WorldWideScience

Sample records for semiarid river systems

  1. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  2. A comparative study of artificial neural network, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and support vector machine for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhibin; Wen, Xiaohu; Liu, Hu; Du, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Data driven models are very useful for river flow forecasting when the underlying physical relationships are not fully understand, but it is not clear whether these data driven models still have a good performance in the small river basin of semiarid mountain regions where have complicated topography. In this study, the potential of three different data driven methods, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region, northwestern China. The models analyzed different combinations of antecedent river flow values and the appropriate input vector has been selected based on the analysis of residuals. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in training and validation sets are compared with the observed data. The model which consists of three antecedent values of flow has been selected as the best fit model for river flow forecasting. To get more accurate evaluation of the results of ANN, ANFIS and SVM models, the four quantitative standard statistical performance evaluation measures, the coefficient of correlation (R), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and mean absolute relative error (MARE), were employed to evaluate the performances of various models developed. The results indicate that the performance obtained by ANN, ANFIS and SVM in terms of different evaluation criteria during the training and validation period does not vary substantially; the performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in river flow forecasting was satisfactory. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the SVM model performed better than ANN and ANFIS in river flow forecasting for the validation data sets. The results also suggest that ANN, ANFIS and SVM method can be successfully applied to establish river flow with complicated topography forecasting models in the semiarid mountain regions.

  3. Distribution of Chironomidae in a semiarid intermittent river of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, R L; Carvalho, L K; Medeiros, E S F

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the intermittency of water flow on habitat structure and substrate composition have been reported to create a patch dynamics for the aquatic fauna, mostly for that associated with the substrate. This study aims to describe the spatial distribution of Chironomidae in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and to associate assemblage composition with environmental variables. Benthic invertebrates were sampled during the wet and dry seasons using a D-shaped net (40 cm wide and 250 μm mesh), and the Chironomidae were identified to genus level. The most abundant genera were Tanytarsus, Polypedilum, and Saetheria with important contributions of the genera Procladius, Aedokritus, and Dicrotendipes. Richness and density were not significantly different between the study sites, and multiple regression showed that the variation in richness and density explained by the environmental variables was significant only for substrate composition. The composition of genera showed significant spatial segregation across the study sites. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed significant correspondence between Chironomidae composition and the environmental variables, with submerged vegetation, elevation, and leaf litter being important predictors of the Chironomidae fauna. This study showed that Chironomidae presented important spatial variation along the river and that this variation was substantially explained by environmental variables associated with the habitat structure and river hierarchy. We suggest that the observed spatial segregation in the fauna results in the high diversity of this group of organisms in intermittent streams.

  4. Where Does the River Run? Lessons from a Semi-Arid River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Soto, C. D.; Richter, H.; Uhlman, K.

    2009-12-01

    Spatial data sets to assess the nature of stream groundwater interactions and the resulting power law/fractal structure of travel time distributions are rare. Spatial data sets can be collected using high technology or by use of a large number of field assistants. The labor intensive way is expensive unless the public can be enlisted as citizen scientists to gather large, robust, spatial data sets robustly and cheaply. Such an effort requires public interest and the ability of a few to organize such an effort at a basin if not regional scale. The San Pedro basin offers such an opportunity for citizen science due to the water resource restrictions of the basins semi-arid climate. Since 1999 The Nature Conservancy, in cooperation with the Upper San Pedro Partnership, the public at large and various university and federal science agency participants, has been mapping where the San Pedro River has water present versus where it is dry. This mapping has used an army of volunteers armed with GPS units, clipboards and their eyes to make the determination if a given 10m reach of the river is wet or dry. These wet/dry mapping data now exist for 11 different annual surveys. These data are unique and enable an investigation of the hydrologic connectedness of flowing waters within this system. Analysis of these data reveals several important findings. The total river area that is wet is strongly correlated with stream flow as observed at three USGS gauges. The correlation is strongest however for 90 day and 1 year average flows rather than more local in time observations such as the daily, 7 day or monthly mean flow at the gauges. This result indicates that where the river is flowing depends on long term hydrologic conditions. The length of river reach that is mapped as wet or dry is indicative of the travel distance and thus time that water travels in the surface (wet) and subsurface (dry) of the river system. The reach length that is mapped as wet follows a power law function

  5. Interaction of water components in the semi-arid Huasco and Limarí river basins, North Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Strauch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable water resource management in semi-arid regions, sound information is required about interactions between the different components of the water system: rain/snow precipitation, surface/subsurface run-off, groundwater recharge. Exemplarily, the Huasco and Limarí river basins as water stressed river catchments have been studied by isotope and hydrochemical methods for (i the origin of water, (ii water quality, (iii relations of surface and groundwater.

    Applying the complex multi-isotopic and hydrochemical methodology to the water components of the Huasco and Limarí basins, a differentiation of water components concerning subsurface flow and river water along the catchment area and by anthropogenic impacts are detected. Sulphate and nitrate concentrations indicate remarkable input from mining and agricultural activities along the river catchment.

    The 2H-18O relations of river water and groundwater of both catchments point to the behaviour of river waters originated in an arid to semi-arid environment.

    Consequently, the groundwater from several production wells in the lower parts of the catchments is related to the rivers where the wells located, however, it can be distinguished from the river water. Using the hydrological water balance and the isotope mixing model, the interaction between surface and subsurface flows and river flow is estimated.

  6. Assessing Ecosystem Model Performance in Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Dietze, M.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In ecosystem process modelling, comparing outputs to benchmark datasets observed in the field is an important way to validate models, allowing the modelling community to track model performance over time and compare models at specific sites. Multi-model comparison projects as well as models themselves have largely been focused on temperate forests and similar biomes. Semiarid regions, on the other hand, are underrepresented in land surface and ecosystem modelling efforts, and yet will be disproportionately impacted by disturbances such as climate change due to their sensitivity to changes in the water balance. Benchmarking models at semiarid sites is an important step in assessing and improving models' suitability for predicting the impact of disturbance on semiarid ecosystems. In this study, several ecosystem models were compared at a semiarid grassland in southwestern Arizona using PEcAn, or the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer, an open-source eco-informatics toolbox ideal for creating the repeatable model workflows necessary for benchmarking. Models included SIPNET, DALEC, JULES, ED2, GDAY, LPJ-GUESS, MAESPA, CLM, CABLE, and FATES. Comparison between model output and benchmarks such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) tended to produce high root mean square error and low correlation coefficients, reflecting poor simulation of seasonality and the tendency for models to create much higher carbon sources than observed. These results indicate that ecosystem models do not currently adequately represent semiarid ecosystem processes.

  7. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  8. Economic Feasibility of Underwater Adduction of Rivers for Metropolises in Semiarid Coastal Environments: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Albiero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous proportions, and in many situations, there are no sustainable solutions, especially in times of global climate change. One hypothesis to try to mitigate this problem in coastal cities is the underwater adduction of rivers. The objective of this paper was to make the abstraction of drinking water in the mouths of great rivers near semi-arid regions. This water would be led by a pipeline below the water level and would follow the route of the seacoast, where the energy to move the water would be supplied by an axial hydraulic pump embedded in the pipeline by water-cooled electric motors driven by the energy generated from offshore wind turbines. Estimates have been made for the four metropolises in semi-arid regions: Fortaleza-Brazil, Dalian-China, Tel Aviv-Israel, and Gaza-Palestine, where it was possible to calculate economic viability through the Present Worth Value, the internal rate of return, and payback. The results indicated that Fortaleza had economic viability under restrictions. Dalian proved the ideal result. Tel Aviv and Gaza both had great economic viability, but only if Egypt agreed to supply water from the Nile. This paper proved that the management of the water supply for human consumption through the underwater adduction of rivers could be achieved with real clearance for any deficits in the volume of water that due to global climate change are becoming more frequent.

  9. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in two neighboring river basins in semiarid regions of Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vinícius G.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Carvalho, Carlos A., E-mail: vinicius.ferreira@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: cacf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Meio Ambiente

    2017-07-01

    Groundwater is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth and the depletion of aquifer systems is a reality, both in semi-arid and humid regions. The hydrology of watersheds is a field of study that is concerned with the movement of waters from the rains and its physical-chemical changes. Groundwater resources in these regions are a sensitive issue, requiring careful management to avoid quality degradation. The present study focuses the groundwater system at the interface of the Pandeiros and Peruaçu river basins in the northwest region of Minas Gerais State. The methods used were the evaluations of the hydrochemistry, as well as isotopic, and physicochemical parameters, allied to geological studies to investigate surface and groundwater, their possible interactions and spatial distribution. The hydrochemical results correlated with the physicochemical measurements show water contrasts in the study area, which is geologically composed from bottom to top by gneisses and granites (Januaria Complex), limestone and siltstones (Bambuí Group), sandstones and eluvial sediments (Urucuia Group), eluvio-coluvial cover and alluvial deposits. It has been observed that waters in the context of sandstones and siliceous sediments are sodium bicarbonate waters, slightly acidic pH and low in TDS, whereas waters in pedological / geologic context of limestones are calcium bicarbonate waters exhibiting basic pH and high TDS. The deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 signatures of the groundwater are compared to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). The average values of the isotopes in the study area are slightly variable, indicating that the isotopic signatures are related to rainfall precipitation. It has been possible to suggest an evaporation line pattern starting from the position of springs, passing though streams and finally ending in the lagoon. The local evaporation line can be represented by the equation δD = 5,8 δ{sup 18}O - 2,4. (author)

  10. Managing Environmental Flows for Impounded Rivers in Semi-Arid Regions- A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Approach for the Assessment of River Habitat for Salmonid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Sivakumaran, K.; Villamizar, S. R.; Flanagan, J.; Guo, Q.; Harmon, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Balancing ecosystem health in water-scarce, agriculturally dominated river basins remains a challenge. In dry water years, maintaining conditions for restored and sustained indigenous fish populations (a frequently used indicator for ecosystem health) is particularly challenging. Competing human demands include urban and agricultural water supplies, hydropower, and flood control. In many semi-arid regions, increasing drought intensity and frequency under future climate scenarios will combine with population increases to water scarcity. The goal of this work is to better understand how reservoir releases affect fish habitat and overall river aquatic ecosystem quality. Models integrating a diverse array of physical and biological processes and system state are used to forecast the river ecosystem response to changing drivers. We propose a distributed parameter-based Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) approach for assessing fish habitat quality. Our river ecosystem HSI maps are based on a combination of the following: (1) In situ data describing stream flow and water quality conditions; (2) Spatial observations, including surveyed cross-sections, aerial imagery and digital elevation maps (DEM) of the river and its riparian corridor; and (3) Simulated spatially distributed water depths, flow velocities, and temperatures estimated from 1D and 2D river flow and temperature models (HEC-RAS and CE-QUAL-W2, respectively). With respect to (2), image processing schemes are used to classify and map key habitat features, namely riparian edge and shallow underwater vegetation. HSI maps can be modified temporally to address specific life cycle requirements of indicator fish species. Results are presented for several reaches associated with the San Joaquin River Restoration Project, focusing on several components of the Chinook salmon life cycle. HSI maps and interpretations are presented in the context of a range of prescribed reservoir release hydrographs linked to California water

  11. Water-scarcity patterns : spatiotemporal interdependencies between water use and water availability in a semi-arid river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interdependencies between water use and water availability and describes a model that has been developed to improve understanding of the processes that drive changes and variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in a semi-arid river basin. These

  12. Tamarix transpiration along a semiarid river has negligible impact on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alyson K.; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Moore, Georgianne W.; Hart, Charles R.; Sheng, Zhuping; Owens, M. Keith

    2015-07-01

    The proliferation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) along regulated rivers in the western United States has transformed riparian plant communities. It is commonly assumed that transpiration by these alien plants has led to large losses of water that would otherwise contribute to streamflow. Control of saltcedar, therefore, has been considered a viable strategy for conserving water and increasing streamflow in these regions. In an effort to better understand the linkage between transpiration by saltcedar and streamflow, we monitored transpiration, stream stage, and groundwater elevations within a saltcedar stand along the Pecos River during June 2004. Transpiration, as determined by sap flow measurements, exhibited a strong diel pattern; stream stage did not. Diel fluctuations in groundwater levels were observed, but only in one well, which was located in the center of the saltcedar stand. In that well, the correlation between maximal transpiration and minimal groundwater elevation was weak (R2 = 0.16). No effects of transpiration were detected in other wells within the saltcedar stand, nor in the stream stage. The primary reason, we believe, is that the saltcedar stand along this reach of the Pecos River has relatively low sapwood area and a limited spatial extent resulting in very low transpiration compared with the stream discharge. Our results are important because they provide a mechanistic explanation for the lack of increase in streamflow following large-scale control of invasive trees along semiarid rivers.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton Diversity across Temporary Pools in a Semiarid Intermittent River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís X. Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the richness and density of zooplankton across temporary pools in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and evaluates the partitioning of diversity across different spatial scales during the wet and dry periods. Given the highly patchy nature of these pools it is hypothesized that the diversity is not homogeneously distributed across different spatial scales but concentrated at lower levels. The plankton fauna was composed of 37 species. Of these 28 were Rotifera, 5 were Cladocera, and 4 were Copepoda (nauplii of Copepoda were also recorded. We showed that the zooplankton presents a spatially segregated pattern of species composition across river reaches and that at low spatial scales (among pools or different habitats within pools the diversity of species is likely to be affected by temporal changes in physical and chemical characteristics. As a consequence of the drying of pool habitats, the spatial heterogeneity within the study river reaches has the potential to increase β diversity during the dry season by creating patchier assemblages. This spatial segregation in community composition and the patterns of partition of the diversity across the spatial scales leads to a higher total diversity in intermittent streams, compared to less variable environments.

  14. Simulation of relationship between river discharge and sediment yield in the semi-arid river watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Mohammad Reza; Varvani, Javad

    2018-02-01

    Complex and variable nature of the river sediment yield caused many problems in estimating the long-term sediment yield and problems input into the reservoirs. Sediment Rating Curves (SRCs) are generally used to estimate the suspended sediment load of the rivers and drainage watersheds. Since the regression equations of the SRCs are obtained by logarithmic retransformation and have a little independent variable in this equation, they also overestimate or underestimate the true sediment load of the rivers. To evaluate the bias correction factors in Kalshor and Kashafroud watersheds, seven hydrometric stations of this region with suitable upstream watershed and spatial distribution were selected. Investigation of the accuracy index (ratio of estimated sediment yield to observed sediment yield) and the precision index of different bias correction factors of FAO, Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimator (QMLE), Smearing, and Minimum-Variance Unbiased Estimator (MVUE) with LSD test showed that FAO coefficient increases the estimated error in all of the stations. Application of MVUE in linear and mean load rating curves has not statistically meaningful effects. QMLE and smearing factors increased the estimated error in mean load rating curve, but that does not have any effect on linear rating curve estimation.

  15. Assessing disruption of longitudinal connectivity on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leiva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Our aim in this study was evaluate the effects of flow regulation for irrigation on the macroinvertebrate assemblages in a semiarid river. Methods We sampled two reaches in Dulce River; one placed upstream a weir that diverts flow into a network of irrigation channels and the other downstream that weir, in the assessment of the fluvial discontinuity. We assess the differences among reaches and sites, environmental variables, invertebrate density, richness and Shannon-Wiener index applying non-parametric analyses of variance Kruskal Wallis. The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER was used to identify which species contributed to the dissimilarities on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed with the total set of samples to explore macroinvertebrate distribution in reaches and associations of the assemblages with habitat variables. Results The density, richness and Shannon index values did not show differences between the reaches located upstream and downstream. Beta diversity (Whittaker was 0.72 among upstream sites, 0.56 among downstream sites and higher species turnover (0.73 was obtained between both reaches. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis explained 46.71% of the variance differentiating upstream sites explained by higher values of organic matter of bottom sediments and discharge, high density of Nais communis, Bothrioneurum americanum, Pelomus, Stephensoniana trivandrana, Pristina menoni, P. jenkinae, P.longidentata, P. americana, Dero obtusa, Endotribelos, Heleobia and Turbellaria. The downstream sites were associated to coarser substratum and higher density of Lopescladius, Polypedilum, Cricotopus, Thienamaniella, Cryptochironomus, Baetidae, Nematoda and Corbicula fluminea. Conclusions The low-flow disturbance had effects on the composition of the benthic invertebrate assemblages, but attributes (such as density and richness showed a lower variability probably

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in the Quality of Surface water in a semi-arid mediterranean region (river orontes- Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; KAZPARD, V.; EL SAMAD, O.; NASREDDINE, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Orontes River is an international river, with its headwaters in Lebanon, its middle section in Syria and its mouth in Turkey. Fresh surface waters were sampled monthly during the year 2000 and analyzed for major ions and for trace metals. Sea-salt aerosols in rainwater partially influence the major ion composition in the river. The concentration of major cations and anions fall within the range of the most common natural Concentration of major ion assemblages established for world river(MCNC), with a cation and anion dominance in the order of Ca > Mg > Na> K and HCO3 > SO4 > Cl, which tend to be predominantly influenced by chemical weathering of rocks and minerals in a semi-arid region. Ca and HCO3 are mostly derived from the dissolution of carbonate rocks. The sources of SO4 could be attributed to anhydrite minerals and to anthropogenic impact from fertilizers. Increases in nutrient concentrations are attributed mainly to the increasing influence of agricultural runoff. δ18 0/ δH plots shows that the data either fits the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line(MMWL) or have elevated values that indicate evaporative isotope enrichment in a semi-arid climate. The correlation matrix for trace elements shows a high coefficient of correlation for Fe, Zn and Cu indicating that these elements could be controlled by the same chemistry in water. The bicarbonate-alkaline type of Orontes surface water contribute to the formation of trace metals-carbonate complexes such as FeCO3(aq) and ZnCO3 (aq). The good correlation between Pb, Cd and Cr reflects the effect of increasing urbanization in the catchments. (author)

  17. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Hydrologic cycle and dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in two intermittent rivers of the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pedro

    Full Text Available The dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in intermittent rivers is generally related to the characteristics of the resistance and resilience of plants to hydrologic disturbances of flood and drought. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, intermittent rivers and streams are affected by disturbances with variable intensity, frequency, and duration throughout their hydrologic cycles. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence and variation of biomass of aquatic macrophyte species in two intermittent rivers of distinct hydrologic regimes. Their dynamics were determined with respect to resistance and resilience responses of macrophytes to flood and drought events by estimating the variation of biomass and productivity throughout two hydrologic cycles. Twenty-one visits were undertaken in the rewetting, drying, and drought phases in a permanent puddle in the Avelós stream and two temporary puddles in the Taperoá river, state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The sampling was carried out by using the square method. Floods of different magnitudes occurred during the present study in the river and in the stream. The results showed that floods and droughts are determining factors in the occurrence of macrophytes and in the structure of their aquatic communities. The species richness of the aquatic macrophyte communities was lower in the puddles of the river and stream subject to flood events, when compared to areas where the run-off water is retained. At the beginning of the recolonization process, the intensity of the floods was decisive in the productivity and biomass of the aquatic macrophytes in the Taperoá river and the Avelós stream. In intermediate levels of disturbance, the largest values of productivity and biomass and the shortest time for starting the recolonization process occurred.

  19. Impact of hydrological alterations on river-groundwater exchange and water quality in a semi-arid area: Nueces River, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgulet, Dorina; Murgulet, Valeriu; Spalt, Nicholas; Douglas, Audrey; Hay, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding and methods for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disruptions, (i.e. river fragmentation due to dam construction) on the extent and degree of groundwater-surface water interaction and geochemical processes affecting the quality of water in semi-arid, coastal catchments. This study applied a novel combination of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and elemental and isotope geochemistry in a coastal river disturbed by extended drought and periodic flooding due to the operation of multiple dams. Geochemical analyses show that the saltwater barrier causes an increase in salinity in surface water in the downstream river as a result of limited freshwater inflows, strong evaporation effects on shallow groundwater and mostly stagnant river water, and is not due to saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Discharge from bank storage is dominant (~84%) in the downstream fragment and its contribution could increase salinity levels within the hyporheic zone and surface water. When surface water levels go up due to upstream freshwater releases the river temporarily displaces high salinity water trapped in the hyporheic zone to the underlying aquifer. Geochemical modeling shows a higher contribution of distant and deeper groundwater (~40%) in the upstream river and lower discharge from bank storage (~13%) through the hyporheic zone. Recharge from bank storage is a source of high salt to both upstream and downstream portions of the river but its contribution is higher below the dam. Continuous ERT imaging of the river bed complements geochemistry findings and indicate that while lithologically similar, downstream of the dam, the shallow aquifer is affected by salinization while fresher water saturates the aquifer in the upstream fragment. The relative contribution of flows (i.e. surface water releases or groundwater discharge) as related to the river fragmentation control changes of streamwater chemistry and likely impact the interpretation

  20. Feedback mechanisms between water availability and water use in a semi-arid river basin: a geographically explicit multi-agent simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Taddei, Renzo R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the processes responsible for the distribution of water availability over space and time is of great importance to spatial planning in a semi-arid river basin. In this study the usefulness of a multi-agent simulation (MAS) approach for representing these processes is discussed. A MAS

  1. Mapping Ecological Processes and Ecosystem Services for Prioritizing Restoration Efforts in a Semi-arid Mediterranean River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A.

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  2. Mapping ecological processes and ecosystem services for prioritizing restoration efforts in a semi-arid Mediterranean river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  3. Ecological restoration and effect investigation of a river wetland in a semi-arid region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Jiang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-05-01

    River wetlands are heavily impacted by human intervention. The degradation and loss of river wetlands has made the restoration of river ecosystems a top priority. How to rehabilitate rivers and their services has been a research focus. The main goal of it is to restore the river wetland ecosystems with ecological methods. The Gudong River was selected as a study site in Chaoyang city in this study. Based on the analysis of interference factors in the river wetland degradation, a set of restoration techniques were proposed and designed for regional water level control, including submerged dikes, ecological embankments, revegetation and dredging. The restoration engineering has produced good results in water quality, eco-environment, and landscape. Monthly reports of the Daling River show that the water quality of Gudong River was better than Grade III in April 2013 compared with Grade V in May 2012. The economic benefit after restoration construction is 1.71 million RMB per year, about 1.89 times that before. The ratio of economic value, social value and eco-environmental value is 1:4:23.

  4. The Soil-Land use System in a Sand Spit Area in the Semi-Arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Soil-Land use System in a Sand Spit Area in the Semi-Arid Coastal Savanna Region of Ghana – Development, Sustainability and Threats. ... The investigation comprises soil profile descriptions and analyses on the dominant soil type on the sand spit, measurement of electrical conductivity of well water and in the soil, ...

  5. Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  6. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo,Gabriel; Aibar,Joaquín; Cavero,José; Zaragoza,Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat) in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harve...

  7. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

    as this it will lead to better estimate of the groundwater recharge and hereby of the groundwater availability in the delta region.   The hydrological behaviour of the Andarax river basin is simulated by the MIKE SHE code, which is a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. In the first...... scenario we only use traditional meteorological data and standard values for the vegetation characteristics. The traditional meteorological data are rather sparse for the Andarax river basin and to improve the estimation of evapotranspiration we use an energy-based two-layer SVAT model and apply remote...

  8. Effects of fishing technique on assessing species composition in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESF Medeiros

    Full Text Available In most ecological field research, appropriate sampling is critical for the understanding of processes underlying fish populations and communities, and is even more important in heterogeneous environments such as the aquatic systems of the semi-arid region of Brazil. This study intends to make a contribution to the development of sampling programs and gear selection in aquatic systems of semi-arid Brazil by evaluating the effects of different fishing techniques on the assessment of richness and composition of the fish fauna in selected aquatic environments. Six sites were selected to represent typical artificial (reservoirs and natural (intermittent streams environments and four different types of sampling gear were applied to each site during four occasions. The present study shows that when selecting sampling techniques to be used in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, one must consider the objectives of the study, e.g. ecological or taxonomic, in order to decide on inclusion of rare species in the sampling population. Also, the effect of the sampling gear on natural abundances of fish must be considered given that some sampling techniques are highly detrimental to fish population numbers.

  9. Nitrate Pollution and Preliminary Source Identification of Surface Water in a Semi-Arid River Basin, Using Isotopic and Hydrochemical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination in rivers has raised widespread concern in the world, particularly in arid/semi-arid river basins lacking qualified water. Understanding the nitrate pollution levels and sources is critical to control the nitrogen input and promote a more sustainable water management in those basins. Water samples were collected from a typical semi-arid river basin, the Weihe River watershed, China, in October 2014. Hydrochemical assessment and nitrogen isotopic measurement were used to determine the level of nitrogen compounds and identify the sources of nitrate contamination. Approximately 32.4% of the water samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standard for NO3−-N. Nitrate pollution in the main stream of the Weihe River was obviously much more serious than in the tributaries. The δ15N-NO3− of water samples ranged from +8.3‰ to +27.0‰. No significant effect of denitrification on the shift in nitrogen isotopic values in surface water was observed by high dissolved oxygen (DO values and linear relationship diagram between NO3−-N and δ15N-NO3−, except in the Weihe River in Huayin County and Shitou River. Analyses of hydrochemistry and isotopic compositions indicate that domestic sewage and agricultural activities are the main sources of nitrate in the river.

  10. Predicting impacts of increased CO2 and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 –N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO 2 , precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO 2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO 3 –N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO 3 –N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: ► We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO 2 . ► Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. ► Downscaled GCM outputs showed decreased precipitation and increased temperature. ► There may be large

  11. Predicting impacts of increased CO{sub 2} and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiping, E-mail: ywu@usgs.gov [ASRC Research and Technology Solutions, contractor to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Liu, Shuguang, E-mail: sliu@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Gallant, Alisa L., E-mail: gallant@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO{sub 2}, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO{sub 3}-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO{sub 3}-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. Black

  12. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  13. Envisioning Adaptive Strategies to Change: Participatory Scenarios for Agropastoral Semiarid Systems in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ravera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the semiarid social-ecological systems of the dry Central American corridor have proven resilient to pressures. However, in the last century, these systems have experienced huge environmental and socioeconomic changes that have increased the vulnerability of local livelihoods to shocks. New approaches are needed to capture complex, uncertain, cross-scale and nonlinear relationships among drivers of change and vulnerability. Therefore, to tackle this challenge, we have applied a participatory and interdisciplinary methodological framework of vulnerability assessment to a case study in northern Nicaragua. We triangulated a range of information and data from participatory and scientific research to explore historical and current drivers of changes that affect the system's components and indicators of vulnerability, represented in a 3-dimensional space in terms of ecological resilience, the socioeconomic ability of individuals to adapt to change, and an institutional capacity to buffer and respond to crisis. A projection of climatic changes combined with a participatory scenario analysis helped, then, to heuristically analyze tendencies of vulnerability in the future and to explore what policy options might enhance the system's adaptive capacity to face new pressures. Our work primarily contributes to an empirical understanding of key factors that influence vulnerability and learning about local strategies to adapt to change in semiarid agropastoral systems in Central America. We also make a methodological contribution by testing the use of a multidimensional vulnerability framework as a way of stimulating discussion among researchers, local stakeholders, and policy makers.

  14. Trends and variations of pH and hardness in a typical semi-arid river in a monsoon climate region during 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shaonan; Li, Xuyong; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Hongtao; Yang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization, along with dramatic climate change, has strongly influenced hydrochemical characteristics in recent decades in China and thus could cause the variation of pH and general total hardness of a river. To explore such variations and their potential influencing factors in a river of the monsoon climate region, we analyzed a long-term monitoring dataset of pH, SO4 (2-), NOx, general total hardness (GH), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) in surface water and groundwater in the Luan River basin from 1985 to 2009. The nonparametric Seasonal Kendall trend test was used to test the long-term trends of pH and GH. Relationship between the affecting factors, pH and GH were discussed. Results showed that pH showed a decreasing trend and that GH had an increasing trend in the long-term. Seasonal variation of pH and GH was mainly due to the typical monsoon climate. Results of correlation analysis showed that the unit area usage amounts of chemical fertilizer, NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-) were negatively correlated with pH in groundwater. In addition, mining activity affected GH spatial variation. Acid deposition, drought, and increasing the use of chemical fertilizers would contribute to the acidification trend, and mining activities would affect the spatial variation of GH. Variations of precipitation and runoff in semi-arid monsoon climate areas had significant influences on the pH and GH. Our findings implied that human activities played a critical role in river acidification in the semi-arid monsoon climate region of northern China.

  15. Development and implementation of a monitoring and information system to increase water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas in Limarí, Central Chile (WEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Berger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The project WEIN was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF | Berlin, Germany in the framework of the high-tech strategy of Germany's program "KMU-Innovativ". The project started in 2012 and was completed in 2014. In the scope of the project, an integrated system for analysis, monitoring and information at river basin level was developed, which provides relevant information for all stakeholders that are concerned with water resource issues. The main objective of the project was to improve water use efficiency and hence ensure the agricultural production in the region. The pilot region, in which this system was implemented, is the semi-arid Limarí basin in Northern Central Chile. One of the main parts of the project was the development and implementation of a web- and app-based irrigation water ordering and accounting system for local farmers.

  16. Assessing the impact of managed aquifer recharge on seasonal low flows in a semi-arid alluvial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Roudebush, J. A.; Stednick, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is one strategy that can be used to augment seasonal low flows in alluvial rivers. Successful implementation requires an understanding of spatio-temporal groundwater-surface water exchange. In this study we conducted numerical groundwater modeling to analyze the performance of an existing MAR system in the South Platte River Valley in northeastern Colorado (USA). The engineered system involves a spatial reallocation of water during the winter months; alluvial groundwater is extracted near the river and pumped to upgradient recharge ponds, with the intent of producing a delayed hydraulic response that increases the riparian zone water table (and therefore streamflow) during summer months. Higher flows during the summer are required to improve riverine habitat for threatened species in the Platte River. Modeling scenarios were constrained by surface (streamflow gaging) and subsurface (well data) measurements throughout the study area. We compare two scenarios to analyze the impact of MAR: a natural base case scenario and an active management scenario that includes groundwater pumping and managed recharge. Steady-periodic solutions are used to evaluate the long-term stabilized behavior of the stream-aquifer system with and without pumping/recharge. Streamflow routing is included in the model, which permits quantification of the timing and location of streamflow accretion (increased streamflow associated with MAR). An analysis framework utilizing capture concepts is developed to interpret seasonal changes in head-dependent flows to/from the aquifer, including groundwater-surface water exchange that impacts streamflow. Results demonstrate that accretion occurs during the target low-flow period but is not limited to those months, highlighting an inefficiency that is a function of the aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties. The results of this study offer guidance for other flow augmentation projects that rely on water storage in shallow

  17. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  18. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  19. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Nicot, J.P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3-164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ≥ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2-43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman's ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO 2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ 2 H: -65 to -27; δ 18 O: -9.1 to -4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying Triassic Dockum aquifer. Mobilization

  20. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Nicot, J.-P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3–164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ⩾ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2–43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman’s ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ2H: −65 to −27; δ18O: −9.1 to −4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying

  1. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in

  2. Recent water quality trends in a typical semi-arid river with a sharp decrease in streamflow and construction of sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Xuyong; Su, Jingjun; Hao, Shaonan

    2018-01-01

    Identification of the interactive responses of water quantity and quality to changes in nature and human stressors is important for the effective management of water resources. Many studies have been conducted to determine the influence of these stressors on river discharge and water quality. However, there is little information about whether sewage treatment plants can improve water quality in a region where river streamflow has decreased sharply. In this study, a seasonal trend decomposition method was used to analyze long-term (1996-2015) and seasonal trends in the streamflow and water quality of the Guanting Reservoir Basin, which is located in a semi-arid region of China. The results showed that the streamflow in the Guanting Reservoir Basin decreased sharply from 1996-2000 due to precipitation change and human activities (human use and reservoir regulation), while the streamflow decline over the longer period of time (1996-2015) could be attributed to human activities. During the same time, the river water quality improved significantly, having a positive relationship with the capacity of wastewater treatment facilities. The water quality in the Guanting Reservoir showed a deferred response to the reduced external loading, due to internal loading from sediments. These results implied that for rivers in which streamflow has declined sharply, the water quality could be improved significantly by actions to control water pollution control. This study not only provides useful information for water resource management in the Guanting Reservoir Basin, but also supports the implementation of water pollution control measures in other rivers with a sharp decline in streamflow.

  3. Renewable energies and regional development. Photovoltaic energy, micro-grid systems in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrais de Miranda Mousinho, Maria Candida

    2012-07-01

    This article tackles the issue of the development related to the insertion of new renewable energy technologies. It also presents the experience of the region of the Sao Francisco River Valley - named after the largest river genuinely Brazilian located in the semi-arid region -, focusing mainly on two municipalities: Xique-Xique and Barra. Its focus is the use of solar energy for rural communities. To present the results of that experience, the support of the Rio Sao Francisco Project: culture, identity and development, of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and of Eurosolar was essential. The research on which this article is based was fruit of a volunteer research project linked to the Partners of the Americas Bahia-Pennsylvania Committee.

  4. Financial costs of ecologically nonsustainable farming practices in a semiarid system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herling, MC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonsustainable ostrich farming practices have degraded large areas of the Little Karoo, a semiarid region in South Africa. The Little Karoo lies within the Succulent Karoo biome, a recognized biodiversity hotspot. A financial feasibility analysis...

  5. Theoretical simulation of small scale psychometric solar water desalination system in semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatat, Mahmoud; Omer, Siddig; Gillott, Mark; Riffat, Saffa

    2013-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from water scarcity. This is especially true in remote and semi-arid regions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where per capita water supplies decline as populations increase. This paper presents the results of a theoretical simulation of an affordable small scale solar water desalination plant using the psychometric humidification and dehumidification process coupled with an evacuated tube solar collector with an area of about 2 m 2 . A mathematical model was developed to describe the system's operation. Then a computer program using Simulink Matlab software was developed to provide the governing equations for the theoretical calculations of the humidification and dehumidification processes. The experimental and theoretical values for the total daily distillate output were found to be closely correlated. After the experimental calibration of the mathematical model, a model simulating solar radiation under the climatic conditions in the Middle East region proved that the performance of the system could be improved to produce a considerably higher amount of fresh water, namely up to 17.5 kg/m 2 day. This work suggests that utilizing the concept of humidification and dehumidification, a compact water desalination unit coupled with solar collectors would significantly increase the potable water supply in remote area. It could be a unique solution of water shortages in such areas. -- Highlights: • An affordable small scale desalination system is proposed. • A mathematical model of the desalination system is developed and programmed using Matlab Simulink. • The model describes the psychometric process based on humidification and dehumidification. • The model is used in optimal selection of elements and operating conditions for solar desalination system. • The use of solar water desalination contributes significantly to reducing global warming

  6. Parâmetros indicativos do processo de salinização em rios urbanos do semi-árido brasileiro Indicative parameters of the salt accumulation urban rivers in the brazilian semi-arid area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial and temporal variations of six important parameters of the salt accumulation process in water samples collected along section urban of Contas River. The Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations were determined by FAAS. The conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na+ and Ca2+ presented the largest seasonal and spatial variations in the urban area demonstrated that are appropriate indicators of urban contamination. The readily soluble salts in drainage urban, contribute for the degradation of the water of rivers located in semi-arid zones.

  7. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in traditional agricultural and agroforestry systems in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Amorim Silva do Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the semiarid region of Brazil, inadequate management of cropping systems and low plant biomass production can contribute to reduce soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N stocks; therefore, management systems that preserve C and N must be adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in soil C and N stocks that were promoted by agroforestry (agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral and traditional agricultural systems (slash-and-burn clearing and cultivation for two and three years and to compare these systems with the natural Caatinga vegetation after 13 years of cultivation. The experiment was carried out on a typical Ortic Chromic Luvisol in the municipality of Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. Soil samples were collected (layers 0-6, 6-12, 12-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm with four replications. The plain, convex and concave landforms in each study situation were analyzed, and the total organic C, total N and densities of the soil samples were assessed. The silvopastoral system promoted the greatest long-term reductions in C and N stocks, while the agrosilvopastoral system promoted the smallest losses and therefore represents a sustainable alternative for soil C and N sequestration in these semiarid conditions. The traditional agricultural system produced reductions of 58.87 and 9.57 Mg ha-1 in the organic C and total N stocks, respectively, which suggests that this system is inadequate for these semiarid conditions. The organic C stocks were largest in the concave landform in the agrosilvopastoral system and in the plain landform in the silvopastoral system, while the total N values were highest in the concave landform in the native, agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems.

  8. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  9. Coupled flow and salinity transport modelling in semi-arid environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Held, R.J.; Zimmermann, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical groundwater modelling is used as the base for sound aquifer system analysis and water resources assessment. In many cases, particularly in semi-arid and arid regions, groundwater flow is intricately linked to salinity transport. A case in point is the Shashe River Valley in Botswana. A ...

  10. Groundwater–surface water interactions, vegetation dependencies and implications for water resources management in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, China – a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, large-scale land use changes took place in the Hailiutu River catchment, a semi-arid area in northwest China. These changes had significant impacts on the water resources in the area. Insights into groundwater and surface water interactions and vegetation-water dependencies help to understand these impacts and formulate sustainable water resources management policies. In this study, groundwater and surface water interactions were identified using the baseflow index at the catchment scale, and hydraulic and water temperature methods as well as event hydrograph separation techniques at the sub-catchment scale. The results show that almost 90% of the river discharge consists of groundwater. Vegetation dependencies on groundwater were analysed from the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and groundwater depth at the catchment scale and along an ecohydrogeological cross-section, and by measuring the sap flow of different plants, soil water contents and groundwater levels at different research sites. The results show that all vegetation types, i.e. trees (willow (Salix matsudana and poplar (Populus simonii, bushes (salix – Salix psammophila, and agricultural crops (maize – Zea mays, depend largely on groundwater as the source for transpiration. The comparative analysis indicates that maize crops use the largest amount of water, followed by poplar trees, salix bushes, and willow trees. For sustainable water use with the objective of satisfying the water demand for socio-economical development and to prevent desertification and ecological impacts on streams, more water-use-efficient crops such as sorghum, barley or millet should be promoted to reduce the consumptive water use. Willow trees should be used as wind-breaks in croplands and along roads, and drought-resistant and less water-use intensive plants (for instance native bushes should be used to vegetate sand dunes.

  11. Farming system context drives the value of deep wheat roots in semi-arid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Julianne M; Kirkegaard, John A

    2016-06-01

    The capture of subsoil water by wheat roots can make a valuable contribution to grain yield on deep soils. More extensive root systems can capture more water, but leave the soil in a drier state, potentially limiting water availability to subsequent crops. To evaluate the importance of these legacy effects, a long-term simulation analysis at eight sites in the semi-arid environment of Australia compared the yield of standard wheat cultivars with cultivars that were (i) modified to have root systems which extract more water at depth and/or (ii) sown earlier to increase the duration of the vegetative period and hence rooting depth. We compared simulations with and without annual resetting of soil water to investigate the legacy effects of drier subsoils related to modified root systems. Simulated mean yield benefits from modified root systems declined from 0.1-0.6 t ha(-1) when annually reset, to 0-0.2 t ha(-1) in the continuous simulation due to a legacy of drier soils (mean 0-32mm) at subsequent crop sowing. For continuous simulations, predicted yield benefits of >0.2 t ha(-1) from more extensive root systems were rare (3-10% of years) at sites with shallow soils (<1.0 m), but occurred in 14-44% of years at sites with deeper soils (1.6-2.5 m). Earlier sowing had a larger impact than modified root systems on water uptake (14-31 vs 2-17mm) and mean yield increase (up to 0.7 vs 0-0.2 t ha(-1)) and the benefits occurred on deep and shallow soils and in more years (9-79 vs 3-44%). Increasing the proportion of crops in the sequence which dry the subsoil extensively has implications for the farming system productivity, and the crop sequence must be managed tactically to optimize overall system benefits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Evaluating rainwater harvesting systems in arid and semi-arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammar, Adham Ali

    2017-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an ancient traditional technology practised in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions (ASARs). ASARs represent 40% of the earth’s land surface and are characterised by low average annual rainfall and uneven temporal and spatial

  13. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of

  14. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  15. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  16. The origins and behaviour of carbon in a major semi-arid river, the Murray River, Australia, as constrained by carbon isotopes and hydrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → δ 13 C and concentrations of DIC in Murray River controlled by mineralisation of organic carbon and evasion. → Murray River is source of atmospheric CO 2 . → In-river processing of carbon results in difficulties in determining carbon sources. - Abstract: δ 13 C values of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and particulate organic C (POC) together with δ 18 O and δ 2 H values of water, δ 34 S values of dissolved SO 4 , and major ion concentrations were measured in the Murray River and its tributaries between November 2005 and April 2007 to constrain the origins and behaviour of riverine C. δ 13 C DIC values in the Murray River vary between -9.5 and -4.7 per mille with a range of 13 C DIC values of the tributaries are -11.0 per mille to -5.1 per mille. DIC concentrations of the Murray River increase from ∼25 mg/L in the middle and upper reaches of the river to 45-55 mg/L in the lower reaches. However, the mass ratio of DIC as a proportion of the total dissolved solids (TDS) decreases from ∼0.6-0.7 in the headwaters to ∼0.2-0.3 in the lower reaches of the river, with similar downstream changes in DIC/Cl ratios. This precludes simple evaporative concentration of DIC and is interpreted as the river evading CO 2 ; this interpretation is consistent with pCO 2 values that are in the range 550-11,200 ppm volume (ppmv), which are far higher than those in equilibrium with the atmosphere (∼360 ppmv). The δ 13 C DIC values are similar to those that would be produced by the weathering of marine limestone (δ 13 C ∼ 0 per mille). However, the lack of marine limestones cropping out in the Murray-Darling Basin and the relatively uniform δ 13 C DIC values of the Murray River (even in upland reaches where the dominant rock types are metamorphosed silicates and granites) make this unlikely. Rather the high pCO 2 values and δ 13 C DIC values are best explained by a combination of mineralisation of low δ 13 C organic C

  17. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  18. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  19. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Hohl, T.M.; Empey, P.A.; Wells, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  20. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  1. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa : The case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  2. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa: The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  3. The origins and behaviour of carbon in a major semi-arid river, the Murray River, Australia, as constrained by carbon isotopes and hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Ian, E-mail: ian.cartwright@monash.edu [School of Geosciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)] [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} {delta}{sup 13}C and concentrations of DIC in Murray River controlled by mineralisation of organic carbon and evasion. {yields} Murray River is source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. {yields} In-river processing of carbon results in difficulties in determining carbon sources. - Abstract: {delta}{sup 13}C values of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and particulate organic C (POC) together with {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values of water, {delta}{sup 34}S values of dissolved SO{sub 4}, and major ion concentrations were measured in the Murray River and its tributaries between November 2005 and April 2007 to constrain the origins and behaviour of riverine C. {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values in the Murray River vary between -9.5 and -4.7 per mille with a range of <3 per mille within any sampling round. {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values of the tributaries are -11.0 per mille to -5.1 per mille. DIC concentrations of the Murray River increase from {approx}25 mg/L in the middle and upper reaches of the river to 45-55 mg/L in the lower reaches. However, the mass ratio of DIC as a proportion of the total dissolved solids (TDS) decreases from {approx}0.6-0.7 in the headwaters to {approx}0.2-0.3 in the lower reaches of the river, with similar downstream changes in DIC/Cl ratios. This precludes simple evaporative concentration of DIC and is interpreted as the river evading CO{sub 2}; this interpretation is consistent with pCO{sub 2} values that are in the range 550-11,200 ppm volume (ppmv), which are far higher than those in equilibrium with the atmosphere ({approx}360 ppmv). The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values are similar to those that would be produced by the weathering of marine limestone ({delta}{sup 13}C {approx} 0 per mille). However, the lack of marine limestones cropping out in the Murray-Darling Basin and the relatively uniform {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values of the Murray River (even in upland reaches where the

  4. Simulating the impact of no-till systems on field water fluxes and maize productivity under semi-arid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupangwa, W.; Jewitt, G. P. W.

    Crop output from the smallholder farming sector in sub-Saharan Africa is trailing population growth leading to widespread household food insecurity. It is therefore imperative that crop production in semi-arid areas be improved in order to meet the food demand of the ever increasing human population. No-till farming practices have the potential to increase crop productivity in smallholder production systems of sub-Saharan Africa, but rarely do because of the constraints experienced by these farmers. One of the most significant of these is the consumption of mulch by livestock. In the absence of long term on-farm assessment of the no-till system under smallholder conditions, simulation modelling is a tool that provides an insight into the potential benefits and can highlight shortcomings of the system under existing soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Thus, this study was designed to better understand the long term impact of no-till system without mulch cover on field water fluxes and maize productivity under a highly variable rainfall pattern typical of semi-arid South Africa. The simulated on-farm experiment consisted of two tillage treatments namely oxen-drawn conventional ploughing (CT) and ripping (NT). The APSIM model was applied for a 95 year period after first being calibrated and validated using measured runoff and maize yield data. The predicted results showed significantly higher surface runoff from the conventional system compared to the no-till system. Predicted deep drainage losses were higher from the NT system compared to the CT system regardless of the rainfall pattern. However, the APSIM model predicted 62% of the annual rainfall being lost through soil evaporation from both tillage systems. The predicted yields from the two systems were within 50 kg ha -1 difference in 74% of the years used in the simulation. In only 9% of the years, the model predicted higher grain yield in the NT system compared to the CT system. It is suggested that

  5. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  6. Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy approach to evaluate urban water supply systems in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Tahereh Sadeghi; Khazaei, Mohammad; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Yari, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making was served as a tool to evaluate the drinking water supply systems of Qom, a semi-arid city located in central part of Iran. A list of aspects consisting of 6 criteria and 35 sub-criteria were evaluated based on a linguistic term set by five decision-makers. Four water supply alternatives including "Public desalinated distribution system", "PET Bottled Drinking Water", "Private desalinated water suppliers" and "Household desalinated water units" were assessed based on criteria and sub-criteria. Data were aggregated and normalized to apply Performance Ratings of Alternatives. Also, the Performance Ratings of Alternatives were aggregated again to achieve the Aggregate Performance Ratings. The weighted distances from ideal solution and anti-ideal solution were calculated after secondary normalization. The proximity of each alternative to the ideal solution was determined as the final step. The alternatives were ranked based on the magnitude of ideal solutions. Results showed that "Public desalinated distribution system" was the most appropriate alternative to supply the drinking needs of Qom population. Also, "PET Bottled Drinking Water" was the second acceptable option. A novel classification of alternatives to satisfy the drinking water requirements was proposed which is applicable for the other cities located in semi-arid regions of Iran. The health issues were considered as independent criterion, distinct from the environmental issues. The constraints of high-tech alternatives were also considered regarding to the level of dependency on overseas.

  7. Aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil: limnology and management Ecossistemas aquáticos do semi-árido brasileiro: aspectos limnológicos e manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Etham de Lucena Barbosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil include natural shallow lakes, artificial reservoirs and intermittent streams and rivers. These systems are distinctive features in the semi-arid landscape and comprise a range of associated systems functioning as an ever-changing mosaic of dry/wet patches. Lakes and reservoirs in semi-arid Brazil are subject to important periods of water shortages, whereas rivers and streams are characterized as highly variable and driven by the extremes of water flow and its absence. Within this view a catchment-scale approach must be used to create a holistic model to conceptualize and comprehend these aquatic systems, since the aquatic environment types in the semi-arid region of Brazil incorporate broader aspects within the catchment scale such as geomorphology, vegetation, climate and land use. This paper summarizes some of the information on the aquatic systems of the Brazilian semi-arid region and shows the importance of limnological studies in this region. It also attempts to establish perspectives for future research considering the catchment as a scale for surveying biological processes and limnological characteristics of the various aquatic systems. It is presented information on their overall structure and functioning, as well as characteristics of some biological communities, such as phytoplankton, periphyton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish. The importance of the understanding of eutrophication in reservoirs and the role of the dry phase in streams is emphasized, and information on possible actions of planning and management to improve water quality of reservoirs are presented.Os ecossistemas no semiárido brasileiro englobam lagos rasos naturais, reservatórios artificiais e rios e riachos intermitentes. Estes sistemas são particularidades na paisagem do semiárida e compreendem uma grande variedade de sistemas associados, funcionando como um mosaico em constante mudança entre épocas de

  8. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  9. Assessment of the performance of water harvesting systems in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Water harvesting is widely practiced and has the potential to improve water availability for domestic and agricultural use in semi-arid regions. New funds are becoming available to stimulate the implementation of water harvesting projects, for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals and to help communities to adapt to climate change. For this, it is important to understand which factors determine the success of water harvesting techniques under different conditions. For this, we review the literature, including information on the crop yield impacts of water harvesting projects in semi-arid Africa and Asia. Results show that large water harvesting structures (> 500 m3) are less expensive than small structures, when taking into account investment costs, storage capacity and lifetimes. We also find that water harvesting improves crop yields significantly, and that the relative impact of water harvesting on crop yields is largest in low rainfall years. We also see that the governance, technical knowledge and initial investment are more demanding for the larger structures than for smaller structures, which may affect their spontaneous adoption and long term sustainability when managed by local communities. To support the selection of appropriate techniques, we present a decision framework based on case specific characteristics. This framework can also be used when reporting and evaluating the performance of water harvesting techniques, which is up to now quite limited in peer reviewed literature. Based on Bouma, J., Hegde, S.E., Lasage, R., (2016). Assessing the returns to water harvesting: A meta-analysis. Agricultural Water Management 163, 100-109. Lasage, R., Verburg P.H., (2015). Evaluation of small scale water harvesting techniques for semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments 118, 48-57.

  10. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  11. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  12. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity

  13. Linking Bayesian and agent-based models to simulate complex social-ecological systems in semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloah J Pope

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interdependencies of ecologic, hydrologic, and social systems challenge traditional approaches to natural resource management in semi-arid regions. As a complex social-ecological system, water demands in the Sonoran Desert from agricultural and urban users often conflicts with water needs for its ecologically-significant riparian corridors. To explore this system, we developed an agent-based model to simulate complex feedbacks between human decisions and environmental conditions in the Rio Sonora Watershed. Cognitive mapping in conjunction with stakeholder participation produced a Bayesian model of conditional probabilities of local human decision-making processes resulting to changes in water demand. Probabilities created in the Bayesian model were incorporated into the agent-based model, so that each agent had a unique probability to make a positive decision based on its perceived environment at each point in time and space. By using a Bayesian approach, uncertainty in the human decision-making process could be incorporated. The spatially-explicit agent-based model simulated changes in depth-to-groundwater by well pumping based on an agent’s water demand. Changes in depth-to-groundwater feedback to influence agent behavior, as well as determine unique vegetation classes within the riparian corridor. Each vegetation class then provides varying stakeholder-defined quality values of ecosystem services. Using this modeling approach allowed us to examine effects on both the ecological and social system of semi-arid riparian corridors under various scenarios. The insight provided by the model contributes to understanding how specific interventions may alter the complex social-ecological system in the future.

  14. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  15. Antecedent Moisture and Biological Inertia as Predictors of Plant and Ecosystem Productivity in Arid and Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Many plant and ecosystem processes in arid and semiarid systems may be affected by antecedent environmental conditions (e.g., precipitation patterns, soil water availability, temperature) that integrate over past days, weeks, months, seasons, or years. However, the importance of such antecedent exogenous effects relative to conditions occurring at the time of the observed process is relatively unexplored. Even less is known about the potential importance of antecedent endogenous effects that describe the influence of past ecosystem states on the current ecosystem state; e.g., how is current ecosystem productivity related to past productivity patterns? We hypothesize that incorporation of antecedent exogenous and endogenous factors can improve our predictive understanding of many plant and ecosystem processes, especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Furthermore, the common approach to quantifying the effects of antecedent (exogenous) variables relies on arbitrary, deterministic definitions of antecedent variables that (1) may not accurately describe the role of antecedent conditions and (2) ignore uncertainty associated with applying deterministic definitions. In this study, we employ a stochastic framework for (1) computing the antecedent variables that estimates the relative importance of conditions experienced each time unit into the past, also providing insight into potential lag responses, and (2) estimating the effect of antecedent factors on the response variable of interest. We employ this approach to explore the potential roles of antecedent exogenous and endogenous influences in three settings that illustrate the: (1) importance of antecedent precipitation for net primary productivity in the shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado, (2) dependency of tree growth on antecedent precipitation and past growth states for pinyon growing in western Colorado, and (3) influence of antecedent soil water and prior root status on observed root growth in the Mojave

  16. An overview of nitrate sources and operating processes in arid and semiarid aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Biagioni, Richard N; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Rivas-Lucero, Bertha A

    2018-05-15

    Nitrate concentration in most aquifers in arid and semi-arid areas has increased in the past several decades as a result of human activities. Under the predominantly oxic conditions of these aquifers, denitrification is inhibited, allowing nitrate, a soluble and stable form of nitrogen (N), to accumulate. Because of its close association with municipal and agricultural wastes, nitrate is commonly used as an indicator of anthropogenic contamination. Aquifers affected by agricultural waste may contain salts from irrigation returns and herbicides in addition to nitrates. Preventing leakage from soil to deeper parts of the aquifer is thus a priority in the sustainable management of aquifers in arid and semiarid areas. Studies report a wide range of nitrate concentrations distributed non-uniformly within the aquifer, with roughly 40% and 20% of sampled wells exceeding 50mg/L nitrate in shallow and deep parts of the aquifer respectively. In aquifers at risk of becoming contaminated, nitrate isotopes (δ 15 N, δ 18 O, Δ 17 O) can be used to identify the source of nitrogen as mineral or organic fertilizer, sewage, or atmospheric deposition. A variety of mathematical models (crop, hydrological, geochemical, or a combination of them) have been successful in identifying best practices that minimize N leakage without negatively affecting crop yield. In addition, field research in crop management, e.g., conservation agriculture, has yielded promising results in determining the adequate dosage and time of application of fertilizers to reduce N losses. Examples of key dryland aquifers impacted by nitrate are discussed, and some of the most pressing challenges to achieve sustainability are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Soil-Land use System in a Sand Spit Area in the Semi-Arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    eastern corner of Ghana the River Volta enters the Atlantic Ocean forming a large delta. The landscape ... separating it from the Keta Lagoon, a large sandbar had developed. ...... Water balance in the moist semideciduous forest zone in Ghana.

  18. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry

  19. Organic amendments as restoration techniques in degraded arid and semiarid systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, Paloma; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing concern at the global scale about interrelated environmental problems such as soil degradation, desertification, erosion, and climate change impacts (Hueso-Gonzalez et al., 2014). Indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals, excessive and deep tillage, excessive irrigation, among many others factors, have largely contributed to soil degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas (Lal, 2008). Soil is an essential non-renewable resource with extremely slow formation and regeneration potential (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016a and c, Martínez-Murillo et al., 2016). The decline in organic matter content of many soils is becoming a major cause of soil degradation, particularly in dryland regions (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016b) where low soil fertility cannot maintain sustainable production in many cases (Hueso-González et al., 2015). The use of soil organic amendments is a common practice in agricultural management and land restoration that can help to improve physical and chemical soil properties, soil structure, temperature and humidity conditions, as well as nutrient contents which are essential for plant growth (Guerrero et al., 2001). Under degraded conditions, several studies have shown their benefits for improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Jordan et al., 2010 and 2011). However, there are many research gaps in the knowledge of the effects of climatic conditions on their application, as well as the adequate types of amendment and doses and decomposition rates, (Hueso-Gonzalez,2016). All these factors are crucial for the success in their application. Here, we review long-term experiments worldwide studying the benefits associated with the application of organic materials, particularly, in restoration of arid and semiarid ecosystems together with the possible threats and risks that can result from their use. We will specifically adress: (1) type of amended and benefits arising from their use, (2) application methods and more

  20. Erosive forms in rivers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Una Alvarez, E. de; Vidal Romani, J. R.; Rodriguez Martinez-Conde, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the geomorphological meaning of the concepts of stability/change and to study its influence on a fluvial erosion system. Different cases of fluvial potholes in Galicia (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) are considered. The work conclusions refer to the nature of the process and its morphological evolution in order to advance towards later contributions with respect of this type of systems. (Author) 14 refs.

  1. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  2. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  3. Strategic Framework for Sustainable Management of Drainage Systems in Semi-Arid Cities: An Iraqi Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nanekely

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of this paper, Erbil city, located in the northern part of Iraq, has been chosen as a representative case study for a large number of cities, particularly in semi-arid areas, lacking sustainable drainage systems (SuDS. The study assesses (a the role of SuDS as a measure in areas with a water shortage; (b water scarcity in decision-making processes; (c the lack of legislation to implement SuDS; (d the adverse effects of climate change on the urban drainage system; and (e the effects of an increased population on SuDS implementation. An integrated methodology that incorporates a self-administrated questionnaire, workshops, face-to-face communication and interviews, as well as electronic media interactions, were used to achieve the objectives. A generic platform that consists of thirteen pillars, supporting the short to long-term national policies and strategies towards a sustainable urban drainage system, has been developed. Results showed that environmental laws need to be introduced. Findings also indicate that a growing population, which is partly due to an increase of internally displaced people, is a major challenge to an early application of SuDS, due to a rise in land demand and a lack of financial resources.

  4. Simulated biomass, environmental impacts and best management practices for long-term switchgrass systems in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Qian, Yaling; Brummer, Joe E.; Zheng, Jiyong; Wilhelm, Sarah; Parton, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term information on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biomass energy crop grown on marginally saline soil and the associated impacts on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and best management practices (BMPs) are limited. In this study, we employed the DAYCENT model, based on a 4-year switchgrass field experiment, to evaluate the long-term biomass yield potential and environmental impacts, and further to develop BMPs for switchgrass in a semi-arid region. The model showed that long-term (14-year) annual mean biomass yields were 9.6 and 5.2 Mg ha −1 for irrigated and rainfed switchgrass systems, respectively. The simulated biomass yields correlated well with field-measured biomass with r 2 values of 0.99 and 0.89 for irrigated and rainfed systems, respectively. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) accumulated rapidly after switchgrass establishment, with mean accrual rates of 0.99–1.13 Mg C ha −1  yr −1 and 0.04–0.08 Mg N ha −1  yr −1 , respectively. Based on the outputs of numerous long-term model simulations with variable irrigation water supplies and N rates, the irrigation regime and N rate with the highest yield to input ratio were chosen as BMPs. The DAYCENT model predicted-BMP was irrigating every 14 days at 70% potential evapotranspiration combined with an N rate of 67 kg ha −1  yr −1 . Switchgrass established and produced biomass reasonably well in this semi-arid region; however, appropriate irrigation and N fertilization were needed for optimal biomass yield. Switchgrass had a great potential to sequester C into soils with low N 2 O emissions while supplying significant quantities of biomass for biofuel synthesis. - Highlights: • The DAYCENT model reliably simulated the growth of switchgrass on marginal land. • Long-term biomass and environmental impacts were simulated using the DAYCENT model. • Switchgrass produced biomass well on marginal land, but

  5. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  6. Comparing methane emissions from different sheep-keeping systems in semiarid regions: A case study of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hijazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep husbandry represents a significant source of methane (CH4 in semiarid grassland regions such as Syria. However, the contribution of sheep to CH4 emissions in Syria is still unknown. This study was designed to quantify CH4 emissions and identify possible mitigation strategies for their reduction. Methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was used to estimate CH4 emissions. A survey was conducted on 64 farms from different locations in Syria in 2009. Data were collected concerning sheep-keeping systems (SKSs, body mass, milk and wool yield, farm locations, feed rations, periods of grazing on the Steppe, the duration of pasturing on agricultural residuals and time periods when sheep were kept in stables. Using a linear statistical model, the influence of SKS, geographical region and sheep body mass on emitted CH4 were analysed. The results showed that the geographical region, SKS and sheep body mass had significant effects (P < 0.05 on CH4 emissions. According to the model, the mean values of estimated CH4 emissions from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive SKSs were 26 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 13.5 ± 1.7 kg/sheep year, respectively. In comparing differences between the least square means of CH4 emissions, the extensive and semi-intensive SKSs produced 92% and 66% higher CH4 emissions compared to intensive SKS. The differences in CH4 emissions within the distinct SKSs were attributed to dietary composition. Extensive SKS used a less concentrated feeding regime (98 ± 17 day/year than semi-intensive SKS (114 ± 47 day/year, and intensive SKS employed concentrated feeding year round. Furthermore, it was observed that sheep with the same body mass produced higher CH4 emissions in extensive SKS than in semi-intensive and intensive SKSs. Moreover, the semi-intensive SKS occupied more natural pastures than extensive SKS, which caused an overuse of the Steppe. Therefore, an effective mitigation

  7. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  8. Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2018-06-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote 'innovations' as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented. This paper explores the key attributes of agricultural innovations by assessing how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe. The study gathered information from 13 key informants and a household survey of 239 farmer households from Gwanda and Insiza districts. Results showed a multiplicity of understandings of agricultural innovations among different stakeholders. However, novelty/newness, utility and adaptability were identified as the major attributes. In general, farmers characterized agricultural innovations as 'something new and mostly introduced by NGOs' but did not associate them with the key attributes of utility and adaptability. More crop-related innovations were identified despite the area being suitable for livestock production. The paper concludes that, rather than view the multiple and sometimes competing understandings of agricultural innovations as undesirable, this should be used to promote context specific innovations which stand a better chance of enhancing agriculture-based livelihoods.

  9. A GIS based watershed information system for water resources management and planning in semi-arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of this work is the development of an Information System which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of water management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making in semi-arid areas. An integrated modeling system has been developed and applied to evaluate the sustainability of water resources management strategies in Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The modeling system, developed in the framework of "HYDROMENTOR" research project, is based on a GIS modelling approach which uses remote sensing data and includes coupled models for the simulation of surface water and groundwater resources, the operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and the estimation of water demands at several spatial scales. Lake Karla basin was the region where the system was tested but the methodology may be the basis for future analysis elsewhere. Τwo (2) base and three (3) management scenarios were investigated. In total, eight (8) water management scenarios were evaluated: i) Base scenario without operation of the reservoir and the designed Lake Karla district irrigation network (actual situation) • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation ii) Base scenario including the operation of the reservoir and the Lake Karla district irrigation network • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation The results show that, under the existing water resources management, the water deficit of Lake Karla watershed is very large. However, the operation of the reservoir and the cooperative Lake Karla district irrigation network coupled with water demand management measures, like reduction of water distribution system losses and alteration of irrigation methods, could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area. Acknowledgements: This study

  10. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  11. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report

  12. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  13. River flooding and its impacts on large-scale biocontrol of Tamarix in the Colorado and Virgin River system: Moving targets and trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along riparian corridors throughout the arid and semiarid regions of the western United States, non-native shrubs and trees in the genus Tamarix have replaced native vegetation. Plant communities along rivers with altered flow regimes and flood control have become particularly vulnerable to widespre...

  14. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, J.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  15. Shutdown of the River Water System at the Savannah River Site: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluates alternative approaches to and environmental impacts of shutting down the River Water System at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Five production reactors were operated at the site.to support these facilities, the River Water System was constructed to provide cooling water to pass through heat exchangers to absorb heat from the reactor core in each of the five reactor areas (C, K, L, P, and R). The DOE Savannah River Strategic Plan directs the SRS to find ways to reduce operating costs and to determine what site infrastructure it must maintain and what infrastructure is surplus. The River Water System has been identified as a potential surplus facility. Three alternatives to reduce the River Water System operating costs are evaluated in this EIS. In addition to the No-Action Alternative, which consists of continuing to operate the River Water System, this EIS examines one alternative (the Preferred Alternative) to shut down and maintain the River Water System in a standby condition until DOE determines that a standby condition is no longer necessary, and one alternative to shut down and deactivate the River Water System. The document provides background information and introduces the River Water System at the SRS; sets forth the purpose and need for DOE action; describes the alternatives DOE is considering; describes the environment at the SRS and in the surrounding area potentially affected by the alternatives addressed and provides a detailed assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives; and identifies regulatory requirements and evaluates their applicability to the alternatives considered

  16. Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Sediment Regime in a Semi-Arid Region: Case Study of the Wuqi Catchment in the Upper Beiluo River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Maroulis, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. With recent land use and land cover change, the

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  18. An Optimization Waste Load Allocation Model in River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpoor Daylami, A.; jarihani, A. A.; Aminisola, K.

    2012-04-01

    In many river systems, increasing of the waste discharge leads to increasing pollution of these water bodies. While the capacity of the river flow for pollution acceptance is limited and the ability of river to clean itself is restricted, the dischargers have to release their waste into the river after a primary pollution treatment process. Waste Load Allocation as a well-known water quality control strategy is used to determine the optimal pollutant removal at a number of point sources along the river. This paper aim at developing a new approach for treatment and management of wastewater inputs into the river systems, such that water quality standards in these receiving waters are met. In this study, inspired by the fact that cooperation among some single point source waste dischargers can lead to a more waste acceptance capacity and/or more optimum quality control in a river, an efficient approach was implemented to determine both primary waste water treatment levels and/or the best releasing points of the waste into the river. In this methodology, a genetic algorithm is used as an optimization tool to calculate optimal fraction removal levels of each one of single or shared discharger. Besides, a sub-model embedded to optimization model was used to simulate water quality of the river in each one of discharging scenarios based on the modified Streeter and Phelps quality equations. The practical application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Gharesoo river system in west of Iran.

  19. The Potch System: An approach to the management of semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A host of grassland management systems have been published and recommended. Whereas earlier approaches to grassland management emphasized the systematic resting aspect, the systems published since 1966 have tended to stress the degree of utilization of the grassland sward. In an attempt to accommodate the ...

  20. Understanding cropping systems in the semi-arid environments of Zimbabwe: options for soil fertility management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.

    2007-01-01

    African smallholder farmers face perennial food shortages due to low crop yields. The major cause of poor crop yields is soil fertility decline. The diversity of sites and soils between African farming systems isgreat,therefore strategies to solve soil fertility problems

  1. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Chu

    Full Text Available The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC and nitrogen (N in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0-40 cm at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0-20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the 0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm.

  2. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  3. A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Peter N.; Knight, Jasper

    2018-06-01

    Fluvial geomorphology affects river character, behaviour, evolution, trajectory of change and recovery potential, and as such affects biophysical interactions within a catchment. Water bodies in South Africa, in common with many other water-stressed parts of the world, are generally under threat due to increasing natural and anthropogenic influences including aridity, siltation and pollution, as well as climate and environmental change. This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observations on sites through the entire river system, six geomorphic elements were identified along the Sabie River, northeast South Africa (gorge, bedrock-forced meander, low-moderate sinuosity planform controlled sand bed, meandering sand bed, low sinuosity fine grained sand bed, and floodouts), using the RSF classification scheme and based on the RSF procedural tree of Brierley and Fryirs (2005). Previous geomorphological studies along the Sabie River have shown that different reaches respond differently to episodic floods; we use these data to link river geomorphological character (as defined by the RSF) to the hydrodynamic conditions and processes giving rise to such character. This RSF approach can be used to develop a new management approach for river systems that considers their functional biophysical behaviour within individual reaches, rather than considering them as homogeneous and uniform systems.

  4. Trace element assessment in water of river kassa system, jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) is approximately 2; for Zn and Pb which indicates, moderate contamination. Areas of the river system with anomalous value of trace element concentrations are those where mine tailings have been deposited close to the river channel or places where run off from adjoining ...

  5. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  6. A Spatial Decision Support System to incorporate hydro-economic modeling results in the management of water resources under decentralized institutional arrangements in a semiarid reservoir region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado de Moraes, Márcia; Silva, Gerald; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna

    2017-04-01

    The integration of economic and hydrological components in models, aimed to support evaluating alternatives of water allocation policies, is promising, though, challenging. Worldwide, these models have been used primarily in academia, and so far seldom by water managers for practical purposes. Ideally, the models should be available through a Decision Support System. The São Francisco River Basin in Northeast of Brazil has around 48% of its area in a semi-arid region. Irrigation and public water supply are the primary water use sectors, along with hydropower utilization. The water for electricity generation is stored in two large reservoirs, built 30 to 50 years ago under the premise of regulating flows for hydropower and controlling floods. Since 20 years, however, the law stipulates the multiple uses paradigm in a participatory and decentralized way. So far, only few rules laid down. Studies revealed that most of the respective institutions still needed to update their routines to the new paradigm. A hydro-economic model was developed and applied in order to determine the economically optimal water allocation of main users in that semiarid reservoir region. In order to make this model available to the decision makers, a minimum required is some form of manipulating data entry and output as well as some graphical interfaces. We propose and present the first features of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) with dedicated hydro-economic modules in a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for integrated water resource management. The open model platform should include geoprocessing tasks and water user related data management. The hydro-economic geoprocessing will link to generic optimization modeling systems, such as EXCEL Solver, GAMS and MATLAB. The institutions are deliberating or deciding over water allocation at different scales could use the generated information on potential economic benefits as a transparent basis for discussion. In

  7. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  8. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  9. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  10. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Regular patterns and spatial organization of vegetation have been observed in many arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, covering a diverse range of plant taxa and soil types. A key common ingredient in these systems is that plant growth is severely limited by water availability, and thus plants likely compete strongly for water. The study of such patterns is especially interesting because their features may reveal much about the underlying physical and biological processes that generated them in addition to giving information on the characteristics of the ecosystem. It is possible, for instance, to infer their resilience against anthropogenic disturbances or climatic changes that could cause abrupt shifts in the system and lead it to a desert state. Therefore much research has focused on identifying the underlying mechanisms that can produce spatial patterning in water-limited systems (Klausmeier, 1999). They are believed to arise from the interplay between long-range competition and facilitation processes acting at smaller distances (Borgogno et al., 2009). This combination of mechanisms is justified by arguing that water percolates more readily through the soil in vegetated areas (short range), and that plants compete for water resources over greater distances via long lateral roots (long range). However, recent studies have shown that even in the limit of local facilitation patterns may still appear (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013). In this work (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013b), we show that, under rather general conditions, long-range competition alone is the minimal ingredient to shape gapped and stripped vegetation patterns typical of models that also account for facilitation in addition to competition. To this end we propose a simple, general model for the dynamics of vegetation, which includes only long-range competition between plants. Competition is introduced through a nonlocal term, where the kernel function quantifies the intensity of the interaction

  11. IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, TRACKING AND SUPPORT FOR VESSELS ON RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMOILESCU Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the program COMPRIS (Consortium Operational Management Platform River Information Services, AIS (Automatic Identification System, RIS (River Information Services have compiled a reference model based on the perspective of navigation on the river with related information services. This paper presents a tracking and monitoring surveillance system necessary for assistance of each ship sailing in an area of interest. It shows the operating principle of the composition and role of each equipment. Transferring data to traffic monitoring authority is part of this work.

  12. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE RAINFALL DATA AND CURVE NUMBER METHOD FOR RUNOFF ESTIMATION UNDER SEMI-ARID WADI SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Adam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The arid and semi-arid catchments in dry lands in general require a special effective management as the scarcity of resources and information which is needed to leverage studies and investigations is the common characteristic. Hydrology is one of the most important elements in the management of resources. Deep understanding of hydrological responses is the key towards better planning and land management. Surface runoff quantification of such ungauged semi-arid catchments considered among the important challenges. A 7586 km2 catchment under investigation is located in semi-arid region in central Sudan where mean annual rainfall is around 250 mm and represent the ultimate source for water supply. The objective is to parameterize hydrological characteristics of the catchment and estimate surface runoff using suitable methods and hydrological models that suit the nature of such ungauged catchments with scarce geospatial information. In order to produce spatial runoff estimations, satellite rainfall was used. Remote sensing and GIS were incorporated in the investigations and the generation of landcover and soil information. Five days rainfall event (50.2 mm was used for the SCS CN model which is considered the suitable for this catchment, as SCS curve number (CN method is widely used for estimating infiltration characteristics depending on the landcover and soil property. Runoff depths of 3.6, 15.7 and 29.7 mm were estimated for the three different Antecedent Moisture Conditions (AMC-I, AMC-II and AMC-III. The estimated runoff depths of AMCII and AMCIII indicate the possibility of having small artificial surface reservoirs that could provide water for domestic and small household agricultural use.

  13. Impacts of ridge-furrow rainfall concentration systems and mulches on corn growth and yield in the semiarid region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiao-Li; Jia, Zhi-Kuan

    2016-08-01

    Plastic-covered ridge-furrow farming systems for rainfall concentration (RC) improve the water availability for crops and increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semiarid agricultural areas. We conducted a 4-year field study to determine the RC effects on corn production of mulching in furrows with 8% biodegradable films (RCSB ), liquid film (RCSL ), bare furrow (RCSN ) and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly (P > 0.05) increased the soil moisture in the top 0-100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0-20 cm) during the corn-growing period. Mulching with different materials in planting furrows further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining and yield-increasing effects of RC planting. Compared with CF, the 4-year average total dry matter amount per plant for RCSB , RCSL and RCSN treatments increased by 42.1%, 30.8% and 17.2%, respectively. The grain yield increased by 59.7%, 53.4% and 32.6%, respectively. Plastic-covered ridge and furrow mulched with biodegradable film and liquid film is recommended for use in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China to alleviate the effects of drought on crop production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mining and urban impacts on semi-arid freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Mount Isa, Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark P; Mackay, Alana; Kuypers, Tabitha; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the environmental risk and impact of trace metals affecting river water and sediment in and around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Bacterial indicator densities are also analysed throughout the catchment to assess the impacts and the potential hazards arising from agricultural activities, sewage treatment plant releases and urban runoff. The area is drained by the ephemeral Leichhardt River, which bisects Mount Isa City and the major Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag Mount Isa Mine. Runoff is captured downstream in Lake Moondarra, with the water being used following natural filtration via a lagoon-reed bed system for potable purposes by the residents of Mount Isa City. During the dry season, the channel is characterised by numerous pools that act as storage zones for sediment and water-soluble metals as well as urban and agriculturally derived nutrients and pathogens. Our results show that sediment and water quality within the Leichhardt River adjacent to and downstream of the mine frequently exceed Australian government sediment guidelines with average values of Cu, Pb and Zn found adjacent to the footprint of the mine being 1550, 510 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively. Dry season analysis of water-soluble Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within pools showed that Australian government low trigger guidelines are exceeded in 100, 46 and 100% cases, respectively. The densities of bacterial indicators in remnant pools throughout the Leichhardt River also exceeded acceptable guidelines. Maximum dry season faecal coliform densities of 2000 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and Enterococcus counts of 900 organisms per 100 mL were recorded in dry season remnant pools compared to wet season maximum faecal coliform and Enterococcus densities of 119 000 CFU per 100 mL and 95 000 organisms per 100 mL, respectively. The impacts on biota were also examined by assessing the metal content of the tissue of seven fish from Lake Moondarra for their Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn

  15. A System Dynamics Model to Improve Water Resources Allocation in the Conchos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, J. R.; Valdes, J. B.; Stewart, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Conchos river located in Chihuahua state on a semiarid region is the most important Mexican river contributing water deliveries to USA as established by the Water treaty of 1944 signed between Mexico and USA. Historically, Mexico has delivered to UNITED STATES 550 Hm3 (445,549.5 ACF) per year of water since the treaty was established, which is 25% above the yearly water volume Mexico is required to deliver. The Conchos river has contributed with 54% of the historic Mexican water treaty deliveries to the UNITED STATES, which represents the highest percentage of the 6 Mexican rivers considered on the water treaty. However, during drought situations the basin has proven to be vulnerable, for instance, because of the severe drought of the 90's, several cities in 1992 on Chihuahua state where declared disaster areas, and from 1992 to 2001 Mexico had accumulated a water treaty deficit of 2111.6 Hm3 (1,710,586 ACF). This has conduced to economic, social, and political difficulties in both countries. Because of the cited problematic and considering the poor understanding of the relationship between water supply and demand factors on the basin, a decision support system (DSS) has been developed aimed to improve the decision making process related with the water resources allocation process. This DSS has been created using System Dynamics (SD). It is a semi-distributed model and is running on monthly time step basis. For both the short and long term, three important water resources management strategies have been evaluated: several water allocation policies from reservoirs to water users; bulk water rights transfers inside and outside Irrigation Districts; and improvement of water distribution efficiencies. The model results have provided very useful regard to gain more quantitative understanding of the different strategies being implemented. They have also indicated that the different water resources alternatives change its degree of importance according to the

  16. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  17. Comparison of index systems for rating water quality in intermittent rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Raïs, Naoual; Chahinian, Nanée; Dowse, Lauryan; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2018-01-08

    Water quality indexes (WQI) are a practical way to evaluate and compare the level of chemical contamination of different water bodies and to spatially and temporally compare levels of pollution. The purpose of this study was to check if these indexes are appropriate for intermittent rivers under arid and semi-arid climates. A literature review enabled the comparison of 25 water quality indexes to discern their capability to evaluate spatial (inter and intra catchment) and temporal (high and low water flow conditions) variations in water quality in three Mediterranean intermittent rivers: the River Vène (France) and the Oued Fez and the River Sebou (Morocco). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified groups of WQI with similar behavior and brought to light the 6 most distinguishing indexes. Whatever the hydrological conditions at the two sites, both the ME-MCATUHE and NCS indexes, which were developed for Morocco and Greece, and the CCMEWQI and BCWQI indexes, which were developed for non-arid or semi-arid zones, gave appropriate water quality evaluations.

  18. Long-term changes in river system hydrology in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and human actives are recognized as a topical issue that change long-term water budget, flow-frequency, and storage-frequency characteristics of different river systems. Texas is characterized by extreme hydrologic variability both spatially and temporally. Meanwhile, population and economic growth and accompanying water resources development projects have greatly impacted river flows throughout Texas. The relative effects of climate change, water resources development, water use, and other factors on long-term changes in river flow, reservoir storage, evaporation, water use, and other components of the water budgets of different river basins of Texas have been simulated in this research using the monthly version of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP modelling system with input databases sets from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ and Texas Water Development Board (TWDB. The results show that long-term changes are minimal from analysis monthly precipitation depths. Evaporation rates vary greatly seasonally and for much of the state appear to have a gradually upward trend. River/reservoir system water budgets and river flow characteristics have changed significantly during the past 75 years in response to water resources development and use.

  19. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  20. Biodigestor for validation of the productive system self-sustainable in the Brazil semi-arid; Biodigestor para validacao de sistema produtivo auto-sustentavel no semi-arido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo C.M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Silveira Neto, Jose W; Diniz, Magilce M.N. [Instituto Joazeiro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, Francisco J.F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-07-01

    The present paper shows the first phase of a project about the use of digester adapted to the conditions of the semi-arid areas of the Brazilian Northeast region. The project aims to analyze the technical, economical, financial and environmental viability of a production system based on the use of digesters. (author)

  1. Assessment of denitrification process in lower Ishikari river system, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Minagawa, Masao

    2013-11-01

    Sediment denitrification rate and its role in removal of dissolved nitrate load in lower Ishikari river system were examined. Denitrification rate were measured using acetylene inhibition technique on the sediment samples collected during August 2009-July 2010. The denitrification rate varied from 0.001 to 1.9 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) with an average value of 0.21 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed positive correlation with dissolved nitrate concentration in the river basin, indicating overlying water column supplied nitrate for the sediment denitrification processes. Nutrient enrichment experiments result showed that denitrification rate increased significantly with addition of nitrate in case of samples collected from Barato Lake however no such increase was observed in the samples collected from Ishikari river main channel and its major tributaries indicating that factors other than substrate concentration such as population of denitrifier and hydrological properties of stream channel including channel depth and flow velocity may affects the denitrification rate in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed no significant increase with the addition of labile carbon (glucose), indicating that sediment samples had sufficient organic matter to sustain denitrification activity. The result of nutrient spiraling model indicates that in- stream denitrification process removes on an average 5%d(-1) of dissolve nitrate load in Ishikari river. This study was carried out to fill the gap present in the availability of riverine denitrification rate measurement and its role in nitrogen budget from Japanese rivers characterize by small river length and high flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  3. Water conservation in semiarid dryland agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.O.

    1980-01-01

    Factors affecting water conservation in semiarid dryland regions are discussed. Because precipitation is the only source of water for plant growth in most semiarid regions, a good understanding of precipitation patterns (quantity, distribution, and their probable frequency) is needed for each dryland area. The various dryland practices, e.g. tillage, cultivars, residue management, fertility, erosion control, and grazing, must be considered as integral parts of an entire system to develop best management practices and to gain most efficient water conservation for food and fiber production. (author)

  4. Nitrogen flows and balances as affected by water and nutrient management in a sorghum cropping system of semi-arid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Guillobez, S.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient use of external inputs and water conservation are a prerequisite of sustainable agricultural productivity in semiarid West Africa. A field experiment was carried out during 3 years (2000–2002) at Saria in semiarid Burkina Faso (800 mm of annual rainfall, PET of 2000 mm per year) to assess

  5. An advanced modelling tool for simulating complex river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Braunschweig, Frank; Chambel Leitão, Pedro; Obermann, Matthias; Neves, Ramiro

    2009-04-01

    The present paper describes MOHID River Network (MRN), a 1D hydrodynamic model for river networks as part of MOHID Water Modelling System, which is a modular system for the simulation of water bodies (hydrodynamics and water constituents). MRN is capable of simulating water quality in the aquatic and benthic phase and its development was especially focused on the reproduction of processes occurring in temporary river networks (flush events, pools formation, and transmission losses). Further, unlike many other models, it allows the quantification of settled materials at the channel bed also over periods when the river falls dry. These features are very important to secure mass conservation in highly varying flows of temporary rivers. The water quality models existing in MOHID are base on well-known ecological models, such as WASP and ERSEM, the latter allowing explicit parameterization of C, N, P, Si, and O cycles. MRN can be coupled to the basin model, MOHID Land, with computes runoff and porous media transport, allowing for the dynamic exchange of water and materials between the river and surroundings, or it can be used as a standalone model, receiving discharges at any specified nodes (ASCII files of time series with arbitrary time step). These features account for spatial gradients in precipitation which can be significant in Mediterranean-like basins. An interface has been already developed for SWAT basin model.

  6. Water isotope composition as a tracer for study of mixing processes in rivers. Part II. Determination of mixing degrees in the tributary-main river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Zimnicki, R.; Ptaszek, S.; Palige, J.; Dobrowolski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Two river-tributary systems have been chosen for the investigation of mixing processes: the Narew River-the Bug River-Zegrzynski Reservoir and the Bugo-Narew River-the Vistula River. In both river systems, several profiles for the water sampling have been selected down to the tributary confluent line. Each sample position has been precisely determined by means of GPS. Then, the δDi have been measured in IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectroscopy). The δD distributions in selected profiles have been presented for both investigated river systems. Presented results will be applied for the verification of the mathematical model for transport and mixing in river systems

  7. From academic to applied: Operationalising resilience in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of resilience acknowledges the ability of societies to live and develop with dynamic environments. Given the recognition of the need to prepare for anticipated and unanticipated shocks, applications of resilience are increasing as the guiding principle of public policy and programs in areas such as disaster management, urban planning, natural resource management, and climate change adaptation. River science is an area in which the adoption of resilience is increasing, leading to the proposition that resilience may become a guiding principle of river policy and programs. Debate about the role of resilience in rivers is part of the scientific method, but disciplinary disunity about the ways to approach resilience application in policy and programs may leave river science out of the policy process. We propose six elements that need to be considered in the design and implementation of resilience-based river policy and programs: rivers as social-ecological systems; the science-policy interface; principles, capacities, and characteristics of resilience; cogeneration of knowledge; adaptive management; and the state of the science of resilience.

  8. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  9. Modelling hydrologic and hydrodynamic processes in basins with large semi-arid wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Ayan; Siqueira, Vinícius; Paris, Adrien; Collischonn, Walter; Paiva, Rodrigo; Pontes, Paulo; Crétaux, Jean-François; Bergé-Nguyen, Muriel; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Gosset, Marielle; Calmant, Stephane; Tanimoun, Bachir

    2018-06-01

    Hydrological and hydrodynamic models are core tools for simulation of large basins and complex river systems associated to wetlands. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of online coupling strategies, representing feedbacks between floodplain inundation and vertical hydrology. Especially across semi-arid regions, soil-floodplain interactions can be strong. In this study, we included a two-way coupling scheme in a large scale hydrological-hydrodynamic model (MGB) and tested different model structures, in order to assess which processes are important to be simulated in large semi-arid wetlands and how these processes interact with water budget components. To demonstrate benefits from this coupling over a validation case, the model was applied to the Upper Niger River basin encompassing the Niger Inner Delta, a vast semi-arid wetland in the Sahel Desert. Simulation was carried out from 1999 to 2014 with daily TMPA 3B42 precipitation as forcing, using both in-situ and remotely sensed data for calibration and validation. Model outputs were in good agreement with discharge and water levels at stations both upstream and downstream of the Inner Delta (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) >0.6 for most gauges), as well as for flooded areas within the Delta region (NSE = 0.6; r = 0.85). Model estimates of annual water losses across the Delta varied between 20.1 and 30.6 km3/yr, while annual evapotranspiration ranged between 760 mm/yr and 1130 mm/yr. Evaluation of model structure indicated that representation of both floodplain channels hydrodynamics (storage, bifurcations, lateral connections) and vertical hydrological processes (floodplain water infiltration into soil column; evapotranspiration from soil and vegetation and evaporation of open water) are necessary to correctly simulate flood wave attenuation and evapotranspiration along the basin. Two-way coupled models are necessary to better understand processes in large semi-arid wetlands. Finally, such coupled

  10. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  11. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  12. AGROECOLOGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE SEMIARID TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gamarra-Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a theoretical and, to a certain extent, propositional reflection on the conceptions, assumptions and evidences of climate change in the tropics, with emphasis on the Brazilian semiarid region. The contributions of agriculture to climate change are presented and the impacts of climate change on family agriculture in the semiarid region are analyzed. Evidence of mitigation and adaptation in agroecological systems of the semiarid region is presented and an outline of an agenda of the sector based on the commitments assumed by the country and the needs of mitigation and adaptation is provided.

  13. Semiarid ethnoagroforestry management: Tajos in the Sierra Gorda, Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Vincent M; Casas, Alejandro; Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel

    2017-06-12

    The semi-arid environments harbor nearly 40% of biodiversity, and half of indigenous cultures of Mexico. Thousands of communities settled in these areas depend on agriculture and using wild biodiversity for their subsistence. Water, soil, and biodiversity management strategies are therefore crucial for people's life. The tajos, from Sierra Gorda, are important, poorly studied, biocultural systems established in narrow, arid alluvial valleys. The systems are constructed with stone-walls for capturing sediments, gradually creating fertile soils in terraces suitable for agriculture in places where it would not be possible. We analyzed biocultural, ecological, economic and technological relevance of the artificial oasis-like tajos, hypothesizing their high capacity for maintaining agricultural and wild biodiversity while providing resources to people. We conducted our research in three sections of the Mezquital-Xichú River, in three communities of Guanajuato, Mexico. Agroforestry management practices were documented through semi-structured and in-depth qualitative interviews. Vegetation composition of local forests and that maintained in tajos was sampled and compared. Tajos harbor high agrobiodiversity, including native varieties of maize and beans, seven secondary crops, 47 native and 25 introduced perennial plant species. Perennial plants cover on average 26.8% of the total surface of plots. Tajos provide nearly 70% of the products required by households' subsistence and are part of their cultural identity. Tajos are heritage of TEK and land management forms of pre-Columbian Mexican and Mediterranean agricultural techniques, adapting and integrating modern agricultural practices. Tajos are valuable biocultural systems adapted to local semiarid conditions and sources of technology for similar areas of the World.

  14. Clinch River Breeder Reactor secondary control rod system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeehan, E.R.; Sim, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The shutdown system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) includes two independent systems--a primary and a secondary system. The Secondary Control Rod System (SCRS) is a new design which is being developed by General Electric to be independent from the primary system in order to improve overall shutdown reliability by eliminating potential common-mode failures. The paper describes the status of the SCRS design and fabrication and testing activities. Design verification testing on the component level is largely complete. These component tests are covered with emphasis on design impact results. A prototype unit has been manufactured and system level tests in sodium have been initiated

  15. Influence of tree species on the herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics in a silvopastoral system in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. C. Menezes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies from some semi-arid regions of the world have shown the beneficial effect of trees in silvopastoral systems, by promoting the formation of resource islands and increasing the sustainability of the system. No data are available in this respect for tree species of common occurrence in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. In the present study, conducted in the summer of 1996, three tree species (Zyziphus joazeiro, Spondias tuberosa and Prosopis juliflora: found within Cenchrus ciliaris pastures were selected to evaluate differences on herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics between samples taken under the tree canopy and in open grass areas. Transects extending from the tree trunk to open grass areas were established, and soil (0-15 cm and herbaceous understory (standing live biomass in 1 m² plots samples were taken at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of the average canopy radius (average radius was 6.6 ± 0.5, 4.5 ± 0.5, and 5.3 ± 0.8 m for Z. joazeiro, P. juliflora, and S. tuberosa , respectively. Higher levels of soil C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na were found under the canopies of Z. joazeiro and P. juliflora: trees, as compared to open grass areas. Only soil Mg organic P were higher under the canopies of S. tuberosa trees, as compared to open grass areas. Herbaceous understory biomass was significantly lower under the canopy of S. tuberosa and P. juliflora trees (107 and 96 g m-2, respectively relatively to open grass areas (145 and 194 g m-2. No herbaceous biomass differences were found between Z. joazeiro canopies and open grass areas (107 and 87 g m-2, respectively. Among the three tree species studied, Z. joazeiro was the one that presented the greatest potential for use in a silvopastoral system at the study site, since it had a larger nutrient stock in the soil without negatively affecting herbaceous understory biomass, relatively to open grass areas.

  16. Body condition scores at calving and their association with dairy cow performance and health in semiarid environment under two cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.B. Mandour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under tropical environments cow’s body condition at calving may influence productivity and health performance. Therefore, the current research evaluated the impact of body condition score (BCS at calving on milk production traits and health problems of primiparous and multiparous cows raised under two cooling systems in semi-arid environment. Milk yield parameters and health disorders data at different parities were obtained from 1700 Holstein cows, which were managed under Korral Kool (KKC and fan (FC cooling systems in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that KKC system induced high level of milk production improvement (305TM, days in milk, daily milk yield (P<0.05 compared to FC, especially in multiparous cows. There was an advantage of the high BCS group under KKC system over the FC system for peak yield and period. Cows from both cooling systems having moderate BCS outdid the other groups for total milk yield. Low BCS primiparous cows reared under KKC system were the most to suffer from stillbirth (18%, and calving ease (26.1% in winter, while high BCS were the most to be treated for mastitis (8.5% in summer. On the other hand, spring calved multiparous cows raised under FC system suffered more from lameness (21.57% - high BCS and milk fever (4.4% - moderate BCS. Further, cows having moderate BCS kept under KKC system had the highest incidence of lameness (62.2%, and abomasum displacement (4.4%. In conclusion, achieving correct BCS at calving and cooling system is important to avoid calving subsequent lactation performance and metabolic disease losses.

  17. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  18. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  19. Effect of Different Mulches under Rainfall Concentration System on Corn Production in the Semi-arid Areas of the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoli; Guo, Jingjing; Jia, Zhikuan

    2016-01-01

    The ridge and furrow farming system for rainfall concentration (RC) has gradually been popularized to improve the water availability for crops and to increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In the RC system, plastic-covered ridges are rainfall harvesting zones and furrows are planting zones. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semi-arid agricultural areas. We conducted a four-year field study to determine the effects on corn production of mulching with 0.08-mm plastic film, maize straw, 8% biodegradable film, liquid film, bare furrow, and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly increased (P > 0.05) the soil moisture storage in the top 0-100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0-10 cm) during the corn-growing season. Combining RC with mulching further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining, and yield-increasing effects in furrows. Compared with CF, the four-year average yield increased by 1497.1 kg ha-1 to 2937.3 kg ha-1 using RC with mulch treatments and the WUE increased by 2.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 to 5.1 kg ha-1 mm-1.

  20. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  1. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  2. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  3. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  4. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  5. LEVELS OF SOME ANIONS IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    obtained in this work, the river water is safe for the aquatic life therein. ... environmental issue in developing countries. ... of these ions to enhance water quality of this ... IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN NORTH IN WESTERN NIGERIA.

  6. Laboratory robotics systems at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.; Burkett, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many analytical chemistry methods normally used at the Savannah River site require repetitive procedures and handling of radioactive and other hazardous solutions. Robotics is being investigated as a method of reducing personnel fatigue and radiation exposure and also increasing product quality. Several applications of various commercially available robot systems are discussed involving cold (nonradioactive) and hot (radioactive) sample preparations and glovebox waste removal. Problems encountered in robot programming, parts fixturing, design of special robot hands and other support equipment, glovebox operation, and operator-system interaction are discussed. A typical robot system cost analysis for one application is given

  7. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  9. Evaluation of the WRF-Urban Modeling System Coupled to Noah and Noah-MP Land Surface Models Over a Semiarid Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Francisco; Zhang, Yizhou; Barlage, Michael; Chen, Fei; Mahalov, Alex; Miao, Shiguang

    2018-03-01

    We have augmented the existing capabilities of the integrated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-urban modeling system by coupling three urban canopy models (UCMs) available in the WRF model with the new community Noah with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP) land surface model (LSM). The WRF-urban modeling system's performance has been evaluated by conducting six numerical experiments at high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal grid spacing) during a 15 day clear-sky summertime period for a semiarid urban environment. To assess the relative importance of representing urban surfaces, three different urban parameterizations are used with the Noah and Noah-MP LSMs, respectively, over the two major cities of Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrate that Noah-MP reproduces somewhat better than Noah the daily evolution of surface skin temperature and near-surface air temperature (especially nighttime temperature) and wind speed. Concerning the urban areas, bulk urban parameterization overestimates nighttime 2 m air temperature compared to the single-layer and multilayer UCMs that reproduce more accurately the daily evolution of near-surface air temperature. Regarding near-surface wind speed, only the multilayer UCM was able to reproduce realistically the daily evolution of wind speed, although maximum winds were slightly overestimated, while both the single-layer and bulk urban parameterizations overestimated wind speed considerably. Based on these results, this paper demonstrates that the new community Noah-MP LSM coupled to an UCM is a promising physics-based predictive modeling tool for urban applications.

  10. Modern Sedimentation off the Kaoping River, SW Taiwan: A Comparison with Eel River's S2S System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, C.; Lin, H.; Lin, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Kaoping (KP) River in SW Taiwan has a watershed area of 3257 km2 and an annual sediment discharge of 49 MT. Although the sediment yield of the KP River basin (1.5×104 ton km-2 yr^{- 1}) is the 4th highest among Taiwan's catchment basins, it is nearly one order of magnitude higher than that of the Eel River's basin (~1.8×103 ton km-2 yr-1; the highest in the U.S.). The KP canyon extends almost immediately seaward from the river's mouth and terminates in the northwestern corner of the South China Sea. The head of the canyon is characterized by high and steep walls exceeding 600 m. The KP river's source-to-sink system offers a dramatic case of mountainous rivers at active margins for S2S study. Here we report some results about modern sedimentation in KP river's dispersal system. Seventy-six sediment cores collected from an area of ~3000 km2 were analyzed for fallout nuclides 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb by gamma spectrometry. From profiles of excess 210Pb and 137Cs sediment accumulation rates in the coring sites were estimated, which vary from 0.06 to 1.6 cm/yr, with the highest rates (>1 cm/yr) distributed in the upper slope (exported out of the study area via the KP canyon to the deep sea by gravity-driven turbidity or hyperpycnal flows.

  11. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930's, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M ampersand I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M ampersand I studies; Irrigation/M ampersand I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M ampersand I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement

  12. Reservoir inflow forecasting with a modified coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system: a case study for a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allawi, Mohammed Falah; Jaafar, Othman; Mohamad Hamzah, Firdaus; Mohd, Nuruol Syuhadaa; Deo, Ravinesh C.; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Existing forecast models applied for reservoir inflow forecasting encounter several drawbacks, due to the difficulty of the underlying mathematical procedures being to cope with and to mimic the naturalization and stochasticity of the inflow data patterns. In this study, appropriate adjustments to the conventional coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) method are proposed to improve the mathematical procedure, thus enabling a better detection of the high nonlinearity patterns found in the reservoir inflow training data. This modification includes the updating of the back propagation algorithm, leading to a consequent update of the membership rules and the induction of the centre-weighted set rather than the global weighted set used in feature extraction. The modification also aids in constructing an integrated model that is able to not only detect the nonlinearity in the training data but also the wide range of features within the training data records used to simulate the forecasting model. To demonstrate the model's efficacy, the proposed CANFIS method has been applied to forecast monthly inflow data at Aswan High Dam (AHD), located in southern Egypt. Comparative analyses of the forecasting skill of the modified CANFIS and the conventional ANFIS model are carried out with statistical score indicators to assess the reliability of the developed method. The statistical metrics support the better performance of the developed CANFIS model, which significantly outperforms the ANFIS model to attain a low relative error value (23%), mean absolute error (1.4 BCM month-1), root mean square error (1.14 BCM month-1), and a relative large coefficient of determination (0.94). The present study ascertains the better utility of the modified CANFIS model in respect to the traditional ANFIS model applied in reservoir inflow forecasting for a semi-arid region.

  13. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-An Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer, N (nitrogen, P (phosphorus, and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008 on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil.

  14. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  15. Avaliação e identificação de parâmetros importantes para a qualidade de corpos d'água no semiárido baiano. Estudo de caso: bacia hidrográfica do rio Salitre Evaluation and identification of significant quality parameters for the bodies of water in bahia's semi-arid region. Case study: salitre river hydrographic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Nobre de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work was identifying superficial water quality parameters, significant to semi-arid hydrographic basins, minimizing costs of water monitoring. The Salitre river basin, an important sub-basin of the São Francisco river, was used as a case study. STD, Cl-, DO, BOD, pH, NO3-, PO4(3-, Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb were considered the most significant parameters, with concentration levels found in some stretches of the basin not compliant with the current legislation. Some of the Salitre river basin sediments may represent a risk to the quality of the water body in relation to levels of nickel and zinc.

  16. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  17. Improvements MOIRA system for application to nuclear sites Spanish river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Diaz, E.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Dvorzhak, A.; Hofman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Possible consequences of a nuclear accident must have radioactive contamination in the medium and long-term freshwater aquatic systems. Faced with this problem, it is essential to have a realistic assessment of the radiological impact, ecological, social and economic potential management strategies, to take the best decisions rationally. MOIRA is a system of decision support developed in the course of the European Framework Programmes with participation of the UPM, which has been improved and adapted to Spanish nuclear sites in recent years in the context ISIDRO Project, sponsored by the Council Nuclear, with the participation of CIEMAT and UPM. The paper focuses on these advances, primarily related to complex hydraulic systems such as rivers Tajo, Ebro and Jucar, which are located several Spanish plants.

  18. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  19. Fluvial River Regime in Disturbed River Systems: A Case Study of Evolution of the Middle Yangtze River in Post-TGD (Three Gorges Dam), China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Lu, J; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluvial river is a kind of open system that can interact with its outside environments and give response to disturbance from outside on the earth. It can adjust itself to the disturbances outside the system and reflects new characteristics in the process of reaching a new equilibrium. The TGD

  20. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Fukami, K; Hanapi, M N; Livia, L; Nor, M D

    2013-01-01

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  1. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  2. Temporal Analyses of Select Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River System, 1992-1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    The annual variability in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), and midges (chironomidae) in six study areas of the Upper Mississippi River System from 1992 to 1995 was examined...

  3. Identifying drought response of semi-arid aeolian systems using near-surface luminescence profiles and changepoint analysis, Nebraska Sandhills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Catherine; Bailey, Richard; Thomas, David

    2017-04-01

    Two billion people living in drylands are affected by land degradation. Sediment erosion by wind and water removes fertile soil and destabilises landscapes. Vegetation disturbance is a key driver of dryland erosion caused by both natural and human forcings: drought, fire, land use, grazing pressure. A quantified understanding of vegetation cover sensitivities and resultant surface change to forcing factors is needed if the vegetation and landscape response to future climate change and human pressure are to be better predicted. Using quartz luminescence dating and statistical changepoint analysis (Killick & Eckley, 2014) this study demonstrates the ability to identify step-changes in depositional age of near-surface sediments. Lx/Tx luminescence profiles coupled with statistical analysis show the use of near-surface sediments in providing a high-resolution record of recent system response and aeolian system thresholds. This research determines how the environment has recorded and retained sedimentary evidence of drought response and land use disturbances over the last two hundred years across both individual landforms and the wider Nebraska Sandhills. Identifying surface deposition and comparing with records of climate, fire and land use changes allows us to assess the sensitivity and stability of the surface sediment to a range of forcing factors. Killick, R and Eckley, IA. (2014) "changepoint: An R Package for Changepoint Analysis." Journal of Statistical Software, (58) 1-19.

  4. An automated field spectrometer system for studying VIS, NIR and SWIR anisotropy for semi-arid savanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Silvia; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    in shading (analyzed by measurements from forward and backward scatter direction) did not have a noticeable impact on the indices (0.2 % and 0.5 % difference for NDVI and SIWSI in the backward and forward scatter direction, respectively). The presented data show the large potential of continuous time series....... The instrumental setup allows studying surface anisotropy for different phenological phases. First data retrieved from the Dahra field spectrometer system show distinctive patterns of spectrally dependent anisotropic behavior: during the rainy season normalized reflectance was highest around solar noon for small...... off-nadir observation angles but for observations of large off-nadir angles highest values were found in the morning or evening hours (both forward and backward scatter direction). Anisotropy factors corresponding to MODIS, SPOT and SEVIRI red, near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) sensor...

  5. Estimates of nutritional requirements and use of Small Ruminant Nutrition System model for hair sheep in semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pinto de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (km and weight gain (kf, the dietary requirements of total digestible nutrients (TDN and metabolizable protein (MP, as well as, evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS model to predict the dry matter intake (DMI and the average daily gain (ADG of Santa Ines lambs, fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (ME. Thirty five lambs, non-castrated, with initial body weight (BW of 14.77 ± 1.26 kg at approximate two months old, were used. At the beginning of the experiment, five animals were slaughtered to serve as reference for the estimative of empty body weight (EBW and initial body composition of the 30 remaining animals, which were distributed in randomized block design with five treatments (1.13; 1.40; 1.73; 2.22 and 2.60 Mcal/kg DM, and six repetitions. The requirement of metabolizable energy for maintenance was 78.53 kcal/kg EBW0,75/day, with a utilization efficiency of 66%. The average value of efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for weight gain was 48%. The dietary requirements of TDN and MP increased with the increase in BW and ADG of the animals. The SRNS model underestimated the DMI and ADG of the animals in 6.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Concludes that the values of km and kf are consistent with those observed in several studies with lambs created in the tropics. The dietary requirements of TDN and MP of Santa Ines lambs for different BW and ADG are, approximately, 42% and 24%, respectively, lower than those suggested by the american system of evaluation of food and nutrient requirements of small ruminants. The SRNS model was sensitive to predict the DMI in Santa Ines lambs, however, for variable ADG, more studies are needed, since the model underestimated the response of the animals of this study.

  6. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  7. Transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River system and other rivers in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of fallout Pu has been studied in the sediments and water of the Mississippi River and eight other rivers. Plutonium content of the sediments is related to grain size and Fe and Mn content. Rivers in human climates show relatively high organic carbon (3 to 4%) and high /sup 239,240)Pu content (36 to 131 dpm/kg) in their suspended sediments. Dissolved Pu is very low in all the rivers; distribution coefficients vary from 10 4 to 10 5 . The 238 Pu//sup 239,240/Pu ratios are low in all the river sediments (∼.06) except the Miami River in Ohio, where ratios as high as 99 were measured. The high ratios originate from the Mound Laboratory Pu processing plant at Miamisburg, Ohio, and can be traced downstream to the junction with the Ohio River. Mississippi River suspended sediment shows a continual decrease of /sup 239,240/Pu content over a 7 year time period. An exponential curve best-fit through the data predicts a half time of decrease equal to 4.3 years. The decrease in Pu content of river sediment results from several factors: cessation of atmospheric weapons testing; transport of Pu to deeper levels of soil profiles; storage of sediment in flood plains and behind dams; and dilution by erosion by older, prebomb soil material. The amount of fallout Pu now removed from the Mississippi River drainage basin to the ocean is 11% as a maximum estimate. Most the fallout Pu in the Mississippi drainage basin will remain on the continent unless there are major changes in erosion and sediment transport patterns in the basin itself. 56 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  8. Groundwater discharge in high-mountain watersheds: A valuable resource for downstream semi-arid zones. The case of the Bérchules River in Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Jorge; Cabrera, José Antonio; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; González-Ramón, Antonio; Lambán, Luis Javier; Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    Aquifers in permeable formations developed in high-mountain watersheds slow down the transfer of snowmelt to rivers, modifying rivers' flow pattern. To gain insight into the processes that control the hydrologic response of such systems the role played by groundwater in an alpine basin located at the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is investigated. As data in these environments is generally scarce and its variability is high, simple lumped parameter hydrological models that consider the groundwater component and snow accumulation and melting are needed. Instead of using existing models that use many parameters, the Témez lumped hydrological model of common use in Spain and Ibero-American countries is selected and modified to consider snow to get a simplified tool to separate hydrograph components. The result is the TDD model (Témez-Degree Day) which is applied in a high mountain watershed with seasonal snow cover in Southern Spain to help in quantifying groundwater recharge and determining the groundwater contribution to the outflow. Average groundwater recharge is about 23% of the precipitation, and groundwater contribution to total outflow ranges between 70 and 97%. Direct surface runoff is 1% of precipitation. These values depend on the existence of snow. Results are consistent with those obtained with chloride atmospheric deposition mass balances by other authors. They highlight the important role of groundwater in high mountain areas, which is enhanced by seasonal snow cover. Results compare well with other areas. This effect is often neglected in water planning, but can be easily taken into account just by extending the water balance tool in use, or any other, following the procedure that has being developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  10. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  11. Pike River Mine Disaster: Systems-Engineering and Organisational Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Pons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pike River mine (PRM, an underground coal mine in New Zealand (NZ, exploded in 2010. This paper analyses the causes of the disaster, with a particular focus on the systems engineering and organisational contributions. Poor systems-engineering contributed via poorly designed ventilation, use of power-electronics underground, and placement of the main ventilation fan underground. Management rushed prematurely into production even though the technology development in the mine was incomplete. Investment in non-productive infrastructure was deprioritised resulting in inadequate ventilation, and the lack of a viable second emergency egress. The risk assessments were deficient, incomplete, or not actioned. Warnings and feedback from staff were ignored. Risk arises as a consequence of the complex interactions between the components of the sociotechnical system. Organisations will need to strengthen the integrity of their risk management processes at engineering, management, and board levels. The systems engineering perspective shows the interacting causality between the engineering challenges (ventilation, mining method, electrical power, project deliverables, management priorities, organisational culture, and workers’ behaviour. Use of the barrier method provides a new way to examine the risk-management strategies of the mine. The breakdowns in organisational safety management systems are explicitly identified.

  12. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  13. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...

  14. Reliability evaluation of the Savannah River reactor leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Sindelar, R.L.; Wallace, I.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. The primary degradation mode for the primary coolant loop piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The leak-before-break (LBB) capability of the primary system piping has been demonstrated as part of an overall structural integrity evaluation. One element of the LBB analyses is a reliability evaluation of the leak detection system. The most sensitive element of the leak detection system is the airborne tritium monitors. The presence of small amounts of tritium in the heavy water coolant provide the basis for a very sensitive system of leak detection. The reliability of the tritium monitors to properly identify a crack leaking at a rate of either 50 or 300 lb/day (0.004 or 0.023 gpm, respectively) has been characterized. These leak rates correspond to action points for which specific operator actions are required. High reliability has been demonstrated using standard fault tree techniques. The probability of not detecting a leak within an assumed mission time of 24 hours is estimated to be approximately 5 x 10 -5 per demand. This result is obtained for both leak rates considered. The methodology and assumptions used to obtain this result are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  18. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  19. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  20. Managing water and riparian habitats on the Bill Williams River with scientific benefit for other desert river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hickey,; Woodrow Fields,; Andrew Hautzinger,; Steven Sesnie,; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Dick Gilbert,

    2016-01-01

    This report details modeling to: 1) codify flow-ecology relationships for riparian species of the Bill Williams River as operational guidance for water managers, 2) test the guidance under different climate scenarios, and 3) revise the operational guidance as needed to address the effects of climate change. Model applications detailed herein include the River Analysis System  (HEC-RAS) and the Ecosystem Functions Model  (HEC-EFM), which was used to generate more than three million estimates of local seedling recruitment areas. Areas were aggregated and compared to determine which scenarios generated the most seedling area per unit volume of water. Scenarios that maximized seedling area were grouped into a family of curves that serve as guidance for water managers. This work has direct connections to water management decision-making and builds upon and adds to the rich history of science-based management for the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. 

  1. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ''Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  2. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.; Ketcham, D.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table tested which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the US and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective approach developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluation program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  3. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  5. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  6. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix G: Land use and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. The SOR began in early 1990, prior to the filing of petitions for endangered status for several salmon species under the Endangered Species Act. The comprehensive review of Columbia River operations encompassed by the SOR was prompted by the need for Federal decisions to (1) develop a coordinated system operating strategy (SOS) for managing the multiple uses of the system into the 21st century; (2) provide interested parties with a continuing and increased long-term role in system planning (Columbia River Regional Forum); (3) renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA), a contractual arrangement among the region's major hydroelectric-generating utilities and affected Federal agencies to provide for coordinated power generation on the Columbia River system; and (4) renew or develop new Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. The review provides the environmental analysis required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR

  8. Heavy metal transport in large river systems: heavy metal emissions and loads in the Rhine and Elbe river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Rona; Behrendt, Horst

    2002-11-01

    Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river basins. The analysis of large river basins such as the Elbe and Rhine requires information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of both emissions and physical information of the entire river basin. In this paper, an analysis has been made of heavy metal emissions from various point and diffuse sources in the Rhine and Elbe drainage areas. Different point and diffuse pathways are considered in the model, such as inputs from industry, wastewater treatment plants, urban areas, erosion, groundwater, atmospheric deposition, tile drainage, and runoff. In most cases the measured heavy metal loads at monitoring stations are lower than the sum of the heavy metal emissions. This behaviour in large river systems can largely be explained by retention processes (e.g. sedimentation) and is dependent on the specific runoff of a catchment. Independent of the method used to estimate emissions, the source apportionment analysis of observed loads was used to determine the share of point and diffuse sources in the heavy metal load at a monitoring station by establishing a discharge dependency. The results from both the emission analysis and the source apportionment analysis of observed loads were compared and gave similar results. Between 51% (for Hg) and 74% (for Pb) of the total transport in the Elbe basin is supplied by inputs from diffuse sources. In the Rhine basin diffuse source inputs dominate the total transport and deliver more than 70% of the total transport. The diffuse hydrological pathways with the highest share are erosion and urban areas.

  9. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  10. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  11. Environmental data management system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, C.H.; Gordon, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The volume and complexity of data associated with escalating environmental regulations has prompted professionals at the Savannah River Site to begin taking steps necessary to better manage environmental information. This paper describes a plan to implement an integrated environmental information system at the site. Nine topic areas have been identified. They are: administrative, air, audit ampersand QA, chemical information/inventory, ecology, environmental education, groundwater, solid/hazardous waste, and surface water. Identification of environmental databases that currently exist, integration into a ''friendly environment,'' and development of new applications will all take place as a result of this effort. New applications recently completed include Groundwater Well Construction, NPDES (Surface Water) Discharge Monitoring, RCRA Quarterly Reporting, and Material Safety Data Sheet Information. Database applications are relational (Oracle RDBMS) and reside largely in DEC VMS environments. In today's regulatory and litigation climate, the site recognizes they must have knowledge of accurate environmental data at the earliest possible time. Implementation of this system will help ensure this

  12. The Chalk River helium jet and skimmer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeing, H.; Koslowsky, V.; Wightman, M.; Hardy, J.C.; MacDonald, J.A.; Faestermann, T.; Andrews, H.R.; Geiger, J.S.; Graham, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A helium jet and skimmer system intended as an interface between a target location at the Chalk River tandem accelerator and the ion source of an on-line separator presently under construction has been developed. The system consists of a target chamber, a 125 cm long capillary, and a one stage skimmer chamber. The designs of the target and skimmer chambers allow one to vary a large number of independent flow and geometrical parameters with accurate reproducibility. Experiments with the β-delayed proton emitter 25 Si (tsub(1/2)=218 ms) produced in the reaction 24 Mg( 3 He,2n) 25 Si show that under optimized conditions about 75% of the reaction products leaving the target are transported to the skimmer. Of those, more than 90% pass through the skimmer orifice, which separates off 97.5% of the transport gas, helium. By introducing an additional helium flow across the skimming orifice the amount of helium separated off the transport jet can be increased to beyond 99.85%, leaving the high throughput of recoils unaffected. (Auth.)

  13. Doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco J.N. Galiza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar as doenças que ocorrem no sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em 411 necropsias de bovinos realizadas no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2008. Dos 411 casos analisados 139 (33,81% apresentaram alterações clínicas do sistema nervoso e as fichas foram revisadas para determinar os principais achados referentes à epidemiologia, aos sinais clínicos e às alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas. Em 28 (20,14% casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo. As principais enfermidades foram raiva (48,7% dos casos com sinais nervosos, abscessos cerebrais (7,2% incluindo três casos de abscesso da pituitária, febre catarral maligna (6,3%, botulismo (6,3%, alterações congênitas (4,5%, traumatismo (4,5%, tuberculose (2,7%, tétano (2,7%, infecção por herpesvírus bovino-5 (2,7%, encefalomielite não supurativa (2,7%, intoxicação por Prosopis juliflora (2,7%, status spongiosus congênito de causa desconhecida (1,8% e polioencefalomalacia (1,8%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (0,9% foram criptococose, listeriose, encefalite tromboembólica, linfossarcoma, tripanossomíase e babesiose por Babesia bovis.Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil were evaluated by a retrospective study of 411 cattle necropsies performed in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, from January 2000 to December 2008. Of the 411 cases analyzed, 139 (33.81% were from cattle that presented nervous signs and the records were reviewed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and macroscopic and histologic main features. Diagnosis was inconclusive in 28 cases (20.14%. In cases with diagnosis the main diseases were rabies (48.7% of the cases with nervous signs, brain abscesses (7.2% including three cases of

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  15. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  16. Digital Elevation Model Correction for the thalweg values of Obion River system, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, T. T.; Bhuyian, M. N. M.; Hawkins, S. A.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Obion River system is located in North-West Tennessee and discharges into the Mississippi River. To facilitate US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to estimate water availability for agricultural consumption a one-dimensional HEC-RAS model has been proposed. The model incorporates the major tributaries (north and south), main stem of Obion River along with a segment of the Mississippi River. A one-meter spatial resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used as the primary source of topographic data. LiDAR provides fine-resolution terrain data over given extent. However, it lacks in accurate representation of river bathymetry due to limited penetration beyond a certain water depth. This reduces the conveyance along river channel as represented by the DEM and affects the hydrodynamic modeling performance. This research focused on proposing a method to overcome this issue and test the qualitative improvement by the proposed method over an existing technique. Therefore, objective of this research is to compare effectiveness of a HEC-RAS based bathymetry optimization method with an existing hydraulic based DEM correction technique (Bhuyian et al., 2014) for Obion River system in Tennessee. Accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations (upon employing bathymetry from respective sources) would be regarded as the indicator of performance. The aforementioned river system includes nine major reaches with a total river length of 310 km. The bathymetry of the river was represented via 315 cross sections equally spaced at about one km. This study targeted to selecting best practice for treating LiDAR based terrain data over complex river system at a sub-watershed scale.

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...

  18. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  20. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a decision support system (DSS to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS. This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers during river restoration and management in Zhejiang Province, China. Our RHD-DSS is composed of four main elements: the graphical user interface (GUI, the database, the model base, and the knowledge base. It has five functional components: the input module, the database management, the diagnostic indicators management, the assessment and diagnosis, and the visual result module. The system design is illustrated with particular emphasis on the development of the database, model schemas, diagnosis and analytical processing techniques, and map management design. Finally, the application of the prototype RHD-DSS is presented and implemented for Xinjiangtang River of Haining County in Zhejiang Province, China. This case study is used to demonstrate the advantages gained by the application of this system. We conclude that there is great potential for using the RHD-DSS to systematically manage river basins in order to effectively mitigate environmental issues. The proposed approach will provide river managers and designers with improved insight into river degradation conditions, thereby strengthening the assessment process and the administration of human activities in river management.

  1. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  2. Mechanisms of Resilience in Common-pool Resource Management Systems: an Agent-based Model of Water Use in a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Schlüter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is widely promoted as a promising notion to guide new approaches to ecosystem and resource management that try to enhance a system's capacity to cope with change. A variety of mechanisms of resilience specific for different systems have been proposed. In the context of resource management those include but are not limited to the diversity of response options and flexibility of the social system to adaptively respond to changes on an adequate scale. However, implementation of resilience-based management in specific real-world systems has often proven difficult because of a limited understanding of suitable interventions and their impact on the resilience of the coupled social-ecological system. We propose an agent-based modeling approach to explore system characteristics and mechanisms of resilience in a complex resource management system, based on a case study of water use in the Amudarya River, which is a semiarid river basin. Water resources in its delta are used to sustain irrigated agriculture as well as aquatic ecosystems that provide fish and other ecosystem services. The three subsystems of the social-ecological system, i.e., the social system, the irrigation system, and an aquatic ecosystem, are linked by resource flows and the allocation decision making of actors on different levels. Simulation experiments are carried out to compare the resilience of different institutional settings of water management to changes in the variability and uncertainty of water availability. The aim is to investigate the influence of (1 the organizational structure of water management, (2 information on water availability, and (3 the diversity of water uses on the resilience of the system to short and long-term water scarcity. In this paper, the model concept and first simulation results are presented. As a first illustration of the approach the performances of a centralized and a decentralized regime are compared under different

  3. The impacts of climatologically-driven megadrought, past and future, on semi-arid watersheds and the water resource system they support in central Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. W.; Ellis, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The sustainability of water resource systems in the western United States has previously been brought into question by drought concerns and how it will be influenced by future climate change. Although decadal droughts are observed in instrumental records, the data are typically too short and the droughts too few to render the range of hydroclimatic variability that might impact modern water resource systems in the future. Natural modes of variability are not well represented in climate models, which limits the applicability of their downscaled projections in a region of interest since drought risk would be understated. Paleoclimate data have provided evidence of megadroughts from centuries ago whose hydrologic manifestations of climate variability could readily reoccur again in the future. These can be applied to research into watershed hydrologic response and resource system resilience - past, present, and future. A 645-year tree ring reconstruction of stream flow for the Salt and Verde River watersheds in central Arizona has revealed several drought periods, some more severe than seen in the 129-year instrumental record, including a late 16th century megadrought which affected large portions of the United States. This research study translated the tree ring record into net basin water supply which drives a reservoir operations simulation model to assess how the resource system performs under such severe drought. Regional climate change scenarios were developed from the observation that watershed climate sensitivity has been twice the global warming response. These were applied to the watersheds' temperature sensitivities and precipitation elasticities (reported at AGU2014) to obtain detailed renditions of hydrologic response should megadrought reoccur in a future climate. This provided one of the first rigorous projections of surface water supply under future climate change that amplifies the impact of megadrought arising from modes of climate variability often

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  5. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  6. Microbiological studies in the Mandovi-Zuari river system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Row, A.

    Total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were surveyed during October 1977 to September 1978 from 9 stations each along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari and 3 along the coast of Goa. Total heterotrophic population showed wide temporal and spatial...

  7. Hydromorphological control of nutrient cycling in complex river floodplain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Felkl, M.; Habersack, H.; Mair, M.; Pinay, G.; Tritthart, M.; Welti, N.

    2009-04-01

    Riparian zones and floodplains are key components within river ecosystems controlling nutrient cycling by promoting transformation processes and thus, act as biogeochemical hot spots. The intensity of these processes depends on the exchange conditions (the connectivity) with the main channel and the morphological setting of the water bodies. At the landscape scale, three interrelated principles of hydromorphological dynamics can be formulated regarding the cycling and transfer of carbon and nutrients in large rivers ecosystems: a) The mode of carbon and nutrient delivery affects ecosystem functioning; b) Increasing residence time and contact area impact nutrient transformation; c) Floods and droughts are natural events that strongly influence pathways of carbon and nutrient cycling. These three principles of hydromorphological dynamics control the nutrient uptake and retention and are linked over different temporal and spatial scales. All three factors can be strongly affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic impacts, through a change in either the water regime or the geomorphologic setting of the river valley. Any change in natural water regimes will affect the biogeochemistry of riparian zones and floodplains as well as their ability to cycle and mitigate nutrient fluxes originating from upstream and/or upslope. Especially these areas have been altered by river regulation and land use changes over the last 200 years leading to the deterioration of the functioning of these compartments within the riverine landscape. The resulting deficits have prompted rehabilitation and restoration measures aiming to increase the spatial heterogeneity, the complexity, of these ecosystems. Yet, a more integrated approach is needed considering the present status of nutrient dynamics and the effects of restoration measures at different scales. The present paper analyses the effects of river side-arm restoration on ecosystem functions within the side-arm and highlights

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix P: Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The purpose of this technical appendix is to provide the environmental review necessary to enter into agreements regarding the distribution between Federal and non-Federal project owners with respect to delivery of the Canadian Entitlement obligation to Canada for the period 1998 through 2024

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  11. Canopy management and water use efficiency in vineyards under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente Mario

    2015-01-01

    In addition, both positive effects of sprawl treatments (crop load and training system resulted in better yield and quality in Mediterranean semiarid conditions under the same inputs (sun, water and soil, causing higher efficiency of natural resources.

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix I: Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix discusses the work performed by the SOR Power Work Group. The Power Work Group (PWG) had several major responsibilities: first, to determine the effects of each of the various system operating strategies (SOS) on the Northwest regional power system; second, given these effects, to determine what, if any, actions are required to meet forecasted regional energy consumption; and finally, to estimate the cost for serving the forecasted regional energy consumption. The Northwest regional power system consists of Federal and non-Federal hydroelectric power projects (hydropower or hydro projects) on the main stem of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, numerous smaller hydro projects on other river reaches, and a number of thermal plants (coal, nuclear and combustion turbines)

  13. Radionuclides as natural tracers of the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the River Andarax, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Martinez, Francisco; Salas Garcia, Alejandro; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Baeza Espasa, Antonio; Molina Sánchez, Luis; Rodríguez Perulero, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The identification of specific aquifers that supply water to river systems is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the rivers' hydrochemistry, particularly in arid and semiarid environments where river flow may be discontinuous. There are multiple methods to identify the source of river water. In this study of the River Andarax, in the Southeast of Spain, an analysis of natural tracers (physico-chemical parameters, uranium, radium and radon) in surface water and groundwater indicates that chemical parameters and uranium clearly identify the areas where there is groundwater-surface water interaction. The concentration of uranium found in the river defines two areas: the headwaters with U concentrations of 2 μg L -1 and the lower reaches, with U of 6 μg L -1 . Furthermore, variation in the 234 U/ 238 U isotopic ratio allowed us to detect the influence that groundwater from the carbonate aquifer has on surface water in the headwaters of the river, where the saline content is lower and the water has a calcium bicarbonate facies. The concentration of 226 Ra and 222 Rn are low in the surface waters: aquifer on the surface waters. The results of this study indicate the utility in the use of physico-chemical and radiological data conjointly as tracers of groundwater-surface water interaction in semiarid areas where the lithology of aquifers is diverse (carbonate and detritic) and where evaporitic rocks are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  15. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Dalal, V.N

    Bromide was the subject of detailed investigation in the Mandovi Zuari river system and information was compiled on its spatial and temporal distribution. A simple mixture relation of Carpenter et. al. was applied and seawater percentage and bromide...

  16. Application of optimization technique for flood damage modeling in river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sangita Deb; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

    2018-04-01

    A river system is defined as a network of channels that drains different parts of a basin uniting downstream to form a common outflow. An application of various models found in literatures, to a river system having multiple upstream flows is not always straight forward, involves a lengthy procedure; and with non-availability of data sets model calibration and applications may become difficult. In the case of a river system the flow modeling can be simplified to a large extent if the channel network is replaced by an equivalent single channel. In the present work optimization model formulations based on equivalent flow and applications of the mixed integer programming based pre-emptive goal programming model in evaluating flood control alternatives for a real life river system in India are proposed to be covered in the study.

  17. Terrace system of the middle and lower Sázava River

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balatka, B.; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2006), s. 69-81 ISSN 1335-9541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fluvial terrace system * geomorphological evolution * Sázava River Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  19. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  20. Design of river height and speed monitoring system by using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siagian, E. C.; Tanjung, K.; Soeharwinto

    2018-02-01

    River is one part of the hydrologic cycle. Water in rivers is generally collected from precipitation, such as rain, dew, springs, underground runoff, and in certain countries also comes from melt ice/snow. The height and speed of water in a river is always changing. Changes in altitude and speed of water can affect the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will design a system to measure the altitude and speed of the river. In this work we use Arduino Uno, ultrasonic sensors and flow rate sensors. Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used as a river height meter. Based on the test results, this sensor has an accuracy of 96.6%.

  1. Sediment Transport Dynamic in a Meandering Fluvial System: Case Study of Chini River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, M. H. M.; Awang, S.; Shaaban, A. J.; Yahaya, N. K. E. M.; Jusoh, A. M.; Arumugam, M. A. R. M. A.; Ghani, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentation in river reduces the flood carrying capacity which lead to the increasing of inundation area in the river basin. Basic sediment transport can predict the fluvial processes in natural rivers and stream through modeling approaches. However, the sediment transport dynamic in a small meandering and low-lying fluvial system is considered scarce in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to analyze the current riverbed erosion and sedimentation scenarios along the Chini River, Pekan, Pahang. The present study revealed that silt and clay has potentially been eroded several parts of the river. Sinuosity index (1.98) indicates that Chini River is very unstable and continuous erosion process in waterways has increase the riverbank instability due to the meandering factors. The riverbed erosional and depositional process in the Chini River is a sluggish process since the lake reduces the flow velocity and causes the deposited particles into the silt and clay soil at the bed of the lake. Besides, the bed layer of the lake comprised of cohesive silt and clayey composition that tend to attach the larger grain size of sediment. The present study estimated the total sediment accumulated along the Chini River is 1.72 ton. The HEC-RAS was employed in the simulations and in general the model performed well, once all parameters were set within their effective ranges.

  2. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  3. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  4. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Climate-smart crop production in semi-arid areas through increased knowledge of varieties, environment and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    In large regions of sub-Saharan Africa, semi-arid conditions are likely to increase with climate change, yet these regions are becoming more important to feed production zones due to increasing population pressure. A production system in the semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe was studied to assess

  6. Analysis and evaluation of tillage on an alfisol in a semi-arid tropical region of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaij, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Tillage field experiments were conducted on Alfisols in a semi-arid tropical environment in India. The research was conducted within the framework of the Farming Systems Research Program of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).

    To put the

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  8. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot...

  9. Variability in the hydrology of the Ikpoba River system | Iloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variability in some physico-chemical parameters was studied in Ikpoba River from June to November, 2009, in three stations. The study shows high variability in transparency, flow velocity, BOD, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate with over 40% variability coefficient which is an indication that these parameters ...

  10. Hydrological Response of Semi-arid Degraded Catchments in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Daniel; Van Wesemael, Bas; Vanacker, Veerle; Hallet, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    To address water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid part of developing countries, accurate estimation of surface runoff is an essential task. In semi-arid catchments runoff data are scarce and therefore runoff estimation using hydrological models becomes an alternative. This research was initiated in order to characterize runoff response of semi-arid catchments in Tigray, North Ethiopia to evaluate SCS-CN for various catchments. Ten sub-catchments were selected in different river basins and rainfall and runoff were measured with automatic hydro-monitoring equipments for 2-3 years. The Curve Number was estimated for each Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) in the sub-catchments and runoff was modeled using the SCS-CN method at λ = 0.05 and λ = 0.20. The result showed a significant difference between the two abstraction ratios (P =0.05, df = 1, n= 132) and reasonable good result was obtained for predicted runoff at λ = 0.05 (NSE = -0.69; PBIAS = 18.1%). When using the CN values from literature runoff was overestimated compared to the measured value (e= -11.53). This research showed the importance of using measured runoff data to characterize semi-arid catchments and accurately estimate the scarce water resource. Key words: Hydrological response, rainfall-runoff, degraded environments, semi-arid, Ethiopia, Tigray

  11. River system recovery following the Novat-Rosu tailings dam failure, Maramures County, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela; Driga, Basarab; Zaharia, Sorin

    2008-01-01

    The River Viseu catchment in Maramures County, northwestern Romania, has a long history of base and precious metal mining. Between 1994 and 2003 waste from mining activity at Baia Borsa was stored in the Novat-Rosu tailings pond in the upper Viseu catchment. However, in March 2000, the tailings dam failed releasing approximately 100,000 m 3 of contaminated water and 20,000 t of mineral-rich solid waste, which was routed downstream through the Rivers Novat, Vaser and Viseu into the River Tisa. Following the accident metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in river water and river channel sediment were assessed in samples collected annually (July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003) from 29 sites in the Viseu catchment, downstream of the tailings pond. Additionally, the speciation of sediment-associated metals was established using a 4-stage sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and Pb isotope analysis ( 206/204 Pb and 207/204 Pb) was carried out to establish the provenance of contaminated sediments. Metal concentrations in river water were found to comply with EU directive 'target' values within four months of the failure. However, the impact of the spill upon river channel sediments was found to be much longer-lasting, with evidence of the delayed downstream remobilization of tailings stored within the narrow Novat valley following the dam failure, as well as continued inputs of contaminated sediment to the River Viseu from the River Tisla, another mining-affected tributary. Comparison with data from other recent tailings dam failures, indicates that river system recovery rates depend upon local geomorphological conditions, hydrological regimes, and the nature and scale of post-spill clean-up operations

  12. Season-ahead streamflow forecast informed tax strategies for semi-arid water rights markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    In many semi-arid regions multisectoral demands stress available water supplies. The Elqui River valley of north central Chile, which draws on limited capacity reservoirs supplied largely by annually variable snowmelt, is one of these cases. This variability forces water managers to develop demand-based allocation strategies which have typically resulted in water right volume reductions, applied equally per right. Compounding this issue is often deferred or delayed infrastructure investments, which has been linked Chile's Coasian approach to water markets, under which rights holders do not pay direct procurement costs, non-use fees, nor taxes. Here we build upon our previous research using forecasts of likely water rights reductions, informed by season-ahead prediction models of October-January (austral growing season) streamflow, to construct annual, forecast-sensitive, per right tax. We believe this tax, to be borne by right holders, will improve the beneficial use of water resources by stimulating water rights trading and improving system efficiency by generating funds for infrastructure investment, thereby reducing free-ridership and conflict between rights holders. Research outputs will include sectoral per right tax assessments, tax revenue generation, Elqui River valley economic output, and water rights trading activity.

  13. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  14. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  15. Model-Aided Altimeter-Based Water Level Forecasting System in Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, H.; Hossain, F.; Okeowo, M. A.; Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Hwang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mekong River, one of the massive river systems in the world, has drainage area of about 795,000 km2 covering six countries. People living in its drainage area highly rely on resources given by the river in terms of agriculture, fishery, and hydropower. Monitoring and forecasting the water level in a timely manner, is urgently needed over the Mekong River. Recently, using TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry water level measurements in India, Biancamaria et al. [2011] has demonstrated the capability of an altimeter-based flood forecasting system in Bangladesh, with RMSE from 0.6 - 0.8 m for lead times up to 5 days on 10-day basis due to T/P's repeat period. Hossain et al. [2013] further established a daily water level forecasting system in Bangladesh using observations from Jason-2 in India and HEC-RAS hydraulic model, with RMSE from 0.5 - 1.5 m and an underestimating mean bias of 0.25 - 1.25 m. However, such daily forecasting system relies on a collection of Jason-2 virtual stations (VSs) to ensure frequent sampling and data availability. Since the Mekong River is a meridional river with few number of VSs, the direct application of this system to the Mekong River becomes challenging. To address this problem, we propose a model-aided altimeter-based forecasting system. The discharge output by Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is used to reconstruct a daily water level product at upstream Jason-2 VSs based on the discharge-to-level rating curve. The reconstructed daily water level is then used to perform regression analysis with downstream in-situ water level to build regression models, which are used to forecast a daily water level. In the middle reach of the Mekong River from Nakhon Phanom to Kratie, a 3-day lead time forecasting can reach RMSE about 0.7 - 1.3 m with correlation coefficient around 0.95. For the lower reach of the Mekong River, the water flow becomes more complicated due to the reversal flow between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River

  16. A system-theory-based model for monthly river runoff forecasting: model calibration and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available River runoff is not only a crucial part of the global water cycle, but it is also an important source for hydropower and an essential element of water balance. This study presents a system-theory-based model for river runoff forecasting taking the Hailiutu River as a case study. The forecasting model, designed for the Hailiutu watershed, was calibrated and verified by long-term precipitation observation data and groundwater exploitation data from the study area. Additionally, frequency analysis, taken as an optimization technique, was applied to improve prediction accuracy. Following model optimization, the overall relative prediction errors are below 10%. The system-theory-based prediction model is applicable to river runoff forecasting, and following optimization by frequency analysis, the prediction error is acceptable.

  17. Hydrodynamic modeling of hydrologic surface connectivity within a coastal river-floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. R.; Guneralp, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic surface connectivity (HSC) within river-floodplain environments is a useful indicator of the overall health of riparian habitats because it allows connections amongst components/landforms of the riverine landscape system to be quantified. Overbank flows have traditionally been the focus for analyses concerned with river-floodplain connectivity, but recent works have identified the large significance from sub-bankfull streamflows. Through the use of morphometric analysis and a digital elevation model that is relative to the river water surface, we previously determined that >50% of the floodplain for Mission River on the Coastal Bend of Texas becomes connected to the river at streamflows well-below bankfull conditions. Guided by streamflow records, field-based inundation data, and morphometric analysis; we develop a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for lower portions of Mission River Floodplain system. This model not only allows us to analyze connections induced by surface water inundation, but also other aspects of the hydrologic connectivity concept such as exchanges of sediment and energy between the river and its floodplain. We also aggregate hydrodynamic model outputs to an object/landform level in order to analyze HSC and associated attributes using measures from graph/network theory. Combining physically-based hydrodynamic models with object-based and graph theoretical analyses allow river-floodplain connectivity to be quantified in a consistent manner with measures/indicators commonly used in landscape analysis. Analyzes similar to ours build towards the establishment of a formal framework for analyzing river-floodplain interaction that will ultimately serve to inform the management of riverine/floodplain environments.

  18. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  20. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  1. State Transitions in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.

  2. Application of the target fish community model to an urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixler, Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear

  3. Control options for river water quality improvement: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated. When a river is impacted by high rates of freshwater withdrawal (in its ...

  4. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  5. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS

  6. Environmental evaluation of Turkey's transboundary rivers' hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The hydroelectric power and potential environmental impacts of hydroelectric projects in 2 transboundary rivers in Turkey were assessed. The southeastern Anatolia project (GAP) is expected to encompass 27 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants. The large-scale project will increase domestic electricity production and help to provide irrigation for large agricultural schemes. The Coruh project will consist of 27 dams and hydroelectric power plants, which are expected to have serious environmental impacts in both upstream Turkey and downstream Georgia. A slowing down of each river's velocity will cause changes in sediment transport, while the storage of water in large reservoirs will alter water quality and cause changes in local micro-climates. Irrigation methods may cause soil erosion and salinization. The construction of 2 GAP dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has caused protest from Syria and Iraq. Economic development in the regions caused by the proposed hydroelectric projects is expected to have significant environmental impacts on woodland and grassland areas. The projects are expected to adversely affect threatened plant, mammal, and fish species. More detailed cumulative impact and environmental impact assessments are needed to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social problems that are likely to arise as a result of the projects. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  8. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  10. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  11. Controls on anastomosis in lowland river systems: Towards process-based solutions to habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Paweł; Grabowski, Robert C; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2017-12-31

    Anastomosing rivers were historically common around the world before extensive agricultural and industrial development in river valleys. Few lowland anastomosing rivers remain in temperate zones, and the protection of these river-floodplain systems is an international conservation priority. However, the mechanisms that drive the creation and maintenance of multiple channels, i.e. anabranches, are not well understood, particularly for lowland rivers, making it challenging to identify effective management strategies. This study uses a novel multi-scale, process-based hydro-geomorphological approach to investigate the natural and anthropogenic controls on anastomosis in lowland river reaches. Using a wide range of data (hydrologic, cartographic, remote-sensing, historical), the study (i) quantifies changes in the planform of the River Narew, Poland over the last 100years, (ii) documents changes in the natural and anthropogenic factors that could be driving the geomorphic change, and (iii) develops a conceptual model of the controls of anastomosis. The results show that 110km of anabranches have been lost from the Narew National Park (6810ha), a 42% reduction in total anabranch length since 1900. The rates of anabranch loss have increased as the number of pressures inhibiting anabranch creation and maintenance has multiplied. The cessation of localized water level and channel management (fishing dams, water mills and timber rafting), the loss of traditional floodplain activities (seasonal mowing) and infrastructure construction (embanked roads and an upstream dam) are contributing to low water levels and flows, the deposition of sediment at anabranch inlets, the encroachment of common reed (Phragmites australis), and the eventual loss of anabranches. By identifying the processes driving the loss of anabranches, this study provides transferable insights into the controls of anastomosis in lowland rivers and the management solutions needed to preserve the unique

  12. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Zehetner, F.; Fiebig, M.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Hein, T.; Hohensinner, S.; Hsu, P.; Jones, K.C.; Jordan, G.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded 'AquaTerra' project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. - Human activities have changed the hydraulics and contaminant fate in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  13. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1998-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Preliminary Characterization of Organic Geochemistry in the Fly-Strickland River System, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, S. R.; Aalto, R.; Remington, S. M.; Richey, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    The Fly-Strickland fluvial dispersal system comprises one of the largest river basins in tropical Oceania, ranking among the top 20 rivers in the world for water and sediment discharge. From the New Guinea highlands, these rivers flow >1000 km across lowland tropical floodplains to the Gulf of Papua, with an average annual depth of runoff 100 times that of the Amazon. Within the system, the Strickland has greater sediment discharge and a steeper gradient than the Fly, providing an opportunity to investigate biogeochemical differences associated with particulate flux. For eight lowland sites across the Fly-Strickland river system, we analyzed water and suspended sediment (SS) samples for an initial survey of various carbon cycle parameters. Both the Fly and Strickland Rivers were strongly supersaturated with carbon dioxide (2008-10,479 uatm CO2) and undersaturated with oxygen (1.10-5.48 mg/l O2), with the Fly having higher CO2 and lower O2 concentrations than the Strickland River. These pCO2 and O2 concentrations are comparable to and lower than (respectively) typical values in the Amazon. Measured Fly-Strickland alkalinity values fell in the range of 0.893-1.888 meq, and pH measurements were neutral to slightly alkaline (6.916-7.852). In a sample from a sediment-impoverished tributary from Lake Murray to the Strickland (Herbert R.), pH was neutral (7.060), and alkalinity and pCO2 had their lowest observed values at 0.234 meq and 1407 uatm, respectively. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in the Strickland ([NO3]=3.36+/-0.69 uM, [PO4]=0.09+/-0.10 uM, and [Si(OH)4]=176.6+/-41.7 uM) than in the Fly River ([NO3]=1.09+/-0.04 uM, [PO4]=0.01+/-0.01 uM, and [Si(OH)4]=110.6+/-4.8 uM). NO3 and PO4 concentrations in the Fly-Strickland river system were lower than in the Amazon, and silicate was comparable. SS concentrations were higher in the Strickland than in the Fly (49.4-231.1 mg/l vs. 19.5-59.6 mg/l). Coarse particulates were organic-poor in the Fly and

  16. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  17. Investigations of some regional river systems by INAA and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drazhkovich, R.J.; Kukoch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution of Zn, Hg, Sb, Cr, Fe, Sc and Co has been investigated in materials dissolved and suspended in the rivers Ibar, Zapadna Morava and Kamenica by means of INAA and X-ray fluorescence. Irradiation was made in VKG-channels of RA-nuclear reactor Vincha. Distribution coefficients were calculated, as well as contamination factors for investigated river regional systems in comparison to the uncontaminated water system. Data obtained indicate the possibility of utilization of these two analytical methods for investigation and control of biogeochemical and contamination processes in small regional water systems, especially important for modern studies in life sciences

  18. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  19. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river systemriver Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the treatment plant. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, surface runoff, and river water flow on the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity in the regulated river system by employing statistical analysis of an extensive data set. A six year long time series of daily mean values on precipitation, discharge, and turbidity from six stations along the river were examined primarily through linear correlation and regression analysis, combined with nonparametric tests and analysis of variance. The analyses were performed on annual, monthly, and daily bases, establishing temporal patterns and dependences, including; seasonal changes, impacts from extreme events, influences from tributaries, and the spatial variation along the river. The results showed that there is no simple relationship between discharge, precipitation, and turbidity, mainly due to the complexity of the runoff process, the regulation of the river, and the effects of Lake Vänern and its large catchment area. For the river Göta Älv, significant, positive correlations between turbidity, discharge, and precipitation could only be found during periods with high flow combined with heavy rainfall. Local precipitation does not seem to have any significant impact on the discharge in the main river, which is primarily governed by precipitation at catchment scale. The discharge from Lake Vänern determines the base level for the turbidity in the river

  20. Fine-Resolution Modeling of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins for Climate Change and Riparian System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Volo, T. J.; Rivera, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2011-12-01

    This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort aimed at understanding the impacts of climate variability and change on the ecological services provided by riparian ecosystems in semiarid watersheds of the southwestern United States. Valuing the environmental and recreational services provided by these ecosystems in the future requires a numerical simulation approach to estimate streamflow in ungauged tributaries as well as diffuse and direct recharge to groundwater basins. In this work, we utilize a distributed hydrologic model known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the upper Santa Cruz and San Pedro basins with the goal of generating simulated hydrological fields that will be coupled to a riparian groundwater model. With the distributed model, we will evaluate a set of climate change and population scenarios to quantify future conditions in these two river systems and their impacts on flood peaks, recharge events and low flows. Here, we present a model confidence building exercise based on high performance computing (HPC) runs of the tRIBS model in both basins during the period of 1990-2000. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available data across the US-Mexico border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely-sensed imagery and government databases. Meteorological forcing over the historical period is obtained from a combination of sparse ground networks and weather radar rainfall estimates. We then focus on a comparison between simulation runs using ground-based forcing to cases where the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to specify the historical conditions. Two spatial resolutions are considered from the WRF model fields - a coarse (35-km) and a downscaled (10- km) forcing. Comparisons will focus on the distribution of precipitation, soil moisture, runoff generation and recharge and assess the value of the WRF coarse and downscaled products. These results provide confidence in

  1. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in aquatic systems is subject to temporal and spatial variations due to varying effects of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study assessed the dynamics of water quality in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system along an upstream–downstream gradient above and below Maun during February, ...

  2. Transmission of climate, sea-level, and tectonic singals across river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forzoni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of climatic, tectonic, and sea-level changes (external forcing) on river systems (source-to-sink) and how these changes are recorded in the stratigraphic record. It describes a newly developed numerical tool (PaCMod) to simulate the complex fluvial system sediment

  3. Exploring earth system governance: A case study of floodplain management along the Tisza river in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Fachner, Z.; Matczak, P.; Falaleeva, M.; Leemans, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a recently proposed conceptualisation of ‘earth system governance’ by applying it to floodplain management in the Hungarian Tisza river basin. By doing so it aims to improve our understanding of governance systems facilitating adaptation to a changing world. The

  4. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  5. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J.; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams. PMID:28508078

  6. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  7. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  8. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  9. Selective degradation of ibuprofen and clofibric acid in two model river biofilm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M; Lawrence, J R; Neu, T R

    2001-09-01

    A field survey indicated that the Elbe and Saale Rivers were contaminated with both clofibric acid and ibuprofen. In Elbe River water we could detect the metabolite hydroxy-ibuprofen. Analyses of the city of Saskatoon sewage effluent discharged to the South Saskatchewan river detected clofibric acid but neither ibuprofen nor any metabolite. Laboratory studies indicated that the pharmaceutical ibuprofen was readily degraded in a river biofilm reactor. Two metabolites were detected and identified as hydroxy- and carboxy-ibuprofen. Both metabolites were observed to degrade in the biofilm reactors. However, in human metabolism the metabolite carboxy-ibuprofen appears and degrades second whereas the opposite occurs in biofilm systems. In biofilms the pharmacologically inactive stereoisomere of ibuprofen is degraded predominantly. In contrast, clofibric acid was not biologically degraded during the experimental period of 21 days. Similar results were obtained using biofilms developed using waters from either the South Saskatchewan or Elbe River. In a sterile reactor no losses of ibuprofen were observed. These results suggested that abiotic losses and adsorption played only a minimal role in the fate of the pharmaceuticals in the river biofilm reactors.

  10. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN -TRANSFORMED SYSTEMS OF THE IRPIN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to learn the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors and their consequences in the system “Natural environment (Irpin river – human-transformed environment (Nyvka river”. Methods: To assess the structural and functional changes of hydroecosystems, transformed under technogenic impact, hydrochemical, toxicological and biological techniques, as well as the methods of mathematical statistics for experimental data processing and summarization of obtained results, were applied. Results: it is proposed to determine the dynamics of the biotic self-regulation mechanism change under impact of the modifying (anthropogenic factors, by the example of the two-component system – “Natural environment (Irpin River – environment, transformed under technogenic impact (Nyvka River, the right-hand tributary of the Irpin River”. It is proposed to extend additionally the opportunities of the ecological assessment due to application of the integrating index – the index of ecological conformity. Discussion: obtained results stipulate necessity of the further investigation of structural and functional patterns of the Irpin River ecosystem in space and time. Assessment of anthropogenic factors impact on hydroecosystem condition will make it possible to correct the nature guard activity concerning the improvement of the fishery object ecological condition and recreation essence of the Irpin River. Integration of the Nyvka and Irpin Rivers into a single system “Natural environment – environment, transformed under technogenic impact” will make it possible to obtain the objective assessment of technogenic changes in hydroecosystems. Implementation of the index of ecological conformity will make it possible to estimate completely the inner processes in the rivers.

  11. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  12. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  13. Nitrogen Leaching in Intensive Cropping Systems in Tam Duong District, Red River Delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, M.V.; Keulen, van, H.; Roetter, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of nitrogen (N) lost in rice-based systems in Vietnam is important but has not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of N lost in major cropping systems in the Red River Delta. An experiment was conducted in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, on five different crops including rose, daisy, cabbage, chili, and a rice–rice–maize rotation during 2004 and 2005. Core soil samples were taken periodically in 20-cm inc...

  14. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  15. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water...Zhonglong Zhang and Billy E. Johnson September 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research...and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and

  16. Organic fuels for respiration in tropical river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.; Krusche, A. V.; Medeiros, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed-derived organic matter is thought to provide anywhere from 30-90% of the organic matter in rivers (e.g. Hernes et al 2008; Spencer et al 2010). The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Combined, they represent as much as 80% of the biomass in a typical forest and as much as 60% of the biomass in a typical field (natural or crop)(Bose et al 2009; Bridgeman et al., 2007; Hu and Zu 2006; Martens et al 2004). They are often assumed to be refractory and hard to degrade, but this assumption is at odds with virtually all observations: soils and marine sediments are not accumulating vast amounts of these compounds (Hedges and Oades, 1997), and degradation experiments suggest that cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are reactive and likely to be important fuels for respiration (Benner, 1991; Haddad et al, 1992; Dittmar et al, 2001; Otto and Simpson, 2006). During several trips to the lower Amazon River, incubation experiments were performed in which the biological degradation of lignin phenols was observed in order to assess the contribution of microbial respiration of terrestrially-derived macromolecules to gross respiration and CO2 gas evasion rates. Both particulate and dissolved lignin concentrations decreased by ~40% after being incubated in the dark for 5-7 days, indicating a turnover time of the entire lignin pool of 12-18 days. These results shift the paradigm that lignocellulose derived OM is highly recalcitrant, and indicate that microbial respiration of lignocellulose may play a larger role in total respiration rates/CO2 outgassing than previously thought. A simple mass balance calculation was done to test whether microbial degradation alone could explain the lignin data observed in the field. First, a theoretical particulate lignin concentration for Macapa was calculated based on the observed data at Obidos. The measured rate of particulate lignin degradation was multiplied by the transit time of water from

  17. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  18. Protected River. A new concept for conservation management of fluvial systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade; German I

    2011-01-01

    Based upon the concept of Ecological Integrity, relevant geophysical, bio- ecological and social attributes for river systems area identified. It is argued that current conservation and environmental management instruments in Colombia, do not take into account the identified IE attributes simultaneously. The concept of Protected River, PR, is then presented, as a necessary complement for conservation strategies. The PR concept would be defined for the maintenance of the attributes of EI in some representative river systems, as a part of the biodiversity conservation objectives within the Convention of Biological Diversity. Some attributes and indicators, and thresholds of undesired change are discussed. A typology for PR is proposed, following the international protected area management categories.

  19. A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Borsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study. Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet, visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

  20. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  1. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  2. Application of Science-Based Restoration Planning to a Desert River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  3. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  4. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Shi, Chao-Hong; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2012-04-01

    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy. In this study, the novel, simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing, China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO4(2-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) and the cations such as Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions, and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+-form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3(-)-alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions. According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent concentrations of anions and cations, the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system. As a result, the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  5. Consideration upon the River system in the north of the Suceava tableland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu OPREA-GANCEVICI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paleoevolution of the river system in the Moldavian Tableland has undergone at a theoretical level two successive hypothetical directions. The former direction, formulated in the first half of the XXth century, alleges the existence of a river system, with a transverse character, that prolonged to the east the Carpathian river systems. Specialists of this theory, Tufescu V. (1932, M. David (1933, quoted by V. Bacauanu - 1973 and Gheorghe Nastase (1946, quoted by V. Bacauanu - 1973 based their design on the presence of horizons of gravels with Carpathian elements on some interfluves to the east of the Siret valley, and the existence of some saddles, Loznica, Bucecea and Ruginoasa, located on the left side of the same river. The latter direction, diametrically opposite, supports the idea of evolution of the river system consecutively with the Sarmato-Pliocene Sea pulling back to the south. The hypothesis is supported and substantiated by I. Sîrcu (1955, C. Martiniuc and V. Bacauanu (1960, V. Bacauanu (1968, 1973. In this context it is considered that the Prut and Siret rivers carved the oldest valleys in the tableland. The authors explain the erosional genesis of the saddles arguing their inability to create transversal rivers on the basis of continuity upstream and downstream the saddles of terrace levels with relatively high altitudes, which proves the flow continuity on consequent valleys. The research carried out along the Suceava river valley and the immediate interstream area in order to create a scenario of the valley paleoevolution highlighted the presence of crystalline lithotopes in the petrographic structure of the accumulation deposits. The presence of such petrographic elements contradicts the present-day alluvia sources of the rivers that could have transported them:  Suceava or its tributaries Solonet, Ilisasca, Scheia. The rivers spring either from the Carpathian flysch or from the former area of platform sedimentation. We

  6. Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in a Subtropical River-Reservoir System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic pollutions in the aquatic environment have attracted widespread attention due to their ubiquitous distribution and antibacterial properties. The occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk assessment of 17 common antibiotics in this study were preformed in a vital drinking water source represented as a river-reservoir system in South China. In general, 15 antibiotics were detected at least once in the watershed, with the total concentrations of antibiotics in the water samples ranging from 193.6 to 863.3 ng/L and 115.1 to 278.2 μg/kg in the sediment samples. For the water samples, higher rain runoff may contribute to the levels of total concentration in the river system, while perennial anthropic activity associated with the usage pattern of antibiotics may be an important factor determining similar sources and release mechanisms of antibiotics in the riparian environment. Meanwhile, the reservoir system could act as a stable reactor to influence the level and composition of antibiotics exported from the river system. For the sediment samples, hydrological factor in the reservoir may influence the antibiotic distributions along with seasonal variation. Ecological risk assessment revealed that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin could pose high risks in the aquatic environment. Taken together, further investigations should be performed to elaborate the environmental behaviors of antibiotics in the river-reservoir system, especially in drinking water sources.

  7. Ancient Soils in a Sunburnt Country: Nutrient and Carbon Distributions in an Australian Dryland River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, R. E.; Grierson, P. F.; Adams, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Riparian systems are hotspots in dryland landscapes for nutrient supply and transformation. Biogeochemical fluxes in riparian systems are closely coupled to hydrological flowpaths, which, in dryland regions, are characterised by catastrophic flooding and long periods of erratic or no flow. Re-wetting of soils stimulates soil microbial processes that drive mineralization of nutrients necessary for plant growth. We present here the first data of a 3-year research project investigating biogeochemical processes in riparian systems in the semi-arid Pilbara region of Western Australia. Spatial patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon were closely related to topographic zone (across floodplain and channels) and vegetation type. NO3- and PCi concentrations were four-fold higher in channel, bank and riparian soils than in soils of floodplain and riparian-floodplain transition zones. Nitrogen distribution was highly heterogeneous in riparian soils (NO3- CV=102%, NH4+ CV=84%) while phosphorus was particularly heterogeneous in floodplain soils (PCi CV=153%, PCo CV=266%), in comparison to other zones. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and enzymatic profiles will be used to assess microbial functional groups, combined with mineralisation experiments and stable isotope studies (15N and 13C). These data will improve understanding of biogeochemical cycling in dryland riparian systems, and contribute to improved regional management of water resources.

  8. Climate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Bohn, Theodore J.; Solander, Kurt; McDowell, Nathan G.; Xu, Chonggang; Vivoni, Enrique; Middleton, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated climate change and associated forest disturbances in the southwestern USA are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources. Few studies have quantified the impact of both climate change and land cover disturbances on water balances on the basin scale, and none on the regional scale. In this work, we evaluate the impacts of forest disturbances and climate change on a headwater basin to the Colorado River, the San Juan River watershed, using a robustly calibrated (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency 0.76) hydrologic model run with updated formulations that improve estimates of evapotranspiration for semi-arid regions. Our results show that future disturbances will have a substantial impact on streamflow with implications for water resource management. Our findings are in contradiction with conventional thinking that forest disturbances reduce evapotranspiration and increase streamflow. In this study, annual average regional streamflow under the coupled climate-disturbance scenarios is at least 6-11 % lower than those scenarios accounting for climate change alone; for forested zones of the San Juan River basin, streamflow is 15-21 % lower. The monthly signals of altered streamflow point to an emergent streamflow pattern related to changes in forests of the disturbed systems. Exacerbated reductions of mean and low flows under disturbance scenarios indicate a high risk of low water availability for forested headwater systems of the Colorado River basin. These findings also indicate that explicit representation of land cover disturbances is required in modeling efforts that consider the impact of climate change on water resources.

  9. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) through the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Richard N.; Burnett, William C.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Santos, Isaac R.; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ( 228 Ra and 226 Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ( 40 K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  10. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  11. A study of radionuclide dispersion by river systems, using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghuis, Sander; Brown, Justin; Steenhuisen, Frits; Skorve, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    The Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, is situated on the banks of the Yenisey river. The combine consists of three RBMK-type graphite moderate reactors, a reprocessing plant for the production of weapons-grade plutonium and storage facilities for nuclear waste. Discharges of radionuclides into the Yenisey river were either part of normal operation procedures or caused by accidental releases (Strand et al., 1997). So far, little is known about the transport and fate of the radioactive contaminants in the areas downstream of the Krasnoyarsk CC that are influenced by the Yenisey river system. Aim is to comprehend the dispersion of radionuclides through the river system. Remotely sensed and field study information are combined in a geographical information system (GIS) to study the processes leading to the dispersion of sediment-bound radionuclides carried by the river system. Since the extent of the study area is several thousands or kilometres of river and adjacent flood plains, use is made of a record of remotely sensed (satellite) images that are handled by the GIS. Panchromatic, high resolution satellite images as well as multispectral Landsat MSS and TM images were compiled for the area of interest. The panchromatic images were taken in a period during which the facility was in operation (1960-1972) and obtained for intervals of circa 6 months. A time series of satellite images enables the identification of erosion and sedimentation zones. The behaviour and fate of particle-reactive radionuclides, e.g. 239,240 Pu and to large extent 137 Cs, will be closely related to the movement of sediment. With respect to the behaviour and fate of more conservative radionuclides as 90 Sr, information is required accounting for fractionation between the particulate and aqueous phases. Stereo images are used to comprehend the geomorphology of the Yenisey river systems, focused on classification of sedimentary deposits. Landsat MSS and TM with five

  12. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  13. Thermal insulation system design and fabrication specification (nuclear) for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This specification defines the design, analysis, fabrication, testing, shipping, and quality requirements of the Insulation System for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Insulation System includes all supports, convection barriers, jacketing, insulation, penetrations, fasteners, or other insulation support material or devices required to insulate the piping and equipment cryogenic and other special applications excluded. Site storage, handling and installation of the Insulation System are under the cognizance of the Purchaser

  14. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  15. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  16. Classification of nutrient emission sources in the Vistula River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the chemometric approach to the classification of nutrient emission with respect to the regionalisation of emission sources within the Vistula River basin (Poland). Modelled data for mean yearly emission of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1991-2000 has been used for the classification. Seventeen subcatchements in the Vistula basin have been classified according to cluster and factor analyses. The results of this analysis allowed determination of groups of areas with similar pollution characteristics and indicate the need for spatial differentiation of policies and strategies. Three major factors indicating urban, erosion and agricultural sources have been identified as major discriminants of the groups. - Two classification methods applied to evaluate the results of nutrient emission allow definition of major sources of the emissions and classification of catchments with similar pollution.

  17. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Vaz

    Full Text Available Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey, currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%. An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  18. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  19. Ichtyocoenosis of a section of the Jihlava river influenced by the Dukovany-Dalesice power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaz, M.; Wohlgemuth, E.

    1990-01-01

    The impact was investigated of the construction and operation of a hydropower station with two deep valley reservoirs and subsequently of a nuclear power station whose water management is closely associated with the river ecosystem, upon the ichthyocoenosis of the downstream river section. The initial quantitative and species composition of the ichthyocoenosis, being descriptive for the barbel zone community, changed into the community of the salmonid type, characteristic of the trout and grayling zones. This process was spontaneous as well as caused by the activity of fish management. The development of fishery catches in the past 30 years and their changes due to the operation of the power system are also analyzed in detail. After a temporary decrease, the annual mean fishery yields improved significantly in the affected river section, not only in their absolute weights but also in terms of the sport and market value of the fish caught. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  20. Bioaccumulation of polonium-210 in fish of the Kaveri river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheed, K.; Shahul Hameed, P.; Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Concentration of naturally occurring radioactive nuclide polonium-210 was determined in selected species of fish from the Kaveri river system at Tiruchirappalli. It is shown that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within these fishes. Concentrations of 210 Po in the muscle of fish ranged from 3.3 to 8.2 Bq/kg (wet weight). Concentration factors of Po 210 in edible portion of fish from river water worked out to be 2.5 x 10 3 to 6.3 x 10 3 . Radiation dose to public due to consumption of fish from the Kaveri river varied from 5.1 to 27.3 μSv/y. The results have implications that fish represents an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  2. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate ..... active type of surveillance.14 Nonetheless, it requires training, supervision and motivation ... very effectively.14 The introduction of reward-system could be included.

  3. The photovoltaic solar technology in a semi-arid Piaui region: case study; A tecnologia solar fotovoltaica no semi-arido piauiense: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Trigoso, Federico B. Morante [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The following work has as objective to present some results of a research of field carried through in the Piaui semi-arid region that it aimed at to verify the use of the photovoltaic solar technology. For this six questionnaires in three rural communities of three municipal territories of the State in the valley of the river Caninde had been applied. It was verified that due to lack of maintenance of these systems good part of them left to still function in the first years of its installation. Although this almost all the interviewed ones had revealed signal of approval to the electric energy proceeding from these systems for the community use, however they had questioned the lack of maintenance of these and had revealed interested in possessing access in its residences of this so important good is useful, the electricity. (author)

  4. Functional safeguards for computers for protection systems for Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritz, W.R.

    1977-06-01

    Reactors at the Savannah River Plant have recently been equipped with a ''safety computer'' system. This system utilizes dual digital computers in a primary protection system that monitors individual fuel assembly coolant flow and temperature. The design basis for the (SRP safety) computer systems allowed for eventual failure of any input sensor or any computer component. These systems are routinely used by reactor operators with a minimum of training in computer technology. The hardware configuration and software design therefore contain safeguards so that both hardware and human failures do not cause significant loss of reactor protection. The performance of the system to date is described

  5. Sediment Buffering and Transport in the Holocene Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Henstock, T.; Tabrez, A. R.; Vanlaningham, S.; Alizai, A. H.; Limmer, D. R.; Danish, M.

    2009-12-01

    Submarine fans are the largest sediment bodies on Earth and potentially hold records of erosion that could be used to assess the response of continents to changing climate in terms of both physical erosion and chemical weathering. However, buffering between the mountain sources and the abyssal plain may make detailed correlation of climate and erosion records difficult. We investigated the nature of sediment transport in the Indus drainage in SW Asia. Through trenching in the flood plain, drilling in the delta and new seismic and coring data from the shelf and canyon we can now constrain sediment transport from source to sink since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Indus was affected by intensification of the summer monsoon during the Early Holocene and subsequent weakening since ca. 8 ka. Sediment delivery to the delta was very rapid at 12-8 ka, but slowed along with the weakening monsoon. At the LGM erosion in the Karakoram dominated the supply of sandy material, while the proportion of Lesser Himalayan flux increased with strengthening summer rainfall after 12 ka. Total load also increased at that time. Since 5 ka incision of rivers into the upper parts of the flood plain has reworked Lower Holocene sediments, although the total flux slowed. Coring in the Indus canyon shows that sediment has not reached the lower canyon since ca. 7 ka, but that sedimentation has recently been very rapid in the head of the canyon. We conclude that variations in sealevel and terrestrial climate have introduced a lag of at least 7 k.y. into the deep sea fan record and that monsoon strength is a primary control on whether sediment is stored or released in the flood plain.

  6. Imaging beneath the skin of large tropical rivers: System morphodynamics of the Fly and Beni Rivers revealed by novel sub-surface sonar, deep coring, and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Grenfell, M.; Lauer, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers dominate Earth's fluvial fluxes for water, carbon, and mineral sediment. They are characterized by large channels and floodplains, old system histories, prolonged periods of flooding, and a clay-dominated sediment flux. However, the underlying bed & floodplain strata are poorly understood. Available data commonly stem from skin-deep approaches such as GIS analysis of imagery, shallow sampling & topographic profiling during lower river stages. Given the large temporal & spatial scales, new approaches are needed to see below lag deposits on mobile sandy beds & deep into expansive floodbasins. Furthermore, such data are needed to test whether we can interpret large tropical river morphology using analogies to small temperate systems. Systems in a dynamic state of response to sea level rise or an increase/contrast in sediment load would provide especially valuable insight. Last August we conducted a field campaign along the Fly and Strickland Rivers in Papua New Guinea (discharge ~5,350 CMS) and this September we investigated the Beni River in Northern Bolivia (discharge ~3,500 CMS). Results were obtained using a novel measurement method: a high-power (>4kW) dual-frequency SyQwest sub-bottom profiler customized to best image 10-20m below the river/lake bed in shallow water. We were able to distinguish sandy deposits from harder clay and silt lenses and also collected bed grab samples to verify our sonar results. Deep borehole samples (5-15m), bank samples, and push cores confirmed observations from the sonar profiling. We simultaneously collected side-scan sonar imagery plus DGPS records of water/bed elevations that could be used to parameterize numerical models. We have now analyzed these results in some detail. Findings for the Fly River include: 1) The prevalence of hard clay beneath the bed of the Lower Fly River and many locations along the Strickland River, retarding migration; 2) Unusual bed morphology along the lower Middle Fly River, where the

  7. INFLUENCE OF SEMIARID SUMMER BROWSING ON CHEMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Puga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A group (A of 20 female French Alpine goats (50 ± 5 Kg BW were fed on summer semiarid vegetation in Querétaro, México. Other group (B with similar characteristic was fed in full confinement with Lucerne hay and concentrate of cereals. Four kids of cheese were prepared: 1 browsed-raw (BR, 2 browsed-pasteurized (BP, 3 indoor-raw (IR and 4 indoor-pasteurized (IP; using 30 kg of milk per group, 15 kg each group were proceed in raw and 15 kg each were pasteurized. Moisture, energy, protein, ash, lipids, cholesterol, fatty acids profile and CLA were determined in the cheeses; the results were analyzed with a variance analysis in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Energy, fat and ash did not affect for feeding system and heat treatment. Protein content was higher in IP cheese compared with BR and BP cheeses. BR cheese had a lowest cholesterol value in relation to BP, IR and IP cheeses. The browed cheeses had the highest concentration of CLA, EPA and DHA acids in relation to indoor cheeses. Pasteurization did not have effect in cheese quality. Browsing increased concentration of compounds with a beneficial effect on human health, factor that could add revenue to the small farmer’s income.

  8. Perdas de solo e de água em sistemas de captação in situ no Semi-Árido brasileiro Soil and water losses in situ water harvesting systems in the brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza T. L. Brito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados no semi-árido brasileiro apresentam riscos de perda devido à irregularidade das chuvas, devendo-se associá-los a práticas que propiciem maior infiltração e, conseqüentemente, menor erosão, o que pode ser obtido por meio de técnicas de captação de água de chuva in situ. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de água e de solo em área cultivada com milho (Zea mays L., submetida a diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, correspondendo aos tratamentos Guimarães Duque (T1; aração profunda (T2; aração parcial (T3 e sulcos barrados (T4, comparados com o sistema tradicional (T5, que corresponde ao plantio sem preparo do solo. Após cada evento de chuva, a água e o solo escoados foram coletados e medidos. A umidade do solo em diferentes profundidades foi monitorada durante o ciclo de produção da cultura e avaliada a produtividade dos grãos por meio da análise de variância. A partir dos resultados, pode-se observar que o método Guimarães Duque (T1 proporcionou maiores perdas de água (6.696 L e de solo (15.225 kg ha-1, enquanto as menores perdas foram obtidas com os sulcos barrados (T4, correspondendo a 1.066 L e 1.022 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Nesse tratamento (T4, também foi obtida a maior produtividade de grãos (606 kg ha-1, apresentando-se como o sistema mais indicado para as condições analisadas.The cropping systems used in the Brazilian semi-arid show risks of losses due to irregularity of rainfall, requiring the use of practices which produce higher water infiltration and, as a consequence, lower soil erosion, which can be obtained through in situ rainwater harvest techniques. This study had the objective of evaluating soil and water losses in a corn (Zea mays L. area subjected to different soil preparation systems: Guimarães Duque (T1, deep plowing (T2, partial plowing (T3, and furrows with barriers (T4, compared to the traditional system (T5, i.e., plain planting

  9. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  10. Integrated forecast system atmospheric - hydrologic - hydraulic for the Urubamba river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, L [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru); Carrillo, M; Diaz, A; Coronado, J; Fano, G [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: During the months of December to March, Peru is affected by intense precipitations which generate every year land slides and floods mainly in low and middle river basins of the western and Eastern of the Andes, places that exhibit the greatest number of population and productive activities. These extreme events are favored by the steep slopes that characterize the Peruvian topography. For this reason at the end of year 2000, SENAMHI began the design of a monitoring, analysis and forecast system, that had the capacity to predict the occurrence of adverse events on the low and middle river basins of the main rivers such as Piura river in the north of Peru and the Rimac river in the capital of the country. The success of this system opened the possibilities of developing similar systems throughout the country and extend to different users or sectors such as: energy, water management, river transport, etc. An example of a solution prepared for a user (the gas extraction company Pluspetrol) was the implementation of a river level forecasting system in the Urubamba river to support river navigation in this amazonic river where water level variability turns risky the navigation during the dry season. The Urubamba catchment higher altitudes are famous because of the presence of the Machupicchu ancient city, downslope this city is characterized by the Amazon rainforest with scarce observation stations for water level and rainfall. A very challenging modelling and operational hydrology enterprise was developed. The system implemented for the Urubamba river consist on running the atmospheric part of the global climate model CCM3, this model inputs Sea Surface Temperature forecasts from NCEP-NOAA. The global model was set on a T42 (300 km) grid resolution, this information was used as initial and boundary conditions for the regional model RAMS which provided a downscaled 20 Km grid resolution having as results daily precipitation forecasts. Besides the global

  11. Integrated forecast system atmospheric-hydrologic-hydraulic for the Urubamba River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, L; Carrillo, M; Diaz, A; Coronado, J; Fano, G [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru)

    2006-02-15

    Full text: During the months of December to March, Peru is affected by intense precipitations which generate every year land slides and floods mainly in low and middle river basins of the western and Eastern of the Andes, places that exhibit the greatest number of population and productive activities. These extreme events are favored by the steep slopes that characterize the Peruvian topography. For this reason at the end of year 2000, SENAMHI began the design of a monitoring, analysis and forecast system, that had the capacity to predict the occurrence of adverse events on the low and middle river basins of the main rivers such as Piura river in the north of Peru and the Rimac river in the capital of the country. The success of this system opened the possibilities of developing similar systems throughout the country and extend to different users or sectors such as: energy, water management, river transport, etc. An example of a solution prepared for a user (the gas extraction company Pluspetrol) was the implementation of a river level forecasting system in the Urubamba river to support river navigation in this amazonic river where water level variability turns risky the navigation during the dry season. The Urubamba catchment higher altitudes are famous because of the presence of the Machupicchu ancient city, downslope this city is characterized by the Amazon rainforest with scarce observation stations for water level and rainfall. A very challenging modelling and operational hydrology enterprise was developed. The system implemented for the Urubamba river consist on running the atmospheric part of the global climate model CCM3, this model inputs Sea Surface Temperature forecasts from NCEP-NOAA. The global model was set on a T42 (300 km) grid resolution, this information was used as initial and boundary conditions for the regional model RAMS which provided a downscaled 20 Km grid resolution having as results daily precipitation forecasts. Besides the global

  12. Application of a Sediment Information System to the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyou; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Li, Changzhi

    Based on survey and analysis of a huge number of observed entrance sediment transport data and the research results of physical and numerical modeling of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Yangtze River, a sediment information system was designed. The basis of this system includes spatial data and properties of geographic elements, and various documents involved to the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Database and knowledge base are constructed as the information bank. The running environment is constructed by the general control program to realize requirements about various sediment information. The system chooses the window software as the system software. The techniques of graphical user interfaces and groupware geographic information system are applied in this system. In this phase, the emphases of the system are development of document system, map system, and presentation system. Cross-section system of the TGP was also attached. For further improvement of the system, a prepared interface of decision supporting subsystem is finished.

  13. Savannah River Plant's Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) (Nuclear materials inventory control)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) is a new computer inventory control system for nuclear materials at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The system has two major components, inventory files and system parameter files. AIMS, part of the overall safeguards program, maintains an up-to-date record of nuclear material by location, produces reports required by ERDA in addition to onplant reports, and is capable of a wide range of response to changing input/output requirements through use of user-prepared parameter cards, as opposed to basic system reprogramming

  14. Measuring Paleolandscape Relief in Alluvial River Systems from the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, E. A.; Trampush, S. M.; Chamberlin, E.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aggradational alluvial river systems sometimes generate relief in the vicinity of their channel belts (i.e. alluvial ridges) and it has been proposed that this process may define important thresholds in river avulsion. The compensation scale can be used to estimate the maximum relief across a landscape and can be connected to the maximum scale of autogenic organization in experimental and numerical systems. Here we use the compensation scale - measured from outcrops of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene fluvial deposits - to estimate the maximum relief that characterized ancient fluvial landscapes. In some cases, the compensation scale significantly exceeds the maximum channel depth observed in a deposit, suggesting that aggradational alluvial systems organize to sustain more relief than might be expected by looking only in the immediate vicinity of the active channel belt. Instead, these results indicate that in some systems, positive topographic relief generated by multiple alluvial ridge complexes and/or large-scale fan features may be associated with landscape-scale autogenic organization of channel networks that spans multiple cycles of channel avulsion. We compare channel and floodplain sedimentation patterns among the studied ancient fluvial systems in an effort to determine whether avulsion style, channel migration, or floodplain conditions influenced the maximum autogenic relief of ancient landscapes. Our results emphasize that alluvial channel networks may be organized at much larger spatial and temporal scales than previously realized and provide an avenue for understanding which types of river systems are likely to exhibit the largest range of autogenic dynamics.

  15. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Alexander I. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: nikitin@typhoon.obninsk.ru; Chumichev, Vladimir B. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Valetova, Nailia K. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Katrich, Ivan Yu. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Kabanov, Alexander I. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Dunaev, Gennady E. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Shkuro, Valentina N. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Rodin, Victor M. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation); Mironenko, Alexander N. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation); Kireeva, Elena V. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    Data on content of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 3}H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 3}H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by {sup 90}Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence.

  16. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Alexander I.; Chumichev, Vladimir B.; Valetova, Nailia K.; Katrich, Ivan Yu.; Kabanov, Alexander I.; Dunaev, Gennady E.; Shkuro, Valentina N.; Rodin, Victor M.; Mironenko, Alexander N.; Kireeva, Elena V.

    2007-01-01

    Data on content of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and 3 H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 3 H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by 90 Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence

  17. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  18. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  19. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  20. Implementation of Environmental Flows for Intermittent River Systems: Adaptive Management and Stakeholder Participation Facilitate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conallin, John; Wilson, Emma; Campbell, Josh

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pressure on freshwater ecosystems is increasing, and often leading to unacceptable social-ecological outcomes. This is even more prevalent in intermittent river systems where many are already heavily modified, or human encroachment is increasing. Although adaptive management approaches have the potential to aid in providing the framework to consider the complexities of intermittent river systems and improve utility within the management of these systems, success has been variable. This paper looks at the application of an adaptive management pilot project within an environmental flows program in an intermittent stream (Tuppal Creek) in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. The program focused on stakeholder involvement, participatory decision-making, and simple monitoring as the basis of an adaptive management approach. The approach found that by building trust and ownership through concentrating on inclusiveness and transparency, partnerships between government agencies and landholders were developed. This facilitated a willingness to accept greater risks and unintended consequences allowing implementation to occur.

  1. Simple Words and Fuzzy Zones: Early Directions for Temporary River Research in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys; O'Keeffe

    1997-07-01

    / Although a large proportion of South Africa's rivers are nonperennial, ecological research into these systems has only recently been initiated. Consequently, we have little verified information about the ecological functioning of these rivers or knowledge of how best to manage them. High water demands in a semiarid region results in the flow of most perennial rivers being altered from permanent to temporary in sections, through impoundment, land-use changes, abstraction, etc. Conversely, sections of many temporary rivers are altered to perennial as a result of interbasin transfers or may be exploited for surface water. Effective and appropriate management of these modifications must be based on sound scientific information, which requires intensified, directed research. We anticipate that temporary river research in South Africa will, of necessity, be driven primarily by short-term collaborative efforts and secondarily by long-term ecological studies. At the outset, a simple conceptual framework is required to encourage an appreciation of current views of the spatial and temporal dynamics of nonperennial rivers and of the variability and unpredictability that characterize these systems. We adopt the view that perennial and episodic/ephemeral rivers represent either end of a continuum, separated by a suite of intermediate flow regimes. A conceptual diagram of this continuum is presented. In the absence of a functional classification for temporary rivers, a descriptive terminology has been systematically devised in an attempt to standardize definition of the different types of river regimes encountered in the country. Present terminology lacks structure and commonly accepted working definitions. KEY WORDS: Temporary rivers; Intermittent rivers; Continuum; Terminology; Classification; Ecosystem management; South Africa

  2. 3. A 40-years record of the polymetallic pollution of the Lot River system, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audry, S.; Schäfer, J.; Blanc, G.; Veschambre, S.; Jouanneau, J.-M.

    2003-04-01

    The Lot River system (southwest France) is known for historic Zn and Cd pollution that originates from Zn ore treatment in the small Riou-Mort watershed and affects seafood production in the Gironde Estuary. We present a sedimentary record from 2 cores taken in a dam lake downstream of the Riou-Mort watershed covering the evolution of metal inputs into the Lot River over the past 40 years (1960-2001). Depth profiles of Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations are comparable indicating common sources and transport. The constant Zn/Cd ratio (˜50) observed in the sediment cores is similar to that in SPM from the Riou-Mort watershed, indicating the dominance of point source pollution upon the geochemical background signal. Cadmium, Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations in the studied sediment cores show an important peak in 42-44 cm depth with up to 300 mg.kg-1 (Cd), 10,000 mg.kg-1 (Zn), 150 mg.kg-1 (Cu) and 930 mg.kg-1 (Pb). These concentrations are much higher than geochemical background values; For example, Cd concentrations are more than 350-fold higher than those measured in the same riverbed upstream the confluence with the Riou-Mort River. This peak coincides with the upper 137Cs peak resulting from the Chernobyl accident (1986). Therefore, this heavy metal peak is attributed to the latest accidental Cd pollution of the Lot-River in 1986. Several downward heavy metal peaks reflect varying input probably due to changes in industrial activities within the Riou-Mort watershed. Given mean sedimentation rate of about 2 cm.yr-1, the record suggests constant and much lower heavy metal concentrations since the early nineties due to restriction of industrial activities and remediation efforts in the Riou-Mort watershed. Nevertheless, Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations in the upper sediment remain high, compared to background values from reference sites in the upper Lot River system.

  3. Occurrences of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) in the Pearl River Estuary (China), a large river-groundwater-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Xiqian; Zhai, Weidong; Dai, Minhan; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2012-12-01

    This study for the first time examined dissolved metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) together with dissolved oxygen and carbonate system in the whole Pearl River Estuary system, from the upper rivers to the groundwater discharges until the estuarine zone, and explored their potential impacts in the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) during May-August 2009. This river-groundwater-estuary system was generally characterized by low dissolved metal levels as a whole, whilst subject to severe perturbations locally. In particular, higher dissolved Cu and Cd occurred in the North River (as high as 60 nmol/L of Cu and 0.99 nmol/L of Cd), as a result of an anthropogenic source from mining activities there. Dissolved Cu levels were elevated in the upper estuary near the city of Guangzhou (Cu: ˜40 nmol/L), which could be attributable to sewage and industrial effluent discharges there. Elevated dissolved metal levels (Cu: ˜20-40 nmol/L; Cd: ˜0.2-0.8 nmol/L) also occurred in the groundwaters and parts of the middle and lower estuaries, which could be attributable to a series of geochemical reactions, e.g., chloride-induced desorption from the suspended sediments, oxidation of metal sulfides, and the partial dissolution of minerals. The high river discharge during our sampling period (May-August 2009) significantly diluted anthropogenic signals in the estuarine mixing zone. Of particular note was the high river discharge (which may reach 18.5 times as high as in the dry season) that transported anthropogenic signals (as indicated by dissolved Cu and Cd) into the adjacent shelf waters of the northern SCS, and might have led to the usually high phytoplankton productivity there (chlorophyll-a value >10 μg/L).

  4. Bacterial levels in the Nyl River system, Limpopo province, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotrophic plate counts, faecal coliform counts and total coliform counts indicated that the system was stressed. The Modimolle sewage treatment works and local agricultural activities were found to be the point and diffuse sources of bacterial contamination, respectively. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2010, 35(1): ...

  5. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simagegnew Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. representing seven genera and four families. Family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with six species (66.7%. Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia, and Labeo cylindricus were the most abundant fish species, respectively, with 60.72%, 16.83%, and 14.66% index of relative importance (IRI. The diversity index was higher for Geba River (H′ = 1.50 than for Sor River (H′ = 1.10. All the three most abundant species had negative allometric growth. Seasonal variations in the mean Fulton condition factor (FCF were statistically significant for L. cylindricus (p<0.05. There was variation in the sex ratio with the females dominating in all the three most abundant species. Further investigation into the fish diversity, food, feeding, and reproductive behaviors of fish species especially in the tributaries of these rivers and their socioeconomic aspects is recommended.

  6. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  7. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  8. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. B.; Rego, T. J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rao, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  9. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Lead isotope signatures ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  10. Doenças do sistema digestório de caprinos e ovinos no semiárido do Brasil Diseases of the digestive system of sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena A. Aragão de Lira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do sistema digestório de caprinos e ovinos na região semi-árida do nordeste do Brasil foram avaliadas através de um estudo retrospectivo de 2.144 atendimentos de pequenos ruminantes no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2011. Os registros foram revisados para determinar a ocorrência e as principais características clínicas, epidemiológicas e patológicas dessas enfermidades. De um total de 512 casos (23,9% de distúrbios digestivos, 367 (71,7% ocorreram em caprinos e 145 (28,3% em ovinos. As helmintoses gastrintestinais e a coccidiose foram as doenças mais frequentes, com um total de 330 casos. Os distúrbios da cavidade ruminoreticular (acidose, indigestão simples, timpanismo, e compactação ruminal totalizaram 94 casos. O abomaso foi afetado primária e secundariamente por úlceras. Casos de obstrução e compressão do trato gastrointestinal também foram observados. Malformações como atresia anal e fenda palatina foram registradas em ambas as espécies, sendo esta última associada à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora. Entre as doenças infecciosas foram observados cinco casos de ectima contagioso, dois casos de paratuberculose e dois casos de pitiose gastrointestinal. Em sete animais suspeitou-se de enterotoxemia e 31 casos foram diagnosticados como enterite inespecífica. A não utilização de práticas de controle integrado de parasitas e a utilização de alimentos inadequados durante o período de escassez de forragem contribuiu para a ocorrência de um grande número de doenças. A prática de conservação de forragens poderia reduzir substancialmente a ocorrência de distúrbios digestivos na região semiárida.Diseases of the digestive system of goats and sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil were evaluated by a retrospective study of 2,144 attendances of small ruminants in the Veterinary Hospital of the

  11. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  12. Does reintroducing large wood influence the hydraulic landscape of a lowland river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Adrian; Thoms, Martin; Reid, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of the effectiveness of reintroduced large wood for restoration is largely based on studies from high energy river systems. By contrast, few studies of the effectiveness of reintroducing large wood have been undertaken on large, low energy, lowland river systems: river systems where large wood is a significant physical feature on the in-channel environment. This study investigated the effect of reintroduced large wood on the hydraulic landscape of the Barwon-Darling River, Australia, at low flows. To achieve this, the study compared three hydraulic landscapes of replicated reference (naturally wooded), control (unwooded,) and managed (wood reintroduced) treatments on three low flow periods. These time periods were prior to the reintroduction of large wood to managed reaches; several months after the reintroduction of large wood into the managed reaches; and then more than four years after wood reintroduction following several large flood events. Hydraulic landscapes of reaches were characterised using a range of spatial measures calculated from velocity measurements taken with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler. We hypothesised that reintroduced large wood would increase the diversity of the hydraulic landscape at low flows and that managed reaches would be more similar to the reference reaches. Our results suggest that the reintroduction of large wood did not significantly change the character of the hydraulic landscape at the reach scale after several months (p = 0.16) or several years (p = 0.29). Overall, the character of the hydraulic landscape in the managed reaches was more similar to the hydraulic landscape of the control reaches than the hydraulic landscape of the reference reaches, at low flows. Some variability in the hydraulic landscapes was detected over time, and this may reflect reworking of riverbed sediments and sensitivity to variation in discharge. The lack of a response in the low flow hydraulic landscape to the

  13. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  15. Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmanli, Hussein; Zhao, Chengyi; Stahr, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim River Basin is the largest continental basin in China. The region has extremely continental desert climate characterized by little rainfall 3000 mm/a. The climate change is affecting severely the basin causing soil salinization, water shortage, and regression in crop production. Therefore, a Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for the regional simulation of crop yield production in the basin was developed. The SLISYS-Tarim consists of a database and an agro-ecological simulation model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate). The database comprises relational tables including information about soils, terrain conditions, land use, and climate. The soil data implicate information of 50 soil profiles which were dug, analyzed, described and classified in order to characterize the soils in the region. DEM data were integrated with geological maps to build a digital terrain structure. Remote sensing data of Landsat images were applied for soil mapping, and for land use and land cover classification. An additional database for climate data, land management and crop information were linked to the system, too. Construction of the SLISYS-Tarim database was accomplished by integrating and overlaying the recommended thematic maps within environment of the geographic information system (GIS) to meet the data standard of the global and national SOTER digital database. This database forms appropriate input- and output data for the crop modelling with the EPIC model at various scales in the Tarim Basin. The EPIC model was run for simulating cotton production under a constructed scenario characterizing the current management practices, soil properties and climate conditions. For the EPIC model calibration, some parameters were adjusted so that the modeled cotton yield fits to the measured yield on the filed scale. The validation of the modeling results was achieved in a later step based on remote sensing data. The simulated cotton yield varied

  16. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  17. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  18. Quantifying the Anthropogenic and Geological Controls on the DIC and Water Quality of the Waterways in a Closed Semi-Arid Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Bowen, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    processes governing the water quality of these rivers. Our study will provide an assessment of the vulnerability of the surface water resources with respect to water quality, an important factor in the management of these surface water systems which are going active development to meet the growing demand for fresh water within this semiarid region.

  19. EVALUATION OF DISASTER MITIGATION SYSTEM AGAINST LAHAR FLOW OF PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maksal Saputra

    2013-05-01

    Result of the evaluation shows that the existing early warning system does not produce sufficient time for the sand miners to save themselves. The proposed solution is to divide sand mine area in Putih River into 3 zones, each zone has different procedure of the early warning and evacuation. This is arranged to avoid casualties to the sand miners. Keywords: Lahar flood, sand miners, early warning.

  20. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest's hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement

  1. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  2. Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Heng, K.L

    2012-01-01

    Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize.cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P.0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop

  3. Standard criteria for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters (river systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, V.V.; Tsybizov, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive products discharge into natural water streams results in the necessity to regulate nuclear power plant discharges to ensure radiation safety (RS) for population using a river and surrounding river territory. To ensure RS it is necessary to set scientific-founded standards of permissible discharge level of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) from nuclear power plant assuring observance of hygienic requirements for surface water puring. Volume of permissible LRW discharge into river systems must be set both with provision for concrete physical-geographycal conditions, specficity of utilizing the river and river valley and social-economical peculiarities of crtical population groups. The value of permissible LRW discharge into river systems is determined by three criterion groups: radiological, ecological and hydrological ones. By means of radiological group the internal and external irradiation doses for the whole body and its separate organs are set and RS of population is determined. Ecological criteria include a number of parameters (coefficients of accumulation, distribution and transition) determining quantitative ratios between radioactive element contents in water and separate links of biological chains: soil/water, fish/water, vegetables/water and others. Hydrological criteria determine the degree of waste dilution in rivers, control radioactive contamination of flood-lands areas and in common with ecological criteria determine radionuclide contents in soil and food products. A method of determining average annual values of LRW dilution in river waters is presented [ru

  4. Soft systems methodology and the ecosystem approach: a system study of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    This paper discusses the integration of soft systems methodology (SSM) within an ecosystem approach in research to support rehabilitation and management of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India. The Cooum is an extremely polluted urban stream. Its management is complicated by high rates of population growth, poverty, uncontrolled urban development, jurisdictional conflicts, institutional culture, flat topography, tidal action, blockage of the river mouth, and monsoon flooding. The situation is characterized by basic uncertainty about main processes and activities, and the nature of relationships among actors and elements in the system.SSM is an approach for dealing with messy or ill-structured problematic situations involving human activity. In this work SSM contributed techniques (such as "rich picture" and "CATWOE" tools) to description of the Cooum situation as a socioecological system and informed the approach itself at a theoretical level. Application of three general phases in SSM is discussed in the context of the Cooum River research: (1) problem definition and exploration of the problem situation, (2) development of conceptual models of relevant systems, and (3) the use of these to generate insight and stimulate debate about desirable and feasible change. Its use here gives weight to the statement by others that SSM would be a particularly appropriate methodology to operate the ecosystem approach. As well as informing efforts at management of the Cooum system, this work led the way to explore an adaptive ecosystem approach more broadly to management of the urban environment for human health in Chennai.

  5. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using PFU systems in Yunnan lakes and rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing; Shen, Yunfen; Feng, Weisong; Wang, Xinhua

    2007-01-01

    Polyurethane foam unit (PFU) systems were collected from 11 lakes and three rivers in the Yunnan Plateau, China and, the PFU extrusion liquids were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The concentrations of pp'-DDE, HCB and HCHs were undetectable to 1.86 microgl-1 (mean 0.27 microgl-1), undetectable to 0.72 microgl-1 (mean 0.11 microgl-1), and 0.24-21.95 microgl-1 (mean 7.39 microgl-1) respectively in lakes; and those in rivers were undetectable to 0.23 microgl-1 (mean 0.08 microgl-1), 0.68-2.93 microgl-1 (mean 1.70 microgl-1), and 2.71-37.56 microgl-1 (mean 17.01 microgl-1) respectively. Notably, some residue levels of OCPs exceeded the US National Recommended Water Quality Criteria, implying Yunnan has levels of OCPs potentially harmful to human health. Further, the contamination by OCPs showed an obvious spatial distribution pattern. Amongst the lakes, Dianchi, Xingyun, Lugu and Yangzonghai had the highest OCP levels dominated by beta-HCH, whereas among rivers, Nujiang and Lancang Rivers had the highest contents of OCPs dominated by alpha-HCH. This demonstrates that HCHs are the predominant contaminants and some point sources of HCHs may still exist in Yunnan. The pollution levels in Yunnan were compared with other studies, suggesting the PFU method is suitable for long-term on-line monitoring of trace OCPs in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, continuous studies monitoring OCPs in lakes and rivers are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination.

  6. Field Operations For The "Intelligent River" Observation System: A Basin-wide Water Quality Observation System In The Savannah River Basin And Platform Supporting Related Diverse Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A.; Koons, M.; O'Brien-Gayes, P.; Moorer, R.; Hallstrom, J.; Post, C.; Gayes, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Intelligent River (IR) initiative is an NSF sponsored study developing new data management technology for a range of basin-scale applications. The technology developed by Florida Atlantic and Clemson University established a network of real-time reporting water quality sondes; from the mountains to the estuary of the Savannah River basin. Coastal Carolina University led the field operations campaign. Ancillary studies, student projects and initiatives benefitted from the associated instrumentation, infrastructure and operational support of the IR program. This provided a vehicle for students to participate in fieldwork across the watershed and pursue individual interests. Student projects included: 1) a Multibeam sonar survey investigating channel morphology in the area of an IR sensor station and 2) field tests of developing techniques for acquiring and assimilating flood velocity data into model systems associated with a separate NSF Rapid award. The multibeam survey within the lower Savannah basin exhibited a range of complexity in bathymetry, bedforms and bottom habitat in the vicinity of one of the water quality stations. The complex morphology and bottom habitat reflect complex flow patterns, localized areas of depositional and erosive tendencies providing a valuable context for considering point-source water quality time series. Micro- Lagrangian drifters developed by ISENSE at Florida Atlantic University, a sled mounted ADCP, and particle tracking from imagery collected by a photogrammetric drone were tested and used to develop methodology for establishing velocity, direction and discharge levels to validate, initialize and assimilate data into advance models systems during future flood events. The prospect of expanding wide scale observing systems can serve as a platform to integrate small and large-scale cooperative studies across disciplines as well as basic and applied research interests. Such initiatives provide opportunities for embedded education

  7. Use of digital computers in the protection system for Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmy, K.L.

    1977-06-01

    Each production reactor at the Savannah River Plant has recently been provided with a protective system using dual digital computers. The dual ''safety computers'' monitor coolant temperature and flow in each of the 600 fuel assemblies in the reactor. The system provides alarms and automatic reactor shutdown (SCRAM) if these variables exceed predetermined setpoints. The system provides the primary protection for unwanted local or general power increase or assembly coolant flow reduction. Standard process control computers are used and all scanning, data output, and protective action are controlled by software prepared by Du Pont

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  9. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d' Alene tribe

  10. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8, 13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  11. First record of Chantransia macrospora Wood, 1887 (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiele França Vasconcelos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first record of Chantransia macrospora in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Analyses of periphytic algae revealed C. macrospora individuals associated in particular with shells of Melanoides tuberculatus, a non-native species, suggesting that C. macrospora have been introduced into systems associated with the gastropods. In this context, new records of C. macrospora are still expected for the Brazilian semi-arid region in the next years.

  12. First record of Chantransia macrospora Wood, 1887 (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiele França Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p129 This study presents the first record of Chantransia macrospora in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Analyses of periphytic algae revealed C. macrospora individuals associated in particular with shells of Melanoides tuberculatus, a non-native species, suggesting that C. macrospora have been introduced into systems associated with the gastropods. In this context, new records of C. macrospora are still expected for the Brazilian semi-arid region in the next years.

  13. 1994 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,653 collections of fishes from stratified random sad permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1994...

  14. 1991 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,653 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1991...

  15. 1996 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,378 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1996...

  16. 1992 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,221 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during I 992...

  17. 1997 Annual Status Report A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,797 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1997...

  18. 1998 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,664 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1998...

  19. 1995 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,723 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1995...

  20. Potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  1. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  2. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems : Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G.W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding

  3. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Seasonal streamflow prediction by a combined climate-hydrologic system for river basins of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Yu, Pao-Shan

    2010-06-01

    SummaryA combined, climate-hydrologic system with three components to predict the streamflow of two river basins of Taiwan at one season (3-month) lead time for the NDJ and JFM seasons was developed. The first component consists of the wavelet-based, ANN-GA model (Artificial Neural Network calibrated by Genetic Algorithm) which predicts the seasonal rainfall by using selected sea surface temperature (SST) as predictors, given that SST are generally predictable by climate models up to 6-month lead time. For the second component, three disaggregation models, Valencia and Schaake (VS), Lane, and Canonical Random Cascade Model (CRCM), were tested to compare the accuracy of seasonal rainfall disaggregated by these three models to 3-day time scale rainfall data. The third component consists of the continuous rainfall-runoff model modified from HBV (called the MHBV) and calibrated by a global optimization algorithm against the observed rainfall and streamflow data of the Shihmen and Tsengwen river basins of Taiwan. The proposed system was tested, first by disaggregating the predicted seasonal rainfall of ANN-GA to rainfall of 3-day time step using the Lane model; then the disaggregated rainfall data was used to drive the calibrated MHBV to predict the streamflow for both river basins at 3-day time step up to a season's lead time. Overall, the streamflow predicted by this combined system for the NDJ season, which is better than that of the JFM season, will be useful for the seasonal planning and management of water resources of these two river basins of Taiwan.

  5. Establishing the system of public communal utility on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Antonije

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal and treatment problem consideration in the Republic of Serbia is making a pioneer steps. Main goal of this paper is to emphasize problems of waste disposal on waterways in urban areas, which consists of three aspects: uncontrolled disposal, possibilities of waste elimination and institutional model of collecting and recycling. Considering the fact that Draft version of Waste disposal law is not yet adopted by the national government (beside the fact that it contains the question of disposing and recycling municipal solid waste and that it is not elaborating the problem of dumping the municipal waste into rivers, this paper will give methodological and legislative recommendations for the solution of this problem. However, city of Belgrade and the other cities in Serbia are often facing serious problems (arranged riverfronts covered with municipal waste. Because of that, it is necessary to define methods of collecting and treatment of waste disposed in the water streams (in the area of technology. It is also important to determine legislative framework, and also to establish hierarchy in decision-making on the local level. One of the main goals is to determine new aspects of public communal utilities (so called "river communal utility", which will have jurisdiction in this area. International experiences must be analyzed separately and based on them is proposed new concept of elimination of waste from the rivers. Implementation of this pilot project is recommended on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of the city of Belgrade.

  6. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu. [Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-03-01

    For 35 years Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) manufactures weapon plutonium in single-pass production reactors cooled with water of the Yenisey River. Water discharge from these reactors is the major source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisey River. We have demonstrated that after putting the reactors out of operation (in late 1992) the contamination level of the Yenisey River with short-lived radionuclides considerably decreased, and now the radioactive contamination is caused essentially by Cs-137, Eu-152, Pu-239,240, Sr-90, and Am-241, whose concentration in the aqueous phase is lower than in bottom sediments and, particularly, flood-land deposits by several orders of magnitude (except for Sr-90). The flood-land deposits are classified with the most contaminated environmental objects in the territories under the impact of MCC: their radioactivity is comparable with that of low-level waste. Taking into account the considerable depth and area of the flood-land deposits, this allows their classification as a great technogenic radiation anomaly. Comparison of the maximal Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 levels in flood-land soils and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River with those in bottom sediments of the Pripyat' River and the Kiev reservoir shows that these values are close each to other. A direct correlation is found between the spatial distribution of Cs-137 on the one hand and Pu-239,240, Eu-152, and Am-241 on the other hand in the aqueous phase and bottom sediments, which is not the case for Sr-90. Data on the distribution coefficients of the indicated radionuclides between the deposits and aqueous phase (obtained with actual and model systems) and also on the radionuclide distribution throughout geochemical mobility forms suggest that the essential part of Cs, Pu, Eu, and Am migrates with fine-disperse suspended material, the transport and distribution of which is controlled by the hydrological regime of the Yenisey River. By contrast, strontium

  7. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V.; Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu.; Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T.

    2001-01-01

    For 35 years Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) manufactures weapon plutonium in single-pass production reactors cooled with water of the Yenisey River. Water discharge from these reactors is the major source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisey River. We have demonstrated that after putting the reactors out of operation (in late 1992) the contamination level of the Yenisey River with short-lived radionuclides considerably decreased, and now the radioactive contamination is caused essentially by Cs-137, Eu-152, Pu-239,240, Sr-90, and Am-241, whose concentration in the aqueous phase is lower than in bottom sediments and, particularly, flood-land deposits by several orders of magnitude (except for Sr-90). The flood-land deposits are classified with the most contaminated environmental objects in the territories under the impact of MCC: their radioactivity is comparable with that of low-level waste. Taking into account the considerable depth and area of the flood-land deposits, this allows their classification as a great technogenic radiation anomaly. Comparison of the maximal Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 levels in flood-land soils and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River with those in bottom sediments of the Pripyat' River and the Kiev reservoir shows that these values are close each to other. A direct correlation is found between the spatial distribution of Cs-137 on the one hand and Pu-239,240, Eu-152, and Am-241 on the other hand in the aqueous phase and bottom sediments, which is not the case for Sr-90. Data on the distribution coefficients of the indicated radionuclides between the deposits and aqueous phase (obtained with actual and model systems) and also on the radionuclide distribution throughout geochemical mobility forms suggest that the essential part of Cs, Pu, Eu, and Am migrates with fine-disperse suspended material, the transport and distribution of which is controlled by the hydrological regime of the Yenisey River. By contrast, strontium

  8. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes

  9. Sorption Characteristics of Sediments in the Upper Mississippi River System Above Lake Pepin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, W

    1999-01-01

    This technical note examines equilibrium phosphorus processes and sorption characteristics for sediments collected from the Minnesota River, immediately upstream from its confluence with the Upper Mississippi River (UMR...

  10. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in a forest-river system in the South Qinling Mts., China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A

    2016-04-15

    The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios vary significantly between different water types (p water samples including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), EC, and TDS (p water chemistry in the river water. Using the three-source mixing model, atmospheric inputs, carbonate, and silicate weathering contribute 74%, 20%, and 6% respectively to the dissolved Sr in the river water. This research has provided new insights into the contribution of sources of Sr to a river system in a mountainous catchment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Quality Projects Summary for the Mid-Columbia and Cumberland River Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Scheduling and operational control of hydropower systems is accompanied with a keen awareness of the management of water use, environmental effects, and policy, especially within the context of strict water rights policy and generation maximization. This is a multi-objective problem for many hydropower systems, including the Cumberland and Mid-Columbia river systems. Though each of these two systems have distinct operational philosophies, hydrologic characteristics, and system dynamics, they both share a responsibility to effectively manage hydropower and the environment, which requires state-of-the art improvements in the approaches and applications for water quality modeling. The Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed tools for total dissolved gas (TDG) prediction on the Mid-Columbia River and a decision-support system used for hydropower generation and environmental optimization on the Cumberland River. In conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa and University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), ORNL has managed the development of a TDG predictive methodology at seven dams along the Mid-Columbia River and has enabled the ability to utilize this methodology for optimization of operations at these projects with the commercially available software package Riverware. ORNL has also managed the collaboration with Vanderbilt University and Lipscomb University to develop a state-of-the art method for reducing high-fidelity water quality modeling results into surrogate models which can be used effectively within the context of optimization efforts to maximize generation for a reservoir system based on environmental and policy constraints. The novel contribution of these efforts is the ability to predict water quality conditions with simplified methodologies at the same level of accuracy as more complex and resource intensive computing methods

  12. An automated system to simulate the River discharge in Kyushu Island using the H08 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, A.; Jeon, J.; Seto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Kyushu Island is located in southwestern part of Japan, and it is often affected by typhoons and a Baiu front. There have been severe water-related disasters recorded in Kyushu Island. On the other hand, because of high population density and for crop growth, water resource is an important issue of Kyushu Island.The simulation of river discharge is important for water resource management and early warning of water-related disasters. This study attempts to apply H08 model to simulate river discharge in Kyushu Island. Geospatial meteorological and topographical data were obtained from Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The number of the observation stations of AMeDAS is limited and is not quite satisfactory for the application of water resources models in Kyushu. It is necessary to spatially interpolate the point data to produce grid dataset. Meteorological grid dataset is produced by considering elevation dependence. Solar radiation is estimated from hourly sunshine duration by a conventional formula. We successfully improved the accuracy of interpolated data just by considering elevation dependence and found out that the bias is related to geographical location. The rain/snow classification is done by H08 model and is validated by comparing estimated and observed snow rate. The estimates tend to be larger than the corresponding observed values. A system to automatically produce daily meteorological grid dataset is being constructed.The geospatial river network data were produced by ArcGIS and they were utilized in the H08 model to simulate the river discharge. Firstly, this research is to compare simulated and measured specific discharge, which is the ratio of discharge to watershed area. Significant error between simulated and measured data were seen in some rivers. Secondly, the outputs by the coupled model including crop growth

  13. Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source

  14. Geomorphic and hydraulic controls on large-scale riverbank failure on a mixed bedrock-alluvial river system, the River Murray, South Australia: a bathymetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the peak of the Millennium Drought (1997-2010) pool-levels in the lower River Murray in South Australia dropped 1.5 metres below sea level, resulting in large-scale mass failure of the alluvial banks. The largest of these failures occurred without signs of prior instability at Long Island Marina whereby a 270 metre length of populated and vegetated riverbank collapsed in a series of rotational failures. Analysis of long-reach bathymetric surveys of the river channel revealed a strong relationship between geomorphic and hydraulic controls on channel width and downstream alluvial failure. As the entrenched channel planform meanders within and encroaches upon its bedrock valley confines the channel width is 'pinched' and decreases by up to half, resulting in a deepening thalweg and channel bed incision. The authors posit that flow and shear velocities increase at these geomorphically controlled 'pinch-points' resulting in complex and variable hydraulic patterns such as erosional scour eddies, which act to scour the toe of the slope over-steepening and destabilising the alluvial margins. Analysis of bathymetric datasets between 2009 and 2014 revealed signs of active incision and erosional scour of the channel bed. This is counter to conceptual models which deem the backwater zone of a river to be one of decelerating flow and thus sediment deposition. Complex and variable flow patterns have been observed in other mixed alluvial-bedrock river systems, and signs of active incision observed in the backwater zone of the Mississippi River, United States. The incision and widening of the lower Murray River suggests the channel is in an erosional phase of channel readjustment which has implications for riverbank collapse on the alluvial margins. The prevention of seawater ingress due to barrage construction at the Murray mouth and Southern Ocean confluence, allowed pool-levels to drop significantly during the Millennium Drought reducing lateral confining support to the

  15. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions...... in the river system occur in periods of high sea water levels where the sluice is closed and increased catchment run-off take place. Climate model data from the ENSEMBLES data archive are used to assess the changes in climate variables and the resulting effect on catchment run-off. Extreme catchment run......-off is expected to increase about 8 % in 2050 and 14 % in 2100. The changes in sea water level is assessed considering climate projections of mean sea level rise, isostatic changes, and changes in storm surge statistics. At the Vidaa sluice a mean sea level rise of 0.15–0.39 m in 2050 and 0.41–1.11 m in 2010...

  16. Evolution of tertiary intermontane fluvial system of Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, R.M.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration and development of economic coal and uranium deposits of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations provided data related to the evolution of depositional systems in the Powder River Basin. In ascending order, the Paleocene Fort Union Formation consists of the Tullock, Lebo, and Tongue River Members. The overlying Eocene Wasatch Formation consists of the conglomeratic Kingsbury and Moncrief Members and laterally equivalent finer grained deposits. Evolution of fluvial deposition in the basin was determined from sandstone percent maps. A high proportion of sandstones in the Tullock Member and combined Tongue River Member and Wasatch Formation formed in interconnected east-west and north-south belts. The east-west belts represent alluvial fans, as well as braided and meandering tributary streams. The north-south belts reflect meandering and anastomosing trunk streams fed by basin margin tributaries. The sandstones of the Lebo Shale show east-west trends and represent deposits of fluvio-deltaic systems that filled a western, closed-lacustrine basin. The lake in this basin may have formed during localized subsidence along the Buffalo deep fault. These contrasting styles of fluvial deposition were largely controlled by extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonics associated with Laramide orogeny

  17. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems: Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio. Using this interpretational scheme, Iceland is found to be an area of hot-spot magmatic He implying an active volcanic source although the data are suggestive of high-temperature weathering release of crustal He incorporated in the geothermal fluids. By comparison to fumarolic gases from Hawaii and Juan De Fuca and Cayman Trench basaltic glass samples, The Geysers contains MOR type magmatic He again implying an active volcanic source possibly a 'leaky' transform related to the San Andreas Fault System. Raft River contains only crustal He indicating no active volcanic sources. Steamboat Springs He isotope ratios are distinctly less than typical plate margin volcanics but must still have a magmatic source. (author)

  18. Hydrodynamic influence on reservoir sustainability in semi-arid climate: A physicochemical and environmental isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kazpard, Véronique; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. The particularity of the semi-arid climate and the diverse topography generate a continental and orographic rain effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation and the water recharged sources. The studied reservoir responds quickly to land-use activities and climatic changes as reflected by temporal and spatial variations of water chemistry and isotopic composition. Increasing changes in precipitation rate and dry periods significantly modified the water isotopic composition in the reservoir. During the first year, hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotopes are depleted by 6 and 2‰ between dry and wet season, respectively. While a shift of -2‰ for δD and -1‰ for δ 18 O was detected during the second annual cycle. Environmental isotopic compositions demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of groundwater inflow to the central (Cz) and dam (Dz) zones of the Qaraaoun reservoir. The Cz and Dz can be considered as open water bodies subjected to dilution by groundwater inflow, which induces vertical mixing and reverse isotopic stratification of the water column. In the contrary, the river mouth zone acts as a closed system without groundwater intrusion, where heavy water accumulates and may act as a sink for contaminants during dry season. Groundwater influx acts as a dilution factor that renews the hypolimnion, and minimizes the perturbations induced by both internal

  19. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  20. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  1. Development and Implementation of the Waste Management Information System to Support Hanford's River Corridor Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, L M [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, 3070 George Washington Way, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a Waste Information Management System (WMIS) to support the waste designation, transportation, and disposal processes used by Washington Closure Hanford, LLC to support cleanup of the Columbia River Corridor. This waste, primarily consisting of remediated burial sites and building demolition debris, is disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), which is located in the center of the Hanford Site (an approximately 1460 square kilometers site). WMIS uses a combination of bar-code scanning, hand-held computers, and strategic employment of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag system to track each waste shipment from waste generation to disposal. (authors)

  2. Design of River System Deadlock Avoidance Supervisor by Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Kezić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced function of the computer-based river traffic management system should automatically predict and prevent possible conflict and deadlock states between vessels by using adequate control policy (supervisor. This paper proposes a formal method for calculating maximally permissive deadlock prevention supervisor. To model the river system, the authors use a class of Petri net suitable for describing multiple re-entrant flowlines with disjoint sets of resources, jobs and control places, and matrix-based formal method to analyze the system. By using matrix algebra, the structural characteristics of the Petri net (circular waits, P-invariants, critical siphons and subsystem, key resource have been analyzed and the steps for supervisor design proposed. The first and the second level deadlocks can be avoided by maintaining the number of tokens in the critical subsystems and ensuring that the key resource would not be the last available resource in the system. The derived supervisor has been verified by a computer simulation using MATLAB environment. KEYWORDS: traffic management system, deadlock avoidance, discrete event system, Petri net

  3. Comparison of SVAT models for simulating and optimizing deficit irrigation systems in arid and semi-arid countries under climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schuetze, Niels; Schmitz, Gerd H.

    2010-05-01

    The strong competition for fresh water in order to fulfill the increased demand for food worldwide has led to a renewed interest in techniques to improve water use efficiency (WUE) such as controlled deficit irrigation. Furthermore, as the implementation of crop models into complex decision support systems becomes more and more common, it is imperative to reliably predict the WUE as ratio of water consumption and yield. The objective of this paper is the assessment of the problems the crop models - such as FAO-33, DAISY, and APSIM in this study - face when maximizing the WUE. We applied these crop models for calculating the risk in yield reduction in view of different sources of uncertainty (e.g. climate) employing a stochastic framework for decision support for the planning of water supply in irrigation. The stochastic framework consists of: (i) a weather generator for simulating regional impacts of climate change; (ii) a new tailor-made evolutionary optimization algorithm for optimal irrigation scheduling with limited water supply; and (iii) the above mentioned models for simulating water transport and crop growth in a sound manner. The results present stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) for different crops which can be used as basic tools for assessing the impact of climate variability on the risk for the potential yield. Case studies from India, Oman, Malawi, and France are presented to assess the differences in modeling water stress and yield response for the different crop models.

  4. Evolution and current state of our understanding of the role played in the climate system by land surface processes in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.

    2015-10-01

    The role of the land surface in climate and weather has been a major research focus since the 1970s. Since that time our understanding of the issue has greatly changed and many new themes in several disciplines are being considered. This article summarizes the changes in our understanding that have taken place in research on this topic and reviews principally papers that have appeared in the last two decades. Several other papers provide comprehensive reviews of literature that appeared prior to that time. The major changes that have occurred include 1) more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of desertification, 2) increased emphasis on hydrological processes, including the role of groundwater, 3) use of multi-model ensembles and regional models, 4) the emergence of the domain of ecohydrology, with emphasis on detailed feedbacks between water availability and vegetation, 5) examination of the hypothesis that vegetation feedback can produce abrupt climate change, 6) emphasis on the impacts on convective or synoptic-scale systems, and 7) consideration of the impact of aerosols, including the Saharan Air Layer. With the exception of desertification, each of these topics is reviewed.

  5. Reconciling drainage and receiving basin signatures of the Godavari River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojoshogu Usman, Muhammed; Kirkels, Frédérique Marie Sophie Anne; Zwart, Huub Michel; Basu, Sayak; Ponton, Camilo; Blattmann, Thomas Michael; Ploetze, Michael; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron; Peterse, Francien; Lupker, Maarten; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy Ian

    2018-06-01

    The modern-day Godavari River transports large amounts of sediment (170 Tg per year) and terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr; 1.5 Tg per year) from peninsular India to the Bay of Bengal. The flux and nature of OCterr is considered to have varied in response to past climate and human forcing. In order to delineate the provenance and nature of organic matter (OM) exported by the fluvial system and establish links to sedimentary records accumulating on its adjacent continental margin, the stable and radiogenic isotopic composition of bulk OC, abundance and distribution of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), sedimentological properties (e.g. grain size, mineral surface area, etc.) of fluvial (riverbed and riverbank) sediments and soils from the Godavari basin were analysed and these characteristics were compared to those of a sediment core retrieved from the continental slope depocenter. Results show that river sediments from the upper catchment exhibit higher total organic carbon (TOC) contents than those from the lower part of the basin. The general relationship between TOC and sedimentological parameters (i.e. mineral surface area and grain size) of the sediments suggests that sediment mineralogy, largely driven by provenance, plays an important role in the stabilization of OM during transport along the river axis, and in the preservation of OM exported by the Godavari to the Bay of Bengal. The stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) characteristics of river sediments and soils indicate that the upper mainstream and its tributaries drain catchments exhibiting more 13C enriched carbon than the lower stream, resulting from the regional vegetation gradient and/or net balance between the upper (C4-dominated plants) and lower (C3-dominated plants) catchments. The radiocarbon contents of organic carbon (Δ14COC) in deep soils and eroding riverbanks suggests these are likely sources of old or pre-aged carbon to the Godavari River that increasingly dominates the late Holocene portion of

  6. Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiema, A.

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry parkland in semi-arid West Africa is a rural land use system, which allows farmers to grow annual crops in combination with useful trees. In addition to cereals, tree products such as vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, firewood, fodder, and medicines are obtained from the parklands.

  7. Effect on stone lines on soil chemical characteristics under continuous sorghum cropping in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Gnankambary, Z.; Guillobez, L.S.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2002-01-01

    In the semiarid Sahel, farmers commonly lay stone lines in fields to disperse runoff. This study was conducted in northern Burkina Faso to assess the chemical fertility of soil under a permanent, non-fertilised sorghum crop, which is the main production system in this area, 5 years after laying

  8. Woody plants in agro-ecosystems of semi-arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, H.; Kessler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the role of woody plants in semi-arid regions, focusing on the Sahel and Sudan zones in West-Africa, is given for the assessment of their benefits in agro-sylvopastoral land-use systems with productive and sustainability objectives.

  9. Soil moisture prediction to support management in semiarid wetlands during drying episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilera, Héctor; Moreno, Luis; Wesseling, Jan G.; Jiménez-Hernández, María E.; Castaño, Silvino

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands supported by groundwater in semiarid regions are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of droughts, particularly anthropized systems. During drying periods, soil water content arises as the controlling factor for environmental and ecological disturbances such as the spread of invasive

  10. Multiscale remote sensing analysis to monitor riparian and upland semiarid vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    The health of natural vegetation communities is of concern due to observed changes in the climatic-hydrological regime and land cover changes particularly in arid and semiarid regions. Monitoring vegetation at multi temporal and spatial scales can be the most informative approach for detecting change and inferring causal agents of change and remediation strategies. Riparian communities are tightly linked to annual stream hydrology, ground water elevations and sediment transport. These processes are subject to varying magnitudes of disturbance overtime and are candidates for multi-scale monitoring. My first research objective focused on the response of vegetation in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, to reduced base flows and climate change. I addressed the correlation between riparian vegetation and hydro-climate variables during the last three decades in one of the remaining undammed rivers in the southwestern U.S. Its riparian forest is threatened by the diminishing base flows, attributed by different studies either to increases in evapotranspiration (ET) due to conversion of grasslands to mesquite shrublands in the adjacent uplands, or to increased regional groundwater pumping to serve growing populations in surrounding urban areas and or to some interactions of those causes. Landsat 5 imagery was acquired for pre- monsoon period, when riparian trees had leafed out but before the arrival of summer monsoon rains in July. The result has showed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from both Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) had significant decreases which positively correlated to river flows, which decreased over the study period, and negatively correlated with air temperatures, which have increased by about 1.4°C from 1904 to the present. The predictions from other studies that decreased river flows could negatively impact the riparian forest were supported by this study. The pre-monsoon Normalized Different Vegetation

  11. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  12. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural assessment at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight systems, namely: cooling water system, emergency cooling system, moderator recovery system, supplementary safety system, water removal system, service raw water system, service clarified water system, and river water system. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four major disciplines, including: structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management, and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five subsystems. These subsystems were then ranked with six attributes, namely: safety classification, degradation mechanisms, difficulty of replacement, failure mode, radiation dose to workers, and consequence of failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner

  13. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural enhancement assessment at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight (8) systems, namely: Cooling Water System, Emergency Cooling System, Moderator Recovery System supplementary Safety System, Water Removal System, Service Raw Water System, Service Clarified Water System, and River Water System. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four (4) major disciplines, including. structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five (35) subsystem. These subsystems were then ranked with six (6) attributes, namely: Safety Classification, Degradation Mechanisms, Difficulty of Replacement, Failure Mode, Radiation Dose to Workers and Consequence of Failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner

  14. Elaboração de um sistema de classificação da capacidade de suporte em ambiente semi-árido Elaboration of a classification system of support capacity in the semi-arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio R. Francelino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de identificar a relação de colonos assentados em projetos de reforma agrária no Rio Grande do Norte, com os recursos naturais das suas respectivas áreas e, posteriormente, elaborar um sistema de classificação de suporte do meio físico. Para isto, foram selecionados dez projetos de assentamento na região oeste do estado, caracterizada por regime de semi-aridez, abrangendo uma área de cerca de 30.000 ha, em que se buscou identificar parâmetros qualitativos e quantitativos dos recursos edáficos, florestais e hídricos de cada área, sempre os relacionando com o seu tipo de uso. Verificou-se que todos os assentamentos apresentaram número de colonos superior ao limite que o ambiente poderia suportar, demonstrando a necessidade de se reavaliar o tamanho do módulo agrícola adotado para essas áreas, como também a necessidade da oferta satisfatória de água, que propicia melhor exploração do potencial agrícola dos solos da região, diminuindo a pressão sobre os recursos florestais.This work aimed as general objective, to identify the farmers of the Settlement Projects of Agricultural Reform in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, with the natural resources of their respective areas and later to elaborate a system of classification of support capacity of the ambient. For the purpose, ten Settlement Projects were selected in the western part of the state, characterized by semi-arid regime in an area of 30.000 ha where qualitative and quantitative parameters of the soil where edalfo, forest and water resources were identified. It was verified that all Settlement Projects presented number of settlers more than the ambient could support, demonstrating the need to reevaluate the size of the agricultural module adopted in these areas, as well as the satisfactory offer of water which allows better exploration of the agricultural potential of the soils of the area, thereby decreasing the pressure on

  15. Desempenho de ovelhas nativas em confinamento recebendo palma-forrageira na dieta na região do semiárido nordestino Performance of native ewes under feedlot system receiving spineless cactus in diet in Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicília Maria Silva de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dieta à base de palma forrageira em ovelhas nativas confinadas na região do semiárido nordestino. Foram testadas duas formas de oferecimento da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica: separada da mistura feno de capim-tifton + concentrado e junto da mistura feno + concentrado. Utilizaram-se 40 fêmeas das raças nativas Barriga-preta, Cara-curta, Cariri e Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 36,76 kg, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, com quatro raças e duas estratégias de alimentação. Os genótipos e as estratégias de alimentação influenciaram os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da fibra em detergente neutro. O genótipo influencia o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em ovelhas alimentadas com palma forrageira na dieta, uma vez que animais das raças Cariri e Cara-curta apresentam maiores ganhos de peso.The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the weight gain, intake of nutrients, and the apparent digestibility of diets based on spineless cactus in native ewes in feedlot system in Brazilian semiarid region. Two spineless cactus feeding strategies were evaluated: spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica separated from the Tifton hay + concentrated mixture, and with Tifton hay mixture + concentrate. It was used forty native breed ewes (Barriga Preta, Cara Curta, Cariri and Morada Nova, with average initial body weight of 36.76 kg, distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme (four breed and two feeding strategies. The genotypes and feeding strategies neutral fiber detergent had effect on the average intake of neutral fiber detergent and total digestible nutrient, and on the coefficients of neutral fiber detergent

  16. A system dynamics approach for integrated management of the Jucar River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martin, Adria; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    System dynamics (SD) is a modelling approach that allows the analysis of complex systems through the mathematical definition of variables and their relationships. Based on systems thinking, SD is suitable for interdisciplinary studies of the management of complex systems. Over the past 50 years, SD tools have been applied to fields as diverse as economics, ecology, politics, sociology and resource management. Its application to the field of water resources has grown significantly over the last two decades, facilitating the enhancement of models by adding social, economic and ecological components. However, its application to the operation of complex multireservoir systems has been very limited so far. In this contribution, we have developed a SD model for the Jucar River Basin, one of the most vulnerable basins in the western Mediterranean region with regard to droughts. The system has three main reservoirs, which allows for a multiannual management of the storage that compensates the highly variable streamflow from upstream. Our SD model of the Jucar River Basin is able to capture the complexity of the water resource system. The model developed consists of five interlinked subsystems: a) Topology of the system network, including the 3 main reservoirs, water seepage and evaporation, inflows and catchments. b) Monthly operating rules of each reservoir. The rules were derived from the expert knowledge eluded from the operators of the reservoirs. c) Monthly urban, agricultural and environmental water demands. d) State index of the system and drought mitigation measures triggered depending on the state index. e) Mancha Oriental aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction with the Jucar River. The comparison between observed and simulated series showed that the model provides a good representation of the observed reservoir operation and total deficits. The interdisciplinary and open nature of the methodology allows to add new variables and dynamics to the model that are

  17. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room, M H M; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition

  18. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  20. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Guandu River waters in the Allium cepa system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vieira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guandu River is the main source of water supply for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and has been facing serious environmental problems due to increasing population and industrial pollution, as well as the presence of polluted tributaries. This study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the Guandu River’s waters, through the use of the Allium cepa test system. Collection points were chosen at the greatest confluences of pollutant sources. The sampling included two different seasons: the rainy season (January and February and the dry season (June and July. The analyses of 5000 cells per treatment showed that all the points studied had some degree of cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. Two sampling locations, which receive major influxes from the polluted waters of the Poços/Queimados and Cabuçu/Ipiranga Rivers, stood out for the strong presence of micronuclei, sticky chromosomes, mitotic spindle abnormalities, necrotic cells and nucleolar changes compared to the negative control. At least two locations also found changes in the mitotic index. The existence of variations in the number of cytotoxic and genotoxic changes between periods of rain and drought indicates that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the water pollutants varies according to time, depending on the discharges of the tributary rivers and the increase of contaminated effluents. The results highlight the importance of bio-monitoring to assist managers in the control of effluent discharge.

  1. The UP modelling system for large scale hydrology: simulation of the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Kilsby

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The UP (Upscaled Physically-based hydrological modelling system to the Arkansas-Red River basin (USA is designed for macro-scale simulations of land surface processes, and aims for a physical basis and, avoids the use of discharge records in the direct calibration of parameters. This is achieved in a two stage process: in the first stage parametrizations are derived from detailed modelling of selected representative small and then used in a second stage in which a simple distributed model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the whole basin. The first stage of the process is described in a companion paper (Ewen et al., this issue, and the second stage of this process is described here. The model operated at an hourly time-step on 17-km grid squares for a two year simulation period, and represents all the important hydrological processes including regional aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge, infiltration- and saturation-excess runoff, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, overland and channel flow. Outputs from the model are discussed, and include river discharge at gauging stations and space-time fields of evaporation and soil moisture. Whilst the model efficiency assessed by comparison of simulated and observed discharge records is not as good as could be achieved with a model calibrated against discharge, there are considerable advantages in retaining a physical basis in applications to ungauged river basins and assessments of impacts of land use or climate change.

  2. Geochemistry of bed and suspended sediment in the Mississippi river system: provenance versus weathering and winnowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D Z; Ludington, Steve; Duval, J S; Taylor, H E

    2006-06-01

    Stream-bed sediment for the size fraction less than 150 microm, examined in 14,000 samples collected mostly from minor tributaries to the major rivers throughout the Mississippi River drainage system, is composed of 5 mineral fractions identified by factor analysis-Al-silicate minerals, quartz, calcite and dolomite, heavy minerals, and an Fe-Mn fraction. The Al-silicate fraction parallels its distribution in the regolith, emphasizing the local sediment source as a primary control to its distribution. Quartz and the heavy-mineral fraction, and associated trace elements, exhibit a complementary distribution to that of the Al-silicate fraction, with a level of enrichment in the bed sediment that is achieved through winnowing and sorting. The carbonate fraction has a distribution suggesting its dissolution during transport. Trace elements partitioned onto the Fe-Mn, possibly amorphous oxyhydride, fraction are introduced to the streams, in part, through human activity. Except for the heavy-mineral fraction, these fractions are identified in suspended sediment from the Mississippi River itself. Although comparison of the tributary bed sediment with the riverine suspended sediment is problematic, the geochemistry of the suspended sediment seems to corroborate the interpretation of the geochemistry of the bed sediment.

  3. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  4. Dam busy: beavers and their influence on the structure and function of river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Larsen, A.; Lane, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Beavers (Castor fiber, Castor canadensis) are the most influential mammalian ecosystem engineer, heavily modifying rivers and floodplains and influencing the hydrology, geomorphology, carbon and nutrient cycling, and ecology. They do this by constructing dams, digging canals and burrows, felling trees and introducing wood into streams, which in turn impounds water, raises shallow water tables, and alters the partitioning of the water balance, sediment transport and channel patters, biogeochemical cycling, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats. However, largely in the absence of predators, beaver numbers have been rapidly increasing throughout Europe since the 1980s, but also in parts of the US and South America, prompting a need to comprehensively review the current state of knowledge on how beavers influence the structure and function of river systems. Here, we synthesize the overall impacts on hydrology, geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We then examine the key feedbacks and overlaps between these changes induced by beavers, finding that modifications to the longitudinal connectivity drive many key process feedbacks. However, the magnitude of these feedbacks is also heavily dependent on the landscape and climatic context, with the ability to promote lateral connectivity determining the extent of beaver impacts as stream order increases. Crucially, beavers shape a river corridor, introducing distinct processes and feedbacks that would have existed prior to the historical collapse of beaver populations. There is thus a need to adapt current river management and restoration practices such that they can accommodate and enhance the ecosystem engineering services provided by beavers. We summarize key knowledge gaps that remain in our understanding of beaver impacts, which help map an interdisciplinary future research agenda.

  5. Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of “Waste Heat” Rejection/Recycling Hybrid Ground-source Heat Pump Systems in Hot, Arid or Semiarid Climates Like Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Glenn [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Moon, Tess [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This project team analyzed supplemental heat rejection/recovery (SHR) devices or systems that could be used in hybrid ground source heat pump (HGHP) systems located in arid or semi-arid regions in southwestern U.S. Identification of effective SHR solutions would enhance the deployment of ground source heat pumps (GHP) in these regions. In a parallel effort, the team developed integrated GHP models that coupled the building load, heat pump, and ground loop subsystems and which could be applied to residential and commercial office buildings. Then GHP and HGHP performances could be compared in terms of operational performance and life-cycle costs. Several potential SHR devices were analyzed by applying two strategies: 1) to remove heat directly from the water in the ground loop before it enters the ground and 2) to remove heat in the refrigerant loop of the vapor compression cycle (VCC) of the heat pump so less heat is transferred to the water loop at the condenser of the VCC. Cooling towers, adsorption coolers, and thermoelectric liquid coolers were included in strategy 1, and expanded desuperheaters, thermosyphons, and an optimized VCC were included in strategy 2. Of all SHR devices analyzed, only the cooling tower provided a cost-effective performance enhancement. For the integrated GHP model, the project team selected the building load model HAMBASE and its powerful computational Simulink/MatLab platform, empirical performance map models of the heat pumps based upon manufacturers’ performance data, and a ground loop model developed by Oklahoma State University and rewritten for this project in Simulink/MatLab. The design process used GLHEPRO, also from Oklahoma State University, to size the borehole fields. The building load and ground loop models were compared with simulations from eQuest, ASHRAE 140-2008 standards, EnergyPlus, and GLHEPRO and were found to predict those subsystems’ performance well. The integrated GHP model was applied to a 195m2

  6. A topological system for delineation and codification of the Earth's river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, K.L.; Verdin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive reference system for the Earth's river basins is proposed as a support to fiver basin management, global change research, and the pursuit of sustainable development. A natural system for delineation and codification of basins is presented which is based upon topographic control and the topology of the fiver network. These characteristics make the system well suited for implementation and use with digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information systems. A demonstration of these traits is made with the 30-arcsecond GTOPO30 DEM for North America. The system has additional appeal owing to its economy of digits and the topological information that they carry. This is illustrated through presentation of comparisons with USGS hydrologic unit codes and demonstration of the use of code numbers to reveal dependence or independence of water use activities within a basin.

  7. Automatic Monitoring System Design and Failure Probability Analysis for River Dikes on Steep Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Lung; Lin, Yi-Jun; Tung, Yeou-Koung

    2017-04-01

    The purposes of this study includes: (1) design an automatic monitoring system for river dike; and (2) develop a framework which enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes during a rainstorm. The historical dike failure data collected in this study indicate that most dikes in Taiwan collapsed under the 20-years return period discharge, which means the probability of dike failure is much higher than that of overtopping. We installed the dike monitoring system on the Chiu-She Dike which located on the middle stream of Dajia River, Taiwan. The system includes: (1) vertical distributed pore water pressure sensors in front of and behind the dike; (2) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) to measure the displacement of dike; (3) wireless floating device to measure the scouring depth at the toe of dike; and (4) water level gauge. The monitoring system recorded the variation of pore pressure inside the Chiu-She Dike and the scouring depth during Typhoon Megi. The recorded data showed that the highest groundwater level insides the dike occurred 15 hours after the peak discharge. We developed a framework which accounts for the uncertainties from return period discharge, Manning's n, scouring depth, soil cohesion, and friction angle and enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes such as overtopping, surface erosion, mass failure, toe sliding and overturning. The framework was applied to Chiu-She, Feng-Chou, and Ke-Chuang Dikes on Dajia River. The results indicate that the toe sliding or overturning has the highest probability than other failure modes. Furthermore, the overall failure probability (integrate different failure modes) reaches 50% under 10-years return period flood which agrees with the historical failure data for the study reaches.

  8. Evidence of the St. Clair-Detroit River system as a dispersal corridor and nursery habitat for transient larval burbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Darrin E.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Ireland, Stacey A.; Ross, Jason E.; Bowser, Dustin; Hunter, Robert D.; Castle, Dana Kristina; Fischer, Jason; Provo, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are distributed across the Laurentian Great Lakes where they occupy a top piscivore role. The St. Clair-Detroit River System is known to provide a migration corridor as well as spawning and nursery habitat for many indigenous fishes of economic and ecological significance. However, knowledge is scant of the early life history of burbot and the importance of this system in their dispersal, survival, and recruitment. In order to assess the role of the St. Clair-Detroit River System to burbot ecology, we collected larval burbot during ichthyoplankton surveys in this system from 2010 to 2013 as part of a habitat restoration monitoring program. More and larger burbot larvae were found in the St. Clair River than in the lower Detroit River, although this may be due to differences in sampling methods between the two rivers. Consistent with existing studies, larval burbot exhibited ontogenesis with a distinct transition from a pelagic zooplankton-based diet to a benthic macroinvertebrate-based diet. Our results demonstrate that the St. Clair-Detroit Rivers provide food resources, required habitat, and a migration conduit between the upper and lower Great Lakes, but the contribution of these fish to the lower lakes requires further examination.

  9. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban

  10. Long term prospective of the Seine River system: Confronting climatic and direct anthropogenic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharne, A.; Baubion, C.; Beaudoin, N.; Benoit, M.; Billen, G.; Brisson, N.; Garnier, J.; Kieken, H.; Lebonvallet, S.; Ledoux, E.; Mary, B.; Mignolet, C.; Poux, X.; Sauboua, E.; Schott, C.; Thery, S.; Viennot, P.

    2007-01-01

    To explore the evolution of a human impacted river, the Seine (France), over the 21st century, three driving factors were examined: climate, agriculture, and point source inputs of domestic and industrial origin. Three future scenarios were constructed, by modification of a baseline representative of recent conditions. A climate change scenario, based on simulations by a general circulation model driven by the SRES-A2 scenario of radiative forcing, accounts for an average warming of + 3.3 deg. C over the watershed and marked winter increase and summer decrease in precipitation. To illustrate a possible reduction in nitrate pollution from agricultural origin, a scenario of good agricultural practices was considered, introducing catch crops and a 20% decrease in nitrogen fertilisation. Future point source pollution was estimated following the assumptions embedded in scenario SRES-A2 regarding demographic, economic and technologic changes, leading to reductions of 30 to 75% compared to 2000, depending on the pollutants. Four models, addressing separate components of the river system (agronomical model, hydrogeological model, land surface model and water quality model), were used to analyse the relative impact of these scenarios on water quality, in light of their impact on hydrology and crop production. The first-order driving factor of water quality over the 21st century is the projected reduction of point source pollution, inducing a noticeable decrease in eutrophication and oxygen deficits downstream from Paris. The impact of climate change on these terms is driven by the warming of the water column. It enhances algal growth in spring and the loss factors responsible for phytoplankton mortality in late summer (grazers and viruses). In contrast, increased seasonal contrasts in river discharge have a negligible impact on river water quality, as do the changes in riverine nitrate concentration, which never gets limiting. The latter changes have a similar magnitude

  11. Reviews and syntheses: Anthropogenic perturbations to carbon fluxes in Asian river systems – concepts, emerging trends, and research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are drastically altering water and material flows in river systems across Asia. These anthropogenic perturbations have rarely been linked to the carbon (C fluxes of Asian rivers that may account for up to 40–50 % of the global fluxes. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework for assessing the human impacts on Asian river C fluxes, along with an update on anthropogenic alterations of riverine C fluxes. Drawing on case studies conducted in three selected rivers (the Ganges, Mekong, and Yellow River and other major Asian rivers, the review focuses on the impacts of river impoundment and pollution on CO2 outgassing from the rivers draining South, Southeast, and East Asian regions that account for the largest fraction of river discharge and C exports from Asia and Oceania. A critical examination of major conceptual models of riverine processes against observed trends suggests that to better understand altered metabolisms and C fluxes in anthropogenic land-water-scapes, or riverine landscapes modified by human activities, the traditional view of the river continuum should be complemented with concepts addressing spatial and temporal discontinuities created by human activities, such as river impoundment and pollution. Recent booms in dam construction on many large Asian rivers pose a host of environmental problems, including increased retention of sediment and associated C. A small number of studies that measured greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in dammed Asian rivers have reported contrasting impoundment effects: decreased GHG emissions from eutrophic reservoirs with enhanced primary production vs. increased emissions from the flooded vegetation and soils in the early years following dam construction or from the impounded reaches and downstream estuaries during the monsoon period. These contrasting results suggest that the rates of metabolic processes in the impounded and downstream reaches can vary greatly longitudinally

  12. Reviews and syntheses: Anthropogenic perturbations to carbon fluxes in Asian river systems - concepts, emerging trends, and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyung; Nayna, Omme K.; Begum, Most S.; Chea, Eliyan; Hartmann, Jens; Keil, Richard G.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Lu, Xixi; Ran, Lishan; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Sarma, Vedula V. S. S.; Tareq, Shafi M.; Xuan, Do Thi; Yu, Ruihong

    2018-05-01

    Human activities are drastically altering water and material flows in river systems across Asia. These anthropogenic perturbations have rarely been linked to the carbon (C) fluxes of Asian rivers that may account for up to 40-50 % of the global fluxes. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework for assessing the human impacts on Asian river C fluxes, along with an update on anthropogenic alterations of riverine C fluxes. Drawing on case studies conducted in three selected rivers (the Ganges, Mekong, and Yellow River) and other major Asian rivers, the review focuses on the impacts of river impoundment and pollution on CO2 outgassing from the rivers draining South, Southeast, and East Asian regions that account for the largest fraction of river discharge and C exports from Asia and Oceania. A critical examination of major conceptual models of riverine processes against observed trends suggests that to better understand altered metabolisms and C fluxes in anthropogenic land-water-scapes, or riverine landscapes modified by human activities, the traditional view of the river continuum should be complemented with concepts addressing spatial and temporal discontinuities created by human activities, such as river impoundment and pollution. Recent booms in dam construction on many large Asian rivers pose a host of environmental problems, including increased retention of sediment and associated C. A small number of studies that measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dammed Asian rivers have reported contrasting impoundment effects: decreased GHG emissions from eutrophic reservoirs with enhanced primary production vs. increased emissions from the flooded vegetation and soils in the early years following dam construction or from the impounded reaches and downstream estuaries during the monsoon period. These contrasting results suggest that the rates of metabolic processes in the impounded and downstream reaches can vary greatly longitudinally over time as a

  13. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    knowledge of the Nile sediment system not only has wide paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic and archaeological implications, including a better understanding of Quaternary environmental changes in northern Africa, water circulation and sapropel development in the Mediterranean Sea, and impact on the Egyptian civilization by natural phenomena, but is also strongly needed to mitigate undesirable impacts of human activities on natural equilibria and to improve watershed, reservoir and coastal management. Mineralogical data (Shukri, 1950) integrated by new petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical analyses (Padoan et al., 2011) show how sediments derived from Archean gneisses exposed through northern Uganda and from Panafrican basements drained by Ethiopian tributaries of River Sobat become progressively enriched in quartz at the expense of unstable components across the Sudd and Machar Marshes (grey shaded area). Petrographic, mineralogical, and isotopic signatures are gradually homogenized along both the Bahr el Jebel/Bahr ez Zeraf and the Sobat and remain finally unchanged down to Khartoum, which suggests massive sediment dumping in the marshes. This explains why White Nile sediment contribution to the main Nile downstream Khartoum is virtually negligible (Garzanti et al., 2006). Garzanti, E., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., Abdel Megid, A.A., El Kammar, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. Padoan, M., Garzanti, E., Harlavan, Y., Villa, I.M., 2011. Tracing Nile sediment sources by Sr and Nd isotope signatures (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75, 3627-3644. Said, R., 1993. The River Nile, Oxford, Pergamon, 1993, 320 p. Shukri, N.M., 1950. The mineralogy of some Nile sediments. Quart. J. Geol. Soc. London, 105, 511-534. Williams, M.A.J., Faure, H., 1980. The Sahara and the Nile. Balkema, Rotterdam. Woodward, J.C., Macklin, M.G., Krom, M.D., Williams, M.A.J., 2007

  14. Watershed System Model: The Essentials to Model Complex Human-Nature System at the River Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Lin, Hui; Cai, Ximing; Fang, Miao; Ge, Yingchun; Hu, Xiaoli; Chen, Min; Li, Weiyue

    2018-03-01

    Watershed system models are urgently needed to understand complex watershed systems and to support integrated river basin management. Early watershed modeling efforts focused on the representation of hydrologic processes, while the next-generation watershed models should represent the coevolution of the water-land-air-plant-human nexus in a watershed and provide capability of decision-making support. We propose a new modeling framework and discuss the know-how approach to incorporate emerging knowledge into integrated models through data exchange interfaces. We argue that the modeling environment is a useful tool to enable effective model integration, as well as create domain-specific models of river basin systems. The grand challenges in developing next-generation watershed system models include but are not limited to providing an overarching framework for linking natural and social sciences, building a scientifically based decision support system, quantifying and controlling uncertainties, and taking advantage of new technologies and new findings in the various disciplines of watershed science. The eventual goal is to build transdisciplinary, scientifically sound, and scale-explicit watershed system models that are to be codesigned by multidisciplinary communities.

  15. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  16. Pythiosis in dogs in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of five cases of pythiosis in dogs in northeast semiarid. The disease occurred in dogs with age between one and three years, females and males of different breeds. The dogs were created in urban areas, but were occasionally taken to the countryside and then had contact with wetlands. The main clinical signs were weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and tenesmus. Macroscopically there were intestinal wall thickening with irregular firm masses with yellowish granular areas interspersed with a whitish tissue, involving the duodenum, colon and rectum, extending to the lymph nodes and pancreas, and the vagina and liver. In the skin there were areas of alopecia and irregular ulcerations, some containing small cavitations with serosanguineous secretion. Microscopically there were pyogranulomatous inflammation and in one case also there were eosinophilic necrosis associated with negative images tubuliformes by hematoxylin and eosin, strongly stained by GMS and weakly by PAS. Hyphae were strongly marked by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal anti-Pythium insidiosum. The disease occurs sporadically in dogs in the semiarid Northeast, however should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic diseases and proliferative aspect of the gastrointestinal system, and front skin lesions of difficult treatment.

  17. Contamination of semiarid potiguar reservoirs by harmful bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeton Duarte do Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination in the semi-arid section of Northeast Brazil is a current concern for the country’s researchers, since this region is considered one of the poorest in Brazil and the water in these locations is a primary vehicle for disease transmission. We collected physical and chemical data as well as water samples from four semiarid potiguar reservoirs during the dry and rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. These samples were prepared in a laboratory at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN and their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were evaluated. The procedures of microbial isolation and identification followed the Standard Methods for Examinations of Water and Wastewater. Then Vitek II system (Bio-Merieux® was used to identify the microbial specimens and we calculated the frequency of specimens’ occurrence. Altogether, 168 bacteria were isolated and identified; 97% were Gram-negative and only 3% were Gram-positive. Within the Gram negatives, 73.2% were identified as belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and, in general terms, the most constant genera in the water reservoirs were Vibrio and Aeromonas. Among the Enterobacteriaceae family, the species Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequent. There was no statistical difference between the number or morphotype groups found in the periods, p=0.255 and p=0.237, respectively. The analyzed data indicate possible contamination of these water reservoirs by human and/or animal fecal material.

  18. Global Drainage Patterns to Modern Terrestrial Sedimentary Basins and its Influence on Large River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, B.; Helland-Hansen, W.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term preservation of alluvial sediments is dependent on the hydrological processes that deposit sediments solely within an area that has available accomodation space and net subsidence know as a sedimentary basin. An understanding of the river processes contributing to terrestrial sedimentary basins is essential to fundamentally constrain and quantify controls on the modern terrestrial sink. Furthermore, the terrestrial source to sink controls place constraints on the entire coastal, shelf and deep marine sediment routing systems. In addition, the geographical importance of modern terrestrial sedimentary basins for agriculture and human settlements has resulted in significant upstream anthropogenic catchment modification for irrigation and energy needs. Yet to our knowledge, a global catchment model depicting the drainage patterns to modern terrestrial sedimentary basins has previously not been established that may be used to address these challenging issues. Here we present a new database of 180,737 global catchments that show the surface drainage patterns to modern terrestrial sedimentary basins. This is achieved by using high resolution river networks derived from digital elevation models in relation to newly acquired maps on global modern sedimentary basins to identify terrestrial sinks. The results show that active tectonic regimes are typically characterized by larger terrestrial sedimentary basins, numerous smaller source catchments and a high source to sink relief ratio. To the contrary passive margins drain catchments to smaller terrestrial sedimentary basins, are composed of fewer source catchments that are relatively larger and a lower source to sink relief ratio. The different geomorphological characteristics of source catchments by tectonic setting influence the spatial and temporal patterns of fluvial architecture within sedimentary basins and the anthropogenic methods of exploiting those rivers. The new digital database resource is aimed to help

  19. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  20. Assessment of flood-induced changes of phytoplankton along a river-floodplain system using the morpho-functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Melita; Spoljarić, Dubravka; Stević, Filip; Zuna Pfeiffer, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we aimed to find out how the differences in hydrological connectivity between the main river channel and adjacent floodplain influence the changes in phytoplankton community structure along a river-floodplain system. The research was performed in the River Danube floodplain (Croatian river section) in the period 2008-2009 characterised by different flooding pattern on an annual time scale. By utilising the morpho-functional approach and multivariate analyses, the flood-derived structural changes of phytoplankton were analysed. The lake stability during the isolation phase triggered the specific pattern of morpho-functional groups (MFG) which were characterised by cyanobacterial species achieving very high biomass. Adversely, the high water turbulence in the lake during the frequent and extreme flooding led to evident similarity between lake and river assemblages. Besides different diatom species (groups of small and large centrics and pennates), which are the most abundant representatives in the river phytoplankton, many other groups such as cryptophytes and colonial phytomonads appeared to indicate altered conditions in the floodplain driven by flooding. Having different functional properties, small centric diatom taxa sorted to only one MFG cannot clearly reflect environmental changes that are shown by the species-level pattern. Disadvantages in using the MFG approach highlight that it is still necessary to combine it with taxonomical approach in monitoring of phytoplankton in the river-floodplain ecosystems.

  1. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-01-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes...

  2. Estimation of alluvial recharge in the semiarid

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Tafnes S.; Montenegro,Suzana M. G. L.; Montenegro,Abelardo A. de A.; Rodrigues,Diogo F. B.

    2014-01-01

    In areas where there is irrigated agriculture, the recuperation of water reserves in alluvial aquifers may occur preferentially due to precipitation. Recharging can be evaluated from variation information of water depth measured in piezometers or observation wells. Thus, the aim of this research is to study the recharge in the alluvial aquifer formed by the Mimoso temporary stream in the semiarid region of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil, using the method of the fluctuation of the water level. This s...

  3. Water conservation for semi-arid rangelands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    Water deficiency is most often the cause for low forage production on rangelands in semi-arid and arid regions. Water conservation methods have been developed but additional research is needed to develop the best management practices for various climatic regions. Poor management is another major cause of low rangeland production. Better management, including the application of research findings, depends on attitudes, policies, adaptability of findings, resources for implementation and a good understanding of the governing biotic and abiotic factors. (author)

  4. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra

    2016-04-01

    The development of groundwater resources within the Ethiopian Rift is complicated by the strong physiographic contrasts between the rift floor and the highland and by the manifold hydrogeological setting composed of volcanic rocks of different type and age that are intersected by numerous faults. Hydrogeochemical and isotope data from various regions within the Ethiopian Rift suggest that the aquifers within the semi-arid rift floor receive a significant contribution of groundwater flow from the humid highland. For example, the major ion composition of groundwater samples from Gidabo River Basin (3302 km²) in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift reveals a mixing trend from the highland toward the rift floor; moreover, the stable isotopes of water, deuterium and O-18, of the rift-floor samples indicate a component recharged in the highland. This work aims to assess if the hydrological and hydrogeological data available for Gidabo River Basin is consistent with these findings and to characterize the regional aquifer system within the rift setting. For this purpose, a two-step approach is employed: First, the semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT is used to obtain an estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge within the watershed; second, the numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW is employed to infer aquifer properties and groundwater flow components. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using discharge data from three stream gauging stations within the watershed (Mechal et al., Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.09.001). The resulting recharge distribution exhibits a strong decrease from the highland, where the mean annual recharge amounts to several hundred millimetres, to the rift floor, where annual recharge largely is around 100 mm and below. Using this recharge distribution as input, a two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model was calibrated to hydraulic

  5. The Montana Rivers Information System: Edit/entry program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to: (1) describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and (2) provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  6. The hydrochemistry of a semi-arid pan basin case study: Sua Pan, Makgadikgadi, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, Frank D.; Bryant, Robert G.; McCulloch, Graham; Spiro, Baruch; Wood, Warren W.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents results on the fluid and salt chemistry for the Makgadikgadi, a substantial continental basin in the semi-arid Kalahari. The aims of the study are to improve understanding of the hydrology of such a system and to identify the sources of the solutes and the controls on their cycling within pans. Sampling took place against the backdrop of unusually severe flooding as well as significant anthropogenic extraction of subsurface brines. This paper examines in particular the relationship between the chemistry of soil leachates, fresh stream water, salty lake water, surface salts and subsurface brines at Sua Pan, Botswana with the aim of improving the understanding of the system's hydrology. Occasionally during the short wet season (December-March) surface water enters the saline environment and precipitates mostly calcite and halite, as well as dolomite and traces of other salts associated with the desiccation of the lake. The hypersaline subsurface brine (up to TDS 190,000 mg/L) is homogenous with minor variations due to pumping by BotAsh mine (Botswana Ash (Pty) Ltd.), which extracts 2400 m 3 of brine/h from a depth of 38 m. Notable is the decrease in TDS as the pumping rate increases which may be indicative of subsurface recharge by less saline water. Isotope chemistry for Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr average 0.722087) and S (δ 34 S average 34.35) suggests subsurface brines have been subject to a lithological contribution of undetermined origin. Recharge of the subsurface brine from surface water including the Nata River appears to be negligible

  7. Will water scarcity in semiarid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Philippe Nicot, Jean

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about water constraints limiting oil and gas production using hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions and during droughts. Here we evaluate HF vulnerability by comparing HF water demand with supply in the semiarid Texas Eagle Ford play, the largest shale oil producer globally. Current HF water demand (18 billion gallons, bgal; 68 billion liters, bL in 2013) equates to ∼16% of total water consumption in the play area. Projected HF water demand of ∼330 bgal with ∼62 000 additional wells over the next 20 years equates to ∼10% of historic groundwater depletion from regional irrigation. Estimated potential freshwater supplies include ∼1000 bgal over 20 yr from recharge and ∼10 000 bgal from aquifer storage, with land-owner lease agreements often stipulating purchase of freshwater. However, pumpage has resulted in excessive drawdown locally with estimated declines of ∼100–200 ft in ∼6% of the western play area since HF began in 2009–2013. Non-freshwater sources include initial flowback water, which is ≤5% of HF water demand, limiting reuse/recycling. Operators report shifting to brackish groundwater with estimated groundwater storage of 80 000 bgal. Comparison with other semiarid plays indicates increasing brackish groundwater and produced water use in the Permian Basin and large surface water inputs from the Missouri River in the Bakken play. The variety of water sources in semiarid regions, with projected HF water demand representing ∼3% of fresh and ∼1% of brackish water storage in the Eagle Ford footprint indicates that, with appropriate management, water availability should not physically limit future shale energy production. (letter)

  8. Formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: Observations from three diverse river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Parker, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology; yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. Here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in the following three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River (Papua New Guinea), the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed, single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V-shaped cross section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bidirectional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  9. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  10. River Stream-Flow and Zayanderoud Reservoir Operation Modeling Using the Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zayanderoud basin is located in the central plateau of Iran. As a result of population increase and agricultural and industrial developments, water demand on this basin has increased extensively. Given the importance of reservoir operation in water resource and management studies, the performance of fuzzy inference system (FIS for Zayanderoud reservoir operation is investigated in this paper. The model of operation consists of two parts. In the first part, the seasonal river stream-flow is forecasted using the fuzzy rule-based system. The southern oscillated index, rain, snow, and discharge are inputs of the model and the seasonal river stream-flow its output. In the second part, the operation model is constructed. The amount of releases is first optimized by a nonlinear optimization model and then the rule curves are extracted using the fuzzy inference system. This model operates on an "if-then" principle, where the "if" is a vector of fuzzy permits and "then" is the fuzzy result. The reservoir storage capacity, inflow, demand, and year condition factor are used as permits. Monthly release is taken as the consequence. The Zayanderoud basin is investigated as a case study. Different performance indices such as reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability are calculated. According to results, FIS works more effectively than the traditional reservoir operation methods such as standard operation policy (SOP or linear regression.

  11. Efficiency of Different Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Huong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA is characteristic with diversity of small-scale production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam where most integrated aquaculture systems are closely associated to the VAC model, an ecosystem production that three components: garden (V, pond (A and livestock pen (C are integrated. These VAC systems effectively use all the available land, air, water and solar energy resources, and also effectively recycle by-products and waste for providing diversified agricultural products to meet the complex nutritional demands of rural communities. The IAA systems are dynamic, diverse and subject to economic and environmental changes. By investigating 167 aquaculture households, the traditional VAC, New VAC, Animal Fish (AF and Commercial Fish (FS systems are identified as four existing IAA systems. This paper presents the main characteristics and economic efficiency of these IAA systems. The study’s results indicate clear evidence that the traditional VAC system and New VAC system are the most efficient and effective models. The findings of this study have shed light on the important role of integrated aquaculture systems to food security and economic development of households and local communities. The VAC systems are likely to propose for improving household food security and developing the local economy.

  12. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  13. Decision support system based on DPSIR framework for a low flow Mediterranean river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The application of decision making practices are effectively enhanced by adopting a procedural approach setting out a general methodological framework within which specific methods, models and tools can be integrated. Integrated Catchment Management is a process that recognizes the river catchment as a basic organizing unit for understanding and managing ecosystem process. Decision support system becomes more complex by considering unavoidable human activities within a catchment that are motivated by multiple and often competing criteria and/or constraints. DPSIR is a causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment. This framework has been adopted by the European Environment Agency and the components of this model are: Driving forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses. The proposed decision support system is a two step framework based on DPSIR. Considering first three component of DPSIR, Driving forces, Pressures and States, hydrological and ecosystem services models are developed. The last two components, Impact and Responses, helped to develop Bayesian Network to integrate the models. This decision support system also takes account of social, economic and environmental aspects. A small river of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain), Francoli River with a low flow (~2 m3/s) is selected for integration of catchment assessment models and to improve knowledge transfer from research to the stakeholders with a view to improve decision making process. DHI's MIKE BASIN software is used to evaluate the low-flow Francolí River with respect to the water bodies' characteristics and also to assess the impact of human activities aiming to achieve good water status for all waters to comply with the WFD's River Basin Management Plan. Based on ArcGIS, MIKE BASIN is a versatile decision support tool that provides a simple and powerful framework for managers and stakeholders to address multisectoral allocation and environmental issues in river

  14. Development of an Evapotranspiration Data Assimilation Technique for Streamflow Estimates: A Case Study in a Semi-Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow estimates are substantially important as fresh water shortages increase in arid and semi-arid regions where evapotranspiration (ET is a significant contribution to the water balance. In this regard, evapotranspiration data can be assimilated into a distributed hydrological model (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool for improving streamflow estimates. The SWAT model has been widely used for streamflow estimations, but the applications combining SWAT and ET products were rare. Thus, this study aims to develop a SWAT-based evapotranspiration data assimilation system. In particular, SWAT is gridded at Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU level to incorporate gridded ET products acquired from the remote sensing-based ETMonitor model. In the modeling case, Gridded SWAT (GSWAT shows a good agreement of streamflow modeling with the original SWAT. Such a scant margin between them is due to the modeling domain mismatch caused by different HRU delineations. In the ET assimilation case, we carry out a synthetic data experiment to illustrate the state augmentation Direct Insertion (DI method and a real data experiment for the upper Heihe River Basin. The results demonstrate the benefits of the ET assimilation for improving hydrologic processes representations. In the future, more remotely sensed data can be assimilated into the data assimilation system to provide more reliable hydrological predictions.

  15. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  16. Efeito da Gliricidia sepium sobre nutrientes do solo, microclima e produtividade do milho em sistema agroflorestal no Agreste Paraibano Effects of Gliricidia sepium on soil nutrients, microclimate and maize yield in an agroforestry system in semi-arid Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Martin Pérez Marin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gliricidia sepium é uma leguminosa arbórea que tem sido utilizada em sistemas em aléias no semi-árido nordestino por apresentar bom desenvolvimento em condições de estresse hídrico. Entretanto, há pouca informação disponível sobre o efeito da introdução dessa espécie nos agroecossistemas da região. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da distância de plantas de Gliricidia sepium sobre características da cultura do milho e do solo e microclima no Agreste Paraibano. O estudo foi realizado no município de Esperança (PB, em área de 0,5 ha, onde, em 1996, foram plantadas fileiras de G. sepium espaçadas 6 m entre si e com 1 m entre as árvores. Nesta área, em 2002, foram delimitadas quatro parcelas de 6 x 8 m e, em cada parcela, foi estabelecido um transeto perpendicular às fileiras de árvores com três posições de amostragem: (1 nas fileiras de árvores (0 m; (2 a 1 m das fileiras de árvores, e (3 a 3 m de distância das fileiras de árvores. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A massa seca de folhedo caído embaixo da fileira de árvores foi de 1.390 kg ha-1 e diminuiu, gradativamente, para 270 kg ha-1 a 3 m de distância das árvores. As concentrações de P, K e matéria orgânica leve (MOL embaixo das árvores foram maiores do que a 1 e 3 m de distância das fileiras. As médias mensais das temperaturas mínimas do ar e do solo embaixo e a 3 m das árvores foram similares. Entretanto, as médias mensais das temperaturas máximas do solo e do ar foram de 6 e 2 °C mais altas a 3 m das árvores, respectivamente, ao longo do período de estudo. A umidade do solo foi significativamente menor embaixo das árvores do que a 1 e 3 m de distância. O milho produziu mais grãos e palha e acumulou mais nutrientes nas posições mais próximas das fileiras de G. sepium.Gliricidia sepium is a leguminous tree that has been used in alley cropping systems in the

  17. Edaphic factors controlling summer (rainy season) greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and CH4) from semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Gabriel N; Ferreira, Tiago O; Siqueira Neto, M; Queiroz, Hermano M; Artur, Adriana G; Mendonça, Eduardo De S; Silva, Ebenezer De O; Otero, Xosé L

    2016-01-15

    The soil attributes controlling the CO2, and CH4 emissions were assessed in semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil) under different anthropogenic activities. Soil samples were collected from different mangroves under different anthropogenic impacts, e.g., shrimp farming (Jaguaribe River); urban wastes (Cocó River) and a control site (Timonha River). The sites were characterized according to the sand content; physicochemical parameters (Eh and pH); total organic C; soil C stock (SCS) and equivalent SCS (SCSEQV); total P and N; dissolved organic C (DOC); and the degree of pyritization (DOP). The CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the soils were assessed using static closed chambers. Higher DOC and SCS and the lowest DOP promote greater CO2 emission. The CH4 flux was only observed at Jaguaribe which presented higher DOP, compared to that found in mangroves from humid tropical climates. Semiarid mangrove soils cannot be characterized as important greenhouse gas sources, compared to humid tropical mangroves.

  18. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  19. Integrated and Sustainable Water Management of Red-Thai Binh Rivers System Under Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Mason, E.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Vietnam is currently undergoing a rapid economic and demographic development, characterized by internal migrations from the rural areas to the main cities with increasing water demands to guarantee adequate energy and food productions. Hydropower is the primary renewable energy resource in the country, accounting for 33% of the total electric power production, while agriculture contributes for 18% of the national GDP and employs 70% of the population. To cope with this heterogeneous and fast-evolving context, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and by adopting effective tools to analyze the potential of current and projected infrastructure along with their operating strategies. This work contributes a novel decision-analytic framework based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Direct Policy Search (MOE-DPS) to support the design of integrated and sustainable water resources management strategies in the Red-Thai Binh River system. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, with a total area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating flood primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. The dimensionality of the system and the number of objectives involved increase the complexity of the problem. We address these challenges by combining the MOE-DPS framework with Gaussian radial basis functions policy approximation and the Borg MOEA, which have been demonstrated to guarantee good solutions quality in such many objective policy design problems. Results show that the proposed framework successfully identified alternative management strategies for the system, which explore different tradeoffs among the multi-sector services involved

  20. Variation in stable isotopes of freshwater mussel shells in a Kentucky river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, A. M.; Haag, W.; Price, S.; Weisrock, D.

    2017-12-01

    Isotopic signatures in freshwater mussel shells can reflect environmental differences among streams and human impacts on river systems. In the southeastern United States, mussels exhibit extraordinary biodiversity, serve an important role as filter feeders, and are sensitive to environmental change. Additionally, their long life-span (up to 50 years) and seasonal shell deposition can permit high-resolution environmental reconstructions. We examined variation in shell stable isotope values among mussel species and locations throughout the Licking River system in Kentucky. We sampled 8 species at 11 locations. These species represented a range of life-history traits, and locations were distributed among tributaries and the main stem of the Licking River. Samples of the outer organic periostracum layer were analysed for organic δ13C and δ15N, while organic δ15N and inorganic δ13C and δ18O were measured in the inner carbonate portion of the shell. At the same location, preliminary results show variations 2‰ in δ13C and 1‰ in δ15N between different species. We suspect these relationships are due to variations in diet and/or body size. Some, though not all, specimens show variation along the growth axis. For the same species at different locations, preliminary results showed a range of 4‰ in δ13C and 10‰ in δ15N values. Isotope ratios of specimens from the main stem were distinct from those of specimens from the river's largest tributary. Overall, δ13C shows distinct values for each tributary, while δ15N shows a general decline downstream. These variations are likely the result of environmental factors such as the degree of karstification and the ratio of forest to pasture within the catchment. We hope to use this study to identify if any isotopically distinct sources, such as fertilizers or animal manure, contribute to the high nutrient load in these systems. These results represent an exploratory effort to describe watershed-scale and mussel

  1. Neogene palaeochannel deposits in Sudan - Remnants of a trans-Saharan river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert, Robert; Eisawi, Ali A. M.; Hamed, Basher; Babikir, Ibrahim A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The start of Nile-type trans-Saharan drainage systems in NE Africa during the Cenozoic is disputed. Stratigraphical and sedimentological data in Egypt are partly in conflict with the uplift history of potential source areas of water and sediment in East Africa. Here, we investigate outcrops of the Wadi Awatib Conglomerate in Sudan that provide the first evidence of northerly flowing Neogene rivers in the region. Dimension and relief of basal erosion surfaces, overall geometry of deposits and palaeocurrent indicators demonstrate that the deposits represent the fill of northward-oriented incised valleys. The conglomerates were deposited in deep gravel-bed rivers, by hyperconcentrated flows, tractions carpets and gravel bars, primarily during heavily sediment-laden floods of probably monsoonal origin. Stratigraphical and geomorphological relationships show that the deposits are between Eocene and Pliocene in age. Considering the structural history of the region and periods in the Cenozoic with palaeoclimatic conditions suitable for the production and transport of gravels, we hypothesize that the dramatic base-level fall during the Late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis in combination with a favorable palaeoclimate caused the incision of valleys and their subsequent filling with conglomerates. Sea-level change in the Mediterranean Sea and headward erosion of streams that were connected to the Egyptian Nile might have been the primary cause of valley incision and deposition of conglomerates, despite a location far inland from the coastline. We suggest that the deposits document a relatively young Neogene (Messinian to early Pliocene) trans-Saharan river system unrelated to uplift of the Ethiopian Plateau.

  2. National-local land-use conflicts in floodways of the Mississippi River system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mathias Kondolf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between national and local governments over land use in floodplains have been well documented in the US and elsewhere. The US National Flood Insurance Program offers subsidized flood insurance to communities that agree to prevent further development in floodplains, but the requirements are poorly enforced and local governments are commonly reluctant to restrain development on flood-prone lands. In this paper we highlight this problem in particularly sensitive areas: the floodways (or flood bypasses that are essential components of the Mississippi River flood control system. To properly operate the flood control system, the US Army Corps of Engineers must be able to divert flow from the mainstem Mississippi into the bypasses, thereby lowering stage in the main river, and thus minimizing flooding of cities and other vulnerable areas. However, operation of the Birds-Point-New Madrid Floodway in Missouri was compromised in 2011 by local opposition (and a legal challenge ultimately rejected by the US Supreme Court, and it was finally used to accommodate floodwaters. The West Atchafalaya Floodway in Louisiana experienced a threefold increase in the number of structures within the floodway from about 1970 to 2010. Because of the pattern of flooding, the West Atchafalaya Floodway was not needed in 2011, but if it is needed in the future, its operation may be compromised by the extensive encroachments within the floodway. Thus, operation of critical national infrastructure, designed to deal with floods on an interstate, river-basin scale, is compromised by land-use decisions made at the local level.

  3. Carbonate system and nutrients in the Pearl River estuary, China: Seasonal and inter-annual variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Located in southern China and surrounded by several metropolis, the Pearl River estuary is a large subtropical estuary under significant human perturbation. We examined the impact of sewage treatment rate on the water environmental factors. Carbonate system parameters (Dissolved inorganic carbon or DIC, Total alkalinity or TA, and pH), and nutrients were surveyed in the Pearl River estuary from 2000 to 2015. Spatially, concentrations of nutrients were high at low salinity and decreased with salinity in both wet and dry seasons although seasonal variation occurred. However, distribution patterns of DIC and TA differed in wet and dry seasons. In wet season, both DIC and TA were low at low salinity (600-1500 umol kg-1) and increased with salinity, but in dry season they were high at low salinity (3000-3500 umol kg-1) and decreased with salinity. Compared with the years before 2010, both values and distribution patterns of DIC, TA and pH were similar among the years in wet season, but they were conspicuously different in the upper estuary in dry season. Both DIC and TA were more than 1000 umol kg-1 lower than those in the years before 2010. For nutrients at low salinity, the ammonia concentration was much lower in the years after 2010 (200 vs. 400 umol kg-1 in wet season and 400 vs. 800 umol kg-1 in dry season), but nitrate concentration was slightly higher (180 vs 120 mmol kg-1 in wet season and 200 vs 180 mmol kg-1 in dry season). As a reference, carbonate system parameters and nutrients were stable among the 16 years in the adjacent northern South China Sea. The variations in biogeochemical processes induced by nutrients concentration and structure as a result of sewage discharge will be discussed in detail. The decrease in DIC, TA and nutrients in the upper Pearl River estuary after 2010 was due mainly to the improvement of sewage treatment rate and capacity.

  4. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    well; the HFM model was the most accurate compared other models (RMSE = 0.92, both NSE = 0.98, d = 0.99) and the ARIMA model was least accurate (RMSE = 2.06, NSE = 0.92, d = 0.98); however, all models had an overestimation bias (PBIAS = −4.1 to −10.20). Aside from the one day forecast ARIMA model (md = 0.53), all models forecasted fairly well at the one, three, and five day forecasts (md = 0.77–0.96). Overall, we were successful in developing models predicting daily mean temperature across a broad range of temperatures. These models, specifically the GLScos, ANN, and HFM, may serve as important tools for predicting conditions and managing thermal releases in regulated river systems such as the Delaware River. Further model development may be important in customizing predictions for particular biological or ecological needs, or for particular temporal or spatial scales.

  5. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    HFM model was the most accurate compared other models (RMSE = 0.92, both NSE = 0.98, d = 0.99) and the ARIMA model was least accurate (RMSE = 2.06, NSE = 0.92, d = 0.98); however, all models had an overestimation bias (PBIAS = -4.1 to -10.20). Aside from the one day forecast ARIMA model (md = 0.53), all models forecasted fairly well at the one, three, and five day forecasts (md = 0.77-0.96). Overall, we were successful in developing models predicting daily mean temperature across a broad range of temperatures. These models, specifically the GLScos, ANN, and HFM, may serve as important tools for predicting conditions and managing thermal releases in regulated river systems such as the Delaware River. Further model development may be important in customizing predictions for particular biological or ecological needs, or for particular temporal or spatial scales.

  6. Development of a Reservoir System Operation Model for Water Sustainability in the Yaqui River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, A.; Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kauneckis, D.

    2017-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico underwent the Sonora SI project to provide additional water supply to the capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the project involves an interbasin transfer from the Yaqui River Basin (YRB) to the Sonora River Basin via the Independencia aqueduct. This project has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors in the YRB. To improve the management of the Yaqui reservoir system, we developed a daily watershed model. This model allowed us to predict the amount of water available in different regions of the basin. We integrated this simulation to an optimization model which calculates the best water allocation according to water rights established in Mexico's National Water Law. We compared different precipitation forcing scenarios: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies during the historical period of 1980-2013, (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution, and (3) we will be studying a future forecast scenario. The simulation results were compared to historical observations at the three reservoirs existing in the YRB to generate confidence in the simulation tools. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedance frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate building confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of reservoir operation policies.

  7. Nutrient fluctuations in the Quatipuru river: A macrotidal estuarine mangrove system in the Brazilian Amazonian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Fábio Campos; Paes, Eduardo Tavares; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2013-11-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and DSi), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nutrient ratios, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were evaluated for the macrotidal estuarine mangrove system of the Quatipuru river (QUATIES), east Amazon coast, North Brazil. Temporal variability was assessed by fortnightly sampling at a fixed station within the middle portion of the estuary, from November 2009 to November 2010. Spatial variability was investigated from two field surveys conducted in November 2009 (dry season) and May 2010 (rainy season), along the salinity gradient of the system. The average DIN (NO3- + NO2- + NH4+) concentration of 9 μM in the dry season was approximately threefold greater in comparison to the rainy season. NH4+ was the main form of DIN in the dry season, while NO3- predominated in the rainy season. The NH4+ concentrations in the water column during the dry season are largely attributed to release by tidal wash-out of the anoxic interstitial waters of the surficial mangrove sediments. On the other hand, the higher NO3- levels during the wet season, suggested that both freshwater inputs and nitrification processes in the water column acted in concert. The river PO43- concentrations (DIP mangrove forests also played a relevant role as a nutrient source as established by the high variability of the nutrient behaviour along the estuarine gradient, consequently affecting the productivity in QUATIES.

  8. Grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2006-07-01

    A grey fuzzy optimization model is developed for water quality management of river system to address uncertainty involved in fixing the membership functions for different goals of Pollution Control Agency (PCA) and dischargers. The present model, Grey Fuzzy Waste Load Allocation Model (GFWLAM), has the capability to incorporate the conflicting goals of PCA and dischargers in a deterministic framework. The imprecision associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fractional removal levels are modeled in a fuzzy mathematical framework. To address the imprecision in fixing the lower and upper bounds of membership functions, the membership functions themselves are treated as fuzzy in the model and the membership parameters are expressed as interval grey numbers, a closed and bounded interval with known lower and upper bounds but unknown distribution information. The model provides flexibility for PCA and dischargers to specify their aspirations independently, as the membership parameters for different membership functions, specified for different imprecise goals are interval grey numbers in place of a deterministic real number. In the final solution optimal fractional removal levels of the pollutants are obtained in the form of interval grey numbers. This enhances the flexibility and applicability in decision-making, as the decision-maker gets a range of optimal solutions for fixing the final decision scheme considering technical and economic feasibility of the pollutant treatment levels. Application of the GFWLAM is illustrated with case study of the Tunga-Bhadra river system in India.

  9. Adaptation potential to climate change of the Peribonka River (Quebec, Canada) water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minville, M.; Krau, S.; Brissette, F.; Leconte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of climatic change on the Peribonka water resources system. The impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power reservoir operations in the region were assessed using a set of operating rules optimized for future hydrological regimes. Thirty climate change projections from 5 climate models, 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and 3 temporal horizons were used in the study. Climatic change projections were then downscaled using the Delta approach and coupled to a stochastic weather generator developed to account for natural variabilities in local climates. A lumped hydrological model was used to simulate future hydrological regimes. A stochastic dynamic programming technique was then used to optimize reservoir operating rules for various time series of future river flows. The operating rules were then used in conjunction with a river system simulation tool in order to determine reservoir and hydroelectric production scenarios under different climatic change regimes. Results of the study showed significant increases in hydroelectricity production for most of the climate change projections. However, nonproductive spillage was also increased. Reservoir reliability was also reduced. tabs., figs

  10. A stochastic conflict resolution model for trading pollutant discharge permits in river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Kerachian, Reza; Amin, Pedram

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient methodology for developing pollutant discharge permit trading in river systems considering the conflict of interests of involving decision-makers and the stakeholders. In this methodology, a trade-off curve between objectives is developed using a powerful and recently developed multi-objective genetic algorithm technique known as the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The best non-dominated solution on the trade-off curve is defined using the Young conflict resolution theory, which considers the utility functions of decision makers and stakeholders of the system. These utility functions are related to the total treatment cost and a fuzzy risk of violating the water quality standards. The fuzzy risk is evaluated using the Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, an optimization model provides the trading discharge permit policies. The practical utility of the proposed methodology in decision-making is illustrated through a realistic example of the Zarjub River in the northern part of Iran.

  11. CO2 Outgassing from an Urbanized River System Fueled by Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Begum, Most Shirina; Kang, Namgoo; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Continuous underway measurements were combined with a basin-scale survey to examine human impacts on CO 2 outgassing in a highly urbanized river system in Korea. While the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) was measured at 15 sites using syringe equilibration, 3 cruises employing an equilibrator were done along a 30 km transect in the Seoul metropolitan area. The basin-scale survey revealed longitudinal increases in surface water pCO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the downstream reach. Downstream increases in pCO 2 , DOC, fluorescence index, and inorganic N and P reflected disproportionately large contributions from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents carried by major urban tributaries. Cruise transects exhibited strong localized peaks of pCO 2 up to 13 000 μatm and 13 CO 2 enrichment along the confluences of tributaries at an average flow, whereas CO 2 pulses were dampened by increased flow during the monsoon period. Fluctuations in pCO 2 along the eutrophic reach downstream of the confluences reflected environmental controls on the balance between photosynthesis, biodegradation, and outgassing. The results underscore WWTP effluents as an anthropogenic source of nutrients, DOC, and CO 2 and their influences on algal blooms and associated C dynamics in eutrophic urbanized river systems, warranting further research on urbanization-induced perturbations to riverine metabolic processes and carbon fluxes.

  12. Environmental Nitrogen Losses from Commercial Crop Production Systems in the Suwannee River Basin of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J

    2016-01-01

    The springs and the Suwannee river of northern Florida in Middle Suwanee River Basin (MSRB) are among several examples in this planet that have shown a temporal trend of increasing nitrate concentration primarily due to the impacts of non-point sources such as agriculture. The rate of nitrate increase in the river as documented by Ham and Hatzell (1996) was 0.02 mg N L-1 y-1. Best management practices (BMPs) for nutrients were adopted by the commercial farms in the MSRB region to reduce the amounts of pollutants entering the water bodies, however the effectiveness of BMPs remains a topic of interest and discussion among the researchers, environmental administrators and policy makers about the loads of nitrogen entering into groundwater and river systems. Through this study, an initiative was taken to estimate nitrogen losses into the environment from commercial production systems of row and vegetable crops that had adopted BMPs and were under a presumption of compliance with state water quality standards. Nitrogen mass budget was constructed by quantifying the N sources and sinks for three crops (potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and silage corn (Zea mays L.)) over a four year period (2010-2013) on a large representative commercial farm in northern Florida. Fertilizer N was found to be the primary N input and represented 98.0 ± 1.4, 91.0 ± 13.9, 78.0 ± 17.3% of the total N input for potato, sweet corn, and silage corn, respectively. Average crop N uptake represented 55.5%, 60.5%, and 65.2% of the mean total input N whereas average mineral N left in top 0.3 m soil layer at harvest represented 9.1%, 4.5%, and 2.6% of the mean total input N. Mean environmental N losses represented 35.3%, 34.3%, and 32.7% of the mean total input N for potato, sweet corn, and silage corn, respectively. Nitrogen losses showed a linear trend with increase in N inputs. Although, there is no quick fix for controlling N losses from crop production in MSRB, the

  13. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  14. Untangling the biological contributions to soil stability in semiarid shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V. Bala; Bowker, Matthew A.; O'Dell, Thomas E.; Grace, James B.; Redman, Andrea E.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Johnson, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    Communities of plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to influence soil stability individually, but their relative contributions, interactions, and combined effects are not well understood, particularly in arid and semiarid