WorldWideScience

Sample records for semiconductor grade silicon

  1. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  2. Oxygen and carbon transfer during solidification of semiconductor grade silicon in different processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeyron, P. J.; Durand, F.

    2000-03-01

    A model is established for comparing the solute distribution resulting from four solidification processes currently applied to semiconductor grade silicon: Czochralski pulling (CZ), floating zone (FZ), 1D solidification and electromagnetic continuous pulling (EMCP). This model takes into account solid-liquid interface exchange, evaporation to or contamination by the gas phase, container dissolution, during steady-state solidification, and in the preliminary preparation of the melt. For simplicity, the transfers are treated in the crude approximation of perfectly mixed liquid and boundary layers. As a consequence, only the axial ( z) distribution can be represented. Published data on oxygen and carbon transfer give a set of acceptable values for the thickness of the boundary layers. In the FZ and EMCP processes, oxygen evaporation can change the asymptotic behaviour of the reference Pfann law. In CZ and in 1D-solidification, a large variety of solute profile curves can be obtained, because they are very sensitive to the balance between crucible dissolution and evaporation. The CZ process clearly brings supplementary degrees of freedom via the geometry of the crucible, important for the dissolution phenomena, and via the rotation rate of the crystal and of the crucible, important for acting on transfer kinetics.

  3. Determination of phosphorus in semiconductor grade silicon by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolska, H.; Rowinska, L.

    1975-01-01

    A method of determination of phosphorus in silicon has been elaborated. The separation of phosphorus is based on the extraction of phosphomolybdic complex in the presence of hold-back carriers of Ta and Au. Contamination factors for various impurities were determined. The lower limit of determination equals 3.10 -11 g P. Types of errors in the determination of concentration profiles are discussed. The method meets the following requirements: 1./ It ensures good separation of phosphorus from elements occuring in silicon plates (i.e. Ta, Au, Sn, Ge, Ce, Sb, As, Cu, and Na). 2./ It ensures high chemical yield of phosphorus separation. 3./ It ensures high efficiency of the measurement of 32 P β-activity. 4./ It is simple and rapid, since, for the determination of a implantation profile, it is necessary to analyse several tens of layers. (T.G.)

  4. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of implantation profiles of phosphorus in semiconductor grade silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolska, H.; Rowinska, L.; Walis, L.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the determination of concentration profiles of phosphorus in silicon by neutron activation has been elaborated. It is based on the previously described extraction methods, in which phosphorus is extracted as phosphomolybdic complex with isoamyl alcohol. It was suitably modified and Au and Ta holdback carriers were used in order to diminish the extraction of these elements together with phosphorus. The method permits to achieve decontamination factors of 10 2 -10 3 for the elements found in the Si plates examined. The yield of phosphorus separation is nearly constant and amounts to 84%. Layers are removed from the annealed plate by anodic oxidation and by dissolving the oxide formed on the surface in diluted hydrofluoric acid. The thickness of the removed layers is determined from previously prepared calibration curves. The lower limit of determination is of the order 10 -11 g P. Two groups of errors have been discussed. The suitability of autoradiography to the determination of concentration profiles has been demonstrated. Some applications of the method are suggested. (T.G.)

  6. Low cost silicon solar array project: Feasibility of low-cost, high-volume production of silane and pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon epitaxy analysis of silane produced in the Process Development Unit operating in a completely integrated mode consuming only hydrogen and metallurgical silicon resulted in film resistivities of up to 120 ohms cm N type. Preliminary kinetic studies of dichlorosilane disproportionation in the liquid phase have shown that 11.59% SiH4 is formed at equilibrium after 12 minutes contact time at 56 C. The fluid-bed reactor was operated continuously for 48 hours with a mixture of one percent silane in helium as the fluidizing gas. A high silane pyrolysis efficiency was obtained without the generation of excessive fines. Gas flow conditions near the base of the reactor were unfavorable for maintaining a bubbling bed with good heat transfer characteristics. Consequently, a porous agglomerate formed in the lower portion of the reactor. Dense coherent plating was obtained on the silicon seed particles which had remained fluidizied throughout the experiment.

  7. Diffusion in semiconductors, other than silicon compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2011-01-01

    Review from Book News Inc.: Summary reports of 337 experiments provide information on the diffusion of matter and heat in 31 materials used in semiconductors. Most of the compounds are based on cadmium, gallium, indium, lead, and zinc. Mercury telluride is included however, as is silicon carbide for some reason. Each article is thoroughly referenced to the authors and publication number, date, and page. The arrangement is alphabetical by semiconductor material. Indexes cover authors, hosts, and diffusants.

  8. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  9. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  10. Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low-cost, high volume production of silane (step 1) and the pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon (step 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Cheung, H.; Farrier, E. G.; Morihara, H.

    1977-01-01

    A quartz fluid bed reactor capable of operating at temperatures of up to 1000 C was designed, constructed, and successfully operated. During a 30 minute experiment, silane was decomposed within the reactor with no pyrolysis occurring on the reactor wall or on the gas injection system. A hammer mill/roller-crusher system appeared to be the most practical method for producing seed material from bulk silicon. No measurable impurities were detected in the silicon powder produced by the free space reactor, using the cathode layer emission spectroscopic technique. Impurity concentration followed by emission spectroscopic examination of the residue indicated a total impurity level of 2 micrograms/gram. A pellet cast from this powder had an electrical resistivity of 35 to 45 ohm-cm and P-type conductivity.

  11. Manufacture of ribbon and solar cells of material of semiconductor grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of producing ribbon-like substantially monocrystalline bodies of silicon or other materials of semiconductor grade suitable for use in solar cells or other semiconductor devices. A tube of the material is made and a photovoltaic junction formed in it. The tube is then divided lengthwise into a number of ribbon-like bodies. The photovoltaic junction can be formed either by diffusion or by ion-implantation. (U.K.)

  12. ATLAS silicon microstrip Semiconductor Tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon microstrip semiconductor tracking system (SCT) will be in operation in the ATLAS detector in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Challenging issues in the SCT are the radiation tolerance to the fluence of 2x10 14 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent particles/cm 2 at the designed luminosity of 1x10 34 cm -2 /s of the proton-proton collisions and the speed of the electronics to identify the crossing bunches at 25 ns. The developments and the status of the SCT are presented from the point of view of these issues. Series production of the SCT will start in the year 2001 and the SCT will be installed into the ATLAS detector during 2003-2004

  13. General specifications for silicon semiconductors for use in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikner, G.; Grusell, E.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon semiconductor detectors used in radiation dosimetry have different properties, just as e.g. ionisation chambers, affecting the interaction of radiation with matter in the vicinity of the sensitive volume of the detector, e.g. wall materials, and also the collection of the charges liberated in the detector by the radiation. The charge collection depends on impurities, lattice imperfections and other properties of the semiconductor crystal. In this paper the relevant parameters of a silicon semiconductor detector intended for dosimetry are reviewed. The influence of doping material, doping level, various effects of radiation damage, mechanical construction, detector size, statistical noise and connection to the electrometer are discussed. (author)

  14. Porous silicon carbide (SIC) semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.

  15. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  16. Polycrystalline silicon availability for photovoltaic and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Pellin, R.

    1982-01-01

    Markets, applications, and production techniques for Siemens process-produced polycrystalline silicon are surveyed. It is noted that as of 1982 a total of six Si materials suppliers were servicing a worldwide total of over 1000 manufacturers of Si-based devices. Besides solar cells, the Si wafers are employed for thyristors, rectifiers, bipolar power transistors, and discrete components for control systems. An estimated 3890 metric tons of semiconductor-grade polycrystalline Si will be used in 1982, and 6200 metric tons by 1985. Although the amount is expected to nearly triple between 1982-89, research is being carried out on the formation of thin films and ribbons for solar cells, thereby eliminating the waste produced in slicing Czolchralski-grown crystals. The free-world Si production in 1982 is estimated to be 3050 metric tons. Various new technologies for the formation of polycrystalline Si at lower costs and with less waste are considered. New entries into the industrial Si formation field are projected to produce a 2000 metric ton excess by 1988.

  17. ULTRATHIN SILICON MEMBRANES TO STUDY SUPERCURRENT TRANSPORT IN CRYSTALLINE SEMICONDUCTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHUFFELEN, WM; DEBOER, MJ; KLAPWIJK, TM

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a two-step anisotropic etching process to fabricate thin silicon membranes, used to study supercurrent transport in semiconductor coupled weak links. The process uses a shallow BF2+ implantation, and permits easy control of membrane thickness less-than-or-equal-to 100 nm.

  18. Semiconductors and semimetals oxygen in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Shimura, Fumio

    1994-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest understanding of the behavior and roles of oxygen in silicon, which will carry the field into the ULSI era from the experimental and theoretical points of view. The fourteen chapters, written by recognized authorities representing industrial and academic institutions, cover thoroughly the oxygen related phenomena from the crystal growth to device fabrication processes, as well as indispensable diagnostic techniques for oxygen.Key Features* Comprehensive study of the behavior of oxygen in silicon* Discusses silicon crystals for VLSI and ULSI applications* Thorough coverage from crystal growth to device fabrication* Edited by technical experts in the field* Written by recognized authorities from industrial and academic institutions* Useful to graduate students, scientists in other disciplines, and active participants in the arena of silicon-based microelectronics research* 297 original line drawings

  19. Thermometric characteristics of silicon semiconductor diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezverkhnyaya, N.S.; Vasil'ev, L.M.; Dmitrevskij, Yu.P.; Mel'nik, Yu.M.

    1975-01-01

    To substantiate the feasibility of using silicon diodes made by the Soviet industry as detectors of temperature in the 15 - 300 K range, 25 different types of silicon diodes have been investigated. The results obtained for the thermometric characteristics of the diodes are presented in tabular form. It is shown that a stability of readings of up to 0.05 deg can be obtained [ru

  20. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.

    2011-01-01

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally

  1. Energy response of neutron area monitor with silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Sigeru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaihara, Akihisa; Nakamura, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype neutron area monitor with a silicon semiconductor detector has been developed which has the energy response of 1 cm dose equivalent recommended by the ICRP-26. Boron and proton radiators are coated on the surface of the silicon semiconductor detector. The detector is set at the center of a cylindrical polyethylene moderator. This moderator is covered by a porous cadmium board which serves as the thermal neutron absorber. Neutrons are detected as α-particles generated by the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li and as recoil protons generated by the interaction of fast neutrons with hydrogen. The neutron energy response of the monitor was measured using thermal neutrons and monoenergetic fast neutrons generated by an accelerator. The response was consistent with the 1 cm dose equivalent response required for the monitor within ±34% in the range of 0.025 - 15 Mev. (author)

  2. A 75 GHz silicon metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, S.; Wang, C.; Hsiang, T.Y.; Liu, M.Y.; Chou, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrafast characteristics of crystalline-silicon metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with 300 nm finger width and spacing were measured with a subpicosecond electro-optic sampling system. Electrical responses with full width at half maximum as short as 5.5 and 11 ps, at corresponding 3 dB bandwidths of 75 and 38 GHz, were generated by violet and red photons, respectively. The difference is attributed to the photon penetration depth which is much larger than the diode finger spacing at red, but smaller at violet. Light-intensity dependence was also examined at different wavelengths, indicating a linear relation and a higher sensitivity in the violet. These results not only demonstrated the fastest silicon photodetector reported to date, but also pinpointed the dominant speed-limiting factor of silicon MSM photodiodes. A configuration is suggested to improve the speed of these detectors at long wavelengths

  3. Current measurement method for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors with Silicon Steel Current Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel current measurement method with Silicon Steel Current Transformer (SSCT) for the characterization of fast switching power semiconductors. First, the existing current sensors for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors are experimentally evaluated...

  4. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  5. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  6. MEP parabolic hydrodynamical model for holes in silicon semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascali, G.; Romano, V.; Sellier, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Consistent hydrodynamical models for electron transport in semi-conductors, free of any fitting parameter, have been formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle in Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 11 (1999) 307, 12 (2000) 31 for silicon and in Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 14 (2002) 405 for GaAs. In this paper we use the same approach for studying the hole transport in Si, by considering a parabolic approximation for the valence energy band. Scattering of holes with non-polar optical phonons, acoustic phonons and impurities have been taken into account. On the basis of these results, a limiting energy-transport model and an explicit expression for the low field hole mobility have been obtained. The high field mobility is also analyzed by taking into account the influence of impurities

  7. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS

  8. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  9. On selecting a sensitive region thickness of a silicon semiconductor detector for operation under counting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronkin, N.S.; Khakhalin, V.V.

    1972-01-01

    The paper discusses the selection of a thickness of a sensitive area of a silicon semiconductor detector, used in the count regime based on the signal to noise ratio and β-radiation registration efficiency. (author)

  10. Effective carrier sweepout in a silicon waveguide by a metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao; Ou, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated.......We demonstrate effective carrier depletion by metal-semiconductor-metal junctions for a silicon waveguide. Photo-generated carriers are efficiently swept out by applying bias voltages, and a shortest carrier lifetime of only 55 ps is demonstrated....

  11. Dephosphorization of Levitated Silicon-Iron Droplets for Production of Solar-Grade Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Katherine; Yang, Yindong; Barati, Mansoor; McLean, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The treatment of relatively inexpensive silicon-iron alloys is a potential refining route in order to generate solar-grade silicon. Phosphorus is one of the more difficult impurity elements to remove by conventional processing. In this study, electromagnetic levitation was used to investigate phosphorus behavior in silicon-iron alloy droplets exposed to H2-Ar gas mixtures under various experimental conditions including, refining time, temperature (1723 K to 1993 K), gas flow rate, iron content, and initial phosphorus concentration in the alloy. Thermodynamic modeling of the dephosphorization reaction permitted prediction of the various gaseous products and indicated that diatomic phosphorus is the dominant species formed.

  12. Electrically active defects in solar grade multicrystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen

    2013-01-01

    Shortage in high purity silicon feedstock, as a result of the formidable increased demand for solar cell devices during the last two decades, can be mitigated by the introduction of cheaper feedstock of solar grade (So-G) quality. Silicon produced through the metallurgical process route has shown...... the potential to be such a feedstock. However, this feedstock has only few years of active commercial history and the detailed understanding of the nature of structural defects in this material still has fundamental shortcomings. In this thesis the electrical activity of structural defects, commonly associated...

  13. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors, past developments, future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized

  14. Electron Beam Induced Radiation Damage of the Semiconductor Radiation Detector based on Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Se Hwan; Haa, Jang Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Chung, Chong Eun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Park, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Tae Hyung

    2005-01-01

    A Silicon Surface Barrier (SSB) semiconductor detector which is generally used to detect a charged particle such as an alpha particle was developed. The performance of the developed SSB semiconductor detector was measured with an I-V curve and an alpha spectrum. The response for an alpha particle was measured by Pu-238 sources. A SSB semiconductor detector was irradiated firstly at 30sec, at 30μA and secondly 40sec, 40μA with a 2MeV pulsed electron beam generator in KAERI. And the electron beam induced radiation damage of a homemade SSB detector and the commercially available PIN photodiode were investigated. An annealing effect of the damaged SSB and PIN diode detector were also investigated using a Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA). This data may assist in designing the silicon based semiconductor radiation detector when it is operated in a high radiation field such as space or a nuclear power plant

  15. Strained silicon/silicon germanium heterojunction n-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into the performance of strained silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been carried out. Theoretical predictions suggest that use of a strained Si/SiGe material system with advanced material properties compared with conventional silicon allows enhanced MOSFET device performance. This study has therefore investigated the practical feasibility of obtaining superior electrical performance using a Si/SiGe material system. The MOSFET devices consisted of a strained Si surface channel and were fabricated on relaxed SiGe material using a reduced thermal budget process in order to preserve the strain. Two batches of strained Si/SiGe devices fabricated on material grown by differing methods have been analysed and both showed good transistor action. A correlation of electrical and physical device data established that the electrical device behaviour was closely related to the SiGe material quality, which differed depending on growth technique. The cross-wafer variation in the electrical performance of the strained Si/SiGe devices was found to be a function of material quality, thus the viability of Si/SiGe MOSFET technology for commercial applications has been addressed. Of particular importance was the finding that large-scale 'cross-hatching' roughness associated with relaxed SiGe alloys led to degradation in the small-scale roughness at the gate oxide interface, which affects electrical device performance. The fabrication of strained Si MOSFET devices on high quality SiGe material thus enabled significant performance gains to be realised compared with conventional Si control devices. In contrast, the performance of devices fabricated on material with severe cross-hatching roughness was found to be diminished by the nanoscale oxide interface roughness. The effect of device processing on SiGe material with differing as-grown roughness has been carried out and compared with the reactions

  16. Optical characterization of wide-gap detector-grade semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Wide bandgap semiconductors are being widely investigated because they have the potential to satisfy the stringent material requirements of high resolution, room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers. In particular, Cadmium Zinc Telluride (Cd 1-x Zn x Te, x∼0.1) and Thallium Bromide (Tl Br), due to their combination of high resistivity, high atomic number and good electron mobility, have became very promising candidates for use in X- and gamma-ray detectors operating at room temperature. In this study, carrier trapping times were measured in CZT and Tl Br as a function of temperature and material quality. Carrier lifetimes and tellurium inclusion densities were measured in detector-grade Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals grown by the High Pressure Bridgman method and Modified Bridgman method. Excess carriers were produced in the material using a pulsed YAG laser with a 1064 nm wavelength and 7 ns pulse width. Infrared microscopy was used to measure the tellurium defect densities in CZT crystals. The electronic decay was optically measured at room temperature. Spatial mapping of lifetimes and defect densities in CZT was performed to determine the relationship between defect density and electronic decay. A significant and strong correlation was found between the volume fraction of tellurium inclusions and the carrier trapping time. Carrier trapping times and tellurium inclusions were measured in CZT in the temperature range from 300 K to 110 K and the results were analyzed using a theoretical trapping model. Spatial mapping of carrier trapping times and defect densities in CZT was performed to determine the relationship between defect density and electronic decay. While a strong correlation between trapping time and defect density of tellurium inclusions was observed, there was no significant change in the trap energy. Carrier trapping times were measured in detector grade thallium bromide (Tl Br) and compared with the results for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) in

  17. Spectrometer based on the silicon semiconductor detectors for a study of the two charged particles correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumsztein, Z.W.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Szawlowski, M.

    1974-01-01

    The spectrometer based on the silicon semiconductor detectors for a study of the correlation between two charged particles is described. The results of the time resolution and particles identification measurements are presented. The tests were performed in the proton beam of the JINR synchrocyclotron. (author)

  18. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghodsi Nasseri, Seyed Faizelldin; Bersuker, G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect

  19. Gettering improvements of minority-carrier lifetimesin solar grade silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinniy, Viktor; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Dahl, Espen

    2012-01-01

    The minority-carrier lifetime in p-type solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) produced by Elkem Solar was investigated after different types of heat treatment. Two groups of samples differing by the as-grown lifetimes were exposed to internal and phosphorus gettering using constant and variable temperature...... processes. Optimal heat-treatment parameters for each group of samples were then identified which improved the minority-carrier lifetimes to values higher than the minimum value needed for solar cells. Phosphorus gettering using a variable temperature process enhanced in particular the lifetime within each...

  20. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Walter E.

    1987-08-04

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  1. Two gamma dose evaluation methods for silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Faguo; Jin Gen; Yang Yapeng; Xu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Silicon PIN diodes have been widely used as personal and areal dosimeters because of their small volume, simplicity and real-time operation. However, because silicon is neither a tissue-equivalent nor an air-equivalent material, an intrinsic disadvantage for silicon dosimeters is that a significant over-response occurs at low-energy region, especially below 200 keV. Using a energy compensation filter to flatten the energy response is one method overcoming this disadvantage. But for dose compensation method, the estimated dose depends only on the number of the detector pulses. So a weight function method was introduced to evaluate gamma dose, which depends on pulse number as well as its amplitude. (authors)

  2. Development of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, David B; Schmid, Frederick

    2008-01-18

    The rapid growth of the photovoltaics (PV) industry is threatened by the ongoing shortage of suitable solar grade (SoG) silicon. Until 2004, the PV industry relied on the off spec polysilicon from the electronics industry for feedstock. The rapid growth of PV meant that the demand for SoG silicon predictably surpassed this supply. The long-term prospects for PV are very bright as costs have come down, and efficiencies and economies of scale make PV generated electricity ever more competitive with grid electricity. However, the scalability of the current process for producing poly silicon again threatens the future. A less costly, higher volume production technique is needed to supply the long-term growth of the PV industry, and to reduce costs of PV even further. This long-term need was the motivation behind this SBIR proposal. Upgrading metallurgical grade (MG) silicon would fulfill the need for a low-cost, large-scale production. Past attempts to upgrade MG silicon have foundered/failed/had trouble reducing the low segregation coefficient elements, B, P, and Al. Most other elements in MG silicon can be purified very efficiently by directional solidification. Thus, in the Phase I program, Crystal Systems proposed a variety of techniques to reduce B, P, and Al in MG silicon to produce a low cost commercial technique for upgrading MG silicon. Of the variety of techniques tried, vacuum refining and some slagging and additions turned out to be the most promising. These were pursued in the Phase II study. By vacuum refining, the P was reduced from 14 to 0.22 ppmw and the Al was reduced from 370 ppmw to 0.065 ppmw. This process was scaled to 40 kg scale charges, and the results were expressed in terms of half-life, or time to reduce the impurity concentration in half. Best half-lives were 2 hours, typical were 4 hours. Scaling factors were developed to allow prediction of these results to larger scale melts. The vacuum refining required the development of new crucibles

  3. Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...

  4. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, A.; Albrechtskirchinger, Z.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 578, - (2007), s. 98-118 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  5. Application of imitation for energy calibration of silicon semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aivazyan, G M; Mikaelyan, M A

    2003-01-01

    An effective method is described for energy calibration of semiconductor detectors (SCD) with different thickness. The method is based on imitating the charge on the input of the preamplifier deposited in SCD by known energy ionizing particles, the imitation being performed by a pulser with a partial with use of alpha-active sources. The results of laboratory studies of the described method are given with detectors of either large, 50-1000 mu m, or small, 18-20 mu m, thickness

  6. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  7. Progress in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor silicon photonics and optoelectronic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongda; Zhang Zan; Huang Beiju; Mao Luhong; Zhang Zanyun

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonics is an emerging competitive solution for next-generation scalable data communications in different application areas as high-speed data communication is constrained by electrical interconnects. Optical interconnects based on silicon photonics can be used in intra/inter-chip interconnects, board-to-board interconnects, short-reach communications in datacenters, supercomputers and long-haul optical transmissions. In this paper, we present an overview of recent progress in silicon optoelectronic devices and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) based on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-compatible process, and focus on our research contributions. The silicon optoelectronic devices and OEICs show good characteristics, which are expected to benefit several application domains, including communication, sensing, computing and nonlinear systems. (review)

  8. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  9. Application of imitation for energy calibration of silicon semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivazyan, G.M.; Badalyan, H.V.; Mikaelyan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An effective method is described for energy calibration of semiconductor detectors (SCD) with different thickness. The method is based on imitating the charge on the input of the preamplifier deposited in SCD by known energy ionizing particles, the imitation being performed by a pulser with a partial with use of α-active sources. The results of laboratory studies of the described method are given with detectors of either large, 50-1000μm, or small, 18-20 μm, thickness

  10. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  11. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices. (paper)

  12. Tunable electronic transport properties of silicon-fullerene-linked nanowires: Semiconductor, conducting wire, and tunnel diode

    OpenAIRE

    Nishio, Kengo; Ozaki, Taisuke; Morishita, Tetsuya; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We explore the possibility of controllable tuning of the electronic transport properties of silicon-fullerene-linked nanowires by encapsulating guest atoms into their cages. Our first-principles calculations demonstrate that the guest-free nanowires are semiconductors, and do not conduct electricity. The iodine or sodium doping improves the transport properties, and makes the nanowires metallic. In the junctions of I-doped and Na-doped NWs, the current travels through the boundary by quantum ...

  13. Mechanical anomaly impact on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on flexible silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-06-09

    We report the impact of mechanical anomaly on high-κ/metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors built on flexible silicon (100) fabric. The mechanical tests include studying the effect of bending radius up to 5 mm minimum bending radius with respect to breakdown voltage and leakage current of the devices. We also report the effect of continuous mechanical stress on the breakdown voltage over extended periods of times.

  14. An investigation into the use of large area silicon semiconductors in microwave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    Semiconductor microwave devices are usually manufactured using micron or sub-micron geometries. The equipment needed for these techniques has a high capital cost and demands high overheads. The material traditionally processed for microwave applications is gallium arsenide but during the period of this investigation a move towards the use of silicon and silicon germanium has emerged. This study, which is essentially practical, covers a range of new ideas for components using large area silicon devices. In the course of the study considerable progress has also been made in the understanding of the behaviour of silicon at microwave frequencies, and some of the initial Concepts were shown to be invalid. An accurate determination of the dielectric constant of silicon has been made using quasi optical techniques at microwave frequencies. The fabrication techniques described originate from methods used at Q-par Angus to manufacture large area silicon nuclear radiation detectors. Developed at the University of Birmingham, these are 'wet chemistry' methods that preclude the need for diffusion or other conventional semiconductor processing techniques. Novel microwave components have been developed using these techniques. These include an optically controlled attenuator with multioctave bandwidth and good dynamic range; window devices to reduce the radar cross section of microwave antennas; and microwave cavity devices including a variable-Q cavity. Concepts for millimeter wave filters are discussed, as are areas for further research. During the attenuator study Wheeler's equations have been extended to cover truncated microstrip. It was observed at an early stage in the work that optical excitation was very effective as a method of controlling the devices. This fits well with current trends in electro-optical devices. The piezo resistance effect in silicon has been briefly investigated and a mechanical attenuator exploiting this effect has been developed. (author)

  15. Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor nanostructures based on silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryazhkina, M. N.; Tikhov, S. V.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Antonov, I. N.; Karzanov, V. V.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I.; Karakolis, P.; Dimitrakis, P.

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor-like structures with an inert Au top electrode and a Si3N4 insulator nanolayer (6 nm thick) has been observed. The effect of a highly doped n +-Si substrate and a SiO2 interlayer (2 nm) is revealed in the changes in the semiconductor space charge region and small-signal parameters of parallel and serial equivalent circuit models measured in the high- and low-resistive capacitor states, as well as under laser illumination. The increase in conductivity of the semiconductor capacitor plate significantly reduces the charging and discharging times of capacitor-like structures.

  16. Resistivity measurements on the neutron irradiated detector grade silicon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng

    1993-11-01

    Resistivity measurements under the condition of no or low electrical field (electrical neutral bulk or ENB condition) have been made on various device configurations on detector grade silicon materials after neutron irradiation. Results of the measurements have shown that the ENB resistivity increases with neutron fluence ({Phi}{sub n}) at low {phi}{sub n} (<10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}) and saturates at a value between 300 and 400 k{Omega}-cm at {phi}{sub n} {approximately}10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, the effective doping concentration N{sub eff} in the space charge region (SCR) obtained from the C-V measurements of fully depleted p{sup +}/n silicon junction detectors has been found to increase nearly linearly with {phi}{sub n} at high fluences ({phi}{sub n} > 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}). The experimental results are explained by the deep levels crossing the Fermi level in the SCR and near perfect compensation in the ENB by all deep levels, resulting in N{sub eff} (SCR) {ne} n or p (free carrier concentrations in the ENB).

  17. 3D heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductors on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Kreiliger, Thomas; Isa, Fabio; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Meduňa, Mojmír; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Marzegalli, Anna; Müller, Elisabeth; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Neels, Antonia; Niedermann, Philippe; Dommann, Alex; Miglio, Leo; Känel, Hans von

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for monolithically integrating mismatched semiconductor materials with Si, coined three-dimensional (3D) heteroepitaxy. The method comprises the replacement of conventional, continuous epilayers by dense arrays of strain- and defect-free, micron-sized crystals. The crystals are formed by a combination of deep-patterning of the Si substrates and self-limited lateral expansion during the epitaxial growth. Consequently, the longstanding issues of crack formation and wafer bowing can be avoided. Moreover, threading dislocations can be eliminated by appropriately choosing pattern sizes, layer thicknesses and surface morphology, the latter being dependent on the growth temperature. We show this approach to be valid for various material combinations, pattern geometries and substrate orientations. We demonstrate that Ge crystals evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface with Si, by using a synchrotron X-ray beam focused to a spot a few hundred nanometers in size and by recording 3D reciprocal space maps along their height. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal that the interband integrated PL intensity of the Ge crystals is enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude with respect to that of Ge epilayers directly grown on flat Si substrates. Electrical measurements performed on single heterojunction diodes formed between 3D Ge crystals and the Si substrate exhibit rectifying behavior with dark currents of the order of 1 mA/cm 2 . For GaAs the thermal strain relaxation as a function of pattern size is similar to that found for group IV materials. Significant differences exist, however, in the evolution of crystal morphology with pattern size, which more and more tends to a pyramidal shape defined by stable {111} facets with decreasing width of the Si pillars. - Highlights: • Νew method for integrating mismatched semiconductors • Arrays of three-dimensional epitaxial Ge and GaAs crystals on Si

  18. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-02-29

    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS)electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOSinverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible siliconCMOSinverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  19. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of silicon- and germanium-based semiconductors for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Kyun; Park, Gayoung; Kim, Kyungmin; Hwang, Suk-Won; Cheng, Huanyu; Shin, Jiho; Chung, Sangjin; Kim, Minjin; Yin, Lan; Lee, Jeong Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2015-05-06

    Semiconducting materials are central to the development of high-performance electronics that are capable of dissolving completely when immersed in aqueous solutions, groundwater, or biofluids, for applications in temporary biomedical implants, environmentally degradable sensors, and other systems. The results reported here include comprehensive studies of the dissolution by hydrolysis of polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, silicon-germanium, and germanium in aqueous solutions of various pH values and temperatures. In vitro cellular toxicity evaluations demonstrate the biocompatibility of the materials and end products of dissolution, thereby supporting their potential for use in biodegradable electronics. A fully dissolvable thin-film solar cell illustrates the ability to integrate these semiconductors into functional systems.

  20. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  1. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  2. NMR investigation of boron impurities in refined metallurgical grade silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Loeser, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Steffen; Sakaliyska, Miroslava [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Eisert, Stefan; Reichenbach, Birk; Mueller, Tim [Adensis GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Acker, Joerg; Rietig, Anja; Ducke, Jana [Department of Chemistry, Faculty for Natural Sciences, Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method was applied for tracking boron impurities in the refining process of metallurgical grade (MG) silicon. From the NMR signal of the {sup 11}B isotope at an operating temperature 4.2 K, the boron concentration can be estimated down to the order of 1-10 wppm B. After melting and resolidification of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti, a major fraction of B impurities remains in the Si solid solution as inferred from the characteristic NMR frequency. The alloying element Ti does not form substantial fractions of TiB{sub 2}. Acid leaching of crushed powders of MG-Si alloyed with Ca and Ti can diminish the initial impurity content of B suggesting its accumulation in the grain boundary phases. NMR signals of TiB{sub 2} at 4.2 K and room temperature (RT), and of poly-Si with different B doping at 4.2 K. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Silicon avalanche photodiodes on the base of metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structures

    CERN Document Server

    Saveliev, V

    2000-01-01

    The development of a high quantum efficiency, fast photodetector, with internal gain amplification for the wavelength range 450-600 nm is one of the critical issues for experimental physics - registration of low-intensity light photons flux. The new structure of Silicon Avalanche Detectors with high internal amplification (10 sup 5 -10 sup 6) has been designed, manufactured and tested for registration of visible light photons and charge particles. The main features of Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor (MRS) structures are the high charge multiplication in nonuniform electric field near the 'needle' pn-junction and negative feedback for stabilization of avalanche process due to resistive layer.

  4. David Adler Lectureship Award Talk: III-V Semiconductor Nanowires on Silicon for Future Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Heike

    Bottom-up grown nanowires are very attractive materials for direct integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon thus opening up new possibilities for the design and fabrication of nanoscale devices for electronic, optoelectronic as well as quantum information applications. Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy (TASE) allows the well-defined and monolithic integration of complex III-V nanostructures and devices on silicon. Achieving atomically abrupt heterointerfaces, high crystal quality and control of dimension down to 1D nanowires enabled the demonstration of FETs and tunnel devices based on In(Ga)As and GaSb. Furthermore, the strong influence of strain on nanowires as well as results on quantum transport studies of InAs nanowires with well-defined geometry will be presented.

  5. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of armor grade silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portune, Andrew Richard

    Ceramic materials have traditionally been chosen for armor applications for their superior mechanical properties and low densities. At high strain rates seen during ballistic events, the behavior of these materials relies upon the total volumetric flaw concentration more so than any single anomalous flaw. In this context flaws can be defined as any microstructural feature which detriments the performance of the material, potentially including secondary phases, pores, or unreacted sintering additives. Predicting the performance of armor grade ceramic materials depends on knowledge of the absolute and relative concentration and size distribution of bulk heterogeneities. Ultrasound was chosen as a nondestructive technique for characterizing the microstructure of dense silicon carbide ceramics. Acoustic waves interact elastically with grains and inclusions in large sample volumes, and were well suited to determine concentration and size distribution variations for solid inclusions. Methodology was developed for rapid acquisition and analysis of attenuation coefficient spectra. Measurements were conducted at individual points and over large sample areas using a novel technique entitled scanning acoustic spectroscopy. Loss spectra were split into absorption and scattering dominant frequency regimes to simplify analysis. The primary absorption mechanism in polycrystalline silicon carbide was identified as thermoelastic in nature. Correlations between microstructural conditions and parameters within the absorption equation were established through study of commercial and custom engineered SiC materials. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the size distributions of boron carbide and carbon inclusions within commercial SiC materials. This technique was shown to additionally be capable of approximating grain size distributions in engineered SiC materials which did not contain solid inclusions. Comparisons to results from electron microscopy

  6. Slag Treatment Followed by Acid Leaching as a Route to Solar-Grade Silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meteleva-Fischer, Y.V.; Yang, Y.; Boom, R.; Kraaijveld, B.; Kuntzel, H.

    2012-01-01

    Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon was studied using a process sequence of slag treatment, controlled cooling, and acid leaching. A slag of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system was used. The microstructure of grain boundaries in the treated silicon showed enhanced segregation of impurities, and the

  7. Enhancing the far-ultraviolet sensitivity of silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Bai, Yibin; Ryu, Kevin K.; Gregory, James A.; Welander, Paul B.; Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Winters, Gregory S.; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi; Beletic, James W.

    2015-10-01

    We report our progress toward optimizing backside-illuminated silicon P-type intrinsic N-type complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices developed by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) for far-ultraviolet (UV) planetary science applications. This project was motivated by initial measurements at Southwest Research Institute of the far-UV responsivity of backside-illuminated silicon PIN photodiode test structures, which revealed a promising QE in the 100 to 200 nm range. Our effort to advance the capabilities of thinned silicon wafers capitalizes on recent innovations in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) doping processes. Key achievements to date include the following: (1) representative silicon test wafers were fabricated by TIS, and set up for MBE processing at MIT Lincoln Laboratory; (2) preliminary far-UV detector QE simulation runs were completed to aid MBE layer design; (3) detector fabrication was completed through the pre-MBE step; and (4) initial testing of the MBE doping process was performed on monitoring wafers, with detailed quality assessments.

  8. Silicon carbide: A unique platform for metal-oxide-semiconductor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tuttle, Blair R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    A sustainable energy future requires power electronics that can enable significantly higher efficiencies in the generation, distribution, and usage of electrical energy. Silicon carbide (4H-SiC) is one of the most technologically advanced wide bandgap semiconductor that can outperform conventional silicon in terms of power handling, maximum operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency in power modules. While SiC Schottky diode is a mature technology, SiC power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors are relatively novel and there is large room for performance improvement. Specifically, major initiatives are under way to improve the inversion channel mobility and gate oxide stability in order to further reduce the on-resistance and enhance the gate reliability. Both problems relate to the defects near the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface, which have been the focus of intensive studies for more than a decade. Here we review research on the SiC MOS physics and technology, including its brief history, the state-of-art, and the latest progress in this field. We focus on the two main scientific problems, namely, low channel mobility and bias temperature instability. The possible mechanisms behind these issues are discussed at the device physics level as well as the atomic scale, with the support of published physical analysis and theoretical studies results. Some of the most exciting recent progress in interface engineering for improving the channel mobility and fundamental understanding of channel transport is reviewed.

  9. Evolutionary process development towards next generation crystalline silicon solar cells : a semiconductor process toolbox application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk crystalline Silicon solar cells are covering more than 85% of the world’s roof top module installation in 2010. With a growth rate of over 30% in the last 10 years this technology remains the working horse of solar cell industry. The full Aluminum back-side field (Al BSF technology has been developed in the 90’s and provides a production learning curve on module price of constant 20% in average. The main reason for the decrease of module prices with increasing production capacity is due to the effect of up scaling industrial production. For further decreasing of the price per wattpeak silicon consumption has to be reduced and efficiency has to be improved. In this paper we describe a successive efficiency improving process development starting from the existing full Al BSF cell concept. We propose an evolutionary development includes all parts of the solar cell process: optical enhancement (texturing, polishing, anti-reflection coating, junction formation and contacting. Novel processes are benchmarked on industrial like baseline flows using high-efficiency cell concepts like i-PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell. While the full Al BSF crystalline silicon solar cell technology provides efficiencies of up to 18% (on cz-Si in production, we are achieving up to 19.4% conversion efficiency for industrial fabricated, large area solar cells with copper based front side metallization and local Al BSF applying the semiconductor toolbox.

  10. Characterization of Interface State in Silicon Carbide Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chieh

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has always been considered as an excellent material for high temperature and high power devices. Since SiC is the only compound semiconductor whose native oxide is silicon dioxide (SiO2), it puts SiC in a unique position. Although SiC metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology has made significant progress in recent years, there are still a number of issues to be overcome before more commercial SiC devices can enter the market. The prevailing issues surrounding SiC MOSFET devices are the low channel mobility, the low quality of the oxide layer and the high interface state density at the SiC/SiO2 interface. Consequently, there is a need for research to be performed in order to have a better understanding of the factors causing the poor SiC/SiO2 interface properties. In this work, we investigated the generation lifetime in SiC materials by using the pulsed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor method and measured the interface state density distribution at the SiC/SiO2 interface by using the conductance measurement and the high-low frequency capacitance technique. These measurement techniques have been performed on n-type and p-type SiC MOS capacitors. In the course of our investigation, we observed fast interface states at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in SiC MOS capacitors that underwent three different interface passivation processes, such states were detected in the nitrided samples but not observed in PSG-passivated samples. This result indicate that the lack of fast states at PSG-passivated interface is one of the main reasons for higher channel mobility in PSG MOSFETs. In addition, the effect of mobile ions in the oxide on the response time of interface states has been investigated. In the last chapter we propose additional methods of investigation that can help elucidate the origin of the particular interface states, enabling a more complete understanding of the SiC/SiO2 material system.

  11. Development of large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Xia Opin; Li Zhen Fu; Zhang Guo Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhang Xia; Song Xian Cai; Jia Huan Yi; Lei Jian Hua; Sun Yuan Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode, with their dimensions of phi 40, phi 50 and phi 60 mm, their depletion thickness of 200-300 mu m, have been developed. Their performance measurements have been made, which indicate that the developed detectors can satisfactorily meet the needs in expectation. Compared with the detectors commercially available on the market, authors' large PIN detectors can serve both as reliable and efficient high-resolution devices for nuclear counting experiments, as well as monitors of high-intensity radiation fields in the current mode under a bias of 100-1000 V, while the detectors commercially available are only for the counting use

  12. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  13. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon in volume at low cost were studied. Experiments were performed to evaluate product separation and collection processes, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes, determine the effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction, and make preliminary engineering and economic analyses of a scaled-up process.

  14. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon solar cells with efficiency above 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, P.; Rougieux, F. E.; Samundsett, C.; Yang, Xinbo; Wan, Yimao; Macdonald, D. [Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Terrritory 2601 (Australia); Degoulange, J.; Einhaus, R. [Apollon Solar, 66 Cours Charlemagne, Lyon 69002 (France); Rivat, P. [FerroPem, 517 Avenue de la Boisse, Chambery Cedex 73025 (France)

    2016-03-21

    We present solar cells fabricated with n-type Czochralski–silicon wafers grown with strongly compensated 100% upgraded metallurgical-grade feedstock, with efficiencies above 20%. The cells have a passivated boron-diffused front surface, and a rear locally phosphorus-diffused structure fabricated using an etch-back process. The local heavy phosphorus diffusion on the rear helps to maintain a high bulk lifetime in the substrates via phosphorus gettering, whilst also reducing recombination under the rear-side metal contacts. The independently measured results yield a peak efficiency of 20.9% for the best upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon cell and 21.9% for a control device made with electronic-grade float-zone silicon. The presence of boron-oxygen related defects in the cells is also investigated, and we confirm that these defects can be partially deactivated permanently by annealing under illumination.

  15. Bulk solar grade silicon: how chemistry and physics play to get a benevolent microstructured material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzini, S. [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Materials Science, Milan (Italy); Nedsilicon SpA, Osimo, Ancona (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The availability of low-cost alternatives to electronic grade silicon has been and still is the condition for the extensive use of photovoltaics as an efficient sun harvesting system. The first step towards this objective was positively carried out in the 1980s and resulted in the reduction in cost and energy of the growth process using as feedstock electronic grade scraps and a variety of solidification procedures, all of which deliver a multi-crystalline material of high photovoltaic quality. The second step was an intense R and D activity aiming at defining and developing at lab scale a new variety of silicon, called ''solar grade'' silicon, which should fulfil the requirement of both cost effectiveness and high conversion efficiency. The third step involved and still involves the development of cost-effective technologies for the manufacture of solar grade silicon, in alternative to the classical Siemens route, which relays, as is well-known, to the pyrolitic decomposition of high-purity trichlorosilane and which is, also in its more advanced versions, extremely energy intensive. Aim of this paper is to give the author's viewpoint about some open questions concerning bulk solar silicon for PV applications and about challenges and chances of novel feedstocks of direct metallurgical origin. (orig.)

  16. Development and application of nuclear radiation detector made from high resistivity silicon and compound semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Xiufeng; Zhang Wanchang; Li Jiang

    1995-11-01

    The development of high resistivity silicon detectors and compound semiconductor detectors as well as their application in nuclear medicine are described. It emphasizes on several key techniques in fabricating detectors in order to meet their application in nuclear medicine. As for a high resistivity silicon detector, its counting rate to 125 I 28.5 keV X-ray has to be improved. So employing a conic mesa structure can increase the thickness of samples, and can raise the electric field of collecting charges under the same bias voltage. As for a GaAs detector, its performance of collecting charges has to be improved. So the thicknesses of GaAs samples are decreased and proper thermal treatment to make Ni-Ge-Au ohmic contacts are employed. Applying a suitable reverse bias voltage can obtain a fully depleted detector, and can obtain a lower forward turn-on voltage and a thinner weak electric field region. After resolving these key techniques, the performance of GaAs detectors has been distinctly improved. The count rate to 125 I X-ray has increased by three or five times under the same testing condition and background circumstance (2 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. Polycrystalline silicon ring resonator photodiodes in a bulk complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Karan K; Orcutt, Jason S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Meade, Roy; Popović, Miloš A; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-02-15

    We present measurements on resonant photodetectors utilizing sub-bandgap absorption in polycrystalline silicon ring resonators, in which light is localized in the intrinsic region of a p+/p/i/n/n+ diode. The devices, operating both at λ=1280 and λ=1550  nm and fabricated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) dynamic random-access memory emulation process, exhibit detection quantum efficiencies around 20% and few-gigahertz response bandwidths. We observe this performance at low reverse biases in the range of a few volts and in devices with dark currents below 50 pA at 10 V. These results demonstrate that such photodetector behavior, previously reported by Preston et al. [Opt. Lett. 36, 52 (2011)], is achievable in bulk CMOS processes, with significant improvements with respect to the previous work in quantum efficiency, dark current, linearity, bandwidth, and operating bias due to additional midlevel doping implants and different material deposition. The present work thus offers a robust realization of a fully CMOS-fabricated all-silicon photodetector functional across a wide wavelength range.

  18. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  19. INTRAVASAL INJECTION OF FORMED-IN-PLACE MEDICAL GRADE SILICONE-RUBBER FOR VAS OCCLUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOEBADI, DM; GARDJITO, W; MENSINK, HJA

    This paper describes two consecutive studies: a volume study and an efficacy study. The volume study determined the appropriate volume of Medical Grade Silicone Rubber (MSR) needed to achieve complete occlusion of the vas deferens. This was done by in-vitro testing of 130 human vas specimens

  20. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Survey and study of analysis of commercialization of solar-grade silicon material manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Taiyodenchiyou silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The trend of technology development, problems harbored therein, trend of the market, and the like were investigated for supporting the development of technologies for the mass production and commercialization of solar-grade silicon materials. Concerning the future of production enhancement and cost reduction in the manufacture of polycrystalline silicon solar cells, studies were made from the technological viewpoint. The results are shown below. It is estimated that approximately 4,500 tons of material silicon will be necessary in 2005 and 6,500-10,700 tons in 2010. Since the melting purification method of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) now under development step by step toward commercialization as well as the conventional source will provide the necessary amount of material silicon, it is inferred that the development of solar cells will go on without any restraint originating in the semiconductor industry. With the commercialization of the technologies so far developed and the development/commercialization of the fast-acting high-performance solar cell technology, probabilities are high that the polycrystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing cost in 2010 will be as low as to be on the 100 yen/W (93-118 yen/W) level which is the level now held up as the goal. (NEDO)

  1. Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductor mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliana; Hauck, Johannes; Shen, Bin; Romero-García, Sebastian; Islamova, Elmira; Azadeh, Saeed Sharif; Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Moscoso-Mártir, Alvaro; Merget, Florian; Lelarge, François; Witzens, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength domain-multiplexed (WDM) optical link relying on a single section semiconductor mode-locked laser (SS-MLL) with quantum dash (Q-Dash) gain material to generate 25 optical carriers spaced by 60.8 GHz, as well as silicon photonics (SiP) resonant ring modulators (RRMs) to modulate individual optical channels. The link requires optical reamplification provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in the system experiments reported here. Open eye diagrams with signal quality factors (Q-factors) above 7 are measured with a commercial receiver (Rx). For higher compactness and cost effectiveness, reamplification of the modulated channels with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) operated in the linear regime is highly desirable. System and device characterization indicate compatibility with the latter. While we expect channel counts to be primarily limited by the saturation output power level of the SOA, we estimate a single SOA to support more than eight channels. Prior to describing the system experiments, component design and detailed characterization results are reported including design and characterization of RRMs, ring-based resonant optical add-drop multiplexers (RR-OADMs) and thermal tuners, S-parameters resulting from the interoperation of RRMs and RR-OADMs, and characterization of Q-Dash SS-MLLs reamplified with a commercial SOA. Particular emphasis is placed on peaking effects in the transfer functions of RRMs and RR-OADMs resulting from transient effects in the optical domain, as well as on the characterization of SS-MLLs in regard to relative intensity noise (RIN), stability of the modes of operation, and excess noise after reamplification.

  2. Contribution to the study of rectification at the metal-semiconductor contact: analysis of aging in silicon Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponpon, J.-P.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of the barrier height and the aging of metal-semiconductor contacts during exposure to air have been studied. The evolution of the electrical characteristics, especially the barrier height, of silicon Schottky diodes results from the diffusion of oxygen through the electrode and its accumulation at the interface. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen has been deduced for each metal used. In a first step the oxygen neutralize a fixed positive charge which remains at the semiconductor surface after etching; then, as silicon is oxidized, a MIS device is formed. Similar results have been obtained in the case of germanium, while no aging appears with cadmium telluride. In this case the barrier height seems to be determined by chemical reactions at the interface [fr

  3. Method of purifying metallurgical grade silicon employing reduced pressure atmospheric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method in which a quartz tube is charged with chunks of metallurgical grade silicon and/or a mixture of such chunks and high purity quartz sand, and impurities from a class including aluminum, boron, as well as certain transition metals including nickel, iron, and manganese is described. The tube is then evacuated and heated to a temperature within a range of 800 C to 1400 C. A stream of gas comprising a reactant, such as silicon tetrafluoride, is continuously delivered at low pressures through the charge for causing a metathetical reaction of impurities of the silicon and the reactant to occur for forming a volatile halide and leaving a residue of silicon of an improved purity. The reactant which included carbon monoxide gas and impurities such as iron and nickel react to form volatile carbonyls.

  4. Magnetotransport investigations of the two-dimensional metallic state in silicon metal-oxid-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, A.

    2002-03-01

    For more than two decades it was the predominant view among the physical community that the every two-dimensional (2D) disordered electron system becomes insulating as the temperature approaches the absolute zero temperature (0 Kelvin or -273.15 o C). Two-dimensional means that the movement of the charge carriers is confined in one direction by a potential so that the carriers can move freely only perpendicular to the confinement. The most famous physical realization of a 2D system is the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (Si-MOSFET). It is one of the basic elements of most electronic devices in our daily life. The working principle is very simple. Charges are attracted to the semiconductor-oxide interface by an electric field applied between the metallic gate and the semiconductor, so that a 2D conductive channel is formed. The charge density can be adjusted by the voltage from zero up to 10 13 cm -2 . In 1994 Kravchenko and coworkers made a very important discovery. They studied high mobility Si-MOSFETs and found that for densities below a certain critical value, nc, the resistivity increases as the temperature is decreased below 2 K, whereas for densities above $n c $ the resistivity decreases unexpectedly. The transition from insulating to metallic behavior, known as metal-insulator transition (MIT), was obviously a contradiction to the commonly accepted theories which predict insulating behavior for any density. The insulating behavior is a consequence of the wave properties of electrons which leads to interference in disordered media and thus to enhanced backscattering. In the subsequent years, experimental studies were performed on a variety of 2D systems, which qualitatively showed a similar behavior. All the investigated samples had one thing in common. The interaction energy between the carriers was considerable higher than their mean kinetic energy due to their movement in the 2D plane. Since the electron-electron interaction was

  5. Initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds with fast semiconductor switches and energy-releasing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Kardo-Sysoev, A. F.; Zegrya, A. G.; Os'kin, I. A.; Bragin, V. A.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The first findings concerning the initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds via the electrical explosion of a semiconductor bridge are presented. The obtained results indicate that the energy parameters of an explosive conversion depend on the mass of a combustible agent—namely, nanoporous silicon—and the silicon-doping type.

  6. Single-electron-occupation metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots formed from efficient poly-silicon gate layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; rochette, sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, A. -M.; Curry, Matthew Jon; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Carr, Stephen M; Ward, Daniel Robert; Lilly, Michael; pioro-ladriere, michel

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot structure that achieves dot-reservoir tunnel coupling control without a dedicated barrier gate. The elementary structure consists of two accumulation gates separated spatially by a gap, one gate accumulating a reservoir and the other a quantum dot. Control of the tunnel rate between the dot and the reservoir across the gap is demonstrated in the single electron regime by varying the reservoir accumulation gate voltage while compensating with the dot accumulation gate voltage. The method is then applied to a quantum dot connected in series to source and drain reservoirs, enabling transport down to the single electron regime. Finally, tuning of the valley splitting with the dot accumulation gate voltage is observed. This split accumulation gate structure creates silicon quantum dots of similar characteristics to other realizations but with less electrodes, in a single gate stack subtractive fabrication process that is fully compatible with silicon foundry manufacturing.

  7. Towards solar grade silicon: Challenges and benefits for low cost photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzini, Sergio [Ned Silicon Spa, Via Th. Edison 6, 60027 Osimo (Ancona) (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    It is well known that silicon in its various structural configurations (single crystal, multicrystalline, amorphous, micro-nanocrystalline) supplies almost 90% of the substrates used in the photovoltaic industry. It is also known, since years, that the photovoltaic (PV) industry shows a marked growth trend, which demanded and demands a continuous, huge increase of the bulk silicon supply in the order of 30%/yr. In order to fulfill their today- and future needs, many companies worldwide took the decision to start the installation of many thousand tons/year plants, most of them using the Siemens process, some of them using the MG route, to produce the so called solar grade (SG) silicon. The advantages of the Siemens process are well known, as it provides ultrapure silicon, directly usable for growing either single crystalline Czochralski ingots or multicrystalline ingots using the directional solidification (DS) technique. The disadvantages are its high energetic cost (a minimum of 120 kWH/kg) and the possible losses of chlorinated gases in the atmosphere, with possible severe environmental problems. The advantages of the MG route are still potential, as there is no commercially available production of solar silicon as yet, and rely on its reduced energetic costs (a maximum of 25-30 kWh/kg) for a feedstock directly usable for growing multicrystalline ingots using the DS technique. The drawbacks of silicon of MG origin are its larger concentration of metallic impurities, as compared with the Siemens one, the higher B and P content, and the potentially high carbon content. The aim of this paper is to deal with some of the problems encountered so far with the silicon of MG origin with respect to the metallic and non-metallic impurities content, as well as to propose technologically feasible solar grade feedstock specifications. (author)

  8. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-01-01

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal - oxide - semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n + /p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  9. Extraordinary Light-Trapping Enhancement in Silicon Solar Cell Patterned with Graded Photonic Super-Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Light-trapping enhancement in newly discovered graded photonic super-crystals (GPSCs with dual periodicity and dual basis is herein explored for the first time. Broadband, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent light-trapping enhancement was achieved in silicon solar cells patterned with these GPSCs. These super-crystals were designed by multi-beam interference, rendering them flexible and efficient. The optical response of the patterned silicon solar cell retained Bloch-mode resonance; however, light absorption was greatly enhanced in broadband wavelengths due to the graded, complex unit super-cell nanostructures, leading to the overlap of Bloch-mode resonances. The broadband, wide-angle light coupling and trapping enhancement mechanism are understood to be due to the spatial variance of the index of refraction, and this spatial variance is due to the varying filling fraction, the dual basis, and the varying lattice constants in different directions.

  10. Micro-Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of silicon carbide in power semiconductor material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, M.; Kraft, M.; Schultz, M.; Goller, B.; Sternig, D.; Esteve, R.; Roesner, M.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide band-gap semi-conductor material that is used increasingly for high voltage power devices, since it has a higher breakdown field strength and better thermal conductivity than silicon. However, in particular its hardness makes wafer processing difficult and many standard semi-conductor processes have to be specially adapted. We measure the effects of (i) mechanical processing (i.e. grinding of the backside) and (ii) chemical and thermal processing (i.e. doping and annealing), using confocal microscopy to measure the surface roughness of ground wafers and micro-Raman spectroscopy to measure the stresses induced in the wafers by grinding. 4H-SiC wafers with different dopings were studied before and after annealing, using depth-resolved micro-Raman spectroscopy to observe how doping and annealing affect: i.) the damage and stresses induced on the crystalline structure of the samples and ii.) the concentration of free electrical carriers. Our results show that mechanical, chemical and thermal processing techniques have effects on this semiconductor material that can be observed and characterized using confocal microscopy and high resolution micro Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Texture evolution of experimental silicon steel grades. Part I: Hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Robles, J.A., E-mail: jsandoval.uanl@yahoo.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Ave. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450 (Mexico); Salas Zamarripa, A.; Guerrero Mata, M.P. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Ave. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450 (Mexico); Cabrera, J. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Departament de Ciència dels Materials I Enginyeria Metal-lúrgica, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    The metallurgical understanding of the deformation processes during the fabrication of non-oriented electrical steels plays a key role in improving their final properties. Texture control and optimization is critical in these steels for the enhancement of their magnetic properties. The aim of the present work is to study the texture evolution of six non-oriented experimental silicon steel grades during hot rolling. These steels were low carbon steel with a silicon content from 0.5 to 3.0 wt%. The first rolling schedule was performed in the austenitic (γ-Fe) region for the steel with a 0.5 wt% of silicon content, while the 1.0 wt% silicon steel was rolled in the two-phase (α+γ) region. Steels with higher silicon content were rolled in the ferritic (α-Fe) region. The second rolling schedule was performed in the α-Fe region. Samples of each stage were analyzed by means of Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). Findings showed that the texture was random and heterogeneous in all samples after 60% of rolling reduction, which is due to the low deformation applied during rolling. After the second rolling program, localized deformation and substructured grains near to surface were observed in all samples. The Goss {110}<001>texture-component was found in the 0.5 and 1.0 wt.-%silicon steels. This is due to the thermomechanical conditions and the corresponding hot band microstructure obtained after the first program. Moreover, the α<110>//RD and the γ <111>//ND fiber components of the texture presented a considerable increment as the silicon content increases. Future research to be published soon will be related to the texture evolution during the cold-work rolling process. - Highlights: • We analyze six silicon steel experimental grades alloys trough the rolling process. • Material was subjected to a hot deformation process in the α-γ region. • No recrystalization was observed during-after the rolling schedules. • Rise of the magnetic texture components

  12. Thermal resistor on the base of silicon and some polymer semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marupov, R.; Kasimov, Sh.T.; Achilov, T.Kh.; Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of present work is investigation electrical properties ofthermal resistors which was made from second cast poly-crystal silicon,poly-carbazole, and compositions of poly-crystal silicon and poly-carbazole

  13. Performance Analysis of a Grid-Connected Upgraded Metallurgical Grade Silicon Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their low cost, photovoltaic (PV cells made from upgraded metallurgical grade silicon (UMG-Si are a promising alternative to conventional solar grade silicon-based PV cells. This study investigates the outdoor performance of a 1.26 kW grid-connected UMG-Si PV system over five years, reporting the energy yields and performance ratio and estimating the long-term performance degradation rate. To make this investigation more meaningful, the performance of a mono-Si PV system installed at the same place and studied during the same period of time is presented for reference. Furthermore, this study systematizes and rationalizes the necessity of a data selection and filtering process to improve the accuracy of degradation rate estimation. The impact of plane-of-array irradiation threshold for data filtering on performance ratio and degradation rate is also studied. The UMG-Si PV system’s monthly performance ratio after data filtering ranged from 84% to 93% over the observation period. The annual degradation rate was 0.44% derived from time series of monthly performance ratio using the classical decomposition method. A comparison of performance ratio and degradation rate to conventional crystalline silicon-based PV systems suggests that performance of the UMG-Si PV system is comparable to that of conventional systems.

  14. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, J.; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del

    2009-01-01

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10 -3 ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10 -4 ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10 -2 ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  15. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  16. Recycling of silicon: from industrial waste to biocompatible nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, N. K.; Natashina, U. A.; Tamarov, K. P.; Gongalsky, M. B.; Solovyev, V. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Sivakov, V.; Osminkina, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    The formation of photoluminescent porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (NPs) is usually based on an expensive semiconductor grade wafers technology. Here, we report a low-cost method of PSi NPs synthesis from the industrial silicon waste remained after the wafer production. The proposed method is based on metal-assisted wet-chemical etching (MACE) of the silicon surface of cm-sized metallurgical grade silicon stones which leads to a nanostructuring of the surface due to an anisotropic etching, with subsequent ultrasound fracturing in water. The obtained PSi NPs exhibit bright red room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and demonstrate similar microstructure and physical characteristics in comparison with the nanoparticles synthesized from semiconductor grade Si wafers. PSi NPs prepared from metallurgical grade silicon stones, similar to silicon NPs synthesized from high purity silicon wafer, show low toxicity to biological objects that open the possibility of using such type of NPs in nanomedicine.

  17. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  18. Determination of surface recombination velocity and bulk lifetime in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derhacobian, N.; Fine, P.; Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Rossington, C.S.; Luke, P.N.

    1993-10-01

    Utility of a noncontact photoconductive decay (PCD) technique is demonstrated in measuring bulk lifetime, τ B , and surface recombination velocity, S, in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals. We show that the simple analytical equations which relate the observed effective lifetimes in PCD transients to τ B and S have a limited range of applicability. The noncontact PCD technique is used to determine the effect of several surface treatments on the observed effective lifetimes in Si and Ge. A degradation of the effective lifetime in Si is reported as result of the growth of a thin layer of native oxide at room temperature under atmospheric conditions

  19. New era of silicon technologies due to radical reaction based semiconductor manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tadahiro; Hirayama, Masaki; Teramoto, Akinobu

    2006-01-01

    Current semiconductor technology, the so-called the molecule reaction based semiconductor manufacturing, now faces a very severe standstill due to the drastic increase of gate leakage currents and drain leakage currents. Radical reaction based semiconductor manufacturing has been developed to completely overcome the current standstill by introducing microwave excited high density plasma with very low electron temperatures and without accompanying charge-up damage. The introduction of radical reaction based semiconductor manufacturing has made it possible to fabricate LSI devices on any crystal orientation Si substrate surface as well as (100) Si substrate surfaces, and to eliminate a very severe limitation to the antenna ratio in the circuit layout patterns, which is strictly limited to less than 100-200 in order to obtain a relatively high production yield. (topical review)

  20. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Young, Chadwin D.; Bersuker, Gennadi; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard

  2. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-k/metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors fabricated on flexible, semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-02-12

    In pursuit of flexible computers with high performance devices, we demonstrate a generic process to fabricate 10 000 metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-k/metal gate stacks on widely used, inexpensive bulk silicon (100) wafers and then using a combination of iso-/anisotropic etching to release the top portion of the silicon with the already fabricated devices as a mechanically flexible (bending curvature of 133 m−1), optically semi-transparent silicon fabric (1.5 cm × 3 cm × 25 μm). The electrical characteristics show 3.7 nm effective oxide thickness, −0.2 V flat band voltage, and no hysteresis from the fabricated MOSCAPs.

  3. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-k/metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors fabricated on flexible, semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-01-01

    In pursuit of flexible computers with high performance devices, we demonstrate a generic process to fabricate 10 000 metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with semiconductor industry's most advanced high-k/metal gate stacks on widely used, inexpensive bulk silicon (100) wafers and then using a combination of iso-/anisotropic etching to release the top portion of the silicon with the already fabricated devices as a mechanically flexible (bending curvature of 133 m−1), optically semi-transparent silicon fabric (1.5 cm × 3 cm × 25 μm). The electrical characteristics show 3.7 nm effective oxide thickness, −0.2 V flat band voltage, and no hysteresis from the fabricated MOSCAPs.

  4. The effects of intense gamma-irradiation on the alpha-particle response of silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Seidel, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor radiation detectors are being developed for alpha-particle, X-ray and Gamma-ray, and fast-neutron energy spectrometry. SiC detectors have been operated at temperatures up to 306 deg. C and have also been found to be highly resistant to the radiation effects of fast-neutron and charged-particle bombardments. In the present work, the alpha-particle response of a SiC detector based on a Schottky diode design has been carefully monitored as a function of 137 Cs gamma-ray exposure. The changes in response have been found to be negligible for gamma exposures up to and including 5.4 MGy, and irradiations to higher doses are in progress

  5. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahu, G. L.; Li Voti, R.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.; Mura, F.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Fratoddi, I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures

  6. Carrier Dynamics Analysis in Metal-SemiconductorMetal Device for mid-IR Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Alvin Tak Lok; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao

    A modelling platform for active carrier removal based on metal-semiconductor-metal structure is reported on analysis of carrier dynamics. The analysis reveals electric current hot spots exist in geometric singularities and curly trajectory of carriers should be considered when accurately estimati...

  7. Carrier dynamics analysis in metal-semiconductor-metal device for mid-IR silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Alvin Tak Lok; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    A modelling platform for active carrier removal based on metal-semiconductor-metal structure is reported on analysis of carrier dynamics. The analysis reveals electric current hot spots exist in geometric singularities and curly trajectory of carriers should be considered when accurately estimati...

  8. A local environment approach for deep-level defects in semiconductors: Application to the vacancy in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongliang; Lindefelt, U.

    1987-04-01

    A local environment approach for calculation of the electronic structure of localized defects in semiconductors is described. The method starts out from a description of localized orbitals or tight-binding model for semiconductors and is based on the recursion method of Haydock. A repeated symmetrical supercell containing 686 atoms plus defects is formed, both the translational and point-group symmetry of the crystal are fully exploited. In this paper, we report an application of this approach to an undistorted isolated vacancy by using a self-consistent Hamiltonian. A bound state of T 2 symmetry at 0.87 eV above the valence-band edge and a number of band resonances within the valence-band were extracted using Lanczos algorithm and a continued-fraction representation of the local density of states. It was found that the T 2 symmetry gap state is mainly p-like and most of the wavefunction for one of the A 1 symmetry resonances is concentrated on the vacant site and another concentrated on the first neighbors of the vacancy. From the small shifts of the band edges of silicon with a vacancy, we can conclude that the supercell is big enough and the interaction between the defects of different supercells is negligible. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs

  9. Band structure properties of (BGa)P semiconductors for lattice matched integration on (001) silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Nadir; Sweeney, Stephen [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hosea, Jeff [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK and Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Liebich, Sven; Zimprich, Martin; Volz, Kerstin; Stolz, Wolfgang [Material Sciences Center and Faculty of Physics, Philipps-University, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Kunert, Bernerdette [NAsP III/V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, 35041 Marburg (Germany)

    2013-12-04

    We report the band structure properties of (BGa)P layers grown on silicon substrate using metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. Using surface photo-voltage spectroscopy we find that both the direct and indirect band gaps of (BGa)P alloys (strained and unstrained) decrease with Boron content. Our experimental results suggest that the band gap of (BGa)P layers up to 6% Boron is large and suitable to be used as cladding and contact layers in GaP-based quantum well heterostructures on silicon substrates.

  10. Study of the properties of silicon-based semiconductor converters for betavoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, M. A.; Yakimov, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon p-i-n diodes are studied in a scanning electron microscope under conditions simulating the β-radiation from a radioactive Ni 63 source with an activity of 10 mCi/cm 2 . The attainable parameters of β-voltaic cells with a source of this kind and a silicon-based converter of β-particle energy to electric current are estimated. It is shown that the power of elements of this kind can reach values of ∼10 nW/cm 2 even for a cell with an area of one centimeter, which is rather close to the calculated value

  11. Semiconductor nanostructures on silicon. Carrier dynamics, optical amplification and lasing; Halbleiternanostrukturen auf Silizium. Ladungstraegerdynamik, optischer Verstaerker und Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Christoph

    2008-12-11

    Two material systems that can be grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate are experimentally investigated with respect to their optical properties. Quantum wells (qw) of Germanium were experimentally investigated by spectrally resolved white-light pump-probe-absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. A second material class is Ga(NAsP), which was grown as quantum wells on a silicon substrate matching the lattice constant of the substrate. The basic optical properties were determined using the variable stripe-length method. In order to relate the results to those of established materials, a selection of comparable III/V semiconductors were measured in the same setups. The pump-probe measurements on (GaIn)As quantum wells exhibited a much more rapid scattering. In these material systems, quite similar optical gain values of 10{sup -3}/QW were found with decay times of several 100 ps. For (GaIn)(NAs), slightly higher values were determined. Using the variable stripe-length method, GaSb quantum wells with dot-like morphology were investigated. (orig.)

  12. Single-electron regime and Pauli spin blockade in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Sophie; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots are promising candidates for quantum information processing as spin qubits with long coherence time. We present electrical transport measurements on a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) double quantum dot (DQD). First, Coulomb diamonds measurements demonstrate the one-electron regime at a relatively high temperature of 1.5 K. Then, the 8 mK stability diagram shows Pauli spin blockade with a large singlet-triplet separation of approximatively 0.40 meV, pointing towards a strong lifting of the valley degeneracy. Finally, numerical simulations indicate that by integrating a micro-magnet to those devices, we could achieve fast spin rotations of the order of 30 ns. Those results are part of the recent body of work demonstrating the potential of Si MOS DQD as reliable and long-lived spin qubits that could be ultimately integrated into modern electronic facilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Almuslem, A. S.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Cruz, Melvin; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using

  14. Phosphorus Diffusion Gettering Efficacy in Upgraded Metallurgical-Grade Solar Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; del Cañizo, C.; Cid, C.; Peral, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the context of the continuous price reduction in photovoltaics (PV) in recent years, Si feedstock continues to be a relevant component in the cost breakdown of a PV module, highlighting the need for low-cost, low-capital expenditure (CAPEX) silicon technologies to further reduce this cost component. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG Si) has recently received much attention, improving its quality and even attaining, in some cases, solar cell efficiencies similar to those of conventional material. However, some technical challenges still have to be addressed when processing this material to compensate efficiently for the high content of impurities and contaminants. Adaptation of a conventional solar cell process to monocrystalline UMG Si wafers has been studied in this work. In particular, a tailored phosphorus diffusion gettering step followed by a low-temperature anneal at 700°C was implemented, resulting in enhanced bulk lifetime and emitter recombination properties. In spite of the need for further research and material optimization, UMG Si wafers were successfully processed, achieving efficiencies in the range of 15% for a standard laboratory solar cell process with aluminum back surface field.

  15. Effects of 400 keV electrons flux on two space grade silicone rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochem, H. [ONERA – The French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, and CNRS, LHFA, UMR 5069, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); CNES – French Aerospace Agency, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Rejsek-Riba, V. [ONERA – The French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Maerten, E., E-mail: maerten@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, and CNRS, LHFA, UMR 5069, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Remaury, S. [CNES – French Aerospace Agency, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Solé, S.; Sierra, G. [MAP Coatings – ZI, 2 Rue Clément Ader, 09100 Pamiers (France); Baceiredo, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, and CNRS, LHFA, UMR 5069, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Guillaumon, O. [MAP Coatings – ZI, 2 Rue Clément Ader, 09100 Pamiers (France)

    2013-08-15

    Two different space grade silicone rubbers were irradiated by an electron flux of 400 keV. The irradiation impact strongly depends on the chemical structure of rubbers (one reinforced with MQ resins, and the other one functionalized with phenyl groups at the silicon atoms and reinforced with silica). The irradiated rubbers were studied by means of solvent swelling, solid-state {sup 29}Si NMR, and ATR–FTIR spectroscopy. Physical properties were evaluated by thermal (differential scanning calorimetry), mechanical (dynamic mechanical analysis), and thermo-optical (ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectroscopy) analyses. The formation of silicium T units and Si–CH{sub 2}–Si networks were evidenced by {sup 29}Si NMR, and the increase of the glass transition temperature and of modulus reflect the substantial increase in the macromolecular chain rigidity of the irradiated material. Dramatic damages of mechanical properties were observed, depending on the reinforced materials used. Slight changes of thermo-optical properties were highlighted independently to the initial chemical structure. - Highlights: • Electron flux radiations generate chains cross-linking. • Cross-linking occurs by T and Si–CH{sub 2}–Si units formation. • The cross-linking rate is slightly faster for 2D rubber compared to 3D rubber. • Modulus increases much more significantly for 3D rubber.

  16. The Effects of Thermal Cycling on Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Devices for Aerospace Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These Include radiation, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling, to name a few. Preliminary data obtained on new Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide power devices under exposure to radiation followed by long term thermal cycling are presented. This work was done in collaboration with GSFC and JPL in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  17. Positive and negative gain exceeding unity magnitude in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gangyi; Wijesinghe, Udumbara; Naquin, Clint; Maggio, Ken; Edwards, H. L.; Lee, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic gain (AV) measurements on Si quantum well (QW) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors show that these devices can have |AV| > 1 in quantum transport negative transconductance (NTC) operation at room temperature. QW NMOS devices were fabricated using an industrial 45 nm technology node process incorporating ion implanted potential barriers to define a lateral QW in the conduction channel under the gate. While NTC at room temperature arising from transport through gate-controlled QW bound states has been previously established, it was unknown whether the quantum NTC mechanism could support gain magnitude exceeding unity. Bias conditions were found giving both positive and negative AV with |AV| > 1 at room temperature. This result means that QW NMOS devices could be useful in amplifier and oscillator applications.

  18. Simulation of space protons influence on silicon semiconductor devices using gamma-neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Y.N.; Zinchenko, V.F.; Ulimov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the authors focus on the problems of simulating the space proton energy spectra under laboratory gamma-neutron radiation tests of semiconductor devices (SD). A correct simulation of radiation effects implies to take into account and evaluate substantial differences in the processes of formation of primary defects in SD in space environment and under laboratory testing. These differences concern: 1) displacement defects, 2) ionization defects and 3) intensity of radiation. The study shows that: - the energy dependence of nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) is quite universal to predict the degradation of SD parameters associated to displacement defects, and - MOS devices that are sensitive to ionization defects indicated the same variation of parameters under conditions of equality of ionization density generated by protons and gamma radiations. (A.C.)

  19. Numerical simulation of impurities diffusion in a semiconductor. Application to the bore case in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, Joel

    1971-01-01

    To make a connection between technological parameters and electrical models it is necessary to know with a good accuracy the shape of the diffusion profiles. To do that we solve Fick's equations taking into account almost all physical phenomena known for diffusion in semiconductors: presence of an oxide layer, point defect diffusion coefficient dependence, impact of internal electric field, limited input flux, segregation coefficient... We have used DIFFUSI to predict diffusion profiles for device simulation programs; greater accuracy is then obtain to compute device properties and to optimize the device itself it is easy. Never accurate methods have still been studied like ionic probe and nuclear reactions to measure with an increased accuracy on the shape of the doping profiles. (author) [fr

  20. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  1. Calculation of Energy Diagram of Asymmetric Graded-Band-Gap Semiconductor Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Alekseichyk, Mariya P

    2017-12-01

    The paper theoretically investigates the peculiarities of energy diagram of asymmetric graded-band-gap superlattices with linear coordinate dependences of band gap and electron affinity. For calculating the energy diagram of asymmetric graded-band-gap superlattices, linearized Poisson's equation has been solved for the two layers forming a period of the superlattice. The obtained coordinate dependences of edges of the conduction and valence bands demonstrate substantial transformation of the shape of the energy diagram at changing the period of the lattice and the ratio of width of the adjacent layers. The most marked changes in the energy diagram take place when the period of lattice is comparable with the Debye screening length. In the case when the lattice period is much smaller that the Debye screening length, the energy diagram has the shape of a sawtooth-like pattern.

  2. Electronic defect levels in continuous wave laser annealed silicon metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Garcia, B. J.; Martinez, J.; Garrido, J.; Piqueras, J.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of laser treatment on the bulk and interface states of the Si-SiO2 structure has been investigated. The annealing was performed prior to the gate metallization using a continuous wave Ar+ laser. For low laser powers the interface state density seems to decrease slightly in comparison with untreated samples. However, for the highest irradiating laser powers a new bulk level at 0.41 eV above the valence band with concentrations up to 1015 cm-3 arises probably due to the electrical activation of the oxygen diluted in the Czochralski silicon. Later postmetallization annealings reduce the interface state density to values in the 1010 cm-2 eV-1 range but leave the concentration of the 0.41-eV center nearly unchanged.

  3. Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon: Final Report, 19 April 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattack, C. P.; Joyce, D. B.; Schmid, F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the developed technology for producing SoG silicon by upgrading MG silicon with a cost goal of$20/kg in large-scale production. A Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) furnace originally designed to produce multicrystalline ingots was modified to refine molten MG silicon feedstock prior to directional solidification. Based on theoretical calculations, simple processing techniques, such as gas blowing through the melt, reaction with moisture, and slagging have been used to remove B from molten MG silicon. The charge size was scaled up from 1 kg to 300 kg in incremental steps and effective refining was achieved. After the refining parameters were established, improvements to increase the impurity reduction rates were emphasized. With this approach, 50 kg of commercially available as-received MG silicon was processed for a refining time of about 13 hours. A half life of and lt;2 hours was achieved, and the B concentration was reduced to 0.3 ppma and P concentration to 10 ppma from the original values of 20 to 60 ppma, and all other impurities to and lt;0.1 ppma. Achieving and lt;1 ppma B by this simple refining technique is a breakthrough towards the goal of achieving low-cost SoG silicon for PV applications. While the P reduction process was being optimized, the successful B reduction process was applied to a category of electronics industry silicon scrap previously unacceptable for PV feedstock use because of its high B content (50-400 ppma). This material after refining showed that its B content was reduced by several orders of magnitude, to(approx)1 ppma (0.4 ohm-cm, or about 5x1016 cm-3). NREL's Silicon Materials Research team grew and wafered small and lt;100 and gt; dislocation-free Czochralski (Cz) crystals from the new feedstock material for diagnostic tests of electrical properties, C and O impurity levels, and PV performance relative to similar crystals grown from EG feedstock and commercial Cz wafers. The PV conversion

  4. Electron spin resonance investigaton of semiconductor materials for application in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lihong

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, hydrogenated silicon and its alloys silicon carbide and silicon oxide have been investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). The microstructure of these materials ranges from highly crystalline to amorphous. The correlation between the paramagnetic defects, microstructure, optical and electrical properties has been discussed. Correspondingly, these properties were characterized by the spin density (N{sub S}), g-value and the lineshape of ESR spectra, Infrared (I{sup IR}{sub C}) and/or Raman crystallinity (I{sup RS}{sub C}) as well as optical absorption and electrical dark conductivity ({sigma}{sub D}). 1. As the light absorber, Si layers essentially should have low defect density and good stability against light exposure. The spin density (N{sub S}) measured by ESR is often used as a measure for the paramagnetic defect density (N{sub D}) in the material. However, ESR sample preparation procedures can potentially cause discrepancy between N{sub S} and N{sub D}. Using Mo-foil, Al-foil and ZnO:Al-covered glass as sacrificial substrates, {mu}c-Si:H and a-Si:H films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and ESR powder samples have been prepared with corresponding procedures. Possible preparation-related metastability and instability effects have been investigated in terms of substrate dependence, HCl-etching and atmosphere exposure. A sequence of 'preparation - annealing - air-exposure - annealing' has been designed to investigate the metastability and instability effects. N{sub S} after post-preparation air exposure is higher than in the annealed states, especially for the highly crystalline {mu}c-Si:H material the discrepancy reached one order of magnitude. Low temperature ESR measurements at 40 K indicated that atmospheric exposure leads to a redistribution of the defect states which in turn influence the evaluated N{sub S}. In annealed conditions the samples tend to have lower N{sub S} presumably due

  5. A Novel Fully Depleted Air AlN Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yang; Yong, Gao; Peng-Liang, Gong

    2008-01-01

    A novel fully depleted air AlN silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS-FET) is presented, which can eliminate the self-heating effect and solve the problem that the off-state current of SOI MOSFETs increases and the threshold voltage characteristics become worse when employing a high thermal conductivity material as a buried layer. The simulation results reveal that the lattice temperature in normal SOI devices is 75 K higher than the atmosphere temperature, while the lattice temperature is just 4K higher than the atmosphere temperature resulting in less severe self-heating effect in air AlN SOI MOSFETs and AlN SOI MOSFETs. The on-state current of air AlN SOI MOSFETs is similar to the AlN SOI structure, and improves 12.3% more than that of normal SOI MOSFETs. The off-state current of AlN SOI is 6.7 times of normal SOI MOSFETs, while the counterpart of air AlN SOI MOSFETs is lower than that of SOI MOSFETs by two orders of magnitude. The threshold voltage change of air AlN SOI MOSFETs with different drain voltage is much less than that of AlN SOI devices, when the drain voltage is biased at 0.8 V, this difference is 28mV, so the threshold voltage change induced by employing high thermal conductivity material is cured. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Realizing Large-Scale, Electronic-Grade Two-Dimensional Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bersch, Brian M; Xu, Ke; Nie, Yifan; Wang, Baoming; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Zhang, Xiaotian; Choudhury, Tanushree H; Pan, Yi; Addou, Rafik; Smyth, Christopher M; Li, Jun; Zhang, Kehao; Haque, M Aman; Fölsch, Stefan; Feenstra, Randall M; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae; Fullerton-Shirey, Susan K; Redwing, Joan M; Robinson, Joshua A

    2018-02-27

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of interest for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate device-ready synthetic tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and provide key insights into the phenomena that control the properties of large-area, epitaxial TMDs. When epitaxy is achieved, the sapphire surface reconstructs, leading to strong 2D/3D (i.e., TMD/substrate) interactions that impact carrier transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that substrate step edges are a major source of carrier doping and scattering. Even with 2D/3D coupling, transistors utilizing transfer-free epitaxial WSe 2 /sapphire exhibit ambipolar behavior with excellent on/off ratios (∼10 7 ), high current density (1-10 μA·μm -1 ), and good field-effect transistor mobility (∼30 cm 2 ·V -1 ·s -1 ) at room temperature. This work establishes that realization of electronic-grade epitaxial TMDs must consider the impact of the TMD precursors, substrate, and the 2D/3D interface as leading factors in electronic performance.

  7. Metal-oxide-semiconductor devices based on epitaxial germanium-carbon layers grown directly on silicon substrates by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David Quest

    After the integrated circuit was invented in 1959, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology soon became the mainstay of the semiconductor industry. Silicon-based CMOS has dominated logic technologies for decades. During this time, chip performance has grown at an exponential rate at the cost of higher power consumption and increased process complexity. The performance gains have been made possible through scaling down circuit dimensions by improvements in lithography capabilities. Since scaling cannot continue forever, researchers have vigorously pursued new ways of improving the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) without having to shrink gate lengths and reduce the gate insulator thickness. Strained silicon, with its ability to boost transistor current by improving the channel mobility, is one of the methods that has already found its way into production. Although not yet in production, high-kappa dielectrics have also drawn wide interest in industry since they allow for the reduction of the electrical oxide thickness of the gate stack without having to reduce the physical thickness of the dielectric. Further out on the horizon is the incorporation of high-mobility materials such as germanium (Ge), silicon-germanium (Si1-xGe x), and the III-V semiconductors. Among the high-mobility materials, Ge has drawn the most attention because it has been shown to be compatible with high-kappa dielectrics and to produce high drive currents compared to Si. Among the most difficult challenges for integrating Ge on Si is finding a suitable method for reducing the number of crystal defects. The use of strain-relaxed Si1- xGex buffers has proven successful for reducing the threading dislocation density in Ge epitaxial layers, but questions remain as to the viability of this method in terms of cost and process complexity. This dissertation presents research on thin germanium-carbon (Ge 1-yCy layers on Si for the fabrication

  8. Development of low cost silicon solar cells by reusing the silicon saw dust collected during wafering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z.I.; Raza, B.; Ahmed, M.; Sheikh, H.; Qazi, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon material due to its abundance in nature and maximum conversion efficiency has been successfully being used for the fabrication of electronic and photovoltaic devices such as ICs, diodes, transistors and solar cells. The 80% of the semiconductor industry is ruled by silicon material. Single crystal silicon solar cells are in use for both space and terrestrial application, due to the well developed technology and better efficiency than polycrystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells. The current research work is an attempt to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon solar cells by reusing the silicon saw dust obtained during the watering process. During the watering process about 45% Si material is wasted in the form of Si powder dust. Various waste powder silicon samples were analyzed using inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique, for metallic impurities critical for solar grade silicon material. The results were evaluated from impurity and cost point of view. (author)

  9. In situ X-ray investigations of oxygen precipitation in semiconductor silicon; In-situ-Roentgenuntersuchungen der Sauerstoffpraezipitation in Halbleitersilizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillenberger, Hannes

    2011-03-04

    The precipitation of oxygen in Czochralski grown semiconductor silicon is investigated in situ during thermal treatments up to 1000 C with high energy X-rays. All investigations are performed with a focusing Laue diffractometer. The parameters of the diffraction curve are the relative full width at half maximum (rFHWM) and the enhancement of the integral intensity (EII). A readout software has been developed to extract these automatically from the detector image for the measured 220, -220 and 040 Bragg peaks. The sample thickness is set to 15 mm as this enhances the sensitivity of the method and the samples are processed after the strain-field diffraction (SFD) experiments to wafers for an ex situ characterization demanding wafers. Three experimental series with a total of 21 in situ SFD experiments with different thermal treatments have been performed. The slope of the initial temperature ramp is set to 1 K/min in the first and the third series to generate a high precipitate (Bulk Micro Defect, BMD) density. In the second series the slope is chosen as 10 K/min to generate a lower density in the same silicon material. It is shown with all experiments and with preliminary works that the built up of strain during the heat treatment is caused by BMDs during the high temperature period of the treatment. The detection limit of series 1 is found at 7 nm at a density of 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 3}, of series 2 at 40 nm at a density of 2 x 10{sup 8}/cm{sup 3}, and at 8 nm at a density of 4.8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3} for series 3. The local maximum of the EII at 450 C, which emerges coincident with a local minimum of the rFWHM in series 2 may be caused by thermal donors (TD). With the experiments is shown that SFD operates in the infrared-laser scattering tomography detection range, but also reaches in a region covered only by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) so far. In contrast to these methods SFD is not limited to low temperatures and in situ experiments can be done. Thus

  10. Determining the solubility parameter and the cross-link density of medical grade silicones: effect of increasing the range of swelling liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Aziza; Kocharian, Areg

    2015-01-01

    Four samples of four medical grade silicones were swollen in six "good" liquids (i.e. those with a good swelling ability, in which silicones swell appreciably) at 25°C, until they reached constant mass (i.e. equilibrium). The volume fraction, ϕ, of the silicone in the swollen sample was calculated for each grade of silicone. Using a combination of the six ϕ values obtained in this study and four of those obtained in a previous study, for each silicone grade, ϕ was plotted against δl, the liquid solubility parameter for the ten liquids used. Using a curve fitting technique a second-order polynomial was plotted through the data points; the minimum in this polynomial provided a value for δp (the polymer solubility parameter). Furthermore, the results showed that the δp values obtained in this study (using ten liquids) were slightly but significantly greater (pliquids), for grade C6-165 only. Similarly, the χ and υ values obtained in the two studies were only significantly different (p<0.05) from each other, for grade C6-165.

  11. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  12. Leaching of Titanium and Silicon from Low-Grade Titanium Slag Using Hydrochloric Acid Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longsheng; Wang, Lina; Qi, Tao; Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Weijing

    2018-05-01

    Acid-leaching behaviors of the titanium slag obtained by selective reduction of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates were investigated. It was found that the optimal leaching of titanium and silicon were 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The titanium and silicon in the titanium slag were firstly dissolved in the acidic solution to form TiO2+ and silica sol, and then rapidly reprecipitated, forming hydrochloric acid (HCl) leach residue. Most of the silicon presented in the HCl leach residue as floccules-like silica gel, while most of the titanium was distributed in the nano-sized rod-like clusters with crystallite refinement and intracrystalline defects, and, as such, 94.3% of the silicon was leached from the HCl leach residue by alkaline desilication, and 96.5% of the titanium in the titanium-rich material with some rutile structure was then digested by the concentrated sulfuric acid. This provides an alternative route for the comprehensive utilization of titanium and silicon in titanium slag.

  13. Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, F. A.; Nordstrand, E. F.; Gibson, U. J.

    2013-01-01

    Melt-spun metallurgical grade (MG) micron dimension silicon flakes have been purified into near solar grade (SG) quality through a multi-step melting and re-solidification procedure. A wet oxidation-applied thermal oxide maintained the sample morphology during annealing while the interiors were melted and re-solidified. The small thickness of the flakes allowed for near elimination of in-plane grain boundaries, with segregation enhanced accumulation of impurities at the object surface and in the few remaining grain boundaries. A subsequent etch in 48% hydrofluoric acid (HF) removed the impure oxide layer, and part of the contamination at the oxide-silicon interface, as shown by electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and backscattered electron imaging (BEI). The sample grains were investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) after varying numbers of oxidation-annealing-etch cycles, and were observed to grow from ˜5 μm to ˜200 μm. The concentration of iron, titanium, copper and aluminium were shown by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) to drop between five and six orders of magnitude. The concentration of boron was observed to drop approximately one order of magnitude. A good correlation was observed between impurity removal rates and segregation models, indicating that the purification effect is mainly caused by segregation. Deviations from these models could be explained by the formation of oxides and hydroxides later removed through etching.

  14. Development of the external cooling device of increase the productivity of neutron-transmutation-doped silicon semiconductor (NTD-Si) (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akira; Wada, Shigeru; Sasajima, Fumio; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kameyama, Iwao; Aizawa, Ryouji; Kikuchi, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Neutron-Transmutation-Doped Silicon Semiconductor (hereinafter referred as 'NTD-Si') is the best semiconductor for the power device. The needs of NTD-Si increase recently in proportion to the popularization of hybrid-cars. A fission research reactor, which is a steady state neutron source, is being expected as the best device to meet the needs. So far, we have reconsidered the existing approach which is employed for NTD-Si production works at the research reactors JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of JAEA so as to meet the needs. As one of the effective measures, we found out that the productivity can be increased by incorporating a new device to cool down radioactivity of irradiated silicon ingots at the place outside the main stream from the loading of silicon ingots to the withdrawal of irradiated ingots to the existing JRR-3 Uniformity Irradiation System. Consequently, we developed and installed the device (hereinafter referred as 'external cooling device'). After an ingot was irradiated once, it is turned over manually and irradiated again in order to irradiate the ingot uniformly. With the conventional system, it was necessary to wait the radioactivity of ingot decrease less than the permissible level with holding the ingot in the irradiation equipment. It was effective to shorten the waiting period by using an external cooling device for production increase of NTD-Si. It is expected that the productivity of NTD-Si will be increased by using the external cooling device. This report mentions the design of the external cooling device and verification between its design specifications and the performance of the device completed. (author)

  15. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  16. Low-grade liquid silicone injections as a penile enhancement procedure: Is bigger better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sasidaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To report our experience with 5 cases of complications of penile enhancement procedures secondary to liquid silicone injections and our method of management of its debilitating effects. All five patients were treated with excision of penile shaft skin down to buck′s fascia followed by resurfacing with split thickness skin grafting. We conclude that penile enhancement procedures with liquid silicone by non-medical personnel could result in devastating consequences. We also demonstrate that a simple method of excision of the entire penile shaft skin and resurfacing with split skin grafting showed improvement in cosmetic as well as functional outcome.

  17. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  18. Plasma texturing on large-area industrial grade CZ silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Nordseth, Ørnulf; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of nanostructuring of silicon solar cells using reactive ion etching (RIE). A simple mask-less, scalable RIE nanostructuring of the solar cell surface is shown to reduce the AM1.5-weighted average reflectance to a level below 1 % in a fully optimized RIE texturi...

  19. Properties of CMOS devices and circuits fabricated on high-resistivity, detector-grade silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1991-11-01

    A CMOS process that is compatible with silicon p-i-n radiation detectors has been developed and characterized. A total of twelve mask layers are used in the process. The NMOS device is formed in a retrograde well while the PMOS device is fabricated directly in the high-resistivity silicon. Isolation characteristics are similar to a standard foundary CMOS process. Circuit performance using 3 μm design rules has been evaluated. The measured propagation delay and power-delay product for a 51-stage ring oscillator was 1.5 ns and 43 fJ, respectively. Measurements on a simple cascode amplifier results in a gain-bandwidth product of 200 MHz at a bias current of 15 μA. The input-referred noise of the cascode amplifier is 20 nV/√Hz at 1 MHz

  20. Determination of impurity distributions in ingots of solar grade silicon by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karches, Barbara; Hampel, Gabriele; Plonka, Christian; Stieghorst, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Chemistry; Schoen, Jonas; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Gerstenberg, Heiko [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Heinz-Maier-Leibniz Zentrum; Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Mol (Belgium). BR2 reactor

    2017-09-01

    In a series of crystallization experiments, the directional solidification of silicon was investigated as a low cost path for the production of silicon wafers for solar cells. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to measure the influence of different crystallization parameters on the distribution of 3d-metal impurities of the produced ingots. A theoretical model describing the involved diffusion and segregation processes during the solidification and cooling of the ingots could be verified by the experimental results. By successive etching of the samples after the irradiation, it could be shown that a layer of at least 60 μm of the samples has to be removed to get real bulk concentrations.

  1. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of the conditions of deoxidation and secondary treatment of low-silicon steel grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євген Анатолійович Чичкарьов

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with analysis and production testing of technological solutions aimed at reducing the consumption of aluminium for steel deoxidation and reducing level of metal contamination by oxide non-metal inclusions, as well as preventing silicon reduction during out-of-furnace treatment. The conditions of low-silicon steel deoxidation and out-of-furnace treatment have been analysed. It has been found that the scope of oxygen activity variation in the converter before tapping increases while the mass fraction of carbon in the metal decreases. For the converter meltings with a mass fraction of carbon over the range 0,05-0,07 % [C] before tapping the real range of variation was 150-300 ppm. The effect of meltings carburizing on aluminium consumption and the degree of aluminium assimilation have been analysed. It has been shown that in fact the same specific consumption of ferromanganese and comparable changes within the metal oxidation change range before tapping (400-1100 ppm the addition of the carburizer decreases the consumption of aluminium by 0,15 kg/t (in amounts of pure aluminium. The variation interval of assimilation degree of aluminium, consumed for binding the dissolved oxygen in metal and for dissolution in metal has been found. It has been shown that in the melting of low-silicon steel with out- of-furnace treatment but without the use of furnace-ladle unit the rational limit of variation of mass fraction of magnesium oxide variation in the ladle slag is equal to- 6-8 % by weight

  3. A bioactive metallurgical grade porous silicon-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for guided bone regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, E G; Clarkin, O M; Raghavendra, R; Tanner, D A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of porous silicon make it a promising material for a host of applications including drug delivery, molecular and cell-based biosensing, and tissue engineering. Porous silicon has previously shown its potential for the controlled release of pharmacological agents and in assisting bone healing. Hydroxyapatite, the principle constituent of bone, allows osteointegration in vivo, due to its chemical and physical similarities to bone. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is currently applied as a surface coating to medical devices and prosthetics, encouraging bone in-growth at their surface and improving osseointegration. This paper examines the potential for the use of an economically produced porous silicon particulate-polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for use as a guided bone regeneration device in periodontal and orthopaedic applications. The particulate sheet is comprised of a series of microparticles in a polytetrafluoroethylene matrix and is shown to produce a stable hydroxyapatite on its surface under simulated physiological conditions. The microstructure of the material is examined both before and after simulated body fluid experiments for a period of 1, 7, 14 and 30 days using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition is examined using a combination of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thin film X-ray diffraction, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the uptake/release of constituents at the fluid-solid interface is explored using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Microstructural and compositional analysis reveals progressive growth of crystalline, 'bone-like' apatite on the surface of the material, indicating the likelihood of close bony apposition in vivo.

  4. The determination of gold depth distribution in semiconductor silicon-potential interferences inherent in NAA by radiation damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, P.; Lange, A.; Flachowsky, J.

    1986-01-01

    Gold is used quite extensively to control the charge storage time of high speed diodes and transistors. Therefore, the diffusion of gold into silicon wafers of finite thickness is important in the design and fabrication of these devices. Therefore it is necessary to estimate exactly concentration and depth distribution of gold formed by gold doping. Usually, gold content and depth distribution has been estimate by neutron activation analysis with step by step etching techniques. But during the irradiation in a nuclear fuel reactor the silicon wafers undergo minute or pronounced radiation damages which may affect the depth profiles of gold concentration. (author)

  5. LiBSi2: a tetrahedral semiconductor framework from boron and silicon atoms bearing lithium atoms in the channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Michael; van Wüllen, Leo; Benson, Daryn; Kranak, Verina F; Konar, Sumit; Fässler, Thomas F; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2013-06-03

    Silicon swallows up boron: The novel open tetrahedral framework structure (OTF) of the Zintl phase LiBSi2 was made by applying high pressure to a mixture of LiB and elemental silicon. The compound represents a new topology in the B-Si net (called tum), which hosts Li atoms in the channels (see picture). LiBSi2 is the first example where B and Si atoms form an ordered common framework structure with B engaged exclusively in heteronuclear B-Si contacts.

  6. LiBSi{sub 2}: a tetrahedral semiconductor framework from boron and silicon atoms bearing lithium atoms in the channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, Michael; Faessler, Thomas F. [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Wuellen, Leo van [Department of Physics, University of Augsburg (Germany); Benson, Daryn [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Kranak, Verina F.; Konar, Sumit; Haeussermann, Ulrich [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2013-06-03

    Silicon swallows up boron. The novel open tetrahedral framework structure (OTF) of the Zintl phase LiBSi{sub 2} was made by applying high pressure to a mixture of LiB and elemental silicon. The compound represents a new topology in the B-Si net (called tum), which hosts Li atoms in the channels. LiBSi{sub 2} is the first example where B and Si atoms form an ordered common framework structure with B engaged exclusively in heteronuclear B-Si contacts. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  8. Effect of Projectile Materials on Foreign Object Damage of a Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Racz, Zsolt; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Brewer, David N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of AS800 silicon nitride was determined using four different projectile materials at ambient temperature. The target test specimens rigidly supported were impacted at their centers by spherical projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm. Four different types of projectiles were used including hardened steel balls, annealed steel balls, silicon nitride balls, and brass balls. Post-impact strength of each target specimen impacted was determined as a function of impact velocity to better understand the severity of local impact damage. The critical impact velocity where target specimens fail upon impact was highest with brass balls, lowest with ceramic ball, and intermediate with annealed and hardened steel balls. Degree of strength degradation upon impact followed the same order as in the critical impact velocity with respect to projectile materials. For steel balls, hardened projectiles yielded more significant impact damage than annealed counterparts. The most important material parameter affecting FOD was identified as hardness of projectiles and was correlated in terms of critical impact velocity, impact deformation, and impact load.

  9. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanum, Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are

  10. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  11. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  12. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  13. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  14. Effects of DC bias on magnetic performance of high grades grain-oriented silicon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guang; Cheng, Ling [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Transmission Technology,Beijing 102211 (China); Lu, Licheng [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing 100031 (China); Yang, Fuyao; Chen, Xin [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Transmission Technology,Beijing 102211 (China); Zhu, Chengzhi [State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power Company, Hangzhou 310007 (China)

    2017-03-15

    When high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission adopting mono-polar ground return operation mode or unbalanced bipolar operation mode, the invasion of DC current into neutral point of alternating current (AC) transformer will cause core saturation, temperature increasing, and vibration acceleration. Based on the MPG-200D soft magnetic measurement system, the influence of DC bias on magnetic performance of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P{sub 1.7}=0.70–1.05 W/kg, B{sub 8}>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically realized in this paper. For the high magnetic induction GO steels (core losses are the same), greater thickness can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed. Finally, the magnetostriction and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel under DC biased magnetization were researched. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P{sub 1.7}=0.70–1.05 W/kg, B{sub 8}>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically analyzed. • Influence of DC biased magnetization on core loss, magnetostriction, and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel were researched. • Greater thickness and relatively lower magnetic induction (B{sub 8}>1.89 T yet) of GO steel can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed.

  15. Low-cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the Silane Process for Producing Semiconductor-grade Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of Union Carbide's silane process for commercial application was established. An integrated process design for an experimental process system development unit and a commercial facility were developed. The corresponding commercial plant economic performance was then estimated.

  16. Design and performance of the ABCD3TA ASIC for readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 552, - (2005), s. 292-328 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : front-end electronics * binary readout * silicon strip detectors * application specific integrated circuits * quality assurance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  17. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  18. Role of metal/silicon semiconductor contact engineering for enhanced output current in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-11-25

    We show that contact engineering plays an important role to extract the maximum performance from energy harvesters like microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We experimented with Schottky and Ohmic methods of fabricating contact areas on silicon in an MFC contact material study. We utilized the industry standard contact material, aluminum, as well as a metal, whose silicide has recently been recognized for its improved performance in smallest scale integration requirements, cobalt. Our study shows that improvements in contact engineering are not only important for device engineering but also for microsystems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  20. Improving Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency Using Graded-Refractive-Index SiON/ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of silicon oxynitride (SiON/ZnO nanotube (NT arrays and their application in improving the energy conversion efficiency (η of crystalline Si-based solar cells (SCs are reported. The SiON/ZnO NT arrays have a graded-refractive-index that varies from 3.5 (Si to 1.9~2.0 (Si3N4 and ZnO to 1.72~1.75 (SiON to 1 (air. Experimental results show that the use of 0.4 μm long ZnO NT arrays coated with a 150 nm thick SiON film increases Δη/η by 39.2% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination as compared to that of regular SCs with a Si3N4/micropyramid surface. This enhancement can be attributed to SiON/ZnO NT arrays effectively releasing surface reflection and minimizing Fresnel loss.

  1. Ultraviolet-visible electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with CeO2 films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-01

    We report on ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with the CeO 2 films annealed at low temperatures. At the same injection current, the UV-Vis EL from the MOS device with the 550 °C-annealed CeO 2 film is much stronger than that from the counterpart with the 450 °C-annealed CeO 2 film. This is due to that the 550 °C-annealed CeO 2 film contains more Ce 3+ ions and oxygen vacancies. It is tentatively proposed that the recombination of the electrons in multiple oxygen-vacancy–related energy levels with the holes in Ce 4f 1 energy band pertaining to Ce 3+ ions leads to the UV-Vis EL

  2. Silicon is in short supply for the growth in solar cell production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Finn

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon will be in short supply by 2006. This is the conclusion of two independent studies, one done for the European Union and one for the Photovoltaic Industry Association. The most important reason is the rapid growth in the solar cell market, which is expected to be about 15 per cent per year until 2010. If so, the world's solar cell manufacturers will need 8,000 tonnes of pure silicon at that time. This growth presupposes that the price of silicon does not rise, but it readily might. Because the general situation for the semiconductor industry has been difficult, silicon has been readily available to the manufacturers of solar cells in recent years. This is true of discard, which has always been used for solar cells, but also of silicon that was intended to become microprocessors, storage chips and other advanced semiconductor devices. As the semiconductor market improves, the amount of silicon from this source will shrink. Manufacturers of solar cells cannot afford to pay as much as the semiconductor manufacturers, and some consider making solar cell grade silicon themselves

  3. Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors with silicon-oxy-nitride as the gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachander, K.; Arulkumaran, S.; Egawa, T.; Sano, Y.; Baskar, K.

    2005-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) were fabricated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxy-nitride (SiON) as an insulating layer. The compositions of SiON thin films were confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fabricated MOSHEMTs exhibited a very high saturation current density of 1.1 A/mm coupled with high positive operational gate voltage up to +7 V. The MOSHEMTs also exhibited four orders of low gate leakage current and high forward-on voltage when compared with the conventional HEMTs. The drain current collapse using gate pulse measurements showed only a negligible difference in the saturation current density revealing the drastic improvement in passivation of the surface states due to the high quality of dielectric thin films deposited. Thus, based on the improved direct-current operation, SiON can be considered to be a potential gate oxide comparable with other dielectric insulators

  4. Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Feasibility of Low-cost, High-volume Production of Silane and Pyrolysis of Silane to Semiconductor-grade Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Farrier, E. G.; Morihara, H.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of copper promotes a more rapid approach to the steady stete operating condition and results in a more consistent reactor effluent composition. The average kinetic and equilibrium yield are unchanged. Incoloy has been identified as the preferred choice of material of construction for the hydrogenation reactor although certain metallurgical changes were noted in samples exposed to the H2/HCl atmosphere at 500 C which indicate the need for more testing.

  5. Miniature semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Takacs, G.; Cornelius, I. M.; Yudelev, M.; Zaider, M.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon mini-semiconductor detectors are found in wide applications for in vivo personal dosimetry and dosimetry and Micro-dosimetry of different radiation oncology modalities. These applications are based on integral and spectroscopy modes of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor and silicon p-n junction detectors. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed. (authors)

  6. Development of technology of complex aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy with utilization of off grade raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mekhtiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on obtaining a complex aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy (FASCh from Karaganda high-ash coals and high-carbon ferrochromefines were carried out. A method for smelting low-carbon ferrochrome using aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy as a reductant is suggested.

  7. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  8. A Brief History of ... Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-01-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival…

  9. Laser induced local structural and property modifications in semiconductors for electronic and photonic superstructures - Silicon carbide to graphene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Naili

    Graphene is a single atomic layer two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal crystal of carbon atoms with sp2-bonding. Because of its various special or unique properties, graphene has attracted huge attention and considerable interest in recent years. This PhD research work focuses on the development of a novel approach to fabricating graphene micro- and nano-structures using a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser, a technique based on local conversion of 3C-SiC thin film into graphene. Different from other reported laser-induced graphene on single crystalline 4H- or 6H- SiC, this study focus on 3C-SiC polycrystal film grown using MBE. Because the SiC thin film is grown on silicon wafer, this approach may potentially lead to various new technologies that are compatible with those of Si microelectronics for fabricating graphene-based electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. The growth conditions for depositing 3C-SiC using MBE on Si wafers with three orientations, (100), (110), and (111), were evaluated and explored. The surface morphology and crystalline structure of 3C-SiC epilayer were investigated with SEM, AFM, XRD, μ-Raman, and TEM. The laser modification process to convert 3C-SiC into graphene layers has been developed and optimized by studying the quality dependence of the graphene layers on incident power, irradiation time, and surface morphology of the SiC film. The laser and power density used in this study which focused on thin film SiC was compared with those used in other related research works which focused on bulk SiC. The laser-induced graphene was characterized with μ-Raman, SEM/EDS, TEM, AFM, and, I-V curve tracer. Selective deposition of 3C-SiC thin film on patterned Si substrate with SiO2 as deposition mask has been demonstrated, which may allow the realization of graphene nanostructures (e.g., dots and ribbons) smaller than the diffraction limit spot size of the laser beam, down to the order of 100 nm. The electrical conductance of directly written graphene

  10. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  11. Laser activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) of 1-alkenes on silicon: A ToF-SIMS, chemometrics, and AFM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Lei; Jiang Guilin; Davis, Robert C.; Shaver, Jeremy M.; Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) was carried out on silicon with a series of 1-alkenes. These laser spots were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The resulting spectra were analyzed using the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method within the Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis (AXSIA) toolkit, and also by MCR and cluster analysis using commercially available toolboxes for Matlab: the PLS T oolbox and the MIA T oolbox, respectively. AXSIA based MCR generally finds three components for the spectral images: one for the background and two for the laser-activated spots, for both the positive and negative ion images. The negative ion component spectra from the spots show increased carbon and hydrogen signals compared to oxygen. They also show reduced chlorine and fluorine (contamination) peaks. In order to compare AXSIA-MCR results from different images, the AXSIA component spectra of different spots were further analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). PCA of all of the negative ion components shows that component 1 is chemically distinct from components 2 and 3. PCA of all of the positive ion components yields the same result. The loadings plots of this PCA analysis confirm that component 1 generally contains fragments expected from the substrate, while components 2 and 3 contain fragments expected from an overlayer composed of alkyl chains in the spots. A comparison of the two MCR analyses suggests that roughly the same information can be obtained from AXSIA, which is not commercially available, and the PLS T oolbox. Cluster analysis of the data also clearly separates the spots from the backgrounds. A key finding from these analyses is that the degree of surface functionalization in a LAMSS spot appears to decrease radially from the center of the spot. Finally, a comparison of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the spots versus the AXSIA analysis of the ToF-SIMS data produced another

  12. Laser activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) of 1-alkenes on silicon: A ToF-SIMS, chemometrics, and AFM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei Lei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Jiang Guilin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Davis, Robert C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Shaver, Jeremy M. [Eigenvector Research Inc., Wenatchee, WA 98801 (United States); Smentkowski, Vincent S. [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Asplund, Matthew C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Linford, Matthew R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)]. E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu

    2007-04-15

    Laser-activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) was carried out on silicon with a series of 1-alkenes. These laser spots were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The resulting spectra were analyzed using the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method within the Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis (AXSIA) toolkit, and also by MCR and cluster analysis using commercially available toolboxes for Matlab: the PLS{sub T}oolbox and the MIA{sub T}oolbox, respectively. AXSIA based MCR generally finds three components for the spectral images: one for the background and two for the laser-activated spots, for both the positive and negative ion images. The negative ion component spectra from the spots show increased carbon and hydrogen signals compared to oxygen. They also show reduced chlorine and fluorine (contamination) peaks. In order to compare AXSIA-MCR results from different images, the AXSIA component spectra of different spots were further analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). PCA of all of the negative ion components shows that component 1 is chemically distinct from components 2 and 3. PCA of all of the positive ion components yields the same result. The loadings plots of this PCA analysis confirm that component 1 generally contains fragments expected from the substrate, while components 2 and 3 contain fragments expected from an overlayer composed of alkyl chains in the spots. A comparison of the two MCR analyses suggests that roughly the same information can be obtained from AXSIA, which is not commercially available, and the PLS{sub T}oolbox. Cluster analysis of the data also clearly separates the spots from the backgrounds. A key finding from these analyses is that the degree of surface functionalization in a LAMSS spot appears to decrease radially from the center of the spot. Finally, a comparison of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the spots versus the AXSIA analysis of the ToF-SIMS data produced

  13. Structural and optical properties of silicon rich oxide films in graded-stoichiometric multilayers for optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios-Huerta, L.; Aceves-Mijares, M. [Electronics Department, INAOE, Apdo. 51, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Cabañas-Tay, S. A.; Cardona-Castro, M. A.; Morales-Sánchez, A., E-mail: alfredo.morales@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Unidad Monterrey-PIIT, Apodaca, NL 66628, México (Mexico); Domínguez-Horna, C. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-18

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) are excellent candidates for the development of optoelectronic devices. Nevertheless, different strategies are still necessary to enhance their photo and electroluminescent properties by controlling their structural and compositional properties. In this work, the effect of the stoichiometry and structure on the optical properties of silicon rich oxide (SRO) films in a multilayered (ML) structure is studied. SRO MLs with silicon excess gradually increased towards the top and bottom and towards the center of the ML produced through the variation of the stoichiometry in each SRO layer were fabricated and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Si-ncs with three main sizes were observed by a transmission electron microscope, in agreement with the stoichiometric profile of each SRO layer. The presence of the three sized Si-ncs and some oxygen related defects enhances intense violet/blue and red photoluminescence (PL) bands. The SRO MLs were super-enriched with additional excess silicon by Si{sup +} implantation, which enhanced the PL intensity. Oxygen-related defects and small Si-ncs (<2 nm) are mostly generated during ion implantation enhancing the violet/blue band to become comparable to the red band. The structural, compositional, and luminescent characteristics of the multilayers are the result of the contribution of the individual characteristics of each layer.

  14. Silicon Microspheres Photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpenguzel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared

  15. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  16. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  17. Muonium states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    There is a brief summary of what is known about the muonium states isotropic, anisotropic and diamagnetic in diamond and zincblende semiconductors. The report deals with muonium spectroscopy, including the formation probabilities, hyperfine parameters and electronic g-factors of the states. The dynamics of the states is treated including a discussion of the transition from isotropic Mu to anisotropic Mu in diamond, temperature-dependent linewidthes in silicon and germanium and effects of daping and radiation damage

  18. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  19. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  20. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  1. Organic semiconductors in a spin

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, I

    2002-01-01

    A little palladium can go a long way in polymer-based light-emitting diodes. Inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide are essential for countless applications in everyday life, ranging from PCs to CD players. However, while they offer unrivalled computational speed, inorganic semiconductors are also rigid and brittle, which means that they are less suited to applications such as displays and flexible electronics. A completely different class of materials - organic semiconductors - are being developed for these applications. Organic semiconductors have many attractive features: they are easy to make, they can emit visible light, and there is tremendous scope for tailoring their properties to specific applications by changing their chemical structure. Research groups and companies around the world have developed a wide range of organic-semiconductor devices, including transistors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells and lasers. (U.K.)

  2. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  3. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2015-06-18

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  4. A 94GHz Temperature Compensated Low Noise Amplifier in 45nm Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ring oscillator based temperature sensor will be designed to compensate for gain variations over temperature. For comparison to a competing solution...Simulated (Green) Capacitance of the GSG Pads ........................ 9 Figure 6: Die Picture and Schematic of the L-2L Coplanar Waveguides...complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A ring oscillator based temperature sensor was designed to compensate for gain variations

  5. Theoretical approach of photo-field emission in degenerated semiconductors. The case of slightly P-doped silicon tips; Approche theorique de la photoemission de champ a partir de semiconducteurs degeneres. Cas des pointes de silicium faiblement dope p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chbihi El Wahoudi, A. [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). U.F.R. de Recherche Scientifique et Technique

    1996-12-20

    After defining field emission in metallic tips, we examine thoroughly a theory of photo-field emission following the works of Bagchi, Schwartz and Gao. This theory is compared to the experimental results of Reifenberger et al. We study the field emission in a semiconductor, following R. Stratton, and we propose a new theoretical interpretation of the anomalous growth of current with field, as it often occurs in the characteristic current-voltage. We assume the creation by the field of a dynamic quantum well in the surface conduction band. As a consequence of the induced degeneracy, we express theoretically the contribution to the current, of the electrons confined in the well. We compare this hypothesis to the emission of doped P silicon. There is a fairly good agreement. Assuming that the electrons are confined in the well, we develop a new theoretical approach of the photo-field emission of a degenerated semiconductor. We derive the photoelectric transition probability in the case of laser YAG pulse of picosecond duration, then the photocurrent densities of various photonic energies for distinct values of electric field, taking into account the optical property of the medium. We are thus able to interpret our experimental results with a good agreement. This original development should enable us to predict the behaviour of our tipped photocathodes in photo-injectors (CLIC, CANDELA, Tesla). These photocathodes could be interesting in infrared detection. (author) 55 refs.

  6. Removal of inclusions from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes

    2009-11-01

    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  7. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  8. Toward the hybrid organic semiconductor FET (HOSFET) electrical and electrochemical characterization of functionalized and unfunctionalized, covalently bound organic monolayers on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik Jouwert

    2006-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1993 the class of covalently bound organic monolayers on oxide free silicon surfaces have found their way to multiple application fields such as passivation layers in solar cells, masking layers in lithographic processing, insulating films in hybrid moleculesilicon

  9. Effect of CH3COOH on Hydrometallurgical Purification of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Using HCl-HF Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunjin; Lu, Haifei; Wei, Kuixian; Ma, Wenhui; Xie, Keqiang; Wu, Jijun; Lei, Yun; Yang, Bin; Morita, Kazuki

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding CH3COOH to HCl and HF used to purify metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si). After 6 h of leaching MG-Si with an acid mixture consisting of 4 mol L-1 HCl, 3 mol L-1 HF, and 3 mol L-1 CH3COOH at 348 K, the total impurity removal efficiency was 88.5%, exceeding the 81.5% removal efficiency obtained without addition of CH3COOH. The microstructural evolution of Si after etching with the two lixiviants indicated better dissolution of metal impurities in MG-Si when using the HCl-HF-CH3COOH mixture. Furthermore, the leaching kinetics of Fe using the HCl-HF and HCl-HF-CH3COOH mixtures were observed to depend on the interfacial chemical reactions.

  10. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported

  11. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; (i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and (ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Advances in semiconductor photodetectors for scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, R.; Olschner, F.; Shah, K.; Squillante, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductors photodetectors have long seemed an attractive alternative for scintillation detection, but only recently have semiconductor photodiodes been proven suitable for some room temperature applications. There are many applications, however for which the performance of standard silicon p-i-n photodiodes is not satisfactory. This article reviews recent progress in two different families of novel semiconductor photodetectors: (1) wide bandgap compound semiconductors and (2) silicon photodetectors with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The compounds discussed and compared in this paper are HgI 2 , PbI 2 , InI, TlBr, TlBr 1-x I x and HgBr 1-x I x . The paper will also examine unity gain silicon drift diodes and avalanche photodiodes with maximum room temperature gain greater than 10000. (orig.)

  13. Transformation of medical grade silicone rubber under Nd:YAG and excimer laser irradiation: First step towards a new miniaturized nerve electrode fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Robbe, O.; Addad, A.; Turrell, S.; Derozier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Medical grade silicone rubber, poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used biomaterial. Like for many polymers, its surface can be modified in order to change one or several of its properties which further allow this surface to be functionalized. Laser-induced surface modification of PDMS under ambient conditions is an easy and powerful method for the surface modification of PDMS without altering its bulk properties. In particular, we profit from both UV laser inducing surface modification and of UV laser micromachining to develop a first part of a new process aiming at increasing the number of contacts and tracks within the same electrode surface to improve the nerve selectivity of implantable self sizing spiral cuff electrodes. The second and last part of the process is to further immerse the engraved electrode in an autocatalytic Pt bath leading in a selective Pt metallization of the laser irradiated tracks and contacts and thus to a functionalized PDMS surface. In the present work, we describe the different physical and chemical transformations of a medical grade PDMS as a function of the UV laser and of the irradiation conditions used. We show that the ablation depths, chemical composition, structure and morphology vary with (i) the laser wavelength (using an excimer laser at 248 nm and a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm), (ii) the conditions of irradiation and (iii) the pulse duration. These different modified properties are expected to have a strong influence on the nucleation and growth rates of platinum which govern the adhesion and the thickness of the Pt layer on the electrodes and thus the DC resistance of tracks.

  14. Advanced radiation detector development mercuric iodide, silicon with internal gain, hybrid scintillator/semiconductor detectors. Comprehensive summary report, 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, G.C.; Dabrowski, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are reported in the development of a compound semi-insulator mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) for nuclear radiation detection and spectroscopy, early lung cancer detection and localization in the uranium miner/worker population, computer digital image processing and image reconstruction research, and a concept for multiple, filtered x-ray computed tomography scanning to reveal chemical compositional information. Another area of interest is the study of new advances in the area of silicon detectors with internal gain (''avalanche'')

  15. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  16. Development of semiconductor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, John.

    1977-01-01

    In 1931, Wilson applied Block's theory about the energy bands for the motion of electrons in a crystal lattice to semiconductors and showed that conduction can take place in two different ways, by electrons and by holes. Not long afterwards Frenkel showed that these carriers can flow by diffusion in a concentration gradient as well as under the influence of an electric field and wrote down equations for the current flow. The third major contribution, in the late 1930's was the explanation of rectification at a metalsemiconductor contact by Mott and more completely by Schottky. In late 1947 the first transistor of the point contact type was invented by Brattin, Shockley and Bardeen. Then after single crystals of Ge were grown, the junction transistor was developed by the same group. The first silicon transistors appeared in 1954. Then an important step was discovery of the planar transistor by Hoenri in 1960 which led to development of integrated circuits by 1962. Many transistors are produced by batch processing on a slice of silicon. Then in 1965 Mos (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) transistor and in 1968 LSI (Large Scale Intergration circuits) were developed. Aside from electronic circuits, there are many other applications of semiconductors, including junction power rectifiers, junction luminescence (including lasers), solar batteries, radiation detectors, microwave oscillators and charged-coupled devices for computer memories and devices. One of the latest developments is a microprocessor with thousands of transistors and associated circuitry on a single small chip of silicon. It can be programmed to provide a variety of circuit functions, thus it is not necessary to go through the great expense of LSI's for each desired function, but to use standard microprocessors and program to do the job

  17. Electrowetting on semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Cesar; Deegan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Applying a voltage difference between a conductor and a sessile droplet sitting on a thin dielectric film separating it from the conductor will cause the drop to spread. When the conductor is a good metal, the change of the drop's contact angle due to the voltage is given by the Young-Lippmann (YL) equation. Here, we report experiments with lightly doped, single crystal silicon as the conductive electrode. We derive a modified YL equation that includes effects due to the semiconductor and contact line pinning. We show that light induces a non-reversible wetting transition, and that our model agrees well with our experimental results.

  18. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows

  19. Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John W.; Westbrook, Russell D.; Wood, Richard F.; Young, Rosa T.

    1978-01-01

    A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

  20. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  1. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  2. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  3. Drain-induced barrier lowering effect for short channel dual material gate 4H silicon carbide metal—semiconductor field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Jun; Yang, Yin-Tang; Duan, Bao-Xing; Chai, Chang-Chun; Song, Kun; Chen, Bin

    2012-09-01

    Sub-threshold characteristics of the dual material gate 4H-SiC MESFET (DMGFET) are investigated and the analytical models to describe the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect are derived by solving one- and two-dimensional Poisson's equations. Using these models, we calculate the bottom potential of the channel and the threshold voltage shift, which characterize the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect. The calculated results reveal that the dual material gate (DMG) structure alleviates the deterioration of the threshold voltage and thus suppresses the DIBL effect due to the introduced step function, which originates from the work function difference of the two gate materials when compared with the conventional single material gate metal—semiconductor field-effect transistor (SMGFET).

  4. Drain-induced barrier lowering effect for short channel dual material gate 4H silicon carbide metal—semiconductor field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xian-Jun; Yang Yin-Tang; Duan Bao-Xing; Chai Chang-Chun; Song Kun; Chen Bin

    2012-01-01

    Sub-threshold characteristics of the dual material gate 4H-SiC MESFET (DMGFET) are investigated and the analytical models to describe the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect are derived by solving one- and two-dimensional Poisson's equations. Using these models, we calculate the bottom potential of the channel and the threshold voltage shift, which characterize the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect. The calculated results reveal that the dual material gate (DMG) structure alleviates the deterioration of the threshold voltage and thus suppresses the DIBL effect due to the introduced step function, which originates from the work function difference of the two gate materials when compared with the conventional single material gate metal—semiconductor field-effect transistor (SMGFET)

  5. Calculation of the displacement cross sections and the DPA distribution in hydrogenated amorphous silicon semiconductors detectors in medical digital imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Piñera Hernández, Ibrahin; Shtejer Díaz, Katerin; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Cruz Inclán, Carlos Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In present paper the dependence of the displacement cross sections of the different species of atoms in the a-Si:H structure, with the energy of the secondary electrons generated by the X-rays of the typical energies using in medical imaging applications, was calculated using the Mott-McKinley- Feshbach approach. It was verified that for electron energies higher than 1.52 keV it is possible the occurrence of hydrogen atoms displacements, while for the silicon atoms the threshold energy is 126 keV. These results were compared with those obtained for similar detectors but developed with crystalline silicon. With the use of the mathematical simulation of the radiation transport in the matter, the energy spectrum of the secondary electrons was calculated in order to estimate the number of atomic displacements, which take place in the semiconducting amorphous device in working regime. The spatial distribution of the dpa in the detectors volume, as well as its behavior with the depth in the work region are presented and discussed in the text. (author)

  6. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  7. Investigation of piezoresistive effect in p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on circular silicon-on-insulator diaphragms using cost-effective minimal-fab process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxun; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Umeyama, Norio; Koga, Kazuhiro; Khumpuang, Sommawan; Nagao, Masayoshi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Hara, Shiro

    2018-06-01

    P-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (PMOSFETs) with the 〈110〉 or 〈100〉 channel direction have been successfully fabricated on circular silicon-on-insulator (SOI) diaphragms using a cost-effective minimal-fab process, and their electrical characteristics have been systematically investigated before and after the SOI diaphragm formation. It was found that almost the same subthreshold slope (S-slope) and threshold voltage (V t) are observed in the fabricated PMOSFETs before and after the SOI diaphragm formation, and they are independent of the channel direction. On the other hand, significant variations in drain current were observed in the fabricated PMOSFETs with the 〈110〉 channel direction after the SOI diaphragm formation owing to the residual mechanical stress-induced piezoresistive effect. It was also confirmed that electrical characteristics of the fabricated PMOSFETs with the 〈100〉 channel direction are almost the same before and after the SOI diaphragm formation, i.e., not sensitive to the mechanical stress. Moreover, the drain current variations at different directions of mechanical stress and current flow were systematically investigated and discussed.

  8. The effect of threading dislocations on optical absorption and electron scattering in strongly mismatched heteroepitaxial III-V compound semiconductors on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Peiner, E; Wehmann, H H

    2002-01-01

    The effect of threading dislocations on the optical and electrical properties of InP and GaAs heteroepitaxial layers on (001) silicon was investigated. Charged deep states act as scattering centres for electrons, thus affecting the electron mobility at low temperatures. The electric field arising from charged dislocations causes enhanced optical absorption at wavelengths near the fundamental absorption edge. The mean charge of the threading dislocations in GaAs/Si was found to be considerably higher than that for InP/Si. A model is described relating this effect to a regular arrangement of alpha-type 60 deg. dislocations at extended twin defects which were observed in InP/Si but were absent in GaAs/Si.

  9. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  10. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on the density of radiation-induced defects in dielectrics and on the semiconductor surface of silicon MDS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daliev, Kh.S.; Lebedev, A.A.; Ehkke, V.; 3425000DD)

    1987-01-01

    Isochronous annealing of radiation defects formed under MIS structure irradiation by γ-quanta at the presence of shift stress on a metal electrode is studied. Complex measurements of non-stationary capacitance spectroscopy and volt-farad characteristics (VFC) have shown that a built-in charge and volumetric states (VS) of the dielectric are annealed at 250 deg C, fast surface states (SS) - at 350 deg C, and the characteristic radiation defect in the Si-SiO 2 transition layer is completely annealed only at 400 deg C. Additional VS and SS occurring in the structures at positive shift on the metal electrode under radiation are annealed at 120 deg C, the kinetics of defect annealing at higher temperatures is independent from shift polarity. SS density calculated by VFC is determined in reality by recharging not only SS but some VS of the dielectric in the range of width of the order of 3.5 nm from the surface of the semiconductor

  12. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M J; Wielunski, L S; Netterfield, R P; Martin, P J; Leistner, A [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Netterfield, R.P.; Martin, P.J.; Leistner, A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Semiconductor spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, J.; Abiague, A.M.; Ertler, Ch.; Stano, P.; Zutic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics refers commonly to phenomena in which the spin of electrons in a solid state environment plays the determining role. In a more narrow sense spintronics is an emerging research field of electronics: spintronics devices are based on a spin control of electronics, or on an electrical and optical control of spin of magnetism. While metal spintronics has already found its niche in the computer industry - giant magnetoresistance systems are used as hard disk read heads - semiconductor spintronics is vet demonstrate its full potential. This review presents selected themes of semiconductor spintronics, introducing important concepts in spin transport, spin transport, spin injection. Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling, and spin-dependent tunneling, as well as spin relaxation and spin dynamics. The most fundamental spin-dependent interaction in nonmagnetic semiconductors is spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the crystal symmetries of the material, as well as on the structural properties of semiconductor based heterostructures, the spin-orbit coupling takes on different functional forms, giving a nice playground of effective spin-orbit Hamiltonians. The effective Hamiltonians for the most relevant classes of materials and heterostructures are derived here from realistic electronic band structure descriptions. Most semiconductor device systems are still theoretical concepts, waiting for experimental demonstrations. A review of selected proposed, and a few demonstrated devices is presented, with detailed description of two important classes: magnetic resonant tunnel structures and bipolar magnetic diodes and transistors. In view of the importance of ferromagnetic semiconductor material, a brief discussion of diluted magnetic semiconductors is included. In most cases the presentation is of tutorial style, introducing the essential theoretical formalism at an accessible level, with case-study-like illustrations of actual experimental results, as well as with brief

  15. Effects of series and parallel resistances on the C-V characteristics of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rejaiba; Mohamed, Ben Amar; Adel, Matoussi

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the electrical behavior of the Al/SiO2/Si MOS structure. We have used the complex admittance method to develop an analytical model of total capacitance applied to our proposed equivalent circuit. The charge density, surface potential, semiconductor capacitance, flatband and threshold voltages have been determined by resolving the Poisson transport equations. This modeling is used to predict in particular the effects of frequency, parallel and series resistance on the capacitance-voltage characteristic. Results show that the variation of both frequency and parallel resistance causes strong dispersion of the C-V curves in the inversion regime. It also reveals that the series resistance influences the shape of C-V curves essentially in accumulation and inversion modes. A significant decrease of the accumulation capacitance is observed when R s increases in the range 200-50000 Ω. The degradation of the C-V magnitude is found to be more pronounced when the series resistance depends on the substrate doping density. When R s varies in the range 100 Ω-50 kΩ, it shows a decrease in the flatband voltage from -1.40 to -1.26 V and an increase in the threshold voltage negatively from -0.28 to -0.74 V, respectively. Good agreement has been observed between simulated and measured C-V curves obtained at high frequency. This study is necessary to control the adverse effects that disrupt the operation of the MOS structure in different regimes and optimizes the efficiency of such electronic device before manufacturing.

  16. Electroluminescence color tuning between green and red from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of rare-earth (terbium + europium) organic compounds on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki; Ohzone, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Color tunable electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with the rare-earth elements Tb and Eu is reported. Organic compound liquid sources of (Tb + Ba) and Eu with various Eu/Tb ratios from 0.001 to 0.4 were spin-coated on an n+-Si substrate and annealed to form an oxide insulator layer. The EL spectra had only peaks corresponding to the intrashell Tb3+/Eu3+ transitions in the spectral range from green to red, and the intensity ratio of the peaks was appropriately tuned using the appropriate Eu/Tb ratios in liquid sources. Consequently, the EL emission colors linearly changed from yellowish green to yellowish orange and eventually to reddish orange on the CIE chromaticity diagram. The gate current +I G current also affected the EL colors for the medium-Eu/Tb-ratio device. The structure of the surface insulator films analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has four layers, namely, (Tb4O7 + Eu2O3), [Tb4O7 + Eu2O3 + (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x ], (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x , and SiO x -rich oxide. The EL mechanism proposed is that electrons injected from the Si substrate into the SiO x -rich oxide and Tb/Eu/Ba-silicate layers become hot electrons accelerated in a high electric field, and then these hot electrons excite Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in the Tb4O7/Eu2O3 layers resulting in EL emission from Tb3+ and Eu3+ intrashell transitions.

  17. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  18. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  19. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in defects of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinami, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    Interaction of positron and defects, application to research of defects of semiconductor and defects on the surface of semiconductor are explained. Cz (Czochralski)-Si single crystal with 10 18 cm -3 impurity oxygen was introduced defects by electron irradiation and the positron lifetime was measured at 90K after annealing. The defect size and recovery temperature were determined by the lifetime measurement. The distribution of defects in the depth direction is shown by S-E curve. The chemical state analysis is possible by CBS (Coincidence Doppler Broadening) spectra. The application to silicon-implanted (100 keV, 2x10 15 cm -2 ) silicon and oxygen-implanted (180 keV, 2x10 15 cm -2 ) silicon are stated. On the oxygen-implanted silicon, the main product was V2 after implantation, V 6 O 2 at 600degC and V 10 O 6 at 800degC. (S.Y.)

  20. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  1. Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-13

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  2. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  3. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  4. Quantitative autoradiography of semiconductor base material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic methods for the quantitative determination of elements interesting in semiconductor technology and their distribution in silicon are described. Whereas the local concentration and distribution of phosphorus has been determined with the aid of silver halide films the neutron-induced autoradiography has been applied in the case of boron. Silicon disks containing diffused phosphorus or implanted or diffused boron have been used as standard samples. Different possibilities of the quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are considered and compared

  5. Review of wide band-gap semiconductors technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC and gallium nitride (GaN are typical representative of the wide band-gap semiconductor material, which is also known as third-generation semiconductor materials. Compared with the conventional semiconductor silicon (Si or gallium arsenide (GaAs, wide band-gap semiconductor has the wide band gap, high saturated drift velocity, high critical breakdown field and other advantages; it is a highly desirable semiconductor material applied under the case of high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency, anti-radiation environment. These advantages of wide band-gap devices make them a hot spot of semiconductor technology research in various countries. This article describes the research agenda of United States and European in this area, focusing on the recent developments of the wide band-gap technology in the US and Europe, summed up the facing challenge of the wide band-gap technology.

  6. The use of electro-deoxidation in molten salts to reduce the energy consumption of solar grade silicon and increase the output of PV solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Coxon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaics, based upon silicon, are the most popular form of solar cell with efficiencies around 20%. These efficiencies can be further increased by employing light trapping schemes to minimise optical losses through scattering and reflection which enhances the amount of light absorbed and number of photo-carriers generated. Typical approaches employ antireflection coatings (ARCs or texturise the surface of the silicon disks, so that the structure consists of an array of needles which can absorb most of the light. Usually, these structures are created by leaching the silicon with hydrofluoric-based acids or by reactive ion etching (RIE methods. This paper reviews some of the methods for improving the energy efficiency of silicon production, and describes the use of electro-deoxidation of SiO2 layers, on silicon, in molten calcium chloride to form nano-porous black silicon (b-Si structures. By coating b-Si surface with TiO2, a common ARC, extremely black surfaces with negligible reflectance of about 0.1%, are produced, which can have applications for low-cost high efficiency solar cells.

  7. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  8. Integrated silicon optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Horst

    2000-01-01

    'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'assembles optoelectronics and microelectronics The book concentrates on silicon as the major basis of modern semiconductor devices and circuits Starting from the basics of optical emission and absorption and from the device physics of photodetectors, the aspects of the integration of photodetectors in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies are discussed Detailed descriptions of fabrication technologies and applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits are included The book, furthermore, contains a review of the state of research on eagerly expected silicon light emitters In order to cover the topic of the book comprehensively, integrated waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic power devices are included in addition Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension 'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists in industry and at universities The book is also recommendable for graduate students speciali...

  9. Heteroepitaxial growth of In{sub 0.30}Ga{sub 0.70}As high-electron mobility transistor on 200 mm silicon substrate using metamorphic graded buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, David, E-mail: david.kohen@asm.com; Nguyen, Xuan Sang; Made, Riko I; Lee, Kwang Hong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian [Low Energy Electronic Systems IRG (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Yadav, Sachin; Kumar, Annie; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee Chia [National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Heidelberger, Christopher [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Yoon, Soon Fatt [Low Energy Electronic Systems IRG (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fitzgerald, Eugene A. [Low Energy Electronic Systems IRG (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the growth of an In{sub 0.30}Ga{sub 0.70}As channel high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) on a 200 mm silicon wafer by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. By using a 3 μm thick buffer comprising a Ge layer, a GaAs layer and an InAlAs compositionally graded strain relaxing buffer, we achieve threading dislocation density of (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −2} with a surface roughness of 10 nm RMS. No phase separation was observed during the InAlAs compositionally graded buffer layer growth. 1.4 μm long channel length transistors are fabricated from the wafer with I{sub DS} of 70 μA/μm and g{sub m} of above 60 μS/μm, demonstrating the high quality of the grown materials.

  10. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  11. Silicon hybrid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianyao; Yuan Taonu; Shao Shiqian; Shi Zujun; Wang Yi; Yu Yude; Yu Jinzhong

    2011-01-01

    Recently,much attention has concentrated on silicon based photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which provide a cost-effective solution for high speed, wide bandwidth optical interconnection and optical communication.To integrate III-V compounds and germanium semiconductors on silicon substrates,at present there are two kinds of manufacturing methods, i.e., heteroepitaxy and bonding. Low-temperature wafer bonding which can overcome the high growth temperature, lattice mismatch,and incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients during heteroepitaxy, has offered the possibility for large-scale heterogeneous integration. In this paper, several commonly used bonding methods are reviewed, and the future trends of low temperature wafer bonding envisaged. (authors)

  12. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductors in strong THz electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun

    In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear interactions of an intense terahertz (THz) field with semiconductors, in particular the technologically relevant materials silicon and silicon carbide. We reveal the time-resolved dynamics of the nonlinear processes by pump-probe experiments that involve...

  14. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 900 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. (author)

  15. Quasimetallic silicon micromachined photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temelkuran, B.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Ozbay, E.; Kavanaugh, J. P.; Sigalas, M. M.; Tuttle, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fabrication of a layer-by-layer photonic crystal using highly doped silicon wafers processed by semiconductor micromachining techniques. The crystals, built using (100) silicon wafers, resulted in an upper stop band edge at 100 GHz. The transmission and defect characteristics of these structures were found to be analogous to metallic photonic crystals. We also investigated the effect of doping concentration on the defect characteristics. The experimental results agree well with predictions of the transfer matrix method simulations

  16. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  17. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Si-semiconductor device failure mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, H.

    1976-12-01

    This report presents investigations on failure mechanisms that may cause defects during production and operation of silicon semiconductor devices. The failure analysis of aluminium metallization defects covers topics such as step coverage, dissolution pits and electromigration. Furthermore, the generation of process induced lattice defects was investigated. Improved processes avoiding those defects were developed. (orig.) [de

  19. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of silicon manufacturing process to rationalize energy usage (Development of mass production technology for solar-grade silicon); 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the proliferation stage of solar cells, a technology is required to manufacture low-cost SOG-Si that can handle small quantity production. Development is being made on a manufacturing technology using high purity metallic silicon (99.5%) as the raw material. Considering that the subject impurities are P, B and metallic impurities (Fe, Ti and Al), a manufacturing method consisting of the following processes is being developed: metallic silicon/phosphorus removal, solidification and rough refining/boron removal, solidification and fine refining. Discussions are being advanced on phosphorus removal by using a large electron beam fusion equipment, and at the same time, the discussions are supported by fabricating and installing a large equipment intended of removing boron and the metallic impurities. Boron is removed by oxidizing it with steam. Therefore, the basic mechanism of the equipment is to spray argon plasma added with steam onto the molten silicon surface. In boron removal, diffusion of boron onto the reaction interface in the primary reaction determines the rate. A boron removal rate for B/10 to 0.1 ppm of 45 kg/h as maximum was achieved. The derived silicon has met the requirement. (NEDO)

  1. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  2. Nuclear radiation detectors using high resistivity neutron transmutation doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, T.; Irmer, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the production of semiconductor detectors based on high resistivity n-type silicon is described. The n-type silicon is produced by neutron irradiation of p-type silicon. The detectors are produced by planar technique. They are suitable for the spectrometry of alpha particles and for the pulse count measurement of beta particles at room temperature. (author)

  3. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Bowers, John E.

    2010-01-01

    A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  4. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  5. Process for making silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  6. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  7. Hole Injection at the Silicon/Aqueous Electrolyte Interface: A Possible Mechanism for Chemiluminescence from Porous Silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Butter, K.; Kelly, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction mechanism of oxidizing agents at silicon and porous silicon electrodes has been investigated in relation to light emission from the porous semiconductor. Oxidizing agents with a positive redox potential are shown to inject holes into HF-pretreated silicon. However, as the degree of

  8. Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfyrla, Anna [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-03-10

    In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb-1 of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is σWW/WZtheory x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 2.09 ± 0.14 pb. They measured NSignal = 410 ± 212(stat) ± 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section σWW/WZ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 1.47 ± 0.77(stat) ± 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be σ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on the end-cap disks. The SCT end-caps and barrels

  9. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices is described in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 600 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. The process may be enhanced by the application of optical radiation from a Xenon lamp. (author)

  10. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  11. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  12. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  13. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  14. Lattice location of impurities in silicon Carbide

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085259; Correia Martins, João Guilherme

    The presence and behaviour of transition metals (TMs) in SiC has been a concern since the start of producing device-grade wafers of this wide band gap semiconductor. They are unintentionally introduced during silicon carbide (SiC) production, crystal growth and device manufacturing, which makes them difficult contaminants to avoid. Once in SiC they easily form deep levels, either when in the isolated form or when forming complexes with other defects. On the other hand, using intentional TM doping, it is possible to change the electrical, optical and magnetic properties of SiC. TMs such as chromium, manganese or iron have been considered as possible candidates for magnetic dopants in SiC, if located on silicon lattice sites. All these issues can be explored by investigating the lattice site of implanted TMs. This thesis addresses the lattice location and thermal stability of the implanted TM radioactive probes 56Mn, 59Fe, 65Ni and 111Ag in both cubic 3C- and hexagonal 6H SiC polytypes by means of emission cha...

  15. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  16. Foreword: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm−3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors.This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008, which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1.The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  17. Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Ugonna; Shields, C Wyatt; Han, Koohee; Tyler, Talmage; Velev, Orlin D; Jokerst, Nan

    2018-05-03

    Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assembly, disassembly, and reconfiguration. Here we introduce a class of semiconductor microparticles that can be comprehensively designed (in size, shape, electric polarizability, and patterned coatings) using standard microfabrication tools. These custom silicon particles draw energy from external electric fields to actively propel, while interacting hydrodynamically, and sequentially assemble and disassemble on demand. We show that a number of electrokinetic effects, such as dielectrophoresis, induced charge electrophoresis, and diode propulsion, can selectively power the microparticle motions and interactions. The ability to achieve on-demand locomotion, tractable fluid flows, synchronized motility, and reversible assembly using engineered silicon microparticles may enable advanced applications that include remotely powered microsensors, artificial muscles, reconfigurable neural networks and computational systems.

  18. Resistance transition assisted geometry enhanced magnetoresistance in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) reported in some non-magnetic semiconductors (particularly silicon) has triggered considerable interest owing to the large magnitude of the effect. Here, we showed that MR in lightly doped n-Si can be significantly enhanced by introducing two diodes and proper design of the carrier path [Wan, Nature 477, 304 (2011)]. We designed a geometrical enhanced magnetoresistance (GEMR) device whose room-temperature MR ratio reaching 30% at 0.065 T and 20 000% at 1.2 T, respectively, approaching the performance of commercial MR devices. The mechanism of this GEMR is: the diodes help to define a high resistive state (HRS) and a low resistive state (LRS) in device by their openness and closeness, respectively. The ratio of apparent resistance between HRS and LRS is determined by geometry of silicon wafer and electrodes. Magnetic field could induce a transition from LRS to HRS by reshaping potential and current distribution among silicon wafer, resulting in a giant enhancement of intrinsic MR. We expect that this GEMR could be also realized in other semiconductors. The combination of high sensitivity to low magnetic fields and large high-field response should make this device concept attractive to the magnetic field sensing industry. Moreover, because this MR device is based on a conventional silicon/semiconductor platform, it should be possible to integrate this MR device with existing silicon/semiconductor devices and so aid the development of silicon/semiconductor-based magnetoelectronics. Also combining MR devices and semiconducting devices in a single Si/semiconductor chip may lead to some novel devices with hybrid function, such as electric-magnetic-photonic properties. Our work demonstrates that the charge property of semiconductor can be used in the magnetic sensing industry, where the spin properties of magnetic materials play a role traditionally

  19. Fabrication and optical characterization of light trapping silicon nanopore and nanoscrew devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyunjong; Logan Liu, G

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated nanotextured Si substrates that exhibit controllable optical reflection intensities and colors. Si nanopore has a photon trapping nanostructure but has abrupt changes in the index of refraction displaying a darkened specular reflection. Nanoscrew Si shows graded refractive-index photon trapping structures that enable diffuse reflection to be as low as 2.2% over the visible wavelengths. By tuning the 3D nanoscale silicon structure, the optical reflection peak wavelength and intensity are changed in the wavelength range of 300–800 nm, making the surface have different reflectivity and apparent colors. The relation between the surface optical properties with the spatial features of the photon trapping nanostructures is examined. Integration of photon trapping structures with planar Si structure on the same substrate is also demonstrated. The tunable photon trapping silicon structures have potential applications in enhancing the performance of semiconductor photoelectric devices. (paper)

  20. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  1. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  2. Fabrication of silicon solar cell with >18% efficiency using spin-on-film processing for phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yi-Yu; Ho, Wen-Jeng, E-mail: wjho@ntut.edu.tw; Yeh, Chien-Wu

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Employed SOF technology for both phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer ARCs. • Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} films are characterized. • Photovoltaic performances of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. • An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes. - Abstract: This study employed spin-on film (SOF) technology for the fabrication of phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) with a graded index on silicon (Si) wafers. Low cost and high efficiency solar cells are important issues for the operating cost of a photovoltaic system. SOF technology for the fabrication of solar cells can be for the achievement of this goal. This study succeeded in the application of SOF technology in the preparation of both phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} ARCs for Si solar cells. Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and multi-layer SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} deposition by SOF are characterized. Electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes.

  3. Electronic properties of semiconductor surfaces and metal/semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallarida, M.

    2005-05-15

    This thesis reports investigations of the electronic properties of a semiconductor surface (silicon carbide), a reactive metal/semiconductor interface (manganese/silicon) and a non-reactive metal/semiconductor interface (aluminum-magnesium alloy/silicon). The (2 x 1) reconstruction of the 6H-SiC(0001) surface has been obtained by cleaving the sample along the (0001) direction. This reconstruction has not been observed up to now for this compound, and has been compared with those of similar elemental semiconductors of the fourth group of the periodic table. This comparison has been carried out by making use of photoemission spectroscopy, analyzing the core level shifts of both Si 2p and C 1s core levels in terms of charge transfer between atoms of both elements and in different chemical environments. From this comparison, a difference between the reconstruction on the Si-terminated and the C-terminated surface was established, due to the ionic nature of the Si-C bond. The growth of manganese films on Si(111) in the 1-5 ML thickness range has been studied by means of LEED, STM and photoemission spectroscopy. By the complementary use of these surface science techniques, two different phases have been observed for two thickness regimes (<1 ML and >1 ML), which exhibit a different electronic character. The two reconstructions, the (1 x 1)-phase and the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 -phase, are due to silicide formation, as observed in core level spectroscopy. The growth proceeds via island formation in the monolayer regime, while the thicker films show flat layers interrupted by deep holes. On the basis of STM investigations, this growth mode has been attributed to strain due to lattice mismatch between the substrate and the silicide. Co-deposition of Al and Mg onto a Si(111) substrate at low temperature (100K) resulted in the formation of thin alloy films. By varying the relative content of both elements, the thin films exhibited different electronic properties

  4. Detector materials: germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1981-11-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1981 Nuclear Science Symposium. The basic physical properties of elemental semiconductors are reviewed. The interaction of energetic radiation with matter is discussed in order to develop a feeling for the appropriate semiconductor detector dimensions. The extremely low net dopant concentrations which are required are derived directly from the detector dimensions. A survey of the more recent techniques which have been developed for the analysis of detector grade semiconductor single crystals is presented

  5. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  6. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  7. Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewer, Robert S.; Gullinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

  8. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  9. Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor Digital Logic Gates Demonstrated at 600 deg. C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1998-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing silicon carbide (SiC) for use in harsh conditions where silicon, the semiconductor used in nearly all of today's electronics, cannot function. The HTIES team recently fabricated and demonstrated the first semiconductor digital logic gates ever to function at 600 C.

  10. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  11. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  12. Nanolayer surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with nanolayer surface passivation schemes and corresponding deposition processes, for envisaged applications in crystalline silicon solar cells. Surface passivation, i.e. the reduction of electronic recombination processes at semiconductor surfaces, is essential for

  13. Basic opto-electronics on silicon for sensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.Th.; de Krijger, A.J.T.; Albers, H.; Chalmers, J.; Chalmers, J.D.; Holleman, J.; Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, T.; van Kranenburg, H.; Zhou, M.-J.; Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Lambeck, Paul

    1994-01-01

    A general platform for integrated opto-electronic sensor systems on silicon is proposed. The system is based on a hybridly integrated semiconductor laser, ZnO optical waveguides and monolithic photodiodes and electronic circuiry.

  14. Identification of defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavola, Michael; Weber, Eicke R; Stavola, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors.The"Willardson and Beer"Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices,Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this traditi...

  15. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  16. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  17. Defect Characterization in Semiconductors with Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Filip

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is an experimental technique that allows the selective detection of vacancy defects in semiconductors, providing a means to both identify and quantify them. This chapter gives an introduction to the principles of the positron annihilation techniques and then discusses the physics of some interesting observations on vacancy defects related to growth and doping of semiconductors. Illustrative examples are selected from studies performed in silicon, III-nitrides, and ZnO.

  18. Positron annihilation and Wheeler complexes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop'ev, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    Properties of Ps-Ex (positron-exciton) complex nature Wheeler complexes that may be formed at irradiation of semiconductors and ion crystals by positrons at low temperature under conditions of optical excitation by excitons are studied. Binding energy of similar and more complex systems regarding decomposition in Ps and Ex and/or Ex ± exceeds, at least, 0.1 eV, while lifetime regarding biquantum-self-annihilation constitutes τ 2γ ∼5.02x10 - 10 κ c 3 c (κ c -phenomenological parameter of the effective mass method). The lifetime estimations enabled to conclude that Ps-Ex complexes may be detected in some oxide semiconductors, in zinc sulfide, as well as, in alkaline-haloid crystals. At the same time, in silicon, gallium arsenide and in other semiconductors of A 3 B 5 and A 2 B 6 it is highly improbable to observe these complexes. 27 refs

  19. Exploring SiSn as a performance enhancing semiconductor: A theoretical and experimental approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rader, Kelly; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel semiconducting alloy, silicon-tin (SiSn), as channel material for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit applications. The material has been studied theoretically using first principles analysis as well

  20. Hydrogen interactions with silicon-on-insulator materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera de Mena, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The booming of microelectronics in recent decades has been made possible by the excellent properties of the Si/SiO2 interface in oxide on silicon systems.. This semiconductor/insulator combination has proven to be of great value for the semiconductor industry. It has made it possible to continuously

  1. Effects of radiation on MOS structures and silicon devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeunig, D.; Fahrner, W.

    1983-02-01

    A comprehensive view of radiation effects on MOS structures and silicon devices is given. In the introduction, the interaction of radiation with semiconductor material is presented. In the next section, the electrical degradation of semiconductor devices due to this interaction is discussed. The commonly used hardening techniques are shown. The last section deals with testing of radiation hardness of devices. (orig.) [de

  2. Deep-level defects in semiconductors: studies by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerlaan, C.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This work is divided into two parts. In the first one, the following topics are discussed: paramagnetic centers in semiconductors, principles of magnetic resonance, spin-Hamiltonian, g-tensor, hyperfine interaction, magnetic resonance spectrometer. In the second part it is dicussed defects studied by magnetic resonance including vacancy and divacancy in silicon, iron in silicon, nitrogen in diamond and antisite defects in III-V compounds. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. High-End Silicon PDICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zimmermann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview on integrated silicon photodiodes and photodiode integrated circuits (PDICs or optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs for optical storage systems (OSS and fiber receivers is given. It is demonstrated, that by using low-cost silicon technologies high-performance OEICs being true competitors for some III/V-semiconductor OEICs can be realized. OSS-OEICs with bandwidths of up to 380 MHz and fiber receivers with maximum data rates of up to 11 Gbps are described. Low-cost data comm receivers for plastic optical fibers (POF as well as new circuit concepts for OEICs and highly parallel optical receivers are described also in the following.

  4. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  5. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed. (topical review)

  6. Relaxation of nuclear spin on holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gr'ncharova, E.I.; Perel', V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudienal relaxation time T 1 of nuclear spins due to dipole-dipole interaction with holes in semiconductors is calculated. Expressions for T 1 in cubic and uniaxial semiconductors are obtained for non-degenerate and degenerate cases. On the basis of comparison with available experimental data for silicon the agreement with the theoretical results is obtained. It is demonstrated that in uniaxial semiconductors the time of relaxation on holes for a nuclear spin directed along the c axis is considerably greater than that for a spin in the normal direction

  7. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed.

  8. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  9. Solid spectroscopy: semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1983-01-01

    Photoemission as technique of study of the semiconductor electronic structure is shortly discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductors, where volume and surface electronic structure, core levels and O and H chemisorption in GaAs, Schottky barrier are treated, respectively. Amorphous semiconductors are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in defects of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fujinami, M

    2002-01-01

    Interaction of positron and defects, application to research of defects of semiconductor and defects on the surface of semiconductor are explained. Cz (Czochralski)-Si single crystal with 10 sup 1 sup 8 cm sup - sup 3 impurity oxygen was introduced defects by electron irradiation and the positron lifetime was measured at 90K after annealing. The defect size and recovery temperature were determined by the lifetime measurement. The distribution of defects in the depth direction is shown by S-E curve. The chemical state analysis is possible by CBS (Coincidence Doppler Broadening) spectra. The application to silicon-implanted (100 keV, 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2) silicon and oxygen-implanted (180 keV, 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2) silicon are stated. On the oxygen-implanted silicon, the main product was V2 after implantation, V sub 6 O sub 2 at 600degC and V sub 1 sub 0 O sub 6 at 800degC. (S.Y.)

  11. Semiconductor detectors in the low countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, Erik H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Several milestones in the development of semiconductor radiation imaging detectors are attributed to scientists from the Low Countries, the Netherlands and Belgium, and a few historical details will be highlighted. The very first usable semiconductor nuclear detector was made in Utrecht, around 1943, in the form of an AgCl crystal. The earliest large-scale application of monolithic, double-sided silicon strip detectors was in the BOL experiment around 1968 at IKO, now NIKHEF, in Amsterdam. The technology developed and patented by Philips and IKO was adapted by the author and coworkers in 1980 to produce the first silicon microstrip detector used for the reconstruction of events in a CERN fixed target experiment. An avalanche of developments then led to worldwide use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics, motivated by the capability to reconstruct particles with lifetime ∼10 -12 s, which decay on sub-millimeter scale. The intensive activity in silicon detector R and D culminated in 1991 in the construction of fine-grained 2D monolithic and hybrid pixel detectors that incorporate sophisticated electronic functions in each microscopic detection element, with typical dimensions of 25-100 μm. Besides being a powerful high intensity tracker for particle physics, this device can also be designed as a new X-ray imager, which allows selective counting of individual photons in each pixel at MHz frequency

  12. Semiconductor detectors in the low countries

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2003-01-01

    Several milestones in the development of semiconductor radiation imaging detectors are attributed to scientists from the Low Countries, the Netherlands and Belgium, and a few historical details will be highlighted. The very first usable semiconductor nuclear detector was made in Utrecht, around 1943, in the form of an AgCl crystal. The earliest large-scale application of monolithic, double- sided silicon strip detectors was in the BOL experiment around 1968 at IKO, now NIKHEF, in Amsterdam. The technology developed and patented by Philips and IKO was adapted by the author and coworkers in 1980 to produce the first silicon microstrip detector used for the reconstruction of events in a CERN fixed target experiment. An avalanche of developments then led to worldwide use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics, motivated by the capability to reconstruct particles with lifetime similar to 10**- **1**2s, which decay on sub-millimeter scale. The intensive activity in silicon detector R&D c...

  13. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Wilson, W. J.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Plant construction costs and manufacturing costs were estimated for the production of solar-grade silicon by the reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles, and several modifications of the iodide process using either thermal decomposition on heated filaments (rods) or hydrogen reduction in a fluidized bed of seed particles. Energy consumption data for the zinc reduction process and each of the iodide process options are given and all appear to be acceptable from the standpoint of energy pay back. Information is presented on the experimental zinc reduction of SiCl4 and electrolytic recovery of zinc from ZnCl2. All of the experimental work performed thus far has supported the initial assumption as to technical feasibility of producing semiconductor silicon by the zinc reduction or iodide processes proposed. The results of a more thorough thermodynamic evaluation of the iodination of silicon oxide/carbon mixtures are presented which explain apparent inconsistencies in an earlier cursory examination of the system.

  14. Plasma Processing of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Films in the Fisk Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Gregory; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Watson, Michael; Wallace, Kent; Chen, Henry; Burger, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The use of plasmas to process materials has become widespread throughout the semiconductor industry. Plasmas are used to modify the morphology and chemistry of surfaces. We report on initial plasma processing experiments using the Fisk Plasma Source. Metallic and semiconductor thin films deposited on a silicon substrate have been exposed to argon plasmas. Results of microscopy and chemical analyses of processed materials are presented.

  15. Using of the Modern Semiconductor Devices Based on the SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibility of application of the semiconductor devices based on the SiC (Silicon Carbide inthe power electronics. Basic synopsis of SiC based materials problems are presented, appreciation of their properties incomparison with current using power semiconductor devices ((IGBT, MOSFET, CoolFET transistors.

  16. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.L.; Verheijen, M.A.; Wunnicke, O.; Serafin, S.N.; Wondergem, H.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction

  18. Long-wavelength III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelkens, G.C.; Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Hattasan, N.; Ryckeboer, E.M.P.; Muneeb, M.; Hu, C.L.; Malik, A.; Hens, Z.; Baets, R.G.F.; Shimura, Y.; Gencarelli, F.; Vincent, B.; Loo, van de R.; Verheyen, P.A.; Lepage, G.; Campenhout, van J.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriquez, J.B.; Tournie, E.; Chen, X; Nedeljkovic, G.; Mashanovich, G.; Liu, X.; Green, W.S.

    2013-01-01

    We review our work in the field of short-wave infrared and mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits for applications in spectroscopic sensing systems. Passive silicon waveguide circuits, GeSn photodetectors, the integration of III-V and IV-VI semiconductors on these circuits, and silicon nonlinear

  19. Germanium silicon physics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Bean, John C; Hull, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  20. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  1. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  2. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  3. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. High power semiconductor switching in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.S.; Long, J.R.; Smith, V.L.; Page, D.J.; Roberts, J.S.

    1975-12-01

    Light activated multilayered silicon semiconductor devices have been used to switch at megawatt power levels with nanosecond turnon time. Current rate of rise of 700 kA/μs at 10 kA, with 1 kV across the load have been achieved. Recovery time of 1 millisec has been obtained. Applicability to fusion research needs is discussed

  6. Instability of homogeneous distribution of charged substitutional impurity in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, M.I.; Ershov, S.N.; Panteleev, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism is suggested of instability of uniform impurity distribution in a semiconductor. The mechanism is associated with the vacancy wind effect and deflection from local neutrality in case of impurity concentration fluctuation occurrence. It is shown that the mechanism can be realized by irradiation of silicon doped with group-3 and group 5 elements

  7. Operation and performance of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is a crucial component of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a silicon microstrip device, design to measure the trajectories of charged particles produced in pp collisions. In this talk I will briefly describe the design of the SCT, and various aspects of its performance during LHC Run 1.

  8. Semiconductor neutron detectors based on new types of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.; Foulon, F.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron detection in hostile environments such as nuclear reactors has been performed using a new kind of semiconductor detector. So far, crystalline semiconductor detectors are not used in nuclear reactor instrumentation because of their sensitivity to radiation damage. For doses in excess of a few tens of kilo rads, radiation induced lattice defects produce a strong loss in the standard semiconductor detector performances. In the last few years, new semiconductor materials having amorphous or polycrystalline structures such as silicon, silicon carbide or CVD diamond, became available. These semiconductors, produced by Chemical Vapor Deposition, come in the form of thin layers being typically a few tens of micron thick. Their crystalline structure is particularly resistant to radiation damage up to a few Mrads but prevent the material use in spectrometry measurements. Nevertheless, these detectors, working in a counting mode, are suitable for the detection of alpha particles produced by the neutron capture reaction with boron. Such thin film detectors have a very poor sensitivity to γ-ray background. Furthermore, they are easier and cheaper to implement than current neutron gas counters. Preliminary results obtained with diamond and amorphous silicon diodes exposed to α particles are presented. (authors). 7 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  10. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector (CERN,LHCC,94-43 (1994)) is designed to study a wide range of physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at luminosities up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) forms a key component of the Inner Detector (vol. 1, ATLAS TDR 4, CERN,LHCC 97-16 (1997); vol. 2, ATLAS TDR 5, CERN,LHCC 97-17 (1997)) which is situated inside a 2 T solenoid field. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) utilises 4088 silicon modules with binary readout mounted on carbon fibre composite structures arranged in the forms of barrels in the central region and discs in the forward region. The construction of the SCT is now well advanced. The design of the SCT modules, services and support structures will be briefly outlined. A description of the various stages in the construction process will be presented with examples of the performance achieved and the main difficulties encountered. Finally, the current status of the construction is reviewed

  11. Silicon nanowire hot carrier electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, M. du, E-mail: monuko@up.ac.za; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-08-31

    Avalanche electroluminescence from silicon pn junctions has been known for many years. However, the internal quantum efficiencies of these devices are quite low due to the indirect band gap nature of the semiconductor material. In this study we have used reach-through biasing and SOI (silicon-on-insulator) thin film structures to improve the internal power efficiency and the external light extraction efficiency. Both continuous silicon thin film pn junctions and parallel nanowire pn junctions were manufactured using a custom SOI technology. The pn junctions are operated in the reach-through mode of operation, thus increasing the average electric field within the fully depleted region. Experimental results of the emission spectrum indicate that the most dominant photon generating mechanism is due to intraband hot carrier relaxation processes. It was found that the SOI nanowire light source external power efficiency is at least an order of magnitude better than the comparable bulk CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) light source. - Highlights: • We investigate effect of electric field on silicon avalanche electroluminescence. • With reach-through pn junctions the current and carrier densities are kept constant. • Higher electric fields increase short wavelength radiation. • Higher electric fields decrease long wavelength radiation. • The effect of the electric field indicates intraband transitions as main mechanism.

  12. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  13. Noise and degradation of amorphous silicon devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical noise measurements are reported on two devices of the disordered semiconductor hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The material is applied in sandwich structures and in thin-film transistors (TFTs). In a sandwich configuration of an intrinsic layer and two thin doped layers, the

  14. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, P L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon microstrip detector part of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Together with the rest for the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) it provides vital precision tracking information of charged particles. In this paper the performance and operational status of the SCT in the last two years of ATLAS data taking are reviewed.

  15. Thermal and optical properties of porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva A. Ferreira da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal diffusivity and optical absorption have been investigated for porous silicon, at room temperature, using photoacoustic spectroscopy. The experimental results obtained conform well with the existing studies recently published. The value obtained for thermal diffusivity is 0.045 ± 0.002 cm²/s.The absorption onsets show energy structures, differing from the ordinary semiconductor of bulk type.

  16. Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvik, Jan; Dolnak, Ivan; Dado, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Grating couplers are one of the most used elements for coupling of light between optical fibers and photonic integrated components. Silicon-on-insulator platform provides strong confinement of light and allows high integration. In this work, using simulations we have designed a broadband silicon nitride surface grating coupler. The Fourier-eigenmode expansion and finite difference time domain methods are utilized in design optimization of grating coupler structure. The fully, single etch step grating coupler is based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer with 0.55 μm waveguide Si3N4 layer. The optimized structure at 1550 nm wavelength yields a peak coupling efficiency -2.6635 dB (54.16%) with a 1-dB bandwidth up to 80 nm. It is promising way for low-cost fabrication using complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor fabrication process.

  17. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  18. Damage free Ar ion plasma surface treatment on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-on-silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Donghyi; Shin, Seung Heon; Ahn, Jaehyun; Sonde, Sushant; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Road, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Kwon, Hyuk-Min [SK Hynix, Icheon, 2091, Gyeongchung-daero, Bubal-eub, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 136-1 (Korea, Republic of); Orzali, Tommaso; Kim, Tae-Woo, E-mail: twkim78@gmail.com [SEMATECH Inc., 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, Dae-Hyun [Kyungpook National University, 80, Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of in-situ Ar ion plasma surface pre-treatment in order to improve the interface properties of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As for high-κ top-gate oxide deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) demonstrate that Ar ion treatment removes the native oxide on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As. The XPS spectra of Ar treated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As show a decrease in the AsO{sub x} and GaO{sub x} signal intensities, and the MOSCAPs show higher accumulation capacitance (C{sub acc}), along with reduced frequency dispersion. In addition, Ar treatment is found to suppress the interface trap density (D{sub it}), which thereby led to a reduction in the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradation during constant voltage stress and relaxation. These results outline the potential of surface treatment for III-V channel metal-oxide-semiconductor devices and application to non-planar device process.

  19. Harnessing no-photon exciton generation chemistry to engineer semiconductor nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, David; Károlyházy, Gyula; Czigány, Zsolt; Bortel, Gábor; Kamarás, Katalin; Gali, Adam

    2017-09-06

    Production of semiconductor nanostructures with high yield and tight control of shape and size distribution is an immediate quest in diverse areas of science and technology. Electroless wet chemical etching or stain etching can produce semiconductor nanoparticles with high yield but is limited to a few materials because of the lack of understanding the physical-chemical processes behind. Here we report a no-photon exciton generation chemistry (NPEGEC) process, playing a key role in stain etching of semiconductors. We demonstrate NPEGEC on silicon carbide polymorphs as model materials. Specifically, size control of cubic silicon carbide nanoparticles of diameter below ten nanometers was achieved by engineering hexagonal inclusions in microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide. Our finding provides a recipe to engineer patterned semiconductor nanostructures for a broad class of materials.

  20. Electrochemical properties of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham minh Tan.

    1979-11-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of ion implanted silicon in contact with hydrofluoric acid solution was investigated. It was shown that the implanted layer on silicon changes profoundly its electrochemical properties (photopotential, interface impedance, rest potential, corrosion, current-potential behaviour, anodic dissolution of silicon, redox reaction). These changes depend strongly on the implantation parameters such as ion dose, ion energy, thermal treatment and ion mass and are weakly dependent on the chemical nature of the implantation ion. The experimental results were evaluated and interpreted in terms of the semiconductor electrochemical concepts taking into account the interaction of energetic ions with the solid surface. The observed effects are thus attributed to the implantation induced damage of silicon lattice and can be used for profiling of the implanted layer and the electrochemical treatment of the silicon surface. (author)

  1. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  2. High-Temperature, Wirebondless, Ultra-Compact Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Modules for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicon carbide (SiC) and other wide band-gap semiconductors offer great promise of high power rating, high operating temperature, simple thermal management, and...

  3. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  4. Metal-semiconductor, composite radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, W.J.; Yee, J.H.; Fuess, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    In 1989, Naruse and Hatayama of Toshiba published a design for an increased efficiency x-ray detector. The design increased the efficiency of a semiconductor detector by interspersing layers of high-z metal within it. Semiconductors such as silicon make good, high-resolution radiation detectors, but they have low efficiency because they are low-z materials (z = 14). High-z metals, on the other hand, are good absorbers of high-energy photons. By interspersing high-z metal layers with semiconductor layers, Naruse and Hatayama combined the high absorption efficiency of the high-z metals with good detection capabilities of a semiconductor. This project is an attempt to use the same design to produce a high- efficiency gamma ray detector. By their nature, gamma rays require thicker metal layers to efficiently absorb them. These thicker layers change the behavior of the detector by reducing the resolution, compared to a solid state detector, and shifting the photopeak by a predictable amount. During the last year, we have modeled parts of the detector and have nearly completed a prototype device. 2 refs

  5. Metal-semiconductor, composite radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, W.J.; Yee, J.H.; Fuess, D.

    1992-12-01

    In 1989, Naruse and Hatayama of Toshiba published a design for an increased efficiency x-ray detector. The design increased the efficiency of a semiconductor detector by interspersing layers of high-z metal within it. Semiconductors such as silicon make good, high-resolution radiation detectors, but they have low efficiency because they are low-z materials (z = 14). High-z metals, on the other hand, are good absorbers of high-energy photons. By interspersing high-z metal layers with semiconductor layers, Naruse and Hatayama combined the high absorption efficiency of the high-z metals with the good detection capabilities of a semiconductor. This project is an attempt to use the same design to produce a high-efficiency, room temperature gamma ray detector. By their nature, gamma rays require thicker metal layers to efficiently absorb them. These thicker layers change the behavior of the detector by reducing the resolution, compared to a solid state detector, and shifting the photopeak by a predictable amount. During the last year, the authors have procured and tested a commercial device with operating characteristics similar to those of a single layer of the composite device. They have modeled the radiation transport in a multi-layered device, to verify the initial calculations of layer thickness and composition. They have modeled the electrostatic field in different device designs to locate and remove high-field regions that can cause device breakdown. They have fabricated 14 single layer prototypes

  6. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  7. Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grybos, P

    2010-01-01

    Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detektor systems Volume 08, EuCARD Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology The monograph is devoted to many different aspects related to front-end electronics for semiconductor detector systems, namely: − designing and testing silicon position sensitive detectors for HEP experiments and X-ray imaging applications, − designing and testing of multichannel readout electronics for semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications, especially for noise minimization, fast signal processing, crosstalk reduction and good matching performance, − optimization of semiconductor detection systems in respect to the effects of radiation damage. The monograph is the result mainly of the author's experience in the above-mentioned areas and it is an attempt of a comprehensive presentation of issues related to the position sensitive detection system working in a single photon counting mode and intended to X-ray imaging applications. The structure...

  8. Semiconductor Metal-Organic Frameworks: Future Low-Bandgap Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2017-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with low density, high porosity, and easy tunability of functionality and structural properties, represent potential candidates for use as semiconductor materials. The rapid development of the semiconductor industry and the continuous miniaturization of feature sizes of integrated circuits toward the nanometer (nm) scale require novel semiconductor materials instead of traditional materials like silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide etc. MOFs with advantageous properties of both the inorganic and the organic components promise to serve as the next generation of semiconductor materials for the microelectronics industry with the potential to be extremely stable, cheap, and mechanically flexible. Here, a perspective of recent research is provided, regarding the semiconducting properties of MOFs, bandgap studies, and their potential in microelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  10. The development of the market for neutron transmutation doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzer, H.; Vieweg-Gutberlet, G.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron transmutation doped silicon was introduced to the electronic device market in the 1975-1976 time period. Today, neutron transmutation doping is definitely a mature technology applied mainly to semiconductor power devices. There is no doubt that the power device sector will remain the major consumer of NTD silicon in the near future. This paper examines the possible application of NTD silicon to other areas of the semiconductor market, and concludes that the need for NTD silicon will continue to grow and will expand into other applications. Consequently, unless new reactor capacities become available by the end of the decade, NTD silicon applications will probably be limited mainly to power and sensor devices

  11. Semiconductor analysis with a channeled helium microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingarfield, S.A.; McKenzie, C.D.; Short, K.T.; Williams, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a channeled helium microbeam for analysis of damage and dopant distributions in semiconductors. Practical difficulties and potential problems associated with the channeling of microbeams in semiconductors have been examined. In particular, the following factors have been characterised: i) the effect of both convergence of focused beam and beam scanning on the quality of channeling; ii) damage produced by the probe ions; and iii) local beam heating effects arising from high current densities. Acceptable channeling has been obtained (minimum yield approaching 4%) under a variety of focusing and scanning conditions which are suitable for analysis of device structures. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by monitoring variations in local damage and impurity depth distributions across a narrow (<2mm) region of an ion implanted silicon wafer

  12. Semiconductors data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madelung, Otfried

    2004-01-01

    This volume Semiconductors: Data Handbook contains frequently used data from the corresponding larger Landolt-Börnstein handbooks in a low price book for the individual scientist working in the laboratory. The Handbook contain important information about a large number of semiconductors

  13. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  14. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  15. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  16. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICON-SILICON DIOXIDE INTERFACE USING PROBE ELECTROMETRY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Pilipenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of submicron design standards into microelectronic industry and a decrease of the gate dielectric thickness raise the importance of the analysis of microinhomogeneities in the silicon-silicon dioxide system. However, there is very little to no information on practical implementation of probe electrometry methods, and particularly scanning Kelvin probe method, in the interoperational control of real semiconductor manufacturing process. The purpose of the study was the development of methods for nondestructive testing of semiconductor wafers based on the determination of electrophysical properties of the silicon-silicon dioxide interface and their spatial distribution over wafer’s surface using non-contact probe electrometry methods.Traditional C-V curve analysis and scanning Kelvin probe method were used to characterize silicon- silicon dioxide interface. The samples under testing were silicon wafers of KEF 4.5 and KDB 12 type (orientation <100>, diameter 100 mm.Probe electrometry results revealed uniform spatial distribution of wafer’s surface potential after its preliminary rapid thermal treatment. Silicon-silicon dioxide electric potential values were also higher after treatment than before it. This potential growth correlates with the drop in interface charge density. At the same time local changes in surface potential indicate changes in surface layer structure.Probe electrometry results qualitatively reflect changes of interface charge density in silicon-silicon dioxide structure during its technological treatment. Inhomogeneities of surface potential distribution reflect inhomogeneity of damaged layer thickness and can be used as a means for localization of interface treatment defects.

  18. Defects and diffusion in semiconductors XII

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2010-01-01

    This twelfth volume in the series covering the latest results in the field includes abstracts of papers which have appeared since the publication of Annual Retrospective XI (Volume 282). As well as the 565 semiconductor-related abstracts, the issue includes - in line with the policy of including original papers on all of the major material groups: ""Study of Conduction Mechanism in Amorphous Se85-xTe15Bix Thin Films"" (A.Sharma and P.B.Barman), ""Structure and Optical Properties of Magnetron-Sputtered SiOx Layers with Silicon Nanoparticles"" (L.Khomenkova, N.Korsunska, T.Stara, Y.Goldstein, J.

  19. Performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Alpigiani, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity and high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 modules assembled from silicon-strip sensors for a total of 6.3 million channels more than 99 % of which were fully functional throughout all data taking periods. Noise occupancy and hit efficiency as well as the Lorentz angle and radiation damage measurements will be discussed in details.

  20. Atomic and electronic structures of novel silicon surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.H. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    The modification of silicon surfaces is presently of great interest to the semiconductor device community. Three distinct areas are the subject of inquiry: first, modification of the silicon electronic structure; second, passivation of the silicon surface; and third, functionalization of the silicon surface. It is believed that surface modification of these types will lead to useful electronic devices by pairing these modified surfaces with traditional silicon device technology. Therefore, silicon wafers with modified electronic structure (light-emitting porous silicon), passivated surfaces (H-Si(111), Cl-Si(111), Alkyl-Si(111)), and functionalized surfaces (Alkyl-Si(111)) have been studied in order to determine the fundamental properties of surface geometry and electronic structure using synchrotron radiation-based techniques.

  1. Analysis of the Vignale-Kohn current functional in the calculation of the optical spectra of semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, J. A.; de Boeij, P. L.; van Leeuwen, R.

    In this work, we investigate the Vignale-Kohn current functional when applied to the calculation of optical spectra of semiconductors. We discuss our results for silicon. We found qualitatively similar results for other semiconductors. These results show that there are serious limitations to the

  2. Design and Fabrication of Silicon-on-Silicon-Carbide Substrates and Power Devices for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammon P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of power electronic semiconductor devices are being developed for the benefit of space and terrestrial harsh-environment applications. 200-600 V lateral transistors and diodes are being fabricated in a thin layer of silicon (Si wafer bonded to silicon carbide (SiC. This novel silicon-on-silicon-carbide (Si/SiC substrate solution promises to combine the benefits of silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology (i.e device confinement, radiation tolerance, high and low temperature performance with that of SiC (i.e. high thermal conductivity, radiation hardness, high temperature performance. Details of a process are given that produces thin films of silicon 1, 2 and 5 μm thick on semi-insulating 4H-SiC. Simulations of the hybrid Si/SiC substrate show that the high thermal conductivity of the SiC offers a junction-to-case temperature ca. 4× less that an equivalent SOI device; reducing the effects of self-heating, and allowing much greater power density. Extensive electrical simulations are used to optimise a 600 V laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET implemented entirely within the silicon thin film, and highlight the differences between Si/SiC and SOI solutions.

  3. Silicon carbide devices: more reliability for transmission and distribution systems; Dispositivos de SiC: mais confiabilidade para sistemas de transmissao e distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset, Roger; Ballad, John [Areva T and D Tecnology Centre (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The silicon carbide power semiconductors will represent an essential role in relation to electrical nets in the future. Counting with higher voltage levels, more rapid commutations and allowing higher temperatures then the current silicon semiconductors, they will result in power electronic equipment with lower dissipation and smaller amount of components, becoming more compacts and reliable.

  4. Damage induced in semiconductors by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levalois, M.; Marie, P.

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of semiconductors under swift heavy ion irradiation is different from that of metals or insulators: no spectacular effect induced by the inelastic energy loss has been reported in these materials. We present here a review of irradiation effects in the usual semiconductors (silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide). The damage is investigated by means of electrical measurements. The usual mechanisms of point defect creation can account for the experimental results. Besides, some results obtained on the wide gap semiconductor silicon carbide are reported. Concerning the irradiation effects induced by heavy ions in particle detectors, based on silicon substrate, we show that the deterioration of the detector performances can be explained from the knowledge of the substrate properties which are strongly perturbed after high doses of irradiation. Finally, some future ways of investigation are proposed. The silicon substrate is a good example to compare the irradiation effects with different particles such as electrons, neutrons and heavy ions. It is then necessary to use parameters which account for the local energy deposition, in order to describe the damage in the material

  5. High-Temperature Electronics: A Role for Wide Bandgap Semiconductors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Okojie, Robert S.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that semiconductor based electronics that can function at ambient temperatures higher than 150 C without external cooling could greatly benefit a variety of important applications, especially-in the automotive, aerospace, and energy production industries. The fact that wide bandgap semiconductors are capable of electronic functionality at much higher temperatures than silicon has partially fueled their development, particularly in the case of SiC. It appears unlikely that wide bandgap semiconductor devices will find much use in low-power transistor applications until the ambient temperature exceeds approximately 300 C, as commercially available silicon and silicon-on-insulator technologies are already satisfying requirements for digital and analog very large scale integrated circuits in this temperature range. However, practical operation of silicon power devices at ambient temperatures above 200 C appears problematic, as self-heating at higher power levels results in high internal junction temperatures and leakages. Thus, most electronic subsystems that simultaneously require high-temperature and high-power operation will necessarily be realized using wide bandgap devices, once the technology for realizing these devices become sufficiently developed that they become widely available. Technological challenges impeding the realization of beneficial wide bandgap high ambient temperature electronics, including material growth, contacts, and packaging, are briefly discussed.

  6. Method to induce a conductivity type in a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboaf, J.A.; Sedgwick, T.O.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a method in which one can produce a region of a desired type of conductivity in a semiconductor as is required for, e.g., field effect transistors. A metal oxide layer combination consisting of several metal oxides is thus deposited on the semiconductor. This is carried out according to the invention in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at temperatures at which the metal oxides do not diffuse into the semiconductor. The sign and degree of the induced conductivity type is adjusted by dosed depositing of the individual metal oxides related to one another. The gaseous metal oxides due to heating, mixed with a non-oxidizing gas are added in compounds to the semiconductor heated to depositing temperature. These compounds decompose at the depositing temperature into the metal oxide and a gaseous residual component. The semiconductor consists of silicon, and nitrogen is used as carrier gas; when depositing aluminium oxide, gaseous aluminium isopropoxide is added; when depositing silicon dioxide, gaseous tetra-ethyl orthosilicate. (ORU) [de

  7. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors

  8. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-07-21

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors.

  9. The silicon vertex tracker for star and future applications of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellwied, Rene

    2001-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) for the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory has recently been completed and installed. First data were taken in July 2001. The SVT is based on a novel semi-conductor technology called Silicon Drift Detectors. 216 large area (6 by 6 cm) Silicon wafers were employed to build a three barrel device capable of vertexing and tracking in a high occupancy environment. Its intrinsic radiation hardness, its operation at room temperature and its excellent position resolution (better than 20 micron) in two dimensions with a one dimensional detector readout, make this technology very robust and inexpensive and thus a viable alternative to CCD, Silicon pixel and Silicon strip detectors in a variety of applications from fundamental research in high-energy and nuclear physics to astrophysics to medical imaging. I will describe the development that led to the STAR-SVT, its performance and possible applications for the near future

  10. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  12. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  13. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W

    2013-01-01

    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  14. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  15. Modeling of semiconductor nanostructures and semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of Part I is to give an overview of some of the methods that have been implemented into the nextnano 3 software. Examples are discussed that give insight into doping, strain and mobility. Applications of the single-band Schroedinger equation include three-dimensional superlattices, and a qubit that is manipulated by a magnetic field. Results of the multi-band k.p method are presented for HgTe-CdTe and InAs-GaSb superlattices, and for a SiGe-Si quantum cascade structure. Particular focus is put on a detailed description of the contact block reduction (CBR) method that has been developed within our research group. By means of this approach, quantum transport in the ballistic limit in one, two and three dimensions can be calculated. I provide a very detailed description of the algorithm and present several well documented examples that highlight the key points of this method. Calculating quantum transport in three dimensions is a very challenging task where computationally efficient algorithms - apart from the CBR method - are not available yet. Part II describes the methods that I have implemented into the nextnano 3 software for calculating systems that consist of a combination of semiconductor materials and liquids. These biosensors have a solid-electrolyte interface, and the charges in the solid and in the electrolyte are coupled to each other through the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. I apply this model to a silicon based protein sensor, where I solve the Schroedinger equation together with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation self-consistently, and compare theoretical results with experiment. Furthermore, I have developed a novel approach to model the charge density profiles at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces that allows us to distinguish hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces. Our approach extends previous work where ion specific potentials of mean force describe the distribution of ion species at the interface. I apply this new model to recently

  16. Modeling of semiconductor nanostructures and semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birner, Stefan

    2011-11-15

    The main objective of Part I is to give an overview of some of the methods that have been implemented into the nextnano{sup 3} software. Examples are discussed that give insight into doping, strain and mobility. Applications of the single-band Schroedinger equation include three-dimensional superlattices, and a qubit that is manipulated by a magnetic field. Results of the multi-band k.p method are presented for HgTe-CdTe and InAs-GaSb superlattices, and for a SiGe-Si quantum cascade structure. Particular focus is put on a detailed description of the contact block reduction (CBR) method that has been developed within our research group. By means of this approach, quantum transport in the ballistic limit in one, two and three dimensions can be calculated. I provide a very detailed description of the algorithm and present several well documented examples that highlight the key points of this method. Calculating quantum transport in three dimensions is a very challenging task where computationally efficient algorithms - apart from the CBR method - are not available yet. Part II describes the methods that I have implemented into the nextnano{sup 3} software for calculating systems that consist of a combination of semiconductor materials and liquids. These biosensors have a solid-electrolyte interface, and the charges in the solid and in the electrolyte are coupled to each other through the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. I apply this model to a silicon based protein sensor, where I solve the Schroedinger equation together with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation self-consistently, and compare theoretical results with experiment. Furthermore, I have developed a novel approach to model the charge density profiles at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces that allows us to distinguish hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces. Our approach extends previous work where ion specific potentials of mean force describe the distribution of ion species at the interface. I apply this new model

  17. Radiation effects in technologies of semiconductor materials and devises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, F.P.; Bogatyrev, Yu.V.; Lastovskij, S.B.; Marchenko, I.G.; Zhdanovich, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper were considered the physical basics and practical results of using of penetrating radiations in technologies of nuclear transmutation of semiconductor materials (Si, GaAs) as well as in production of semiconductor devices including high-power silicon diodes, thyristors and transistors. It is shown the high efficiency of radiation technology for increasing of electronic device speed, exclusion of technological operations such as gold or platinum diffusions, increase of quality, decrease of prime cost and increase of good-to-bad device ratio yield

  18. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  19. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  20. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-05-30

    Today’s information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor – heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon – industry’s darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-01-01

    Today’s information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor – heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon – industry’s darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  2. Photon-phonon laser on crystalline silicon: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadernovsky, A A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a feasibility of photon-phonon laser action in bulk silicon with electron population inversion. It is well known, that only direct gap semiconductors are used as an active medium in optical lasers. In indirect gap semiconductors, such as crystalline silicon, the near-to-gap radiative electron transitions must be assisted by emission or absorption of phonons to conserve the momentum. The rate of such two-quantum transitions is much less than in direct gap semiconductors, where the similar radiative transitions are single-quantum. As a result, the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon is too small to get it as a laser material. Numerous proposals to overcome this problem are aimed at increasing the rate of radiative recombination. We suggest enhancing the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon by stimulating the photon part of the two-quantum transitions by light from an appropriate external laser source. This allows us to obtain initially an external-source-assisted lasing in silicon and then a true photon-phonon lasing without any external source of radiation. Performed analysis revealed a number of requirements to the silicon laser medium (temperature, purity and perfection of crystals) and to the intensity of stimulating radiation. We discuss different mechanisms that may hinder the implementation of photon-phonon lasing in silicon

  3. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  4. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  5. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  6. Market survey of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, I.M.; Diegel, D.; Brown, A.; Brinker, C.S. den

    1977-06-01

    Examination of technology and product trends over the range of current and future products in integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Analysis and forecast of major economic influences that affect the production costs of integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Forecast of the applications and markets for integrated circuits up to 1985 in West Europe, the USA and Japan. Historic development of the semiconductor industry and the prevailing tendencies - factors which influence success in the semiconductor industry. (orig.) [de

  7. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  8. Chalcogen donnors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolfaro, L.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic stucture of chalcogen impurities in silicon which give rise to deep levels in the forbidden band gap of that semiconductor is studied. The molecular cluster model within the formalism of the multiple scattering method in the Xα local density approximation was used . The surface orbitals were treated by using the Watson sphere model. Studies were carried out for the isolated substitutional sulfur and selenium impurities (Si:S and Si:Se). A pioneer investigation was performed for the nearest-neighbor impurity pairs of sulfur and selenium (Si:S 2 and Si:Se 2 ). All the systems were also analysed in the positive charge states (Si:S + , Si:Se + and Si:Se 2 + ) and for the isolated impurities the calculations were carried out to the spin polarized limit. The obtained results were used to interpret recent photoconductivity, photocapitance, EPR and DLTS data on these centers. It was observed that the adopted model is able to provide a satisfactory description of the electronic structure of the chalcogen impurity centers in silicon. (autor) [pt

  9. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions on gallium arsenide, silicon and silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoraskar, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The irradiation effects of high energy lithium, boron, oxygen and silicon ions on crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide, porous silicon and silicon diodes were investigated. The ion energy and fluence were varied over the ranges 30 to 100 MeV and 10 11 to 10 14 ions/cm 2 respectively. Semiconductor samples were characterized with the x-ray fluorescence, photoluminescence, thermally stimulated exo-electron emission and optical reflectivity techniques. The life-time of minority carriers in crystalline silicon was measured with a pulsed electron beam and the lithium depth distribution in GaAs was measured with the neutron depth profiling technique. The diodes were characterized through electrical measurements. The results of optical reflectivity, life-time of minority carriers and photoluminescence show that swift heavy ions induce defects in the surface region of crystalline silicon. In the ion-irradiated GaAs, migration of silicon, oxygen and lithium atoms from the buried region towards the surface was observed, with orders of magnitude enhancement in the diffusion coefficients. Enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity was observed in the GaAs and porous silicon samples that, were irradiated with silicon ions. The trade-off between the turn-off time and the voltage, drop in diodes irradiated with different swift heavy ions was also studied. (author)

  10. Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathpour Sasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics has been established as a mature and promising technology for optoelectronic integrated circuits, mostly based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide platform. However, not all optical functionalities can be satisfactorily achieved merely based on silicon, in general, and on the SOI platform, in particular. Long-known shortcomings of silicon-based integrated photonics are optical absorption (in the telecommunication wavelengths and feasibility of electrically-injected lasers (at least at room temperature. More recently, high two-photon and free-carrier absorptions required at high optical intensities for third-order optical nonlinear effects, inherent lack of second-order optical nonlinearity, low extinction ratio of modulators based on the free-carrier plasma effect, and the loss of the buried oxide layer of the SOI waveguides at mid-infrared wavelengths have been recognized as other shortcomings. Accordingly, several novel waveguide platforms have been developing to address these shortcomings of the SOI platform. Most of these emerging platforms are based on heterogeneous integration of other material systems on silicon substrates, and in some cases silicon is integrated on other substrates. Germanium and its binary alloys with silicon, III–V compound semiconductors, silicon nitride, tantalum pentoxide and other high-index dielectric or glass materials, as well as lithium niobate are some of the materials heterogeneously integrated on silicon substrates. The materials are typically integrated by a variety of epitaxial growth, bonding, ion implantation and slicing, etch back, spin-on-glass or other techniques. These wide range of efforts are reviewed here holistically to stress that there is no pure silicon or even group IV photonics per se. Rather, the future of the field of integrated photonics appears to be one of heterogenization, where a variety of different materials and waveguide platforms will be used for

  11. EPR of defects in semiconductors: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Important physical concepts learned from early EPR studies of defects in silicon are reviewed. Highlighted are the studies of shallow effective-mass-liked donors and acceptors of deep transition element impurities, and of vacancies and interstitials. It is shown that the concepts learned in silicon translate remarkable well to the corresponding defects in the other elemental and compound semiconductors. The introduction of sensitive optical and electrical detection methods and the recent progress in single defects detection insure the continued vital role of EPR in the future

  12. Synthesis of Novel Reactive Disperse Silicon-Containing Dyes and Their Coloring Properties on Silicone Rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel red and purple reactive disperse silicon-containing dyes were designed and synthesized using p-nitroaniline and 6-bromo-2,4-dinitro-aniline as diazonium components, the first condensation product of cyanuric chloride and 3-(N,N-diethylamino-aniline as coupling component, and 3-aminopropylmethoxydimethylsilane, 3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane, and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane as silicone reactive agents. These dyes were characterized by UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, and MS. The obtained reactive disperse silicon-containing dyes were used to color silicone rubbers and the color fastness of the dyes were evaluated. The dry/wet rubbing and washing fastnesses of these dyes all reached 4–5 grade and the sublimation fastness was also above 4 grade, indicating outstanding performance in terms of color fastness. Such colored silicone rubbers showed bright and rich colors without affecting its static mechanical properties.

  13. Hydrogen interactions with silicon-on-insulator materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera de Mena, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The booming of microelectronics in recent decades has been made possible by the excellent properties of the Si/SiO2 interface in oxide on silicon systems.. This semiconductor/insulator combination has proven to be of great value for the semiconductor industry. It has made it possible to continuously increase the number of transistors per chip until the physical limit of integration is now almost reached. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials were early on seen as a step in the logical evolutio...

  14. Positron annihilation and Wheeler complexes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokob'ev, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Wheeler complexes Ps-Ex (positronium-exciton) were studied. These complexes are formed during irradiation of semiconductors and ionic crystals with positrons at low temperatures under optical excitation by excitons. The binding energy of these and more complex entities preventing dissociation into Ps and Ex and/or Ex ± is at least 0.1 eV, and the lifetime for the two-photon self-annihilation is τ 2γ ∼ 5.02 x 10 -10 x c 3 s (x c is the phenomenological parameter of the effective-mass method). The estimation of lifetimes τ 2γ and τ 2γ t (the total lifetime of Ps-Ex complexes with account for positron annihilation on valence electrons) led to the conclusion that Ps-Ex complexes can be observed in a number of oxide semiconductors, in zinc sulfide, and in alkali halide crystals; however, it was difficult to observe such complexes in silicon, gallium arsenide, and other A 3 B 5 and A 2 B 6 semiconductors

  15. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  16. An all-silicon passive optical diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Wang, Jian; Varghese, Leo T; Shen, Hao; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2012-01-27

    A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input power is higher than the forward input. The silicon optical diode is ultracompact and is compatible with current complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processing.

  17. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  18. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Aftab M.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Semiconductors: Still a Wide Open Frontier for Scientists/Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, David G.

    1997-10-01

    A 1995 Business Week article described several features of the explosive use of semiconductor chips today: ``Booming'' personal computer markets are driving high demand for microprocessors and memory chips; (2) New information superhighway markets will `ignite' sales of multimedia and communication chips; and (3) Demand for digital-signal-processing and data-compression chips, which speed up video and graphics, is `red hot.' A Washington Post article by Stan Hinden said that technology is creating an unstoppable demand for electronic elements. This ``digital pervasiveness'' means that a semiconductor chip is going into almost every high-tech product that people buy - cars, televisions, video recorders, telephones, radios, alarm clocks, coffee pots, etc. ``Semiconductors are everywhere.'' Silicon and compound semiconductors are absolutely essential and are pervasive enablers for DoD operations and systems. DoD's Critical Technologies Plan of 1991 says that ``Semiconductor materials and microelectronics are critically important and appropriately lead the list of critical defense technologies.'' These trends continue unabated. This talk describes some of the frontiers of semiconductors today and shows how scientists and engineers can effectively contribute to its advancement. Cooperative, multidisciplinary efforts are increasing. Specific examples will be given for scanning capacitance microscopy and thin-film metrology.

  1. Application of positron annihilation techniques for semiconductor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwasz, G.P.; Zecca, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Pliszka, D.

    2004-01-01

    Positron annihilation techniques, being non-destructive, allowing depth profiling down to a few micrometers and detecting open-volume defects (vacancies, dislocations etc.) at single ppm concentrations constitute a valuable and complementary method, compared to other solid-state-physics studies. We give examples of investigation in the field of semiconductors with different techniques, both with and without use of positron low-energy beams. The Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line method and the slow positron beam were used to study helium-implanted silicon and the surface reduction processes in semiconducting glasses. The positron lifetime technique and coincidence spectra of the Doppler broadening were used for systematic studies of metals and semiconductors. Doppler-coincidence method was then used to identify the kinetics of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon

  2. A study of luminescence from silicon-rich silica fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trwoga, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon is the most studied electronic material known to man and dominates the electronics industry in its use as a semiconductors for nearly all integrated electronics. However, optoelectronics is almost entirely based on III-V materials. This technology is used because silicon is a very inefficient light source, whereas the III-V band structure can lend itself to efficient light emission by electron injection. However, due to the overwhelming dominance of silicon based electronics it is still a highly desirable goal to generate light efficiently from silicon based materials. Recently, studies have demonstrated that efficient visible luminescence can be obtained from certain novel forms of silicon. These materials include porous silicon, hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and silicon-rich silica (SiO x x x is studied in detail; in addition, electroluminescence and rare-earth doping of silicon-rich silica is also addressed. (author)

  3. Effect of neutron irradiation on p-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopko, B.

    1973-01-01

    The possibilities are discussed of silicon isotope reactions with neutrons of all energies. In the reactions, 30 Si is converted to a stable phosphorus isotope forming n-type impurities in silicon. The above reactions proceed as a result of thermal neutron irradiation. An experiment is reported involving irradiation of two p-type silicon single crystals having a specific resistance of 2000 ohm.cm and 5000 to 20 000 ohm.cm, respectively, which changed as a result of irradiation into n-type silicon with a given specific resistance. The specific resistance may be pre-calculated from the concentration of impurities and the time of irradiation. The effects of irradiation on other silicon parameters and thus on the suitability of silicon for the manufacture of semiconductor elements are discussed. (J.K.)

  4. Palladium silicide - a new contact for semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totterdell, D.H.J.

    1981-11-01

    Silicide layers can be used as low resistance contacts in semiconductor devices. The formation of a metal rich palladium silicide Pd 2 Si is discussed. A palladium film 100A thick is deposited at 300 0 C and the resulting silicide layer used as an ohmic contact in an n + p silicon detector. This rugged contact has electrical characteristics comparable with existing evaporated gold contacts and enables the use of more reproducible bonding techniques. (author)

  5. Canberra semiconductor, an industrial partner for physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verplancke, J.; Burger, P.; Schoenmaekers, W.

    1990-01-01

    Canberra semiconductor produces germanium and silicon solid state detectors for nuclear radiation. Its business domain covers the production of standard detectors on an industrial basis, for industrial and applied physics applications, as well as the development of special detectors and electronics, tailored to the needs of a particular application, in science and research. There exists an important and beneficial interaction between these two activities. (orig.)

  6. Understanding the microwave annealing of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaochao Fu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Though microwave annealing appears to be very appealing due to its unique features, lacking an in-depth understanding and accurate model hinder its application in semiconductor processing. In this paper, the physics-based model and accurate calculation for the microwave annealing of silicon are presented. Both thermal effects, including ohmic conduction loss and dielectric polarization loss, and non-thermal effects are thoroughly analyzed. We designed unique experiments to verify the mechanism and extract relevant parameters. We also explicitly illustrate the dynamic interaction processes of the microwave annealing of silicon. This work provides an in-depth understanding that can expedite the application of microwave annealing in semiconductor processing and open the door to implementing microwave annealing for future research and applications.

  7. Method of doping a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Rapp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient

  8. Solidification and properties of photovoltaic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Strenuous efforts are being made to develop an economical process for purifying liquid metallurgical-grade silicon, in response to the growing shortages in high-purity silicon for use in manufacturing photovoltaic cells. A research project is studying this issue at C.E. Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, co-funded by ADEME (the French Environment and Energy Management Agency) and CEA-INSTN (French Atomic Energy Commission National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology). (authors)

  9. Multilayer Semiconductor Charged-Particle Spectrometers for Accelerator Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Yu. B.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Chernyshev, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The current state of studies in the field of development of multilayer semiconductor systems (semiconductor detector (SCD) telescopes), which allow the energy to be precisely measured within a large dynamic range (from a few to a few hundred MeV) and the particles to be identified in a wide mass range (from pions to multiply charged nuclear fragments), is presented. The techniques for manufacturing the SCD telescopes from silicon and high-purity germanium are described. The issues of measuring characteristics of the constructed detectors and their impact on the energy resolution of the SCD telescopes and on the quality of the experimental data are considered. Much attention is given to the use of the constructed semiconductor devices in experimental studies at accelerators of PNPI (Gatchina), LANL (Los Alamos) and CELSIUS (Uppsala).

  10. Problems and progress in radiation physics of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskij, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the current status of radiation physics of semiconductors comprises the analysis of some new problems and poses the statement of concern. The essential difference between the probability of interstitial-vacancy pair occurrence W(T) in elastic collisions and the generally accepted step distribution with a typical ''threshold'' energy Tsub(d) is indicated. The role of diffusion and reaction evolution of primary defects leading to specific properties of the cluster formation process is shown. Special features of defect formation in spatially inhomogeneous semiconductors, in particular for elastic stresses present, are described. Among most important advances in the radiation physics of semiconductors there are the discovery of non-activation motion of the ''extra'' atom in silicon, the observation of a low activation energy value for the vacancy diffusion, the understanding of subthreshold mechanism of defect formation and radiation-induced diffusion, the effects of laser annealing of defects and oriented crystallization

  11. Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Gei, Y.; Ren, S; Roth, J. E.; Miller, D. A.; Harris, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon is the dominant semiconductor for electronics, but there is now a growing need to integrate such component with optoelectronics for telecommunications and computer interconnections. Silicon-based optical modulators have recently been successfully demonstrated but because the light modulation mechanisms in silicon are relatively weak, long (for example, several millimeters) devices or sophisticated high-quality-factor resonators have been necessary. Thin quantum-well structures made from III-V semiconductors such as GaAs, InP and their alloys exhibit the much stronger Quantum-Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) mechanism, which allows modulator structures with only micrometers of optical path length. Such III-V materials are unfortunately difficult to integrate with silicon electronic devices. Germanium is routinely integrated with silicon in electronics, but previous silicon-germanium structures have also not shown strong modulation effects. Here we report the discovery of the QCSE, at room temperature, in thin germanium quantum-well structures grown on silicon. The QCSE here has strengths comparable to that in III-V materials. Its clarity and strength are particularly surprising because germanium is an indirect gap semiconductor, such semiconductors often display much weak optical effects than direct gap materials (such as the III-V materials typically used for optoelectronics). This discovery is very promising for small, high-speed, low-power optical output devices fully compatible with silicon electronics manufacture. (author)

  12. X-ray image intensifier camera tubes and semiconductor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A semiconductor target for use in an image intensifier camera tube and a camera using the target are described. The semiconductor wafer for converting an electron image onto electrical signal consists mainly of a collector region, preferably n-type silicon. It has one side for receiving the electron image and an opposite side for storing charge carriers generated in the collector region by high energy electrons forming a charge image. The first side comprises a highly doped surface layer covered with a metal buffer layer permeable to the incident electrons and thick enough to dissipate some of the incident electron energy thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This layer comprises beryllium on niobium on the highly doped silicon surface zone. Low energy Kα X-ray radiation is generated in the first layer, the radiation generated in the second layer (mainly Lα radiation) is strongly absorbed in the silicon layer. A camera tube using such a target with a photocathode for converting an X-ray image into an electron image, means to project this image onto the first side of the semiconductor wafer and means to read out the charge pattern on the second side are also described. (U.K.)

  13. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sun, Jon Paul; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kramer, Illan J.; Hill, Ian G.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was constructed of 4088 modules for a total of 6.3 million silicon strips and was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2007. The SCT has been fully operational since then, and achieves a good tracking performance from the startup of the LHC operation.

  15. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia

    2015-10-13

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  17. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  18. Photoelectronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bube, Richard H

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between light and electrons in semiconductors forms the basis for many interesting and practically significant properties. This book examines the fundamental physics underlying this rich complexity of photoelectronic properties of semiconductors, and will familiarise the reader with the relatively simple models that are useful in describing these fundamentals. The basic physics is also illustrated with typical recent examples of experimental data and observations. Following introductory material on the basic concepts, the book moves on to consider a wide range of phenomena, including photoconductivity, recombination effects, photoelectronic methods of defect analysis, photoeffects at grain boundaries, amorphous semiconductors, photovoltaic effects and photoeffects in quantum wells and superlattices. The author is Professor of Materials Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, and has taught this material for many years. He is an experienced author, his earlier books having fo...

  19. Architectures for Improved Organic Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jonathan H.

    Advancements in the microelectronics industry have brought increasing performance and decreasing prices to a wide range of users. Conventional silicon-based electronics have followed Moore's law to provide an ever-increasing integrated circuit transistor density, which drives processing power, solid-state memory density, and sensor technologies. As shrinking conventional integrated circuits became more challenging, researchers began exploring electronics with the potential to penetrate new applications with a low price of entry: "Electronics everywhere." The new generation of electronics is thin, light, flexible, and inexpensive. Organic electronics are part of the new generation of thin-film electronics, relying on the synthetic flexibility of carbon molecules to create organic semiconductors, absorbers, and emitters which perform useful tasks. Organic electronics can be fabricated with low energy input on a variety of novel substrates, including inexpensive plastic sheets. The potential ease of synthesis and fabrication of organic-based devices means that organic electronics can be made at very low cost. Successfully demonstrated organic semiconductor devices include photovoltaics, photodetectors, transistors, and light emitting diodes. Several challenges that face organic semiconductor devices are low performance relative to conventional devices, long-term device stability, and development of new organic-compatible processes and materials. While the absorption and emission performance of organic materials in photovoltaics and light emitting diodes is extraordinarily high for thin films, the charge conduction mobilities are generally low. Building highly efficient devices with low-mobility materials is one challenge. Many organic semiconductor films are unstable during fabrication, storage, and operation due to reactions with water, oxygen and hydroxide. A final challenge facing organic electronics is the need for new processes and materials for electrodes

  20. Determination of Fano's factor in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.

    1975-07-01

    A study was made of three different semiconductor detectors: intrinsic germanium, germanium drifted with lithium, and silicon drifted with lithium. In the efficiency measurements for these detectors, special attention was paid to the escape of the germanium X-rays produced within the detector. The principal part of this work is the determination of the Fano factor for germanium and silicon. A great deal of attention was given to the analysis of experimental results. Different criteria for eliminating the linewidth contribution due to charge collection fluctuations lead to widely different values and have caused great controversy over the value of the Fano factor. Measurements were made for the three detectors using energies of 14.4 kev, 35.4 kev, 46.5 kev, 59.5 kev, 81 kev, 88 kev, 122 kev and 136.5 kev and the results indicate a Fano factor of 0.105 +- 0.004 for germanium and 0.130 +- 0.120 for silicon. (author) [pt

  1. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar {it p}-in-{it n} technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status af...

  2. About possible mechanisms of current transfer in the bio-polymer - semiconductor heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.A.; Dosmailov, M.A.; Karibaeva, M.K.; Kenshinbaev, N.K.; Kokanbaev, M.; Uristembekov, B.B.; Tynyshtykbaev, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier by the bio-polymer films deposition on silicon the bio-polymer - semiconductor heterostructures were created. The influence of silicon surface atoms on self-organization processes in these bio-molecules were studied. Particularly the silicon - bio-cholesterol aqueous solution and the silicon - bio-chlorophyll aqueous solution spectral photo-sensitivity were considered. In this case the of photo-response broadening in the spectral photo-sensitivity short-wave part of these systems have been observed. The similar broadening is explained by both the passivation of surface recombination centers by OH-groups and the anti-reflecting properties of aqueous solutions. Besides it is possible the additional charge carriers generation caused by quasi-inter-zone transfers in the bio-polymers depending on electron-conformation properties of macromolecules. In the paper the possible mechanisms of current transfer in the bio-polymer - semiconductor heterostructure are discussed

  3. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  4. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  5. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  6. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  7. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  8. Introductory semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ATOMS AND BONDINGThe Periodic TableIonic BondingCovalent BondingMetallic bondingvan der Waals BondingStart a DatabaseENERGY BANDS AND EFFECTIVE MASSSemiconductors, Insulators and MetalsSemiconductorsInsulatorsMetalsThe Concept of Effective MassCARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORSDonors and AcceptorsFermi-LevelCarrier Concentration EquationsDonors and Acceptors Both PresentCONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORSCarrier DriftCarrier MobilitySaturated Drift VelocityMobility Variation with TemperatureA Derivation of Ohm's LawDrift Current EquationsSemiconductor Band Diagrams with an Electric Field Presen

  9. Removal of dangling bonds and surface states on silicon (001) with a monolayer of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Meng; Udeshi, Darshak; Basit, Nasir; Maldonado, Eduardo; Kirk, Wiley P.

    2003-01-01

    Dangling bonds and surface states are inherent to semiconductor surfaces. By passivating dangling bonds on the silicon (001) surface with a monolayer of selenium, surface states are removed from the band gap. Magnesium contacts on selenium-passivated silicon (001) behave ohmically, as expected from the work function of magnesium and the electron affinity of silicon. After rapid thermal annealing and hot-plate annealing, magnesium contacts on selenium-passivated silicon (001) show better thermal stability than on hydrogen-passivated silicon (001), which is attributed to the suppression of silicide formation by selenium passivation

  10. CMOS compatible generic batch process towards flexible memory on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-12-01

    Today\\'s mainstream flexible electronics research is geared towards replacing silicon either totally, by having organic devices on organic substrates, or partially, by transferring inorganic devices onto organic substrates. In this work, we present a pragmatic approach combining the desired flexibility of organic substrates and the ultra-high integration density, inherent in silicon semiconductor industry, to transform bulk/inflexible silicon into an ultra-thin mono-crystalline fabric. We also show the effectiveness of this approach in achieving fully flexible electronic systems. Furthermore, we provide a progress report on fabricating various memory devices on flexible silicon fabric and insights for completely flexible memory modules on silicon fabric.

  11. CMOS compatible generic batch process towards flexible memory on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Hanna, Amir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Today's mainstream flexible electronics research is geared towards replacing silicon either totally, by having organic devices on organic substrates, or partially, by transferring inorganic devices onto organic substrates. In this work, we present a pragmatic approach combining the desired flexibility of organic substrates and the ultra-high integration density, inherent in silicon semiconductor industry, to transform bulk/inflexible silicon into an ultra-thin mono-crystalline fabric. We also show the effectiveness of this approach in achieving fully flexible electronic systems. Furthermore, we provide a progress report on fabricating various memory devices on flexible silicon fabric and insights for completely flexible memory modules on silicon fabric.

  12. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  13. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy and application to semiconductor microstructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Warwick, A.; Padmore, H.A.; Triplett, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    The universal trend towards device miniaturization has driven the semiconductor industry to develop sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Many significant problems of relevance to the semiconductor industry cannot be solved by conventional analysis techniques, but can be addressed with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. An active spectromicroscopy program is being developed at thr Advanced Light Source, attracting both the semiconductor industry and the materials science academic community. Examples of spectromicroscopy techniques are presented. An Advanced Light Source μ-XPS spectromicroscopy project is discussed, involving the first microscope completely dedicated and designed for microstructure analysis on patterned silicon wafers. (author)

  14. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy and its application to semiconductor microstructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The universal trend towards device miniaturization has driven the semiconductor industry to develop sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Many significant problems of relevance to the semiconductor industry cannot be solved with conventional analysis techniques, but can be addressed with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. An active spectromicroscopy program is being developed at the Advanced Light Source, attracting both the semiconductor industry and the materials science academic community. Examples of spectromicroscopy techniques are presented. An ALS(mu)-XPS spectromicroscopy project is discussed, involving the first microscope completely dedicated and designed for microstructure analysis on patterned silicon wafers

  15. 6th Trieste IUPAP-ICTP Semiconductor Symposium : Festschrift Harbeke (Günther)

    CERN Document Server

    Stutzmann, M

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen on semiconductor surfaces has been an area of considerable activity over the last two decades. Structural, thermal, and dynamical properties of hydrogen chemisorbed on crystalline silicon and other semiconductors have been studied in great detail. These properties serve as a reference for related, but more complex systems such as hydrogen at multiple vacancies in crystalline semiconductors or at microvoids in amorphous samples. Interesting from a surface physics point of view is the fact that hydrogen as a monovalent element is an ideal terminator for unsaturated bonds on surfaces

  16. Physical principles of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micek, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The general properties of semiconductors with respect to the possibilities of their use as the ionization radiation detectors are discussed. Some chosen types of semiconductor junctions and their characteristics are briefly presented. There are also discussed the physical phenomena connected with the formation of barriers in various types of semiconductor counters. Finally, the basic properties of three main types of semiconductor detectors are given. (author)

  17. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  18. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  19. Infrared characterization of some oxygen-related defects in Czochralski silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, T.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is based on the work made at Linkoeping University at the Department of Physics and Measurement Technology. It is divided into two parts. The first part is a short introduction to defects in silicon, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as some physics involved in semiconductor crystals. The second part consists of two papers: Enhanced oxygen precipitation in electron irradiated silicon. Annealing of electron irradiated antimony-doped Czochralski silicon

  20. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  1. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  2. Simulations of defect spin qubits in piezoelectric semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hosung

    In recent years, remarkable advances have been reported in the development of defect spin qubits in semiconductors for solid-state quantum information science and quantum metrology. Promising spin qubits include the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, dopants in silicon, and the silicon vacancy and divacancy spins in silicon carbide. In this talk, I will highlight some of our recent efforts devoted to defect spin qubits in piezoelectric wide-gap semiconductors for potential applications in mechanical hybrid quantum systems. In particular, I will describe our recent combined theoretical and experimental study on remarkably robust quantum coherence found in the divancancy qubits in silicon carbide. We used a quantum bath model combined with a cluster expansion method to identify the microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long coherence times of the divacancy spins in SiC. Our study indicates that developing spin qubits in complex crystals with multiple types of atom is a promising route to realize strongly coherent hybrid quantum systems. I will also discuss progress and challenges in computational design of new spin defects for use as qubits in piezoelectric crystals such as AlN and SiC, including a new defect design concept using large metal ion - vacancy complexes. Our first principles calculations include DFT computations using recently developed self-consistent hybrid density functional theory and large-scale many-body GW theory. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the University of Chicago MRSEC under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  3. Semi-conductor rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for treating a semiconductor rectifier, comprising: heating the rectifier to a temperature in the range of 100 0 C to 500 0 C, irradiating the rectifier while maintaining its temperature within the said range, and then annealing the rectifier at a temperature of between 280 0 C and 350 0 C for between two and ten hours. (author)

  4. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  5. The molecularly controlled semiconductor resistor: how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Eyal; Natan, Amir; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2009-11-01

    We examine the current response of molecularly controlled semiconductor devices to the presence of weakly interacting analytes. We evaluate the response of two types of devices, a silicon oxide coated silicon device and a GaAs/AlGaAs device, both coated with aliphatic chains and exposed to the same set of analytes. By comparing the device electrical response with contact potential difference and surface photovoltage measurements, we show that there are two mechanisms that may affect the underlying substrate, namely, formation of layers with a net dipolar moment and molecular interaction with surface states. We find that whereas the Si device response is mostly correlated to the analyte dipole, the GaAs device response is mostly correlated to interactions with surface states. Existence of a silicon oxide layer, whether native on the Si or deliberately grown on the GaAs, eliminates analyte interaction with the surface states.

  6. The impact of silicon feedstock on the PV module cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Coso, G.; del Cañizo, C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the use of new (solar grade) silicon feedstock materials on the manufacturing cost of wafer-based crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules is analyzed considering effects of material cost, efficiency of utilisation, and quality. Calculations based on data provided by European industry

  7. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roest, Aarnoud L; Verheijen, Marcel A; Wunnicke, Olaf; Serafin, Stacey; Wondergem, Harry; Bakkers, Erik P A M [Philips Research Laboratories, Professor Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-06-14

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction pole figures and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. We show preliminary results of two-terminal electrical measurements of III-V nanowires grown on silicon. E-beam lithography was used to predefine the position of the nanowires.

  8. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, Aarnoud L; Verheijen, Marcel A; Wunnicke, Olaf; Serafin, Stacey; Wondergem, Harry; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction pole figures and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. We show preliminary results of two-terminal electrical measurements of III-V nanowires grown on silicon. E-beam lithography was used to predefine the position of the nanowires

  9. Qualification of a new supplier for silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@cern.ch [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frühwirth, E. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J.; Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors are capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This paper presents the development, production and results from the electrical characterisation of the first sensors produced by Infineon.

  10. Porous silicon localization for implementation in matrix biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benilov, A.; Cabrera, M.; Skryshevsky, V.; Martin, J.-R.

    2007-01-01

    The search of appropriate substrates and methods of surface DNA functionalisation is one of the important tasks of semiconductor biosensors. In this work we develop a method of light-assisted porous silicon etching in order to localize porous silicon spots on silicon substrate for matrix fluorophore-labeled DNA sensors implementation. The principal difference of porous spots localization proposed is considered for n- and p-type Si substrates under the condition of supplementary illumination. The tuning of the porous profile via applying of lateral electric field is proposed and experimentally proved

  11. Development of a miniaturized watch-type dosimeter using a silicon printed-circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Sakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Iwao; Aoyama, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The electrical personal dosimeter using a silicon semiconductor sensor has the advantage of real time response and alarm function, which can prevent unexpected over-exposure. We tried to develop a miniaturized watch-type dosimeter by incorporating the silicon semiconductor sensor on a silicon printed-circuit board. Thin film resistors, capacitors and wiring patterns are formed on a downsized printed-circuit board. Electronic parts including transistors are mounted by soldering on the silicon printed-circuit board. The dosimeter is further miniaturized by downsizing the amplifier circuit, the semiconductor radiation sensor, the power supply circuit, setting parts and alarm part. The performance of the developed dosimeter was evaluated with respect to the gamma-ray spectra, angular dependence and linearity to dose equivalent rate, and it was confirmed that this dosimeter has the performance equivalent to a commercially available electrical personal dosimeter. (author)

  12. Structuring of silicon with low energy focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The defect production in silicon induced by focused ion beam irradiation as a function of energy and projectile mass has been investigated and compared to the measured sputter yield. The aim was to find optimal beam parameters for the structuring of semiconductors with a minimum amount of defects produced per removed atom. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  13. A rigorous treatment of uncertainty quantification for Silicon damage metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.

    2016-01-01

    These report summaries the contributions made by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Data Section (NDS) Technical Meeting (TM) on Nuclear Reaction Data and Uncertainties for Radiation Damage. This work focused on a rigorous treatment of the uncertainties affecting the characterization of the displacement damage seen in silicon semiconductors. (author)

  14. Epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon for vertical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Borgström, M.T.; Einden, Van Den W.; Weert, van M.H.M.; Helman, A.; Verheijen, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The VLS growth enables the fabrication of complex axial and radial

  15. Polarization effects in silicon-clad optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. F.; Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    By changing the thickness of a semiconductor cladding layer deposited on a planar dielectric waveguide, the TE or TM propagating modes may be selectively attenuated. This polarization effect is due to the periodic coupling between the lossless propagating modes of the dielectric slab waveguide and the lossy modes of the cladding layer. Experimental tests involving silicon claddings show high selectivity for either polarization.

  16. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  17. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  18. Silicon photonics at the University of Surrey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Mashanovich, G.; Gardes, F. Y.; Gwilliam, R. M.; Wright, N. M.; Thomson, D. J.; Timotijevic, B. D.; Litvinenko, K. L.; Headley, W. R.; Smith, A. J.; Knights, A. P.; Jessop, P. E.; Tarr, N. G.; Deane, J. H. B.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon Photonics is a field that has seen rapid growth and dramatic changes in the past 5 years. According to the MIT Communications Technology Roadmap [1], which aims to establish a common architecture platform across market sectors with a potential $20B in annual revenue, silicon photonics is among the top ten emerging technologies. This has in part been a consequence of the recent involvement of large semiconductor companies around the world, particularly in the USA. Significant investment in the technology has also followed in Japan, Korea, and in the European Union. Low cost is a key driver, so it is imperative to pursue technologies that are mass-producible. Therefore, Silicon Photonics continues to progress at a rapid rate. This paper will describe some of the work of the Silicon Photonics Group at the University of Surrey in the UK. The work is concerned with the sequential development of a series of components for silicon photonic optical circuits, and some of the components are discussed here. In particular the paper will present work on optical waveguides, optical filters, modulators, and lifetime modification of carriers generated by two photon absorption, to improve the performance of Raman amplifiers in silicon.

  19. High precision stress measurements in semiconductor structures by Raman microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    Stress in silicon structures plays an essential role in modern semiconductor technology. This stress has to be measured and due to the ongoing miniaturization in today's semiconductor industry, the measuring method has to meet certain requirements. The present thesis deals with the question how Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the state of stress in semiconductor structures. In the first chapter the relation between Raman peakshift and stress in the material is explained. It is shown that detailed stress maps with a spatial resolution close to the diffraction limit can be obtained in structured semiconductor samples. Furthermore a novel procedure, the so called Stokes-AntiStokes-Difference method is introduced. With this method, topography, tool or drift effects can be distinguished from stress related influences in the sample. In the next chapter Tip-enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) and its application for an improvement in lateral resolution is discussed. For this, a study is presented, which shows the influence of metal particles on the intensity and localization of the Raman signal. A method to attach metal particles to scannable tips is successfully applied. First TERS scans are shown and their impact on and challenges for high resolution stress measurements on semiconductor structures is explained. (orig.)

  20. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  1. GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rusen; Khalsa, Guru; Vishwanath, Suresh; Han, Yimo; Wright, John; Rouvimov, Sergei; Katzer, D. Scott; Nepal, Neeraj; Downey, Brian P.; Muller, David A.; Xing, Huili G.; Meyer, David J.; Jena, Debdeep

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxy is a process by which a thin layer of one crystal is deposited in an ordered fashion onto a substrate crystal. The direct epitaxial growth of semiconductor heterostructures on top of crystalline superconductors has proved challenging. Here, however, we report the successful use of molecular beam epitaxy to grow and integrate niobium nitride (NbN)-based superconductors with the wide-bandgap family of semiconductors—silicon carbide, gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN). We apply molecular beam epitaxy to grow an AlGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure directly on top of an ultrathin crystalline NbN superconductor. The resulting high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas in the semiconductor exhibits quantum oscillations, and thus enables a semiconductor transistor—an electronic gain element—to be grown and fabricated directly on a crystalline superconductor. Using the epitaxial superconductor as the source load of the transistor, we observe in the transistor output characteristics a negative differential resistance—a feature often used in amplifiers and oscillators. Our demonstration of the direct epitaxial growth of high-quality semiconductor heterostructures and devices on crystalline nitride superconductors opens up the possibility of combining the macroscopic quantum effects of superconductors with the electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties of the group III/nitride semiconductor family.

  2. A review of recent progress in heterogeneous silicon tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lee, Kan-Hua; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2018-04-01

    Silicon solar cells are the most established solar cell technology and are expected to dominate the market in the near future. As state-of-the-art silicon solar cells are approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit, stacking silicon solar cells with other photovoltaic materials to form multi-junction devices is an obvious pathway to further raise the efficiency. However, many challenges stand in the way of fully realizing the potential of silicon tandem solar cells because heterogeneously integrating silicon with other materials often degrades their qualities. Recently, above or near 30% silicon tandem solar cell has been demonstrated, showing the promise of achieving high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells via silicon tandem. This paper reviews the recent progress of integrating solar cell with other mainstream solar cell materials. The first part of this review focuses on the integration of silicon with III-V semiconductor solar cells, which is a long-researched topic since the emergence of III-V semiconductors. We will describe the main approaches—heteroepitaxy, wafer bonding and mechanical stacking—as well as other novel approaches. The second part introduces the integration of silicon with polycrystalline thin-film solar cells, mainly perovskites on silicon solar cells because of its rapid progress recently. We will also use an analytical model to compare the material qualities of different types of silicon tandem solar cells and project their practical efficiency limits.

  3. Pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals: effects on optoelectronics and thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Yu, Yixuan; Sun, Qi-C.; Korgel, Brian; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-11-01

    While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in nanoscaled silicon semiconductors. Therefore, these results can have important implications for the design of optoelectronics and thermoelectric devices based on nanostructured silicon.While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in

  4. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    After more than 3 years of successful operation at 2 the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, 4 high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS 6 experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. We find 99.3% of the 8 SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to 10 the ideal to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. We will report on the operation and performance 12 of the detector including an overview of the issues encountered. The observables employed to monitor online and offline the 14 quality and the performance of the data acquired by the SCT will be described and discussed.

  5. Silicon-Based Integration of Groups III, IV, V Chemical Vapor Depositions in High-Quality Photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon (Si) technology is an interesting approach to utilize the advantages of both high-speed photonic and electronic properties. The work presented in this thesis is initiated by this major goal of merging III-V semiconductor technology with

  6. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  7. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  8. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  9. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  10. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  11. Optically coupled semiconductor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagaya, Naoki

    1988-11-18

    This invention concerns an optically coupled semiconductor device using the light as input signal and a MOS transistor for the output side in order to control on-off of the output side by the input signal which is insulated from the output. Concerning this sort of element, when a MOS transistor and a load resistance are planned to be accumulated on the same chip, a resistor and control of impurity concentration of the channel, etc. become necessary despite that the only formation of a simple P-N junction is enough, for a solar cell, hence cost reduction thereof cannot be done. In order to remove this defect, this invention offers an optically coupled semiconductor device featuring that two solar cells are connected in reverse parallel between the gate sources of the output MOS transistors and an operational light emitting element is individually set facing a respective solar cell. 4 figs.

  12. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Images through semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Improved image processing techniques are constantly being developed for television and for scanners using X-rays or other radiation for industrial or medical applications, etc. As Erik Heijne of CERN explains here, particle physics too has its own special requirements for image processing. The increasing use of semiconductor techniques for handling measurements down to the level of a few microns provides another example of the close interplay between scientific research and technological development. (orig.).

  14. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  15. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Measurements of Thermophysical Properties of Molten Silicon and Geranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this ground base program is to measure thermophysical properties of molten/ undercooled silicon, germanium, and Si-Ge alloys using a high temperature electrostatic levitator and in clearly assessing the need of the microgravity environment to achieve the objective with higher degrees of accuracy. Silicon and germanium are two of the most important semiconductors for industrial applications: silicon is unsurpassed as a microelectronics material, occupying more than 95% of the electronics market. Si-Ge alloy is attracting keen interest for advanced electronic and optoelectronic applications in view of its variable band gap and lattice parameter depending upon its composition. Accurate thermophysical properties of these materials are very much needed in the semiconductor industry for the growth of large high quality crystals.

  17. The Semiconductor Industry and Emerging Technologies: A Study Using a Modified Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Edgar A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine what leaders in the semiconductor industry thought the future of computing would look like and what emerging materials showed the most promise to overcome the current theoretical limit of 10 nanometers for silicon dioxide. The researcher used a modified Delphi technique in two…

  18. Optical approach to thermopower and conductivity measurements in thin-film semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dersch, H.; Amer, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    An optical beam deflection technique is applied to measure the Joule and Peltier heat generated by electric currents through thin-film semiconductors. The method yields a spatially resolved conductivity profile and allows the determination of Peltier coefficients. Results obtained on doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films are presented

  19. Sensor development at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, A.; Lechner, P.; Ninkovic, J.

    2017-12-01

    For more than twenty years the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck Society (MPG-HLL) is developing high-performing, specialised, scientific silicon sensors including the integration of amplifying electronics on the sensor chip. This paper summarises the actual status of these devices like pnCCDs and DePFET Active Pixel Sensors and their applications.

  20. Survey of semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    1992-01-01

    Any book that covers a large variety of subjects and is written by one author lacks by necessity the depth provided by an expert in his or her own field of specialization. This book is no exception. It has been written with the encouragement of my students and colleagues, who felt that an extensive card file I had accumulated over the years of teaching solid state and semiconductor physics would be helpful to more than just a few of us. This file, updated from time to time, contained lecture notes and other entries that were useful in my research and permitted me to give to my students a broader spectrum of information than is available in typical textbooks. When assembling this material into a book, I divided the top­ ics into material dealing with the homogeneous semiconductor, the subject of the previously published Volume 1, and the inhomoge­ neous semiconductor, the subject of this Volume 2. In order to keep the book to a manageable size, sections of tutorial character which can be used as text for a g...

  1. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  2. The Physics of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    1999-02-01

    Modern fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce semiconductor devices whose dimensions are so small that quantum mechanical effects dominate their behavior. This book describes the key elements of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and solid-state physics that are necessary in understanding these modern semiconductor devices. The author begins with a review of elementary quantum mechanics, and then describes more advanced topics, such as multiple quantum wells. He then disusses equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Following this introduction, he provides a thorough treatment of solid-state physics, covering electron motion in periodic potentials, electron-phonon interaction, and recombination processes. The final four chapters deal exclusively with real devices, such as semiconductor lasers, photodiodes, flat panel displays, and MOSFETs. The book contains many homework exercises and is suitable as a textbook for electrical engineering, materials science, or physics students taking courses in solid-state device physics. It will also be a valuable reference for practicing engineers in optoelectronics and related areas.

  3. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  4. Metal induced crystallization of silicon germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjukic, M.

    2007-05-15

    In the framework of this thesis the applicability of the aluminium-induced layer exchange on binary silicon germanium alloys was studied. It is here for the first time shown that polycrstalline silicon-germanium layers can be fabricated over the whole composition range by the aluminium-induced layer exchange. The experimental results prove thet the resulting material exhibits a polycrystalline character with typocal grain sizes of 10-100 {mu}m. Raman measurements confirm that the structural properties of the resulting layers are because of the large crystallites more comparable with monocrystalline than with nano- or microcrystalline silicon-germanium. The alloy ratio of the polycrystalline layer correspondes to the chemical composition of the amorphous starting layer. The polycrystalline silicon-germanium layers possess in the range of the interband transitions a reflection spectrum, as it is otherwise only known from monocrystalline reference layers. The improvement of the absorption in the photovoltaically relevant spectral range aimed by the application of silicon-germanium could be also proved by absorption measurments. Strongly correlated with the structural properties of the polycrystalline layers and the electronic band structure resulting from this are beside the optical properties also the electrical properties of the material, especially the charge-carrier mobility and the doping concentration. For binary silicon-germanium layers the hole concentration of about 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} for pure silicon increrases to about 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sub -3} for pure germanium. Temperature-resolved measurements were applied in order to detect doping levels respectively semiconductor-metal transitions. In the last part of the thesis the hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline thin silicon-germanium layers, which were fabricated by means of aluminium-induced layer exchange, is treated.

  5. Study on Characteristic of CdZnTe Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha Particle Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Mook; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Han Soo; Chung, Chong Eun

    2005-01-01

    The last 2-3 years have seen continued effort in the development of a wide band gap room-temperature compound semiconductor devices aimed principally at photon imaging covering hard X-rays, synchrotrons, and low to medium energy gamma rays. Especially, among the semiconductor materials of a wide band gap, CdZnTe(CZT) has commonly used X-ray and gammaray detection applications because of the opportunity to achieve and excellent spectral and spatial resolution. It has recently been demonstrated that CZT can be used as an ancillary detector with the ability to detect both alpha particles and X-ray at room temperature. CZT detectors are relatively inexpensive compared with some silicon detectors, and are priced about the same as amorphous silicon and photodiodes which are routinely used for charged particle detection. In this paper, we investigated the use of the CZT semiconductor material as an alpha particles detector

  6. Properties of SiC semiconductor detector of fast neutrons investigated using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlakova, K.; Sagatova, A.; Necas, V.; Zatko, B.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of silicon carbide (SiC) for use in semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors has been long recognized. The wide bandgap of SiC (3.25 eV for 4H-SiC polytype) compared to that for more conventionally used semiconductors, such as silicon (1.12 eV) and germanium (0.67 eV), makes SiC an attractive semiconductor for use in high dose rate and high ionization nuclear environments. The present work focused on the simulation of particle transport in SiC detectors of fast neutrons using statistical analysis of Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. Its possibilities in detector design and optimization are presented.(authors)

  7. On the Integration of Wide Band-gap Semiconductors in Single Phase Boost PFC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos

    Power semiconductor technology has dominated the evolution of switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Advances in silicon (Si) technology, as the introduction of metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET), isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT), superjunction vertical structures and Schottky...... diodes, or the introduction of silicon carbide (SiC) diodes, provided large steps in miniaturization and efficiency improvement of switched mode power converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) and SiC semiconductor devices have already been around for some years. The first one proliferated due to the necessity...... of high frequency operation in optoelectronics applications. On the other hand, Schottky SiC power diodes were introduced in 2001 as an alternative to eliminate reverse recovery issues in Si rectifiers. Wide band-gap semiconductors offer an increased electrical field strength and electron mobility...

  8. Nuclear Reactor Power Monitoring Using Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Blue; Don Miller

    2008-01-01

    To provide a perspective for our accomplishments, all of the sub-tasks in Task 1 (as they were identified in the proposal) are listed, and a brief description of the subtasks is given. Task 1--Define Generation IV Reactor Power Monitoring Requirements. Task 1.1--The power monitoring requirements for the IRIS and GT-MHR will be evaluated. Parameters considered will include maximum power level uncertainty, response time, etc. Task 1.2--The optimum locations for power monitors will be selected for both the IRIS and GT-MHR. Factors to be considered will include the power monitoring requirements defined in Task 1.1 as well as expected detector sensitivity and the presence of gamma ray background. Task 1.3--Other applications and opportunities offered by SiC power monitors will be evaluated. The prospects for on-line fault identification and diagnosis using pulse height and pulse shape analysis will be explored. The use of miniature SiC detectors to define axial, azimuthal, and radial flux profiles will be investigated

  9. The ATLAS Semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Tracker After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very cl...

  10. Pr-O-Al-N dielectrics for metal insulator semiconductor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, Karsten; Torche, Mohamed; Sohal, Rakesh; Karavaev, Konstantin; Burkov, Yevgen; Schwiertz, Carola; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburg University of Technology, Chair of Applied Physics and Sensors, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    This work focuses on praseodymium oxide films as a high-k material on silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) in metal insulator semiconductor samples. The electrical results are correlated to spectroscopic findings on this material system. Strong interfacial reactions between the praseodymium oxide and the semiconductor as well as silicon inter-diffusion into the high-k material are observed. The importance of a buffer layer is discussed and its optimisation is addressed, too. In particular the improvement of the performance by the introduction of an aluminium oxynitride buffer layer, which acts as an inter-diffusion barrier and reduces the leakage current, the interface state density and the equivalent oxide thickness is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  12. The tensile effect on crack formation in single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoying; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yu, Xiao; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Improving antifatigue performance of silicon substrate is very important for the development of semiconductor industry. The cracking behavior of silicon under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation was studied by numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanism of induced surface peeling observed by experimental means. Using molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger Weber potential, tensile effect on crack growth and propagation in single crystal silicon was investigated. Simulation results reveal that stress-strain curves of single crystal silicon at a constant strain rate can be divided into three stages, which are not similar to metal stress-strain curves; different tensile load velocities induce difference of single silicon crack formation speed; the layered stress results in crack formation in single crystal silicon. It is concluded that the crack growth and propagation is more sensitive to strain rate, tensile load velocity, stress distribution in single crystal silicon.

  13. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  14. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  15. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  16. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  17. Transmutation doping of semiconductors by charged particles (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Zakharenkov, L.F.; Shustrov, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the state of the art in one of the current topics in radiation doping of semiconductors, which is process of nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) charged particles. In contrast to the neutron and photonuclear transmutation doping, which have been dealt with in monographs and reviews, NTD caused by the action of charged particles is a subject growing very rapidly in the last 10-15 years, but still lacking systematic accounts. The review consists of three sections. The first section deals with the characteristics of nuclear reactions in semiconductors caused by the action of charged particles: the main stress is on the modeling of NTD processes in semiconductors under the action of charged particles. An analysis is made of the modeling intended to give the total numbers of donors and acceptor impurities introduced by the NTD process, to optimize the compensation coefficients, and to estimate the distributions of the dopants with depth in a semiconductor crystal. In the second section the state of the art of experimental investigations of NTD under the influence of charged particles is considered. In view of the specific objects that have been investigated experimntally, the second section is divided into three subsections: silicon, III-V compounds, other semiconductors and related materials (such as high-temperature superconductors, ferroelectric films, etc.). An analysis is made of the communications reporting experimental data on the total numbers of dopants which are introduced, concentration of the electrically active fraction of the impurity, profiles of the dopant distributions, and conditions for efficient annealing of radiation defects. The third section deals with the suitability of NTD by charged particles for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. 45 refs

  18. Muon flux measurement with silicon detectors in the CERN neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The neutrino beam installations at the CERN SPS accelerator are described, with emphasis on the beam monitoring systems. Especially the muon flux measurement system is considered in detail, and the calibration procedure and systematic aspects of the measurements are discussed. An introduction is given to the use of silicon semiconductor detectors and their related electronics. Other special chapters concern non-linear phenomena in the silicon detectors, radiation damage in silicon detectors, energy loss and energy deposition in silicon and a review of energy loss phenomena for high energy muons in matter. (orig.)

  19. Safety procedures used during the manufacturing of amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, C R

    1987-01-01

    The Solarex Thin Film Division is a leader in the manufacturing of amorphous-silicon products for sale in domestic and foreign markets. Similarly, Solarex assumes a leadership role in recognizing the importance of safety in a manufacturing environment. Although many of the safety issues are similar to those in the semiconductor industry, this paper presents topics specific to amorphous silicon technology and the manufacturing ,f amorphous-silicon products. These topics are deposition of conducting transparent oxides (CTOs), amorphous silicon deposition, laser scribing, processing chemicals, fire prevention and administrative responsibilities.

  20. Diffuse scattering from hemispherical nanoparticles at the air–silicon interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, Anthony; Ahmed, Badar; Reehal, Haricharan; Xie, Fang

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the application of plasmonics to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells. In this paper we use finite difference time domain calculations to investigate the placement of hemispherical gold nanoparticles on the rear surface of a silicon solar cell. The results indicate that nanoparticles protruding into the silicon, rather than into air, have a larger scattering efficiency and diffuse scattering into the semiconductor. This finding could lead to improved light trapping within a thin silicon solar cell device. (paper)

  1. Electrical characterization of high-pressure reactive sputtered ScOx films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castan, H.; Duenas, S.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, H.; Bailon, L.; Feijoo, P.C.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Prado, A. del; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Al/ScO x /SiN x /n-Si and Al/ScO x /SiO x /n-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors have been electrically characterized. Scandium oxide was grown by high-pressure sputtering on different substrates to study the dielectric/insulator interface quality. The substrates were silicon nitride and native silicon oxide. The use of a silicon nitride interfacial layer between the silicon substrate and the scandium oxide layer improves interface quality, as interfacial state density and defect density inside the insulator are decreased.

  2. Analysis of impurities in semiconductor by IMA (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Junko; Masuko, Yoji; Koyama, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines the measuring mechanism of SIMS and its applications in the field of semiconductor production. SIMS is the only equipment currently available for micrometer-order analysis and ppb-level impurities detection required for evaluation of semiconductors. In SIMS, sputtering of the sample surface is performed with primary ions and the secondary ions released from the sample are analyzed to identify the atomic species existing in the surface. The sputtering process and ionization process are outlined in the report, though the details of sputtering has not been fully clarified yet. In actual observation, some problems may be caused due to interfering ions and residual ions. In general, various ions including multi-valent ions, cluster ions, molecular ions, hydrogenated/oxygenated ions and hydrocarbon ions are produced in addition to monovalent ions to interfere the atoms under analysis. Interference by these ions can cause serious problems in carrying out depth profile analysis as well as observation of mass spectra. Major applications of SIMS in the field of semiconductor production include the evaluation of silicon surface, light elements, insulating materials and semiconductor devices. Some requirements to be met by further studies are also listed. (N.K.)

  3. Determination of the transport levels in thin films of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Stefan

    2009-07-27

    The approach of using the combination of Ultraviolet (UPS) and Inverse Photoemission (IPS) to determine the transport levels in thin films of organic semiconductors is the scope of this work. For this matter all influences on the peak position and width in Photoelectron Spectroscopy are discussed with a special focus on organic semiconductors. Many of these influences are shown with experimental results of the investigation of diindenoperylene on Ag(111). These findings are applied to inorganic semiconductors silicon in order to establish the use of UPS and IPS on a well-understood system. Finally, the method is used to determine the transport level of several organic semiconductors (PTCDA, Alq3, CuPc, DIP, PBI-H4) and the corresponding exciton binding energies are calculated by comparison to optical absorption data. (orig.)

  4. Development of an integrated response generator for Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuta, Junichiro; Koseki, Yuu; Fukuyama, Taro; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an integrated response generator based on Monte Carlo simulation for Compton cameras composed of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors. In order to construct an accurate detector response function, the simulation is required to include a comprehensive treatment of the semiconductor detector devices and the data processing system in addition to simulating particle tracking. Although CdTe is an excellent semiconductor material for detection of soft gamma rays, its ineffective charge transport property distorts its spectral response. We investigated the response of CdTe pad detectors in the simulation and present our initial results here. We also performed the full simulation of prototypes of Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras and report on the reproducibility of detection efficiencies and angular resolutions of the cameras, both of which are essential performance parameters of astrophysical instruments.

  5. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.

    1980-01-01

    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  6. TCT characterization of different semiconductor materials for particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.; Lodomez, P.; Krueger, H.; Pernegger, H.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital semiconductor based X-ray detectors necessitates a detailed understanding of the applied sensor material. Under this premise a broad-band transient current technique (TCT) setup has been developed and used to characterize different semiconductors. The measurements are based on the generation of electrical charges within the sensor material and the subsequent time-resolved analysis of the charge carrier movement. From the recorded current pulses the charge collection efficiency, the charge carrier mobility and the electric field profile have been extracted. The examined materials are silicon p in n diodes, ohmic and Schottky contacted CdTe detectors, CdZnTe (CZT) crystals with Schottky contacts as well as two single-crystal CVD-diamonds

  7. Operation and performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernabéu, José; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; Garcia Argos, Carlos; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodrick, Maurice; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivarsson, Jenny; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubik, Petr; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pieron, Jacek Piotr; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Rick; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warren, Matthew; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    The semiconductor tracker is a silicon microstrip detector forming part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The operation and performance of the semiconductor tracker during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 99% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency of (99.74 +/- 0.04)%. The evolution of the noise occupancy is discussed, and measurements of the Lorentz angle, delta-ray production and energy loss presented. The alignment of the detector is found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Radiation damage measurements, which include the evolution of detector leakage currents, are found to be consistent with predictions and are used in the verification of radiation background simulations.

  8. Controlling semiconductor nanoparticle size distributions with tailored ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroeder, R; Miclea, M; Hommes, V

    2006-01-01

    The laser generation of size-controlled semiconductor nanoparticle formation under gas phase conditions is investigated. It is shown that the size distribution can be changed if picosecond pulse sequences of tailored ultra short laser pulses (<200 fs) are employed. By delivering the laser energy in small packages, a temporal energy flux control at the target surface is achieved, which results in the control of the thermodynamic pathway the material takes. The concept is tested with silicon and germanium, both materials with a predictable response to double pulse sequences, which allows deduction of the materials' response to complicated pulse sequences. An automatic, adaptive learning algorithm was employed to demonstrate a future strategy that enables the definition of more complex optimization targets such as particle size on materials less predictable than semiconductors

  9. The ATLAS semi-conductor tracker operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been used to exploit fully the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed. -- Highlights: ► The operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is reviewed. ► More than 99% of the SCT strips have remained operational in all data taking periods so far. ► Tracking performance indicators have met or exceeded design specifications. ► Radiation damage effects match closely expectations from delivered fluence.

  10. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  11. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F

    1983-02-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered.

  12. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  13. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  14. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  15. Semiconductor materials and their properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre; Reinders, Angele; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor materials are the basic materials which are used in photovoltaic (PV) devices. This chapter introduces solid-state physics and semiconductor properties that are relevant to photovoltaics without spending too much time on unnecessary information. Usually atoms in the group of

  16. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...

  17. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...... breathing of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor....

  18. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  19. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  20. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.