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the characterisation of the delivered beams in many types of photon sources, innovative beam profilers based on III/V semiconductor materials (InGaAs/InAlAs) have been deeply investigated. Owing to a tunable and direct band gap these devices allow radiation detection in a wide spectral range. In order to increase the sensitivity of the device in radiation detection charge amplification on the sensor level is implemented. This is obtained by exploiting In 0.75 Ga 0.25 As/In 0.75 Al 0.25 As quantum wells (QW) hosting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) through molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Internal charge-amplification mechanism can be achieved for very low applied voltages, while the high carrier mobility allows the design of very fast photon detectors with sub-nanosecond response times. This technology has been preliminarily exploited to fabricate prototype beam profilers with a strip geometry (with 50-μm-wide strips). Tests were carried out both with conventional X-ray tubes and at the Elettra synchrotron facility. The results testify how these profilers are capable of reconstructing the shape of the beam, as well as estimating the position of the beam centroid with a precision of about 400 nm. Further measurements with different samples of decreasing thickness have shown how this precision could be further improved by an optimised microfabrication. For this reason a new design, based on a membrane-photodetector, is proposed. Results regarding the spatial resolution as function of the sensor thickness will be presented and discussed.

  17. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  18. Quantum size effects on spin-transfer torque in a double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (semiconductor) spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.

  19. Revisit emission spectrum and entropy quantum of the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Banerjee and Majhi's recent work shows that black hole's emission spectrum could be fully reproduced in the tunneling picture, where, as an intriguing technique, the Kruskal extension was introduced to connect the left and right modes inside and outside the horizon. Some attempt, as an extension, was focused on producing the Hawking emission spectrum of the (charged) Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the Banerjee-Majhi treatment. Unfortunately, the Kruskal extension in their observation was so badly defined that the ingoing mode was classically forbidden traveling towards the center of black hole, but could quantum tunnel across the horizon with the probability Γ=e -πω 0 /κ + . This tunneling picture is unphysical. With this point as a central motivation, in this paper we first introduce such a suitable Kruskal extension for the (charged) Reissner-Nordstroem black hole that a perfect tunneling picture can be provided during the charged particle's emission. Then, under the new Kruskal extension, we revisit the Hawking emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy as tunneling from the charged black hole. The result shows that the tunneling method is so universally robust that the Hawking blackbody emission spectrum from a charged black hole can be well reproduced in the tunneling mechanism, and its induced entropy quantum is a much better approximation for the forthcoming quantum gravity theory. (orig.)

  20. Strong coupling and stimulated emission in single parabolic quantum well microcavity for terahertz cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimis, A.; Savvidis, P. G.; Trifonov, A. V.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Christmann, G.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We report observation of strong light-matter coupling in an AlGaAs microcavity (MC) with an embedded single parabolic quantum well. The parabolic potential is achieved by varying aluminum concentration along the growth direction providing equally spaced energy levels, as confirmed by Brewster angle reflectivity from a reference sample without MC. It acts as an active region of the structure which potentially allows cascaded emission of terahertz (THz) light. Spectrally and time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy reveals characteristic quantum beats whose frequencies range from 0.9 to 4.5 THz, corresponding to energy separation between relevant excitonic levels. The structure exhibits strong stimulated nonlinear emission with simultaneous transition to weak coupling regime. The present study highlights the potential of such devices for creating cascaded relaxation of bosons, which could be utilized for THz emission

  1. Continuous Emission Monitoring of Tetrafluoromethane Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Geiser; Viacheslav Avetisov; Luis Espinoza-Nava; Nicola Menegazzo; Peter Kaspersen

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in quantum cascade lasers have enabled the development of new sensors for in-situ applications that have so far only been possible with extractive systems. In this work, a sensor is presented using a unique Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy approach to measure tetrafluoromethane, a strong greenhouse gas. The sensor was characterized in a laboratory environment indicating a long-term detection limit of 20 ppb·m and a short-term value of well below 10 ppb·m. To demonstrate ...

  2. Hybrid plasmonic/semiconductor nanoparticle monolayer assemblies as hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Ozel, Tuncay; Mutlugun, Evren

    2014-01-01

    We show that hybrid nanostructures made of alternating colloidal semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle monolayers can function as multilayer hyperbolic meta-materials. By choosing the thickness of the spacer between the quantum dot and nanoparticle layers, one can achieve the indefinite...... effective permittivity tensor of the structure. This results in increased photonic density of states and strong enhancement of quantum dot luminescence, in line with recent experimental results. Our findings demonstrate that hyperbolic metamaterials can increase the radiative decay rate of emission centers...

  3. Effects of ZnO Quantum Dots Decoration on the Field Emission Behavior of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhou, Xiongtu; Lin, Zhixian; Guo, Tailiang; Zhang, Yongai; Zeng, Yongzhi

    2016-11-23

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) have been decorated on graphene deposited on patterned Ag electrodes as a field emission cathode by a solution process. Effects of ZnO QDs on the field emission behavior of graphene are studied by experiment and first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the attachment of ZnO QDs with a C atom leads to the enhancement of electron emission from graphene, which is mainly attributed to the reduction of the work function and ionization potential, and the increase of the Fermi level of graphene after the decoration. A change in the local density distribution and the density of states near the Fermi level may also account for this behavior. Our study may help to develop new field emission composites and expand ZnO QDs in applications for electron emission devices as well.

  4. Field emission of carbon quantum dots synthesized from a single organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Bingjun; Yang, Juan; Yu, Shengxue; Chen, Jiangtao

    2016-11-04

    In this paper, a facile synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and its field emission performance are reported. The CQDs are prepared from a single N, N-dimethylformamide acting as carbon and nitrogen-doping sources simultaneously. The CQDs are investigated by photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The CQDs have an average size of 3 nm and are doped with N atoms. CQD dispersion shows strong fluorescence under UV illumination. For the first time, the field emission behavior of CQDs coated on Si substrate is studied. As a candidate of cold cathode, the CQDs display good field emission performance. The CQD emitter reaches the current density of 1.1 mA cm(-2) at 7.0 V μm(-1) and exhibits good long-term emission stability, suggesting promising application in field emission devices.

  5. Nonmagnetic Quantum Emitters in Boron Nitride with Ultranarrow and Sideband-Free Emission Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhi; Shepard, Gabriella D; Cupo, Andrew; Camporeale, Nicolas; Shayan, Kamran; Luo, Yue; Meunier, Vincent; Strauf, Stefan

    2017-07-25

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is an emerging material in nanophotonics and an attractive host for color centers for quantum photonic devices. Here, we show that optical emission from individual quantum emitters in hBN is spatially correlated with structural defects and can display ultranarrow zero-phonon line width down to 45 μeV if spectral diffusion is effectively eliminated by proper surface passivation. We demonstrate that undesired emission into phonon sidebands is largely absent for this type of emitter. In addition, magneto-optical characterization reveals cycling optical transitions with an upper bound for the g-factor of 0.2 ± 0.2. Spin-polarized density functional theory calculations predict possible commensurate transitions between like-spin electron states, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental nonmagnetic defect center emission. Our results constitute a step toward the realization of narrowband quantum light sources and the development of spin-photon interfaces within 2D materials for future chip-scale quantum networks.

  6. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  7. Excitonic Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures Measured by Speckle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    A new method to measure the time-dependent coherence of optical excitations in solids is presented, in which the coherence degree of light emission is deduced from its intensity fluctuations over the emission directions (speckles). With this method the decays of intensity and coherence...... are determined separately, thus distinguishing lifetime from pure dephasing. In particular, the secondary emission of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells is investigated. Here, the combination of static disorder and inelastic scattering leads to a partially coherent emission. The temperature dependence...

  8. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  9. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  10. Emission Channeling Studies on the Behaviour of Light Alkali Atoms in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Recknagel, E; Quintel, H

    2002-01-01

    % IS342 \\\\ \\\\ A major problem in the development of electronic devices based on diamond and wide-band-gap II-VI compound semiconductors, like ZnSe, is the extreme difficulty of either n- or p-type doping. The only reports of successful n-type doping of diamond involves ion implanted Li, which was found to be an intersititial donor. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that Na, P and N dopant atoms are also good candidates for n-type doping of diamond. No experimental evidence has been obtained up to now, mainly because of the complex and partly unresolved defect situation created during ion implantation, which is necessary to incorporate potential donor atoms into diamond. \\\\ \\\\In the case of ZnSe, considerable effort has been invested in trying to fabricate pn-junctions in order to make efficient, blue-light emitting diodes. However, it has proved to be very difficult to obtain p-type ZnSe, mainly because of electrical compensation related to background donor impurities. Li and Na are believed to be ampho...

  11. Dynamic acoustic control of individual optically active quantum dot-like emission centers in heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthias; Kinzel, Jörg B; Schülein, Florian J R; Heigl, Michael; Rudolph, Daniel; Morkötter, Stefanie; Döblinger, Markus; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J; Koblmüller, Gregor; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J

    2014-05-14

    We probe and control the optical properties of emission centers forming in radial heterostructure GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowires and show that these emitters, located in Al0.3Ga0.7As layers, can exhibit quantum-dot like characteristics. We employ a radio frequency surface acoustic wave to dynamically control their emission energy, and occupancy state on a nanosecond time scale. In the spectral oscillations, we identify unambiguous signatures arising from both the mechanical and electrical component of the surface acoustic wave. In addition, different emission lines of a single emission center exhibit pronounced anticorrelated intensity oscillations during the acoustic cycle. These arise from a dynamically triggered carrier extraction out of the emission center to a continuum in the radial heterostructure. Using finite element modeling and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory we identify quantum tunneling as the underlying mechanism. These simulation results quantitatively reproduce the observed switching and show that in our systems these emission centers are spatially separated from the continuum by >10.5 nm.

  12. Effect of intravalley acoustic phonon scattering on quantum transport in multigate silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Nima Dehdashti; Afzalian, Aryan; Lee, Chi-Woo; Yan, Ran; Ferain, Isabelle; Razavi, Pedram; Yu, Ran; Fagas, Giorgos; Colinge, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of intravalley acoustic phonon scattering on the quantum transport and on the electrical characteristics of multigate silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. We show that acoustic phonons cause a shift and broadening of the local DOS in the nanowire, which modifies the electrical characteristics of the device. The influence of scattering on off-state and on-state currents is investigated for different values of channel length. In the ballistic transport regime, source-to-drain tunneling current is predominant, whereas in the presence of acoustic phonons, diffusion becomes the dominant current transport mechanism. A three-dimensional quantum mechanical device simulator based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism in uncoupled-mode space has been developed to extract device parameters in the presence of electron-phonon interactions. Electron-phonon scattering is accounted for by adopting the self-consistent Born approximation and using the deformation potential theory.

  13. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of small size fluorescent LEEH caped blue emission ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Sumanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the synthesis of LEEH caped very small size (2 nm ZnTe quantum dots at low temperature (less than 100 °C using a simple chemical route. The effects of aging and stirring time on the absorption spectra of the quantum dots were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystal (NC was characterized by PL, TEM, XRD and the formation of very small size quantum dots having FCC structure was confirmed. Further, blue emission from the prepared sample was observed during exposure to monochromatic UV radiation. ZnTe NCs obtained in this study were found to be more stable compared to those presented in literature reports. ZnTe NCs may be considered as a new material in place of CdTe for optoelectronics devices.

  15. Optical bistability via quantum interference from incoherent pumping and spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, M.; Asadpour, S.H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability (OB) in a V-type three-level atomic system confined in a unidirectional ring cavity via incoherent pumping field. It is shown that the threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the rate of an incoherent pumping field and by interference mechanism arising from the spontaneous emission and incoherent pumping field. We demonstrate that the optical bistability converts to optical multi-stability (OM) by the quantum interference mechanism. - Highlights: → We modulate the optical bistability (OB) in a four-level N-type atomic system. → The threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the quantum interferences. → OB converts to optical multi-stability (OM) by the quantum interferences. → We discuss the effect of an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB threshold.

  16. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  17. Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Applications to Advanced Concepts for Solar Photon Conversion to Electricity and Solar Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beard, Matthew C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The challenge of photoconversion research is to produce photovoltaic electricity at costs much less than those based on fossil fuels. Novel photoactive semiconductors and molecules of various types and structures are discussed for this purpose.

  18. Quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Arai, Yusuke; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2008-01-01

    A systematic method to evaluate potentials of Ni 2+ -doped transparent glass-ceramics as a new broadband optical gain media is presented. At first, near-infrared emission of various ceramics were investigated to explore the suitable crystalline phase to be grown in the glass-ceramics. The quantum efficiency of Ni 2+ near-infrared emission estimated by the Struck-Fonger analysis was higher than 95% for spinel-type structure gallate crystals MgGa 2 O 4 and LiGa 5 O 8 at room temperature. Transparent glass-ceramics containing Ni 2+ :LiGa 5 O 8 could be prepared and the quantum efficiency for the glass-ceramics was measured to be about 10%. This value shows a potential of Ni-doped transparent glass-ceramics as a broadband gain media

  19. Emissivity and electrooptical properties of semiconducting quantum dots/rods and liquid crystal composites: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Fisch, Michael; Kumar, Satyendra

    2016-05-01

    Investigations of the mixtures of semiconducting quantum scale particles in anisotropic liquid crystal (LC) medium have become a vibrant area of research primarily due to their very interesting phenomenology. The results of these investigations fall into four groups: (i) Photoluminescent emissive properties of the quantum particles ordinarily depend on the size, shape, and chemical nature of the particles. These undergo important changes in their spectrum, polarization, and isotropy of emission when dissolved in an anisotropic LC phase. Moreover, their response to external stimuli such as mechanical, optical, or electric fields is altered in important ways; (ii) physical properties of LCs such as viscosity, dielectric relaxation, etc are modified by the addition of quantum particles. Their presence in ferroelectric smectic LC is known to give rise to an antiferro- to ferri-electric phase transition and suppresses the paraelectric phase; (iii) switching characteristics of LC devices are altered in important ways by the addition of quantum particles. Their threshold voltage is usually lowered, contrast ratio, and switching speed of nematic, ferroelectric, and cholesteric devices may increase or decrease depending on the concentration, applied field, and particle anisotropy; and (iv) controlled aggregation of quantum particles at the interface between isotropic and LC domains, near added polystyrene beads, and in the vicinity of point defects gives rise to interesting photonic structures, enables studies of photon antibunching and single photon sources. Clearly, there is a need to understand the basic and applied aspects of these systems and find routes to their technological applications including sensors, electrooptical devices, and solar energy harvesting. This review provides an overview of recent work involving liquid crystals and a variety of quantum particles.

  20. Evaluation of field emission properties from multiple-stacked Si quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daichi; Makihara, Katsunori; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) with ultrathin SiO 2 interlayers were formed on ultrathin SiO 2 layers by repeating a process sequence consisting of the formation of Si-QDs by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using a SiH 4 gas and the surface oxidation and subsequent surface modification by remote hydrogen and oxygen plasmas, respectively. To clarify the electron emission mechanism from multiple-stacked Si-QDs covered with an ultrathin Au top electrode, the energy distribution of the emitted electrons and its electric field dependence was measured using a hemispherical electron energy analyzer in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system under DC bias application to the multiple-stacked Si-QD structure. At − 6 V and over, the energy distributions reached a peak at ~ 2.5 eV with a tail toward the higher energy side. While the electron emission intensity was increased exponentially with an increase in the applied DC bias, there was no significant increase in the emission peak energy. The observed emission characteristics can be interpreted in terms of field emissions from the second and/or third topmost Si-QDs resulting from the electric concentration there. - Highlights: • Electron field emission from 6-fold stack of Si-QDs has been evaluated. • AFM measurements show the local electron emission from individual Si-QDs. • Impact of applied bias on the electron emission energy distribution was investigated.

  1. Hole emission from Ge/Si quantum dots studied by time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapteyn, C.M.A.; Lion, M.; Heitz, R.; Bimberg, D. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Miesner, C.; Asperger, T.; Brunner, K.; Abstreiter, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik

    2001-03-01

    Emission of holes from self-organized Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in Si Schottky diodes is studied by time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS signal is rather broad and depends strongly on the filling and detection bias conditions. The observed dependence is interpreted in terms of carrier emission from many-hole states of the QDs. The activation energies obtained from the DLTS measurements are a function of the amount of stored charge and the position of the Fermi level in the QDs. (orig.)

  2. Time-reversal symmetrization of spontaneous emission for quantum state transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Sundaresan, Neereja M.; Sadri, Darius; Liu, Yanbing; Gambetta, Jay M.; Yu, Terri; Girvin, S. M.; Houck, Andrew A.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the ability to control spontaneous emission from a superconducting qubit coupled to a cavity. The time domain profile of the emitted photon is shaped into a symmetric truncated exponential. The experiment is enabled by a qubit coupled to a cavity, with a coupling strength that can be tuned in tens of nanoseconds while maintaining a constant dressed state emission frequency. Symmetrization of the photonic wave packet will enable use of photons as flying qubits for transferring the quantum state between atoms in distant cavities.

  3. Spectrally tunable mollow triplet emission from a coherently excited quantum dot in a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Sven M.; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence of excitonic s-shell emission from a coherently pumped single InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot inside a micropillar cavity has been investigated in dependence on optical pump power and laser detuning, respectively. For strong purely resonant excitation, Mollow triplet spectra with l...... with large Rabi splittings of j~­j » 60¹eV have been observed. Laser detuning-dependent series revealed the pronounced asymmetry of the emission triplet as predicted by theory. From our data, an electrical dipole moment of ¹ » 17:8§0:5 Debye could be derived for the excitonic state....

  4. Field Emission Properties of the Dendritic Carbon Nanotubes Film Embedded with ZnO Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Response on the effects of individual differences of common carbon nanotubes on the field emission current stability and the luminescence uniformity of cathode film, a new type of cathode film made of dendritic carbon nanotubes embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots is proposed. The film of dendritic carbon nanotubes was synthesized through high-temperature pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine on a silicon substrate coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles. The dendritic structure looks like many small branches protrude from the main branches in SEM and TEM images, and both the branch and the trunk are embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots. The turn-on field of the dendritic structure film is ∼1.3 V/μm at a current of 2 μA, which is much lower than that of the common carbon nanotube film, and the emission current and the luminescence uniformity are better than that of the common one. The whole film emission uniformity has been improved because the multi-emission sites out from the dendritic structure carbon nanotubes cover up the failure and defects of the single emission site.

  5. Microscopic theory of indistinguishable single-photon emission from a quantum dot coupled to a cavity: The role of non-Markovian phonon-induced decoherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An import...

  6. Enhanced quantum efficiency of photoelectron emission, through surface textured metal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Anna; Bandaru, Prabhakar R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Program in Materials Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, 92130 (United States); Moody, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    It is predicted that the quantum efficiency (QE) of photoelectron emission from metals may be enhanced, possibly by an order of magnitude, through optimized surface texture. Through extensive computational simulations, it is shown that the absorption enhancement in select surface groove geometries may be a dominant contributor to enhanced QE and corresponds to localized Fabry–Perot resonances. The inadequacy of extant analytical models in predicting the QE increase, and suggestions for further improvement, are discussed.

  7. Handheld deep ultraviolet emission device based on aluminum nitride quantum wells and graphene nanoneedle field emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Iwayama, Sho; Saito, Takao; Kawakami, Yasuyuki; Kubo, Fumio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2012-10-22

    We report the successful fabrication of a compact deep ultraviolet emission device via a marriage of AlGaN quantum wells and graphene nanoneedle field electron emitters. The device demonstrated a 20-mW deep ultraviolet output power and an approximately 4% power efficiency. The performance of this device may lead toward the realization of an environmentally friendly, convenient and practical deep ultraviolet light source.

  8. Photon emission and quantum signalling in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayburov S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-weak, non-termal photon emission is universal feature of living organisms and plants. In our experiment the fine structure of optical radiation emitted by the loach fish eggs is studied. It was shown earlier that such radiation performs the signaling between the distant fish egg samples, which result in significant correlations of their growth. The optical radiation of biological sample was measured by the cooled photomultiplier in photocurrent regime, it was found that the main bulk of radiation is produced in form of short-time quasi-periodic bursts. The analysis of radiation temporal structure indicates that the information about egg age and growth is encoded via the values of time intervals between neighbor bursts with the height higher than some fixed level. The applications of such biological radiation in medical diagnostics and biotechnology are considered.

  9. Local emission spectroscopy of surface micrograins in A{sup III}B{sup V} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, N. D., E-mail: ndzhukov@rambler.ru; Gluhovskoy, E. G.; Mosiyash, D. S. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The density-of-states spectra and the parameters of levels of electron states in locally chosen surface micrograins of indium antimonide and arsenide and gallium arsenide are studied with a tunneling electron microscope in the field-emission mode of measurements. By correlating the current–voltage characteristics with the formula for the probability of emission via levels, the activation energies of the levels (ψ) and the lifetimes of electrons at the levels (τ) are determined. Two types of levels for electron localization are identified. These are levels in the micrograin bulk (ψ ≈ 0.75, 1.15, and 1.59 eV for n-InSb, n-InAs, and n-GaAs, respectively; τ ~ 10{sup –8}–10{sup –7} s) and in the surface region of an i-InSb micrograin (ψ ~ 0.73, 1.33, 1.85, 2.15, 5.1 eV; τ ≈ 5 × 10{sup –8}–3 × 10{sup –7} s). A physical model involving the Coulomb-interaction-induced localization of light electrons and their size quantization determined by the electron effective mass, energy, and concentration and by the surface curvature of the micrograin is proposed.

  10. Stimulated emission and lasing from all-inorganic perovskite quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Handong; Wang, Yue; Li, Xiaoming; Haibo, Zeng

    We present superior optical gain and lasing properties in a new class of emerging quantum materials, the colloidal all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots (IPQDs) (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I). Our result has indicated that such material system show combined merits of both colloidal quantum dots and halide perovskites. Low-threshold and ultrastable stimulated emission was demonstrated under atmospheric condition. The flexibility and advantageous optical gain properties of these CsPbX3 IPQDs were manifested by demonstration of an optically pumped micro-laser. The nonlinear optical properties including the multi-photon absorption and resultant photoluminescence of the CsPbX3 nanocrystals were investigated. A large two-photon absorption cross-section of up to ~1.2×105 GM is determined from 9 nm-sized CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Moreover, low-threshold frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by two-photon absorption was observed from the thin films of close-packed CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. We further realize the three-photon pumped stimulated emission in green spectra range from colloidal IPQD.

  11. Spontaneous emission modulation of colloidal quantum dots via efficient coupling with hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X W; Shi, L; Wang, Qi; Chen, C Q; Liu, X H; Sun, L X; Zhang, Bo; Zi, J; Lu, Wei

    2014-09-22

    The spontaneous emission of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (CQDs) modified by the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is reported in this paper. By using a spin coater, the spatial overlap between CQDs and the surface resonance modes in this quasi-2D crystal slab is achieved. In this case, the coupling efficiency of them is enhanced greatly and most excited CQDs radiate through the surface modes. Consequently, despite the low refractive index contrast of our hybrid structure, the directionality of spontaneous emission, increased radiative probability and narrowed full width at half maximum of emission peak are all clearly observed by our home-made microscopic angle-resolved spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence system. Our results manifest that the quasi-2D hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is an ideal candidate to tailor the radiative properties of CdSe/ZnS CQDs, which might be significant for the applications of light emitting devices.

  12. Coherent secondary emission from resonantly excited two-exciton states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan

    2000-01-01

    of the secondary emission from quantum wells following ultrafast resonant excitation and find that it provides information on not only the bound biexcitons but also the biexciton continuum. Due to the heterodyne nature of the experimental technique we obtain both amplitude and phase of the coherent emission....... This allow us to present our data using the Wiegner-function formalism and compare directly with recent theoretical results for the contribution to the nonlinear susceptibility from exciton-exciton correlation in semiconductor quantum wells....

  13. Physical properties of metal–insulator–semiconductor structures based on n-GaAs with InAs quantum dots deposited onto the surface of an n-GaAs layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhov, S. V.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Koryazhkina, M. N., E-mail: mahavenok@mail.ru; Kasatkin, A. P.; Antonov, I. N.; Vihrova, O. V.; Morozov, A. I. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The properties of metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures based on n-GaAs in which silicon oxide and yttria-stabilized zirconia and hafnia are used as the insulator containing InAs quantum dots, which are embedded at the insulator/n-GaAs interface, are investigated. The structures manifest the resistive switching and synaptic behavior.

  14. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi...

  15. Red to near-infrared emission from InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowires LED

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee

    2014-01-01

    The InGaN/GaN quantum-disks-in-nanowire light-emitting diode (LED) with emission centered at ~830nm, the longest emission wavelength ever reported in the InGaN/GaN system, and spectral linewidth of 290nm, has been fabricated with p-side-down on a Cu substrate.

  16. Correlated terahertz acoustic and electromagnetic emission in dynamically screened InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Capel, P.J.S.; Turchinovich, D.; Porte, H.P.; Lahmann, S.; Rossow, U.; Dijkhuis, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate acoustic and electromagnetic emission from optically excited strained piezoelectric In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved Brillouin scattering, and THz emission spectroscopy. A direct comparison of detected acoustic signals

  17. Emission noise and high frequency cut-off of the Kondo effect in a quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, R.; Basset, J.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.

    2018-01-01

    By coupling on chip via a resonant circuit a carbon nanotube to a quantum noise detector, a superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction we measure the emission noise of a carbon nanotube quantum dot in the Kondo regime. The signature of the Kondo effect in the current noise is measured for different ratios of the Kondo temperature over the measured frequency and for different asymmetries of the coupling to the contacts and compared to finite frequency quantum noise calculations. Our results point towards the existence of a high frequency cut-off of the electronic emission noise associated with the Kondo resonance. This cut-off frequency is on the order of a few times the Kondo temperature when the electronic system is close to equilibrium, which is the case for a strongly asymmetric coupling. On the other hand, this cut-off is shifted to lower frequencies in a symmetric coupling situation where the bias voltage drives the Kondo state out of equilibrium. We then attribute the low frequency cut-off to voltage-induced spin relaxation.

  18. Lattice location of impurities in semiconductors: a RBS/channeling and proton-induced x-ray emission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kringhoj, P. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1993-12-31

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)/channeling and proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are two well established and characterised techniques. Over the last three decades RBS/channeling measurements has been performed to extract the substitutional fraction of impurities in both elemental and compound semiconductors. However, due to the limitation of RBS, only elements heavier than the host crystal can be examined (except for a few elements, where a nuclear reaction or a resonance can be used). In silicon this limitation is acceptable, due to the low mass of Si, but in the III-V compounds (e.g. InP), the technique is limited to a few elements of hardly no technological or fundamental interest. One can overcome this by combining RBS/channeling with PIXE, where PIXE is applied to detect elements with a mass lower than the host crystal. In the present work, the lattice location of Ge in InP has been studied and compared to the group-III impurity Ga, and the group-VI impurity Se which is known to be a donor. The (RBS)/channeling technique has been used to detect not only the substitutional fraction, but also the relative population of the two sublattices. The half-width is approximately equal to the characteristic angle, {psi}{sub 1}. The channeling data obtained indicate that all three dopants are located exclusively on substitutional sites and that Ga is occuping the In position, Se theP position and that Ge is distributed equally between both sublattices. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  19. Intersubband spontaneous emission from GaN-based THz quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, W.; Hirayama, H.

    2013-03-01

    We studied on terahertz-quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) using III-Nitride semiconductors, which are promising materials for the realization of the unexplored frequency range from 5 to 12 THz and the higher temperature operation on THz-QCLs, because these compounds have much larger longitudinal optical phonon energies (> 18 THz) than those of conventional GaAs-based materials (~ 9 THz). Firstly, we showed clearly that it is possible to design a GaN-based quantum cascade (QC) structure which operates in the THz range in which population inversion can be obtained, by performing numerical calculations based on a self-consistent rate equation model. Secondly, we succeeded in the stack of QC structure with a large number of periods and the drastic improvement of structural properties of QC structure, by introducing a new growth technique named "a droplet elimination by thermal annealing (DETA)" in which utilized the differences of the properties between metals (Al, Ga) and Nitrides (AlN, GaN) into molecular beam epitaxy. Finally, we for the first time successfully observed spontaneous electroluminescence due to intersubband transitions with peaks at frequencies from 1.4 to 2.8 THz from GaN/AlGaN QCL devices fabricated with using the DETA technique grown on a GaN substrate and a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-AlN template on a sapphire substrate. In this paper, we demonstrate recent achievements on the quantum design, fabrication technique, and electroluminescence properties of GaN-based QCL structures.

  20. Highly directive and Gaussian far-field emission from “giant” photonic trumpets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanov, Petr; Delga, Adrien; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Photonic trumpets are broadband dielectric antennas that efficiently funnel the emission of a pointlike quantum emitter—such as a semiconductor quantum dot—into a Gaussian free-space beam. After describing guidelines for the taper design, we present a “giant” photonic trumpet. The device features...

  1. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  2. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  3. Tunable emission from InAs quantum dots gated with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth; Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Lai, Yiming; Badolato, Antonio; Vamivakas, Nick

    We demonstrate Stark shifted photo-luminescence from InAs quantum dots (QD) using an n-i-Schottky diode where graphene has been used as the Schottky barrier material. This hybrid photonic device is motivated by the need for tunable single photon sources with high flux and storage capabilities. Photonic crystal nanocavities decorated with a single QD provide a rich environment for coupling spins and photons, in addition to accessing cavity quantum electrodynamic physics. Methods currently used for electrically tuning the QD inside the cavity suffer from a loss of the cavity quality factor, or high leakage currents in the diode which impacts the spin-photon coupling of the device. Our measurements are a first step towards using a graphene flake to electrically tune the emission of a strongly coupled QD-cavity system. NSF Grant No. DMR-1309734.

  4. Crystal excitations features in the photon emission spectrum of the quantum channeled particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, E.A., E-mail: eugen_mazur@mail.ru

    2015-07-15

    The processes of generation of phonons and electron excitations with quantum oriented particle in crystal are considered. Expressions are obtained for the probability of emission of phonons and plasmons with channeled particle. The theory of the processes of the crystal excitation with the channeled particle, accompanied by the simultaneous emission of a photon is developed. It is proved that all the specific features of the electron and phonon crystal excitation structure appear as components of radiation of the oriented fast charged particle. The photon emission of a quantum channeled particle, accompanied by a plasmon excitation in a crystal target is considered. It is taken into account that the plasmon energy in the crystal is of the same order with the depth of the potential well in which the channeled particle moves. A weak dispersion of the plasmons in the crystal is taken into account, which leads to the selection of the fixed plasmon energy. It is shown that fast charged particle in the rest frame emits photons with an energy equal to the energy difference between two quantized levels of transverse motion with the deduction of the net plasmon energy. The characteristics of photon-plasmon radiation are investigated.

  5. Electron g-factor in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well with parabolic potential in the presence of Rashba effect and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanli, Arif M. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Inst. of Physics; Sueleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Artunc, Ekrem [Sueleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kasalak, Turgut F. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Informatics

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the Rashba spin-orbital effect on a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum well with parabolic potential in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the z axis, taking into account the Zeeman coupling and the s-d exchange interaction between the carriers and the magnetic ions. We have obtained an analytical expression for the electron energy spectrum, which depends on the magnetic ion concentration, temperature, and strength of magnetic field. By using the obtained energy spectrum, we calculated the electron effective g{sup *}-factor. We have found that effective g{sup *}-factor increases when the magnetic field increases; by increasing the strength of spin-orbit interaction, the electron g{sup *}-factor decreases and by increasing the temperature, the electron g{sup *}-factor increases.

  6. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Houel, Julien; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Warburton, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10(7) and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920-980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  7. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Warburton, Richard J.; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.

    2013-01-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10 7 and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920–980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance

  8. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Brunner, Daniel [Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Campus Universitat Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ludwig, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Reuter, Dirk [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10{sup 7} and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920–980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  9. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge state calculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voemel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques, Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations

  10. High performance polarization-independent Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier with 22 dB fiber to fiber gain using Mode Propagation Tuning without additional polarization controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmani, Ali; Farhang, Mahmoud; Sheikhi, Mohammad H.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of polarization-independent quantum dot InAs/GaAs semiconductor optical amplifier (PIQS) based on a technique called mode propagation tuning (MPT) without the need for the polarization controller (PC) is reported, which can solve the limitation caused by polarization sensitivity in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Our calculations show that by a suitable tuning of the thickness of the active layer, only the TE0 and TM0 modes can propagate. Moreover, the gain saturation behavior of this SOA was measured at 1.55 μ m and found to be polarization-independent (PI). At active layer thickness of 1.7 μ m, the confinement factor was 0.75 and 0.7 for TE0 and TM0 modes, respectively, which leads to a gain difference up to 0.1 dB. The rate equations of the QD-SOA were also solved and a fiber to fiber gain of 22 dB was obtained. Additionally, a numerical simulation is presented which shows that the residual gain ripple and polarization sensitivity are sufficiently reduced when residual facet reflectivities of the SOA are in the range below 10-4 . In addition, the full-width at half-maximum of the horizontal and vertical far-field patterns (FFPs) are measured as 30° × 30°. The proposed structure can be used for logical applications.

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dot composite solid films exhibiting intense and tunable blue–red emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanling; Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Jiaqing; Wu, Xinglong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dots (PEG/CQDs) composite solid films exhibiting strong and tunable blue–red emission were prepared. Successful preparation of tunable emitting CQDs solid films can extend the application of carbon quantum dots in photoelectric devices. • The mechanism of the tunable emission from the PEG/CQDs composite solid films was discussed. • On the basis of the characteristics of the PL from solid films in this work, the complex PL origins of CQDs were further defined. The PL mechanism provides insights into the fluorescence mechanism of CQDs and may promotes their applications. • Poly(ethylene glycol); carbon quantum dots; Strong and tunable blue-red emission; The fluorescent quantum yield of 12.6%. - Abstract: Although carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess excellent luminescence properties, it is a challenge to apply water-soluble CQDs to tunable luminescent devices. Herein, quaternary CQDs are incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) to produce poly(ethylene glycol)/CQD composite solid films which exhibit strong and tunable blue–red emission. The fluorescent quantum yield reaches 12.6% which is comparable to that of many liquid CQDs and the photoluminescence characteristics are determined to elucidate the fluorescence mechanism. The CQD solid films with tunable optical properties bode well for photoelectric devices especially displays

  12. Bistability and self-oscillations effects in a polariton-laser semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, E A; Matinaga, F M

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of polaritonic optical bistability of the laser emission in a planar semiconductor microcavity with a 100 0 A GaAs single quantum well in the strong-coupling regime. The bistability curves show crossings that indicate a competition between a Kerr-like effect induced by the polariton population and thermal effects. Associated with the bistability, laser-like emission occurs at the bare cavity mode

  13. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  14. Microscopic theory of photon-correlation spectroscopy in strong-coupling semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneebeli, Lukas

    2009-11-27

    While many quantum-optical phenomena are already well established in the atomic systems, like the photon antibunching, squeezing, Bose-Einstein condensation, teleportation, the quantum-optical investigations in semiconductors are still at their beginning. The fascinating results observed in the atomic systems inspire physicists to demonstrate similar quantum-optical effects also in the semiconductor systems. In contrast to quantum optics with dilute atomic gases, the semiconductors exhibit a complicated many-body problem which is dominated by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons and holes and by coupling with the semiconductor environment. This makes the experimental observation of similar quantum-optical effects in semiconductors demanding. However, there are already experiments which have verified nonclassical effects in semiconductors. In particular, experiments have demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can exhibit the single-photon emission and generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs. In fact, both atom and QD systems, embedded within a microcavity, have become versatile platforms where one can perform systematic quantum-optics investigations as well as development work toward quantum-information applications. Another interesting field is the strong-coupling regime in which the light-matter coupling exceeds both the decoherence rate of the atom or QD and the cavity resulting in a reversible dynamics between light and matter excitations. In the strong-coupling regime, the Jaynes-Cummings ladder is predicted and shows a photon-number dependent splitting of the new dressed strong-coupling states which are the polariton states of the coupled light-matter system. Although the semiclassical effect of the vacuum Rabi splitting has already been observed in QDs, the verification of the quantum-mechanical Jaynes-Cummings splitting is still missing mainly due to the dephasing. Clearly, the observation of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder in QDs

  15. Electrical control of a laterally ordered InAs/InP quantum dash array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, B; Fuster, D; Fernandez-Martinez, I; Gonzalez, Y; Briones, F; Gonzalez, L [IMM, Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Pastor, J, E-mail: benito.alen@imm.cnm.csic.e [ICMUV, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, PO Box 2085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-11-25

    We have fabricated an array of closely spaced quantum dashes starting from a planar array of self-assembled semiconductor quantum wires. The array is embedded in a metallic nanogap which we investigate by micro-photoluminescence as a function of a lateral electric field. We demonstrate that the net electric charge and emission energy of individual quantum dashes can be modified externally with the performance limited by the size inhomogeneity of the self-assembling process.

  16. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Sk Masiul; Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Nagabhushan, B.; Banerji, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO 2 and ZrO 2 , which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10 11 cm −2 , respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO 2 /InAs QDs/HfO 2 /GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. The device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10 −6 A/cm 2 and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO 2 deposition

  17. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-03-13

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  18. Temperature-dependent properties of semiconductor quantum dots in coherent regime; Temperaturabhaengige Eigenschaften einzelner Halbleiter-Quantenpunkte im Kohaerenten Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Marc C.

    2009-10-15

    Recently, the public has become aware of keywords like ''Quantum computer'' or ''Quantum cryptography''. Regarding their potential application in solid state based quantum information processing and their overall benefit in fundamental research quantum dots have gained more and more public interest. In this context, quantum dots are often referred to as ''artificial atoms'', a term subsuming their physical properties quite nicely and emphasizing the huge potential for further investigations. The basic mechanism to be considered is the theoretical model of a two-level system. A quantum dot itself represents this kind of system quite nicely, provided that only the presence or absence of a single exciton in the ground state of that structure is regarded. This concept can also be expanded to the presence of two excitons (bi-exciton). Transitions between the relevant levels can be induced by optical stimulation. When integrating quantum dots in diode like structures measurements of this phenomena can be accomplished regarding photo currents. This means of detection is highly sensitive and allows for tuning of the energy levels with respect to the energy of an exciting laser utilizing the Stark effect (via an external electric field). The photo current then shows narrow resonances representing those transitions. By this, the system can be used as a highly sensitive nano-spectrometer. The examination of coherent interactions between quantum dots and an electromagnetic field uses laser pulses that are much shorter than the dephasing time of the system (2 ps). The basic study to be done on two level systems is the measurement of Rabi oscillations allowing for the selection of an arbitrary superposition of states. In this work, the existing setup was improved regarding the possibility to control the temperature of the sample. Up to now, only investigations at 4,2 K have been possible. Even at 70 K Rabi oscillations

  19. Well-resolved oil-soluble Au-doped ZnCdS quantum dots and enhancing doping emission with In-codoping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ruosheng, E-mail: zengrsh@gznu.edu.cn [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Sun, Zhiguo [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Zhou, Chunjiao [College of Science, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Fang, Cheng; Han, Guo-Cheng [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Chen, Zhencheng, E-mail: chenzhcheng@guet.edu.cn [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Highly emissive semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with tunable color are valuable in many applications such as solid state lighting and bio-imaging. Herein, we report a facile synthetic method to Au:ZnCdS and Au:ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell QDs with tunable emission color. The highly active Au precursor (HAuCl{sub 4}) is prevented to be decomposed at high reaction temperature using 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) as the surface ligand. High-quality Au:ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell QDs are prepared and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) can achieve 42% by overcoating of ZnS layer over the bare Au:ZnCdS core QDs. Furthermore, through using Au{sup +} ion as the primary dopants and trivalent cation In{sup 3+} as co-dopants, the PL QY can be enhanced significantly because compensation of In{sup 3+} ion-codoping for the charge imbalance from Au{sup +}-doping. This codoping strategy may be applied to other related optical materials to control the optical properties based on our understanding for physical mechanism. - Highlights: • High-quality oil-soluble Au:ZnCdS/ZnS QDs were prepared for the first time. • The highly active HAuCl4 is prevented to decompose by using 1-dodecanethiol. • The highest PL QY of Au:ZnCdS/ZnS QDs can achieve 42% by overcoating ZnS layer. • The PL QY of QDs can be significantly enhanced by Au{sup +}, In{sup 3+}-codoping.

  20. Two-step synthesis of highly emissive C/ZnO hybridized quantum dots with a broad visible photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Liangjie; Mei, Shiliang; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Jiatao; Chen, Guoping; Guo, Ruiqian

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The formation schematics of the C/ZnO hybridized QDs. - Highlights: • C/ZnO hybridized quantum dots (QDs) were formed via a two-step method. • The broad visible emission from the C/ZnO QDs with a high quantum yield (QY) was obtained. • The mechanism of the fluorescence enhancement of the C/ZnO QDs was proposed. • The concentration of the CDs and refluxing temperature are identified as two key parameters. • The as-prepared QDs could offer a promising solution for the future-generation white LED. - Abstract: In situ growth of ZnO layer on the surface of carbon dots was realized via a two-step method, which resulted in an enhancement of the broad visible emission with a high quantum yield. Influence of the refluxing time, the temperature and the oleylamine/octadecene ratio was investigated to address the key factors on the preparation of the carbon dots. Under the optimal conditions, the carbon dots with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 0.4 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 29.3% were achieved. Remarkable improvements of photoluminescence were achieved by the hybridization of the ZnO layer, which can eliminate the surface-trap from the C cores and form the new centers of emission. The synergistic effect arising from the C/ZnO hybridized structure obviously broadened the visible emission and enhanced their photoluminescence quantum yield from 29.3% to 47.3%. The as-prepared highly emissive quantum dots exhibited a broad and stable emission with the Commission Internationaled ‘E’ clairage chromaticity coordinate of (0.23, 0.34), which could offer a promising solution for the future-generation white light emitting diodes.

  1. Two-step synthesis of highly emissive C/ZnO hybridized quantum dots with a broad visible photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Liangjie; Mei, Shiliang; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Jie [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Zhu, Jiatao [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Guoping [School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, Ruiqian, E-mail: rqguo@fudan.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The formation schematics of the C/ZnO hybridized QDs. - Highlights: • C/ZnO hybridized quantum dots (QDs) were formed via a two-step method. • The broad visible emission from the C/ZnO QDs with a high quantum yield (QY) was obtained. • The mechanism of the fluorescence enhancement of the C/ZnO QDs was proposed. • The concentration of the CDs and refluxing temperature are identified as two key parameters. • The as-prepared QDs could offer a promising solution for the future-generation white LED. - Abstract: In situ growth of ZnO layer on the surface of carbon dots was realized via a two-step method, which resulted in an enhancement of the broad visible emission with a high quantum yield. Influence of the refluxing time, the temperature and the oleylamine/octadecene ratio was investigated to address the key factors on the preparation of the carbon dots. Under the optimal conditions, the carbon dots with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 0.4 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 29.3% were achieved. Remarkable improvements of photoluminescence were achieved by the hybridization of the ZnO layer, which can eliminate the surface-trap from the C cores and form the new centers of emission. The synergistic effect arising from the C/ZnO hybridized structure obviously broadened the visible emission and enhanced their photoluminescence quantum yield from 29.3% to 47.3%. The as-prepared highly emissive quantum dots exhibited a broad and stable emission with the Commission Internationaled ‘E’ clairage chromaticity coordinate of (0.23, 0.34), which could offer a promising solution for the future-generation white light emitting diodes.

  2. Enhancing charge mobilities in organic semiconductors by selective fluorination: a design approach based on a quantum mechanical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Buddhadev; Schubert, Alexander; Sarkar, Sunandan; Bhandari, Srijana; Wang, Kunlun; Li, Zhe; Geva, Eitan; Twieg, Robert J; Dunietz, Barry D

    2017-10-01

    Selective fluorination of organic semiconducting molecules is proposed as a means to achieving enhanced hole mobility. Naphthalene is examined here as a root molecular system with fluorination performed at various sites. Our quantum chemical calculations show that selective fluorination can enhance attractive intermolecular interactions while reducing charge trapping. Those observations suggest a design principle whereby fluorination is utilized for achieving high charge mobilities in the crystalline form. The utility of this design principle is demonstrated through an application to perylene, which is an important building block of organic semiconducting materials. We also show that a quantum mechanical perspective of nuclear degrees of freedom is crucial for a reliable description of charge transport.

  3. InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru-Chevallier, C; El Akra, A; Pelloux-Gervais, D; Dumont, H; Canut, B; Chauvin, N; Regreny, P; Gendry, M; Patriarche, G; Jancu, J M; Even, J; Noe, P; Calvo, V; Salem, B

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve homogeneous, high density and dislocation free InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on silicon substrates. This work is part of a project which aims at overcoming the severe limitation suffered by silicon regarding its optoelectronic applications, especially efficient light emission device. For this study, one of the key points is to overcome the expected type II InGaAs/Si interface by inserting the InGaAs quantum dots inside a thin silicon quantum well in SiO2 fabricated on a SOI substrate. Confinement effects of the Si/SiO2 quantum well are expected to heighten the indirect silicon bandgap and then give rise to a type I interface with the InGaAs quantum dots. Band structure and optical properties are modeled within the tight binding approximation: direct energy bandgap is demonstrated in SiO2/Si/InAs/Si/SiO2 heterostructures for very thin Si layers and absorption coefficient is calculated. Thinned SOI substrates are successfully prepared using successive etching process resulting in a 2 nm-thick Si layer on top of silica. Another key point to get light emission from InGaAs quantum dots is to avoid any dislocations or defects in the quantum dots. We investigate the quantum dot size distribution, density and structural quality at different V/III beam equivalent pressure ratios, different growth temperatures and as a function of the amount of deposited material. This study was performed for InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates. The capping of InGaAs quantum dots by a silicon epilayer is performed in order to get efficient photoluminescence emission from quantum dots. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images are used to study the structural quality of the quantum dots. Dislocation free In50Ga50As QDs are successfully obtained on a (001) silicon substrate. The analysis of QDs capped with silicon by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in a channeling geometry is also presented.

  4. Site-controlled quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigal, B.; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Jarlov, C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective optical coupling of multiple, site controlled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to photonic crystal waveguide structures. The impact of the exact position and emission spectrum of the QDs on the coupling efficiency is elucidated. The influence of optical disorder and end...

  5. Self-assembled InAs quantum dots. Properties, modification and emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, structural, optical as well as electronic properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD) were studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), capacitance spectroscopy (CV) and capacitance transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The quantum dots were grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and embedded in Schottky diodes for electrical characterization. In this work growth aspects as well as the electronic structures of QD were discussed. By varying the QD growth parameters it is possible to control the structural, and thus the optical and electronic properties of QD. Two methods are presented. Adjusting the QD growth temperature leads either to small QD with a high areal density or to high QDs with a low density. The structural changes of the QD are reflected in the changes of the optical and electronic properties. The second method is to introduce a growth interruption after capping the QD with thin cap layers. It was shown that capping with AlAs leads to a well-developed alternative to control the QD height and thus the ground-state energies of the QD. A post-growth method modifying the QD properties ist rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raising the RTA temperature causes a lifting of the QD energy states with respect to the GaAs band edge energy due to In/Ga intermixing processes. A further main part of this work covers the emission processes of charge carriers in QD. Thermal emission, thermally assisted tunneling, and pure tunneling emission are studied by capacitance transient spectroscopy techniques. In DLTS experiments a strong impact of the electric field on the activation energies of electrons was found interfering the correct determination of the QD level energies. This behaviour can be explained by a thermally assisted tunneling model. A modified model taking the Coulomb interaction of occupied QD into account describes the emission rates of the electrons. In order to avoid several emission pathes in the experiments

  6. Biexcitons in semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Woggon, U.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the present status of the experimental study of the optical properties of biexcitons in semiconductor microcavities is reviewed. In particular, a detailed investigation of a polariton-biexciton transition in a high-quality single quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity is reported...

  7. Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuer, Stefan; Elsässer, Wolfgang; McInerney, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated experimentally the pulse train (mode beating) stability of a monolithic mode-locked multi-section quantum-dot laser with an added passive auxiliary optical fiber cavity. Addition of the weakly coupled (¿ -24dB) cavity reduces the current-induced shift d¿/dI of the principal...

  8. Comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency schemes in semiconductor quantum dot structures: Impact of many-body interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Jakob; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of many-body interactions on group-velocity slowdown achieved via electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum dots using three different coupling-probe schemes (ladder, V, and Lambda, respectively). We find that for all schemes many-body interactions have...

  9. InGaAs/InP quantum wires grown on silicon with adjustable emission wavelength at telecom bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Ng, Kai Wei; Zhu, Si; Lau, Kei May

    2018-03-08

    We report the growth of vertically stacked InGaAs/InP quantum wires on (001) Si substrates with adjustable room-temperature emission at telecom bands. Based on a self-limiting growth mode in selective area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, crescent-shaped InGaAs quantum wires with variable dimensions are embedded within InP nano-ridges. With extensive transmission electron microscopy studies, the growth transition and morphology change from quantum wires to ridge quantum wells have been revealed. As a result, we are able to decouple the quantum wires from ridge quantum wells and manipulate their dimensions by scaling the growth time. With minimized lateral dimension and their unique positioning, the InGaAs/InP quantum wires are more immune to dislocations and more efficient in radiative processes, as evidenced by their excellent optical quality at telecom-bands. These promising results thus highlight the potential of combining low-dimensional quantum wire structures with the aspect ratio trapping process for integrating III-V nano-light emitters on mainstream (001) Si substrates. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Emission variation in infrared (CdSeTe)/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Gómez, J. A.; Casas Espinola, J. L.; Douda, J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering investigations of infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 800 nm (1.60 eV) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to the anti-papilloma virus antibodies (Ab). The Raman scattering study has shown that the CdSeTe core includes two layers with different material compositions such as: CdSe0.5Te0.5 and CdSe0.7Te0.3. PL spectra of nonconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs are characterized by two Gaussian shape PL bands related to exciton emission in the CdSeTe core and in intermediate layer at the core/shell interface. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the main PL band related to the core emission shifts into high energy and become asymmetric. The energy diagram of double core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been analyzed to explain the PL spectrum of nonconjugated QDs and its transformation at the bioconjugation to the papiloma virus antibodies. It is shown that the PL spectrum transformation in bioconjugated QDs can be a powerful technique for biology and medicine.

  11. Emission variation in infrared (CdSeTe)/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo Gómez, J.A. [UPIITA – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07320, México (Mexico); Casas Espinola, J.L., E-mail: jlcasas@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Douda, J. [UPIITA – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07320, México (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    The paper presents the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering investigations of infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 800 nm (1.60 eV) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to the anti-papilloma virus antibodies (Ab). The Raman scattering study has shown that the CdSeTe core includes two layers with different material compositions such as: CdSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} and CdSe{sub 0.7}Te{sub 0.3}. PL spectra of nonconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs are characterized by two Gaussian shape PL bands related to exciton emission in the CdSeTe core and in intermediate layer at the core/shell interface. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the main PL band related to the core emission shifts into high energy and become asymmetric. The energy diagram of double core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been analyzed to explain the PL spectrum of nonconjugated QDs and its transformation at the bioconjugation to the papiloma virus antibodies. It is shown that the PL spectrum transformation in bioconjugated QDs can be a powerful technique for biology and medicine.

  12. Comparison of the noise performance of 10 GHz repetition rate quantum-dot and quantum well monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, G.; Thompson, M. G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Mode-locked lasers are commonly used in carrier-wave signal generation systems because of their excellent phase noise performance. Owing to the importance of this key parameter, this study presents a like-for-like comparison of the noise performance of the passive mode-locked regime of two devices...... fabricated with different material gain systems, one quantum well and the other quantum dot (QD), both with a monolithic all-active two-section mode-locked structure. Two important factors are identified as having a significant effect on the noise performance, the RF linewidth of the first harmonic...... and the shape of the noise pedestals, both depending on the passive mode-locked bias conditions. Nevertheless, the dominant contribution of the RF linewidth to the phase noise, which is significantly narrower for the QD laser, makes this material more suitable for optical generation of low-noise millimetre...

  13. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Clare E; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Oh, Eunkeu; Mäkinen, Antti J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kushto, Gary; Wolak, Mason A; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Efros, Alexander L; Huston, Alan L; Delehanty, James B

    2015-10-14

    The intrinsic properties of quantum dots (QDs) and the growing ability to interface them controllably with living cells has far-reaching potential applications in probing cellular processes such as membrane action potential. We demonstrate that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect.

  14. Effect of nanostructured electrode architecture and semiconductor deposition strategy on the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadpour, Mahmoud; Giménez, Sixto; Boix, Pablo P.; Shen, Qing; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Taghavinia, Nima; Azam Iraji zad; Toyoda, Taro; Míguez, Hernán

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrode nanostructure and quantum dot growth method have a clear influence in the final quantum dot solar cell performance. ► Higher V oc values are systematically obtained for TiO 2 morphologies with decreasing surface area. ► Higher V oc values are systematically obtained for cells using CBD growth method in comparison with SILAR method. - Abstract: Here we analyze the effect of two relevant aspects related to cell preparation on quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) performance: the architecture of the TiO 2 nanostructured electrode and the growth method of quantum dots (QD). Particular attention is given to the effect on the photovoltage, V oc , since this parameter conveys the main current limitation of QDSCs. We have analyzed electrodes directly sensitized with CdSe QDs grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). We have carried out a systematic study comprising structural, optical, photophysical and photoelectrochemical characterization in order to correlate the material properties of the photoanodes with the functional performance of the manufactured QDSCs. The results show that the correspondence between photovoltaic conversion efficiency and the surface area of TiO 2 depends on the QDs deposition method. Higher V oc values are systematically obtained for TiO 2 morphologies with decreasing surface area and for cells using CBD growth method. This is systematically correlated to a higher recombination resistance of CBD sensitized electrodes. Electron injection kinetics from QDs into TiO 2 also depends on both the TiO 2 structure and the QDs deposition method, being systematically faster for CBD. Only for electrodes prepared with small TiO 2 nanoparticles SILAR method presents better performance than CBD, indicating that the small pore size disturb the CBD growth method. These results have important implications for the optimization of QDSCs.

  15. Non-Abelian quantum order in spin-orbit-coupled semiconductors: Search for topological Majorana particles in solid-state systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Jay D.; Tewari, Sumanta; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2010-12-01

    We show that an ordinary semiconducting thin film with spin-orbit coupling can, under appropriate circumstances, be in a quantum topologically ordered state supporting exotic Majorana excitations which follow non-Abelian statistics. The key to the quantum topological order is the coexistence of spin-orbit coupling with proximity-induced s -wave superconductivity and an externally induced Zeeman coupling of the spins. For the Zeeman coupling below a critical value, the system is a nontopological (proximity-induced) s -wave superconductor. However, for a range of Zeeman coupling above the critical value, the lowest energy excited state inside a vortex is a zero-energy Majorana fermion state. The system, thus, has entered into a non-Abelian s -wave superconducting state via a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) tuned by the Zeeman coupling. In the topological phase, since the time-reversal symmetry is explicitly broken by the Zeeman term in the Hamiltonian, the edge of the film constitutes a chiral Majorana wire. Just like the s -wave superconductivity, the Zeeman coupling can also be proximity induced in the film by an adjacent magnetic insulator. We show this by an explicit model tight-binding calculation for both types of proximity effects in the heterostructure geometry. Here we show that the same TQPT can be accessed by varying the interface transparency between the film and the superconductor. For the transparency below (above) a critical value, the system is a topological (regular) s -wave superconductor. In the one-dimensional version of the same structure and for the Zeeman coupling above the critical value, there are localized Majorana zero-energy modes at the two ends of a semiconducting quantum nanowire. In this case, the Zeeman coupling can be induced more easily by an external magnetic field parallel to the wire, obviating the need for a magnetic insulator. We show that, despite the fact that the superconducting pair potential in the nanowire is

  16. Many-particle theory of optical properties in low-dimensional nanostructures. Dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, Ermin

    2008-09-02

    This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures, specifically single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The density-matrix formalism is applied to explain recent experimental results and to give insight into the underlying physics. A microscopic calculation of the absorption coefficient and the Rayleigh scattering cross section is performed by a novel approach combining the density-matrix formalism with the tight-binding wave functions. The calculated spectra of metallic nanotubes show a double-peaked structure resulting from the trigonal warping effect. The intensity ratios of the four lowest-lying transitions in both absorption and Rayleigh spectra can be explained by the different behavior of the optical matrix elements along the high-symmetry lines K-{gamma} and K-M. The Rayleigh line shape is predicted to be asymmetric, with an enhanced cross section for lower photon energies arising from non-resonant contributions of the optical susceptibility. Furthermore, the Coulomb interaction is shown to be maximal when the momentum transfer is low. For intersubband processes with a perpendicular momentum transfer, the coupling strength is reduced to less than 5%. The chirality and diameter dependence of the excitonic binding energy and the transition frequency are presented in Kataura plots. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding environment on the optical properties of CNTs is investigated. Extending the confinement to all three spatial dimensions, semiconductor Bloch equation are derived to describe the dynamics in QD semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. A detailed microscopic analysis of the nonlinear turn-on dynamics of electrically pumped InAs/GaAs QD lasers is performed, showing the generation of relaxation oscillations on a nanosecond time scale in both the photon and charge carrier density. The theory predicts a strong damping of relaxation oscillations

  17. Many-particle theory of optical properties in low-dimensional nanostructures. Dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes and semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malic, Ermin

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures, specifically single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The density-matrix formalism is applied to explain recent experimental results and to give insight into the underlying physics. A microscopic calculation of the absorption coefficient and the Rayleigh scattering cross section is performed by a novel approach combining the density-matrix formalism with the tight-binding wave functions. The calculated spectra of metallic nanotubes show a double-peaked structure resulting from the trigonal warping effect. The intensity ratios of the four lowest-lying transitions in both absorption and Rayleigh spectra can be explained by the different behavior of the optical matrix elements along the high-symmetry lines K-Γ and K-M. The Rayleigh line shape is predicted to be asymmetric, with an enhanced cross section for lower photon energies arising from non-resonant contributions of the optical susceptibility. Furthermore, the Coulomb interaction is shown to be maximal when the momentum transfer is low. For intersubband processes with a perpendicular momentum transfer, the coupling strength is reduced to less than 5%. The chirality and diameter dependence of the excitonic binding energy and the transition frequency are presented in Kataura plots. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding environment on the optical properties of CNTs is investigated. Extending the confinement to all three spatial dimensions, semiconductor Bloch equation are derived to describe the dynamics in QD semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. A detailed microscopic analysis of the nonlinear turn-on dynamics of electrically pumped InAs/GaAs QD lasers is performed, showing the generation of relaxation oscillations on a nanosecond time scale in both the photon and charge carrier density. The theory predicts a strong damping of relaxation oscillations

  18. Electric-Field-Induced Energy Tuning of On-Demand Entangled-Photon Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zallo, Eugenio; Höfer, Bianca; Chen, Yan; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Böttner, Stefan; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-01-11

    We explore a method to achieve electrical control over the energy of on-demand entangled-photon emission from self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). The device used in our work consists of an electrically tunable diode-like membrane integrated onto a piezoactuator, which is capable of exerting a uniaxial stress on QDs. We theoretically reveal that, through application of the quantum-confined Stark effect to QDs by a vertical electric field, the critical uniaxial stress used to eliminate the fine structure splitting of QDs can be linearly tuned. This feature allows experimental realization of a triggered source of energy-tunable entangled-photon emission. Our demonstration represents an important step toward realization of a solid-state quantum repeater using indistinguishable entangled photons in Bell state measurements.

  19. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be

  20. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  1. Telecommunication Wavelength-Band Single-Photon Emission from Single Large InAs Quantum Dots Nucleated on Low-Density Seed Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g (2)(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission.

  2. Surface structures for enhancement of quantum yield in broad spectrum emission nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Michael A.; McBride, James R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed are inorganic nanoparticles comprising a body comprising cadmium and/or zinc crystallized with selenium, sulfur, and/or tellurium; a multiplicity of phosphonic acid ligands comprising at least about 20% of the total surface ligand coverage; wherein the nanocrystal is capable of absorbing energy from a first electromagnetic region and capable of emitting light in a second electromagnetic region, wherein the maximum absorbance wavelength of the first electromagnetic region is different from the maximum emission wavelength of the second electromagnetic region, thereby providing a Stokes shift of at least about 20 nm, wherein the second electromagnetic region comprises an at least about 100 nm wide band of wavelengths, and wherein the nanoparticle exhibits has a quantum yield of at least about 10%. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

  3. Highly crystalline carbon dots from fresh tomato: UV emission and quantum confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Li, Chun; Sun, Xiaobo; Pan, Wei; Yu, Guifeng; Wang, Jinping

    2017-12-01

    In this article, fresh tomatoes are explored as a low-cost source to prepare high-performance carbon dots by using microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Given that amino groups might act as nucleophiles for cleaving covalent bridging ester or ether in the crosslinked macromolecules in the biomass bulk, ethylenediamine (EDA) and urea with amino groups were applied as nucleophiles to modulate the chemical composites of the carbon nanoparticles in order to tune their fluorescence emission and enhance their quantum yields. Very interestingly, the carbon dots synthesized in the presence of urea had a highly crystalline nature, a low-degree amorphous surface and were smaller than 5 nm. Moreover, the doped N contributed to the formation of a cyclic form of core that resulted in a strong electron-withdrawing ability within the conjugated C plane. Therefore, this type of carbon dot exhibited marked quantum confinement, with the maximum fluorescence peak located in the UV region. Carbon nanoparticles greater than 20 nm in size, prepared using pristine fresh tomato and in the presence of EDA, emitted surface state controlled fluorescence. Additionally, carbon nanoparticles synthesized using fresh tomato pulp in the presence of EDA and urea were explored for bioimaging of plant pathogenic fungi and the detection of vanillin.

  4. Correlated terahertz acoustic and electromagnetic emission in dynamically screened InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Capel, P. J. S.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Porte, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We investigate acoustic and electromagnetic emission from optically excited strained piezoelectric In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved Brillouin scattering, and THz emission spectroscopy. A direct comparison of detected acoustic...... signals and THz electromagnetic radiation signals demonstrates that transient strain generation in InGaN/GaN MQWs is correlatedwith electromagnetic THz generation, and both types of emission find their origin in ultrafast dynamical screening of the built-in piezoelectric field in the MQWs. The measured...

  5. Stimulated emission of photoexcited polarized electrons from GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Melikyan, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of electric field on the emission of photoexcited polarized electrons is investigated. The thermalization of excited electrons is shown to be prevented at the field intensity in semiconductor of about 3 kV/cm. As a consequence the quantum yield grows up to unity. With the increase of the output energy of electrons the effective operation time of photocathode also increases

  6. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendel, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.brendel@fbh-berlin.de; Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (FBH), Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  7. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  8. MBE and MOCVD growth and properties of self-assembling quantum dot arrays in III-V semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, P. M.; DenBaars, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we review our latest developments on the growth and properties of self-assembling quantum dot structures. The self-assembling growth technique which was initially developed using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), has now been extended to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The paper first presents structural results based on atomic force and transmission electron microscopy studies of the quantum dot arrays which were obtained by MBE and MOCVD growth. From the detailed structural analysis we have observed that the formation of coherently strained dots of InAs, InAlAs, and InP dots on various cladding layer surfaces. MBE growth of InAs self-assembled dots has achieved the smallest size distribution, with dots as small as 12nm in diameter. For the MOCVD growth of InP dots we have found that the surface morphology and growth temperature of lower cladding layer growth has a profound influence on island size and density. Recent results on the optical and transport properties of the MBE grown self-assembling dot (SAD) arrays are also presented.

  9. Finite-element modeling of spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter at nanoscale proximity to plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Gregersen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We develop a self-consistent finite-element method to quantitatively study spontaneous emission from emitters in nanoscale proximity of plasmonic waveguides. In the model, it is assumed that only one guided mode is dominatingly excited by the quantum emitter, while the cross section of the plasmo......We develop a self-consistent finite-element method to quantitatively study spontaneous emission from emitters in nanoscale proximity of plasmonic waveguides. In the model, it is assumed that only one guided mode is dominatingly excited by the quantum emitter, while the cross section...... radius the spontaneous emission β factor and the plasmonic decay rate deviate substantially, by factors of up to 5–10 for a radius of ∼100 nm, from the values obtained in the quasistatic approximation. We also show that the quasistatic approximation is typically valid when the radius is less than...

  10. InP quantum dots: Electronic structure, surface effects, and the redshifted emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, H.; Zunger, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present pseudopotential plane-wave electronic-structure calculations on InP quantum dots in an effort to understand quantum confinement and surface effects and to identify the origin of the long-lived and redshifted luminescence. We find that (i) unlike the case in small GaAs dots, the lowest unoccupied state of InP dots is the Γ 1c -derived direct state rather than the X 1c -derived indirect state and (ii) unlike the prediction of k·p models, the highest occupied state in InP dots has a 1sd-type envelope function rather than a (dipole-forbidden) 1pf envelope function. Thus explanations (i) and (ii) to the long-lived redshifted emission in terms of an orbitally forbidden character can be excluded. Furthermore, (iii) fully passivated InP dots have no surface states in the gap. However, (iv) removal of the anion-site passivation leads to a P dangling bond (DB) state just above the valence band, which will act as a trap for photogenerated holes. Similarly, (v) removal of the cation-site passivation leads to an In dangling-bond state below the conduction band. While the energy of the In DB state depends only weakly on quantum size, its radiative lifetime increases with quantum size. The calculated ∼300-meV redshift and the ∼18 times longer radiative lifetime relative to the dot-interior transition for the 26-Angstrom dot with an In DB are in good agreement with the observations of full-luminescence experiments for unetched InP dots. Yet, (vi) this type of redshift due to surface defect is inconsistent with that measured in selective excitation for HF-etched InP dots. (vii) The latter type of (open-quotes resonantclose quotes) redshift is compatible with the calculated screened singlet-triplet splitting in InP dots, suggesting that the slow emitting state seen in selective excitation could be a triplet state. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Improved low-power semiconductor diode lasers for photodynamic therapy in veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susanne M.; Mueller, Eduard K.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Cryogenically cooling semiconductor diode lasers provides higher power output, longer device lifetime, and greater monochromaticity. While these effects are well known, such improvements have not been quantified, and thus cryogenically operated semiconductor lasers have not been utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report quantification of these results from laser power meter and photospectrometer data. The emission wavelengths of these low power multiple quantum well semiconductor lasers were found to decrease and become more monochromatic with decreasing temperature. Significant power output improvements also were obtained at cryogenic temperatures. In addition, the threshold current, i.e. the current at which lasing begins, decreased with decreasing temperature. This lower threshold current combined with the increased power output produced dramatically higher device efficiencies. It is proposed that cryogenic operation of semiconductor diode lasers will reduce the number of devices needed to produce the requisite output for many veterinary and medical applications, permitting significant cost reductions.

  12. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  13. Effect of Sb and As spray on emission characteristics of InAs quantum dots with AlAs capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Tan, S.; Kim, Y.; Liu, Z.; Reece, P. J.; Bremner, S. P.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the influence of an Sb/As combined spray on the physical and optical characteristics of AlAs-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Photoluminescence emission from the quantum dots shows a significant peak position shift under different Sb/As spray sequences. A blue-shifted quantum dot emission peak with an initial Sb rest indicates a large-to-small quantum dots transition process, with a bi-modal quantum dot size distribution inferred. High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy results reveal a large density of small quantum dots when the Sb spray is treated first. Furthermore, defect passivation in the vicinity of the quantum dots by use of Sb spray was detected.

  14. Quantum Mechanics A Modern and Concise Introductory Course

    CERN Document Server

    Bes, Daniel R

    2007-01-01

    Starting from basic principles, the book systematically covers both Heisenberg and Schrödinger realizations of quantum mechanics (in this order). The material traditionally presented in quantum textbooks is illustrated with applications which are (or will become) cornestones of future technologies. The emphasis in the matrix formulation focus the atention on the spin, the most important quantum observable, and paves the way to chapters on quantum information (including crytography, teleportation and computation), on recent tests of quantum physics and on decoherence. Additions and changes found in the second edition include; a more friendly presentation to Hilbert spaces; more practical applications e.g. scanning tunneling microscope (potential barrier); quantum dots (single-particle states in semiconductors); lasers and masers (induced emission); real experiments that have recently provided a qualitative change in the foundations of quantum physics; and an outline of the density matrix formalism as applied ...

  15. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  16. Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... emitter, e.g. a nitrogen-vacancy center or a semiconductor quantum dot (QD), embedded in a solid-state semiconductor host material appears as an attractive platform for generating such single photons. However, for a QD in bulk material, the large index contrast at the semiconductor-air interface leads...

  17. Stochastic wave-function simulation of irreversible emission processes for open quantum systems in a non-Markovian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Evgeny A.; Rubtsov, Alexey N.

    2018-02-01

    When conducting the numerical simulation of quantum transport, the main obstacle is a rapid growth of the dimension of entangled Hilbert subspace. The Quantum Monte Carlo simulation techniques, while being capable of treating the problems of high dimension, are hindered by the so-called "sign problem". In the quantum transport, we have fundamental asymmetry between the processes of emission and absorption of environment excitations: the emitted excitations are rapidly and irreversibly scattered away. Whereas only a small part of these excitations is absorbed back by the open subsystem, thus exercising the non-Markovian self-action of the subsystem onto itself. We were able to devise a method for the exact simulation of the dominant quantum emission processes, while taking into account the small backaction effects in an approximate self-consistent way. Such an approach allows us to efficiently conduct simulations of real-time dynamics of small quantum subsystems immersed in non-Markovian bath for large times, reaching the quasistationary regime. As an example we calculate the spatial quench dynamics of Kondo cloud for a bozonized Kodno impurity model.

  18. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  19. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  20. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    achievements in the June 1987 Special Issue of IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. The Millennium Issue of IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics presented a further set of articles on historical aspects of the subject as well as a 'snapshot' of current research in June 2000. It is not the intention here to duplicate any of this historical material that is already available, but rather to complement it with personal recollections from researchers who were involved in laser development in the USA, France, Russia and the UK. Hence, in addition to fascinating accounts of the discovery of the theoretical condition for stimulated emission from semiconductors and of the pioneering work at IBM, there are two complementary views of the laser research at the Lebedev Institute, and personal insights into the developments at STL and at Bell Laboratories. These are followed by an account of the scientific and technological connections between the early pioneering breakthroughs and the commercialisation of semiconductor laser products. Turning to the papers from today's researchers, there is coverage of many of the current 'hot' topics including quantum cascade lasers, mid-infrared lasers, high-power lasers, the exciting developments in understanding and exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of lasers, and photonic integrated circuits with extremely high communication data capacity, as well as reports of recent progress on laser materials such as dilute nitrides and bismides, photonic crystals, quantum dots and organic semiconductors. Thanks are due to Jarlath McKenna for sterling support from IOP Publishing and to Peter Blood for instigating this Special Issue and inviting us to serve as Guest Editors.

  1. Incorporation of lanthanide (Eu(3+)) ions in ZnS semiconductor quantum dots with a trapped-dopant model and their photoluminescence spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Liang, Xuhua; Liu, Enzhou; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun

    2015-09-18

    Doping quantum dots (QDs) with lanthanide (Ln) ions is promising to modify the optical properties of QDs, but incorporating Ln(3+) ions into QD hosts remains a challenge. In this work, we adopt the trapped-dopant model for fabricating Eu-doped ZnS QDs via direct wet chemical synthesis. Sharp Eu dopant photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the PL spectra of the as-prepared Eu-doped ZnS QDs and the bands at ~590, ~618 and ~695 nm were assigned to transitions from (5)D0 to (7)F1, (7)F2 and (7)F4, respectively. Quenching of the ZnS bandgap PL and enhancement of the Eu dopant PL were observed with increasing Eu(3+) doping concentration, and also, the excitation spectra for Eu emission (618 nm) were similar to the typical excitonic features of the ZnS host. These spectroscopic results, as well as the XRD and EDS data, demonstrated that Eu(3+) ions were incorporated in the ZnS host rather than just on the surface, and the Eu dopant PL was derived from energy transfer from the QD host to Eu(3+) rather than direct excitation of Eu(3+). By surface passivation, the sharp Eu emission was well-separated from the ZnS bandgap emission, which led to a good signal-to-noise ratio for more sensitive detection.

  2. Mapping the directional emission of quasi-two-dimensional photonic crystals of semiconductor nanowires using Fourier microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontana, Y.; Grzela, G.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Gomez Rivas, J.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the dispersion and directionality of the emission of nanosources is one of the major goals of nanophotonics research. This control will allow the development of highly efficient nanosources even at the single-photon level. One of the ways to achieve this goal is to couple the emission to

  3. Manipulation of spin states in single II-VI-semiconductor quantum dots; Manipulation von Spinzustaenden in einzelnen II-VI-Halbleiter-Quantenpunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Andreas

    2007-10-09

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QD) are objects on the nanometer scale, where charge carriers are confined in all three dimensions. This leads to a reduced interaction with the semiconductor lattice and to a discrete density of states. The spin state of a particle defines the polarisation of the emitted light when relaxating to an energetically lower state. Spin exchange and optical transition selection rules (conservation law for spin) define the optical control of spin states. In the examined QD in II-VI seminconductor systems the large polar character of the bindings enables to observe particle interactions by spectroscopy of the photo-luminescence (PL), making QD attractive for basic research. This work subjects in its first part single negatively charged non-magnetic QD. The odd number of carriers allows to study the latter in an unpaired state. By using polarization-resolved micro-PL spectroscopy, the spin-states of single, isolated QD can be studied reproducibly. Of special interest are exchange interactions in this few-particle system named trion. By excitation spectroscopy energetically higher states can be identified and characterized. The exchange interactions appearing here lead to state mixing and fine structure patterns in the spectra. Couplings in excited hole states show the way to the optical orientation of the resident electron spin. The spin configuration of the trion triplet state can be used to optically control the resident electron spin. Semimagnetic QD are focused in the second part of this work. The interaction with a paramagnetic environment of manganese spins leads to new magneto-optical properties of the QD. They reveal on a single dot level by line broadening due to spin fluctuations and by the giant Zeeman effect of the dot ensemble. Of special interest in this context is the influence of the reduced system dimension and the relatively larger surface of the system on the exchange mechanisms. The strong temperature dependence of the spin

  4. Quantum-well charge and voltage distribution in a metal–insulator–semiconductor structure upon resonant electron Tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexler, M. I., E-mail: vexler@mail.ioffe.ru; Illarionov, Yu. Yu.; Grekhov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The prerequisites for electron storage in the quantum well of a metal–oxide–p{sup +}-Si resonant-tunneling structure and the effect of the stored charge on the voltage distribution are theoretically investigated. Systems with SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} insulators are studied. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of a charge in the well in the case of resonant transport can be expected in structures on substrates with an acceptor concentration from (5–6) × 10{sup 18} to (2–3) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3} in the range of oxide thicknesses dependent on this concentration. In particular, the oxide layer thickness in the structures with SiO{sub 2}/p{sup +}-Si(10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) should exceed ~3 nm. The electron density in the well can reach ~10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} and higher. However, the effect of this charge on the electrostatics of the structure becomes noticeable only at relatively high voltages far above the activation of resonant transport through the first subband.

  5. Role of Precursor-Conversion Chemistry in the Crystal-Phase Control of Catalytically Grown Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2017-12-26

    Crystal-phase control is one of the most challenging problems in nanowire growth. We demonstrate that, in the solution-phase catalyzed growth of colloidal cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum wires (QWs), the crystal phase can be controlled by manipulating the reaction chemistry of the Cd precursors and tri-n-octylphosphine telluride (TOPTe) to favor the production of either a CdTe solute or Te, which consequently determines the composition and (liquid or solid) state of the Bi x Cd y Te z catalyst nanoparticles. Growth of single-phase (e.g., wurtzite) QWs is achieved only from solid catalysts (y ≪ z) that enable the solution-solid-solid growth of the QWs, whereas the liquid catalysts (y ≈ z) fulfill the solution-liquid-solid growth of the polytypic QWs. Factors that affect the precursor-conversion chemistry are systematically accounted for, which are correlated with a kinetic study of the composition and state of the catalyst nanoparticles to understand the mechanism. This work reveals the role of the precursor-reaction chemistry in the crystal-phase control of catalytically grown colloidal QWs, opening the possibility of growing phase-pure QWs of other compositions.

  6. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  7. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  8. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  9. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  10. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  11. On-Chip Quantum-Dot Light Source for Quantum-Device Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.-Y.; Stehlik, J.; Mi, X.; Hartke, T. R.; Gullans, M. J.; Petta, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    We use microwave radiation generated by a semiconductor double-quantum-dot (DQD) micromaser for charge-state detection. A cavity is populated with nc˜6000 photons by driving a current through an emitter DQD. These photons are used to sense the charge state of a target DQD that is located at the opposite end of the cavity. The charge dynamics in the target DQD influences the output power and emission frequency of the maser. Three different readout mechanisms are compared. The detection scheme requires no cavity input field and may potentially be used to improve the scalability of semiconductor and superconducting qubit readout technologies.

  12. Chirped InAs/InP quantum-dash laser with enhanced broad spectrum of stimulated emission

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    We report on the demonstration of 50 nm (full-width at half-maximum) broadband stimulated emission from a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. The 2 ?m wide uncoated Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser exhibits a total power of 0.18 W, corresponding to an average spectral power density of 3.5 mW/nm, under pulsed current conditions. Intentional extended inhomogeneity across the Qdash stacks have been attributed to the enhancement of broadband emission. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission from quantum cascades inside mirror-grating metal cavities at THz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Yanko; Sagnes, Isabelle; Abram, Izo; Minot, Christophe

    2007-11-30

    Quantum cascade devices processed into double metal cavities with subwavelength thickness and a grating on top are studied at terahertz frequencies. The power extracted from the devices as a function of the device thickness and the grating period is analyzed owing to electrodynamical modeling of dipole emission based on a modal method in multilayer systems. The experimental data thus reveal a strong Purcell enhancement, with Purcell factors up to approximately 50.

  14. Quantum computing and spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantser, V.

    2007-01-01

    Tentative to build a computer, which can operate according to the quantum laws, has leaded to concept of quantum computing algorithms and hardware. In this review we highlight recent developments which point the way to quantum computing on the basis solid state nanostructures after some general considerations concerning quantum information science and introducing a set of basic requirements for any quantum computer proposal. One of the major direction of research on the way to quantum computing is to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. We address some semiconductor approach based on spin orbit coupling in semiconductor nanostructures. (authors)

  15. Quantum theory of luminescence in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Werchner, M.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.

    2006-10-01

    The quantum emission in radiatively coupled semiconductor multiple-quantum-well structures is investigated theoretically. It is shown that coupling effects can lead to a subradiant suppression of the emission compared to the emission of a single quantum well (QW). The suppression strength depends on the number and spacing of the QWs as well as on the homogeneous broadening and leads to an enhancement of the radiative lifetime of excitons in the structure. The strongest lifetime enhancement is found for Bragg-arranged QWs with small homogeneous broadening. Additionally, the radiative coupling between the QWs provides an exciton pumping mechanism such that excitons can directly be created into the state that has vanishing center-of-mass momentum.

  16. Luminescent manganese-doped CsPbCl3 perovskite quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Chun Che; Xu, Kun Yuan; Wang, Da; Meijerink, A

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I) form an exciting new class of semiconductor materials showing quantum confinement. The emission color can be tuned over the full visible spectral region making them promising for light‒emitting applications. Further control

  17. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  18. Competitive behavior of photons contributing to junction voltage jump in narrow band-gap semiconductor multi-quantum-well laser diodes at lasing threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liefeng; Yang, Xiufang; Li, Yang; Li, Ding; Wang, Cunda; Yao, Dongsheng; Hu, Xiaodong; Li, Hongru

    2015-04-01

    The junction behavior of different narrow band-gap multi-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) confirmed that the jump in the junction voltage in the threshold region is a general characteristic of narrow band-gap LDs. The relative change in the 1310 nm LD is the most obvious. To analyze this sudden voltage change, the threshold region is divided into three stages by Ithl and Ithu, as shown in Fig. 2; Ithl is the conventional threshold, and as long as the current is higher than this threshold, lasing exists and the IdV/dI-I plot drops suddenly; Ithu is the steady lasing point, at which the separation of the quasi-Fermi levels of electron and holes across the active region (Vj) is suddenly pinned. Based on the evolutionary model of dissipative structure theory, the rate equations of the photons in a single-mode LD were deduced in detail at Ithl and Ithu. The results proved that the observed behavior of stimulated emission suddenly substituting for spontaneous emission, in a manner similar to biological evolution, must lead to a sudden increase in the injection carriers in the threshold region, which then causes the sudden increase in the junction voltage in this region.

  19. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors for Semiconductor... the public draft default emission factors for semiconductor manufacturing refined process categories... reporting, EPA proposed semiconductor manufacturers estimate emissions using default emission factors for...

  20. Spontaneous emission spectra and quantum light-matter interactions from a strongly coupled quantum dot metal-nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    the dot to the detector, we demonstrate that the strong-coupling regime should be observable in the far-field spontaneous emission spectrum, even at room temperature. The vacuum-induced emission spectra show that the usual vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral triplet or quartet with two of the four...