Le Provost, A-S; Loddé, B; Pietri, J; De Parscau, L; Pougnet, L; Dewitte, J-D; Pougnet, R
Suffering at work among health professionals is a hot topic. Medical students, doctors of tomorrow, are far from being spared. Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders range from 20.3 to 69 % for the former and from 12 to 30 % for the latter. The purpose of this article is to determine these factors by qualitative research, according to medical students' points of view. It is a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The analysis is done according to the Grounded Theory. 12 medical students are interviewed. They expressed difficulties at work and positive factors. Three major themes are identified in selective coding: occupational factors, " study " factors and individual factors. All themes are both a source of well-being and ill-being according to the situations specified in the results. Studying medicine includes positive and negative aspects. Abandonment issues, lack of recognition and insufficient coaching emerge from our study. Screening of suffering at work should be systematic for medical students.
Kim, Hyojin; Park, Sun-Young; Bozeman, Ingrid
While the Internet is a popular source of health information, health seekers' inadequate skills to locate and discern quality information pose a potential threat to their healthcare decision-making. We aimed to examine health information search and appraisal behaviours among young, heavy users of the Internet. In study 1, we observed and interviewed 11 college students about their search strategies and evaluation of websites. In study 2, three health experts evaluated two websites selected as the best information sources in study 1. Familiarity with health websites and confidence in search strategies were major factors affecting search and evaluation behaviours. Website quality was mostly judged by aesthetics and peripheral cues of source credibility and message credibility. In contrast to users' favourable website evaluation, the experts judged the websites to be inappropriate and untrustworthy. Our results highlight a critical need to provide young health seekers with resources and training that are specifically geared toward health information search and appraisal. The role of health seekers' knowledge and involvement with the health issue in search effort and success warrants future research. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
While studio-based instrumental and vocal learning is widely regarded as both important and effective in higher education music, research to date has offered little concrete information about studio practices that students have regarded as ineffective. Two recent case studies investigated what appear to be exceptional instances in which students…
Michele J. McIntosh
Full Text Available Although semi-structured interviews (SSIs are used extensively in research, scant attention is given to their diversity, underlying assumptions, construction, and broad applications to qualitative and mixed-method research. In this three-part article, we discuss the following: (a how the SSI is situated historically including its evolution and diversification, (b the principles of constructing SSIs, and (c how SSIs are utilized as a stand-alone research method, and as strategy within a mixed-method design.
Kallio, Hanna; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Johnson, Martin; Kangasniemi, Mari
To produce a framework for the development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous data collection procedures fundamentally influence the results of studies. The semi-structured interview is a common data collection method, but methodological research on the development of a semi-structured interview guide is sparse. Systematic methodological review. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science for methodological papers on semi-structured interview guides from October 2004-September 2014. Having examined 2,703 titles and abstracts and 21 full texts, we finally selected 10 papers. We analysed the data using the qualitative content analysis method. Our analysis resulted in new synthesized knowledge on the development of a semi-structured interview guide, including five phases: (1) identifying the prerequisites for using semi-structured interviews; (2) retrieving and using previous knowledge; (3) formulating the preliminary semi-structured interview guide; (4) pilot testing the guide; and (5) presenting the complete semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide contributes to the objectivity and trustworthiness of studies and makes the results more plausible. Researchers should consider using this five-step process to develop a semi-structured interview guide and justify the decisions made during it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seyyed Salman Alavi
Full Text Available Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture.Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR was performed for all the cases, and another specialist re-evaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient and test-retest via SPSS18 software.Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM –IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa and test –retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (p<0. 01 respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that semi- structured diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR are valid and reliable for diagnosing mobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM-IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone" were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test-retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pphone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid
Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under “impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified”. This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM–IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including “SMS pathological use” and “High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test–retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pmobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder. PMID:27437008
O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozović, Nicholas; Sinha, Rajiv
For the development of sustainable and realistic water security, generating information on the behaviours, characteristics, and drivers of users, as well as on the resource itself, is essential. In this paper we present a methodology for collecting qualitative and quantitative data on water use practices through semi-structured interviews. This approach facilitates the collection of detailed information on actors' decisions in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Semi-structured interviews are organised around a topic guide, which helps lead the conversation in a standardised way while allowing sufficient opportunity for relevant issues to emerge. In addition, they can be used to obtain certain types of quantitative data. While not as accurate as direct measurements, they can provide useful information on local practices and users' insights. We present an application of the methodology on farmer water use in two districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. By means of 100 farmer interviews, information was collected on various aspects of irrigation practices, including irrigation water volumes, irrigation cost, water source, and their spatial variability. Statistical analyses of the information, along with data visualisation, are also presented, indicating a significant variation in irrigation practices both within and between districts. Our application shows that semi-structured interviews are an effective and efficient method of collecting both qualitative and quantitative information for the assessment of drivers, behaviours, and their outcomes in a data-scarce region. The collection of this type of data could significantly improve insights on water resources, leading to more realistic management options and increased water security in the future.
The interview is the tool for data collection the most used in the context of research conducted in health sciences, human sciences and social sciences. After completing some generalities about the different types of interviews, the focus is on semi-structured interview during its various stages including the processing and data analysis, this from the return of a lived experience of research in work on the border of the field of public health and that of anthropology. If this approach and contextualized the semistructured interview may a priori appear specific, the reader interested in the development of qualitative research in a humanistic perspective and the implementation of multidisciplinary strategies to ascertain its universal character.
Wood, Lisa; Burke, Eilish; Byrne, Rory; Enache, Gabriela; Morrison, Anthony P
Stigma is a significant difficulty for people who experience psychosis. To date, there have been no outcome measures developed to examine stigma exclusively in people with psychosis. The aim of this study was develop and validate a semi-structured interview measure of stigma (SIMS) in psychosis. The SIMS is an eleven item measure of stigma developed in consultation with service users who have experienced psychosis. 79 participants with experience of psychosis were recruited for the purposes of this study. They were administered the SIMS alongside a battery of other relevant outcome measures to examine reliability and validity. A one-factor solution was identified for the SIMS which encompassed all ten rateable items. The measure met all reliability and validity criteria and illustrated good internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, test retest reliability, criterion validity, construct validity, sensitivity to change and had no floor or ceiling effects. The SIMS is a reliable and valid measure of stigma in psychosis. It may be more engaging and acceptable than other stigma measures due to its semi-structured interview format. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Levis, Brooke; Benedetti, Andrea; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Levis, Alexander W; Azar, Marleine; Rice, Danielle B; Chiovitti, Matthew J; Sanchez, Tatiana A; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; Kloda, Lorie A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Akena, Dickens H; Arroll, Bruce; Ayalon, Liat; Baradaran, Hamid R; Baron, Murray; Beraldi, Anna; Bombardier, Charles H; Butterworth, Peter; Carter, Gregory; Chagas, Marcos H; Chan, Juliana C N; Cholera, Rushina; Chowdhary, Neerja; Clover, Kerrie; Conwell, Yeates; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Delgadillo, Jaime; Fann, Jesse R; Fischer, Felix H; Fischler, Benjamin; Fung, Daniel; Gelaye, Bizu; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Greeno, Catherine G; Hall, Brian J; Hambridge, John; Harrison, Patricia A; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hides, Leanne; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hudson, Marie; Hyphantis, Thomas; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ismail, Khalida; Jetté, Nathalie; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Kiely, Kim M; Lamers, Femke; Liu, Shen-Ing; Lotrakul, Manote; Loureiro, Sonia R; Löwe, Bernd; Marsh, Laura; McGuire, Anthony; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Munhoz, Tiago N; Muramatsu, Kumiko; Osório, Flávia L; Patel, Vikram; Pence, Brian W; Persoons, Philippe; Picardi, Angelo; Rooney, Alasdair G; Santos, Iná S; Shaaban, Juwita; Sidebottom, Abbey; Simning, Adam; Stafford, Lesley; Sung, Sharon; Tan, Pei Lin Lynnette; Turner, Alyna; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Weert, Henk C; Vöhringer, Paul A; White, Jennifer; Whooley, Mary A; Winkley, Kirsty; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Zhang, Yuying; Thombs, Brett D
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics. Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit. A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15-3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98-10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7-15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56-1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97). The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.Declaration of interestDrs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the
Isaksen, Jesper; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian
In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications...... with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility....
Dapeng, Liang; Weiwei, Wu
From March to July of 2008, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 experts from the Chinese government, scientific institutes and industrial sectors. This paper summarizes the experts' opinions and draws conclusions about four crucial aspects that influence CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment in China: technology research and experience accumulation, finance support, market development and policy and system. According to interviews result, technological improvement is necessary to cut down on CO 2 capture cost and decrease technological uncertainty. Then, to make some rational policies and systems, with elements such as a carbon tax and clean electricity pricing, to drive power plants to adopt CO 2 capture technology. Furthermore, financial incentive in both the long term and the short term, such as subsidies and CDM, will be important for CCS incentives, encouraging enterprises' enthusiasm for CCS and their capacity to enact it. Lastly, CCS deployment should be conducted under a market-oriented framework in the long term, so a business model and niche market deployment should be considered in advance. Among these aspects, policy and system is more complex than other three aspects, to resolve this obstacle, the innovation on electricity market and government decision model for climate change is crucial. (author)
Ilyushin, Leonid S.
Full Text Available This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.
Mazaheri, Monir; Eriksson, Lars E; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Sunvisson, Helena
To describe people's experiences of living with dementia in Iran. A knowledge gap exists regarding the experiences of living with dementia in nonWestern contexts. This gap may be especially apparent within the Iranian context, where dementia research is relatively new. Deeper understanding about context-related experiences of dementia is a prerequisite for nurses' ability to provide adequate and meaningful care. Qualitative, cross-sectional design. Qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with people living with dementia in urban Iran (six women and nine men; 60-87 years old). The participants experienced their condition as a state of forgetfulness that was accompanied by losses and dependency on others. They wanted to feel good about themselves and feel important, but they continually struggled with matters such as a loss of accountability, feelings of futility and the frustration of others. Economic dependency and a lack of economic resources were sources of feelings of futility. Experiences of living with dementia in Iran included a substantial struggle to stay connected to the social world and to deal with dramatic life changes, aspects of living with dementia that seem to be universal. However, the feelings of financial burden and the experience of being nagged for their shortfalls by family members have seldom been described in other studies and seem to represent a cultural aspect of their experience. The results of the study call for further nursing efforts in supporting people living with dementia in their struggle with their altered lives and in retaining their connections to everyday life. Furthermore, their family members might benefit from specific nursing interventions including information about dementia and advice on how to help the family members with dementia to interact with others while exercising their individual strengths. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rollman, A.; Gorter, R.C.; Visscher, C.M.; Naeije, M.
AIMS: To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. METHODS: A Aims: To assess possible differences between care seekers and non-care seekers with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints, by using semi-structured
Isaksen, Jesper Hesselbjerg; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian
In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative evaluation method. Ratings obtained by the applicants in two selection rounds were analysed for reliability and generalisability using the GENOVA programme. Applicants and assessors were randomly selected for individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. The qualitative data were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. Quantitative analysis yielded a high Cronbach's alpha of 0.97 for the first round and 0.90 for the second round, and a G coefficient of the first round of 0.74 and of the second round of 0.40. Qualitative analysis demonstrated high acceptability and fairness and it improved the assessors' judgment. Applicants reported concerns about loss of personality and some anxiety. The applicants' ability to reflect on their competences was important. The developed selection tool demonstrated an acceptable level of reliability, but only moderate generalisability. The users found that the tool provided a high degree of acceptability; it is a feasible and useful tool for -selection of doctors for specialist training if combined with work-based assessment. Studies on the benefits and drawbacks of this tool compared with other selection models are relevant. not relevant. not relevant.
Feemster Kristen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates were low with Methods Between March and June, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 20 adolescent-mother-clinician triads (60 individual interviews directly after a preventive visit with the initial HPV vaccine due. Interviews followed a guide based on published HPV literature, involved 9 practices, and continued until saturation of the primary themes was achieved. Purposive sampling balanced adolescent ages and practice type (urban resident teaching versus non-teaching. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we analyzed data with NVivo8 software both within and across triads to generate primary themes. Results The study population was comprised of 20 mothers (12 Black, 9 Conclusions Programs to improve HPV vaccine delivery in primary care should focus on promoting effective parent-clinician communication. Research is needed to evaluate strategies to help clinicians engage reluctant parents and passive teens in discussion and measure the impact of distinct clinician decision making approaches on HPV vaccine delivery.
Pawa, Jasmine; Robson, John; Hull, Sally
Primary care practices are increasingly working in larger groups. In 2009, all 36 primary care practices in the London borough of Tower Hamlets were grouped geographically into eight managed practice networks to improve the quality of care they delivered. Quantitative evaluation has shown improved clinical outcomes. To provide insight into the process of network implementation, including the aims, facilitating factors, and barriers, from both the clinical and managerial perspectives. A qualitative study of network implementation in the London borough of Tower Hamlets, which serves a socially disadvantaged and ethnically diverse population. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors, nurses, and managers, and were informed by existing literature on integrated care and GP networks. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis used to analyse emerging themes. Interviewees agreed that networks improved clinical care and reduced variation in practice performance. Network implementation was facilitated by the balance struck between 'a given structure' and network autonomy to adopt local solutions. Improved use of data, including patient recall and peer performance indicators, were viewed as critical key factors. Targeted investment provided the necessary resources to achieve this. Barriers to implementing networks included differences in practice culture, a reluctance to share data, and increased workload. Commissioners and providers were positive about the implementation of GP networks as a way to improve the quality of clinical care in Tower Hamlets. The issues that arose may be of relevance to other areas implementing similar quality improvement programmes at scale. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan Jose; Kaufman, James S; Weiner, Daniel E; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen
Northwestern Nicaragua has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown cause among young adult men. In addition, frequent occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among men and a dysuria syndrome described by sugarcane workers as "chistata" are both reported. This study examines health professionals´ perceptions regarding etiology of these conditions and their treatment approaches, including use of potentially nephrotoxic medications. Nineteen in-person semi-structured interviews were conducted in November 2010 among ten physicians and nine pharmacists practicing in the region. Health professionals perceived CKD as a serious and increasing problem in the region, primarily affecting young men working as manual laborers. All interviewees regarded occupational and environmental exposure to sun and heat, and dehydration as critical factors associated with the occurrence of CKD. These factors were also considered to play a role in the occurrence of chistata in the region. Health professionals indicated that reluctance among workers to hydrate might be influenced by perceptions of water contamination. Symptoms often were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics and antibiotics. Physicians acknowledged that the diagnosis of UTI usually was not based on microbial culture and opined that the use of potentially nephrotoxic medications may be contributing to CKD. Interviews provided evidence suggesting that medications such as diuretics, antibiotics and NSAIDs are widely used and sold over the counter for symptoms that may be related to dehydration and volume depletion. These factors, alone or in combination, may be possible contributors to kidney damage. Acute kidney damage coupled with volume depletion and exposures including medications and infectious agents should be further evaluated as causal factors for CKD in this region.
Campbell, Denise J; Craig, Jonathan C; Mudge, David W; Brown, Fiona G; Wong, Germaine; Tong, Allison
♦ BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is recommended for adults with residual kidney function and without significant comorbidities. However, peritonitis is a serious and common complication that is associated with hospitalization, pain, catheter loss, and death. This study aims to describe the beliefs, needs, and experiences of PD patients about peritonitis, to inform the training, support, and care of these patients. ♦ METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 patients from 3 renal units in Australia who had previous or current experience of PD. The interviews were conducted between November 2014 and November 2015. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. ♦ RESULTS: We identified 4 themes: constant vigilance for prevention (conscious of vulnerability, sharing responsibility with family, demanding attention to detail, ambiguity of detecting infection, ineradicable inhabitation, jeopardizing PD success); invading harm (life-threatening, wreaking internal damage, debilitating pain, losing control and dignity); incapacitating lifestyle interference (financial strain, isolation and separation, exacerbating burden on family); and exasperation with hospitalization (dread of hospital admission, exposure to infection, gruelling follow-up schedule, exposure to harm). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Patients perceived that peritonitis could threaten their health, treatment modality, and lifestyle, which motivated vigilance and attention to hygiene. They felt a loss of control due to debilitating symptoms including pain and having to be hospitalized, and they were uncertain about how to monitor for signs of peritonitis. Providing patients with education about the causes and signs of peritonitis and addressing their concerns about lifestyle impact, financial impact, hospitalization, and peritonitis-related anxieties may improve treatment satisfaction and outcomes for patients requiring PD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozovic, Nicholas
To build an accurate, robust understanding of the environment, it is important to not only collect information describing its physical characteristics, but also the drivers which influence it. As environmental change, from increasing CO2 levels to decreasing water levels, is often heavily influenced by human activity, gathering information on anthropogenic as well as environmental variables is extremely important. This can mean collecting qualitative, as well as quantitative information. In reality studies are often bound by financial and time constraints, limiting the depth and detail of the research. It is up to the researcher to determine what the best methodology to answer the research questions is likely to be. Here we present a methodology of collecting qualitative and quantitative information in tandem for hydrological studies through the use of semi-structured interviews. This is applied to a case study in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, North India, one of the most intensely irrigated areas of the world. Here, decreasing water levels exacerbated by unchecked water abstraction, an expanding population and government subsidies, have put the long term resilience of the farming population in doubt. Through random selection of study locations, combined with convenience sampling of the participants therein, we show how the data collected can provide valuable insight into the drivers which have led to the current water scenario. We also show how reliable quantitative information can, using the same methodology, be effectively and efficiently extracted for modelling purposes, which along with developing an understanding of the characteristics of the environment is vital in coming up with realistic and sustainable solutions for water resource management in the future.
Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann; Johannessen, Helle
as rehabilitation after colorectal cancer, a sub-sample of 31 participants completed the MYCaW questionnaire and the priority list and were interviewed before, during and after the treatment period. Setting Treatments were provided in healers’ clinics in Denmark. Main outcome measures For each participant......Objectives To compare the capacity of the MYCaW questionnaire, a priority list of concerns covered by validated questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews to identify patients’ personalized concerns and related changes. Design In a pragmatic trial on the effectiveness of energy healing...... experience with the treatment, while concerns stated in interviews and the priority list remained stable throughout the study; (2) emotional concerns were reported more often in interviews than in MYCaW, physical concerns were predominant in MYCaW, and quality of life was marked as a primary concern most...
Hendrie, H. C.; Lane, K. A.; Ogunniyi, A.; Baiyewu, O.; Gureje, O.; Evans, R.; Smith-Gamble, V.; Pettaway, M.; Unverzagt, F. W.; Gao, S.; Hall, K. S.
Background Assessing function is a crucial element in the diagnosis of dementia. This information is usually obtained from key informants. However, reliable informants are not always available. Methods A 10-item semi-structured home interview (the CHIF, or Clinician Home-based Interview to assess Function) to assess function primarily by measuring instrumental activities of daily living directly was developed and tested for inter-rater reliability and validity as part of the Indianapolis–Ibadan dementia project. The primary validity measurements were correlations between scores on the CHIF and independently gathered scores on the Blessed Dementia Scale (from informants) and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Sensitivities and specificities of scores on the CHIF and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed with dementia as the dependent variable. Results Inter-rater reliability for the CHIF was high (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.99 in Indianapolis and 0.87 in Ibadan). Internal consistency, in both samples, was good (Cronbach’s α 0.95 in Indianapolis and 0.83 in Ibadan). Scores on the CHIF correlated well with the Blessed Dementia scores at both sites (−0.71, p < 0.0001 for Indianapolis and −0.56, p < 0.0001 for Ibadan) and with the MMSE (0.75, p < 0.0001 for Indianapolis and 0.44, p < 0.0001 for Ibadan). For all items at both sites, the subjects without dementia performed significantly better than those with dementia. The area under the ROC curve for dementia diagnosis was 0.965 for Indianapolis and 0.925 for Ibadan. Conclusion The CHIF is a useful instrument to assess function directly in elderly participants in international studies, particularly in the absence of reliable informants. PMID:16640794
Peterson, Kendra; Hahn, Howard; Lee, Amber J; Madison, Catherine A; Atri, Alireza
Most patients with dementia or cognitive impairment receive care from family members, often untrained for this challenging role. Caregivers may not access publicly available caregiving information, and caregiver education programs are not widely implemented clinically. Prior large surveys yielded broad quantitative understanding of caregiver information needs, but do not illuminate the in-depth, rich, and nuanced caregiver perspectives that can be gleaned using qualitative methodology. We aimed to understand perspectives about information sources, barriers and preferences, through semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers. Content analysis identified important themes. We interviewed 19 women, 8 men; mean age 58.5 years; most adult children (15) or spouses (8) of the care recipient. Dementia symptoms often developed insidiously, with delayed disease acknowledgement and caregiver self-identification. While memory loss was common, behavioral symptoms were most troublesome, often initially unrecognized as disease indicators. Emerging themes: 1.) Barriers to seeking information often result from knowledge gaps, rather than reluctance to assume the caregiver role; 2.) Most caregivers currently receive insufficient information. Caregivers are open to many information sources, settings, and technologies, including referrals to other healthcare professionals, print material, and community and internet resources, but expect the primary care provider (PCP) to recommend, endorse, and guide them to specific sources. These findings replicated and expanded on results from previous quantitative surveys and, importantly, revealed a previously unrecognized essential factor: despite receiving insufficient information, caregivers place critical value on their relationship with care recipient PCPs to receive recommendations, guidance and endorsement to sources of caregiving information. Implications include: 1.) Greater public education is needed to help caregivers identify and
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline
was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...... watched a videotaped interview. Results: Inter-rater reliability coefficients varied between domains and were not sufficient for clinical practice, but may support the use of the interview to assess the dimensions of personality functioning for research purposes. Conclusions: While designed to measure...
McCrohon, Mark; Nyland, Berenice
This paper examined domestic educator and Chinese international student (CIS) perspectives on their experience of the commoditisation of international higher education in Australia. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with academic and student participants. A Trans-disciplinary Framework derived from grounded theory and the Auditable…
"Only your blood can tell the story"--a qualitative research study using semi-structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.
Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Davis, Joshua; Johnston, Vanessa
Hepatitis B is endemic in the Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory of Australia and significantly contributes to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is recognised that low health literacy levels, different worldviews and English as a second language all contribute to the difficulties health workers often have in explaining biomedical health concepts, relevant to hepatitis B infection, to patients. The aim of this research project was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous adults and their health care providers relating to hepatitis B infection with a view to using this as the evidence base to develop a culturally appropriate educational tool. The impetus for this project came from health clinic staff at a remote community in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, in partnership with a visiting specialist liver clinic from the Royal Darwin Hospital. Participants were clinic patients with hepatitis B (n = 12), community members (n = 9) and key informants (n = 13); 25 were Indigenous individuals.A participatory action research project design was used with purposive sampling to identify participants. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore: current understanding of hepatitis B, desire for knowledge, and perspectives on how people could acquire the information needed. All individuals were offered the use of an interpreter. The data were examined using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Low levels of biomedical knowledge about Hepatitis B, negative perceptions of Hepatitis B, communication (particularly language) and culture were the major themes that emerged from the data. Accurate concepts grounded in Indigenous culture such as "only your blood can tell the story" were present but accompanied by a feeling of disempowerment due to perceived lack of "medical" understanding, and informed partnerships between caregiver and patient. Culturally appropriate discussions in a
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
This paper presents a case for interviewing students as an effective yet complex way to integrate reflexive practice into teaching and research. Even though many human geographers are accustomed to conducting qualitative interviews in various contexts, it is not straightforward to interview one......'s own students. This paper addresses three issues: implications of doing insider interviews; ethical issues of interviewing students where power relations are at stake and using visual co-constructions as a means of levelling the analytical power of the insider interviewer. We show how student...... interviews have enhanced our reflection-on-action and give recommendations for prospect student interviewers....
Ali, Habiba I; Jarrar, Amjad H; Abo-El-Enen, Mostafa; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Al Ashqar, Huda
Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments is an important step in promoting healthful food choices among college students. This study explored university students' suggestions on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines. It also examined factors influencing students' food choices from vending machines. Peer-led semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 43 undergraduate students (33 females and 10 males) recruited from students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course in a large national university in the United Arab Emirates. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to generate themes using N-Vivo software. Accessibility, peer influence, and busy schedules were the main factors influencing students' food choices from campus vending machines. Participants expressed the need to improve the nutritional quality of the food items sold in the campus vending machines. Recommendations for students' nutrition educational activities included placing nutrition tips on or beside the vending machines and using active learning methods, such as competitions on nutrition knowledge. The results of this study have useful applications in improving the campus food environment and nutrition education opportunities at the university to assist students in making healthful food choices.
Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige
Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…
Callwood, Alison; Bolger, Sarah; Allan, Helen T
To explore how adult, child and mental health nursing and midwifery students, selected using multiple mini interviews, describe their 'values journey' following exposure to the clinical practice environment. Values based recruitment (VBR) incorporates assessment of healthcare students' personal values using approaches like multiple mini interviews. Students' experience of adjustment to their values during their programme is conceptualized as a 'values journey'. The impact of VBR in alleviating erosion of personal values remains unclear. A cross-professional longitudinal cohort study was commenced at one university in England in 2016 with data collection points at the end of years one, two and three. Non-probability consecutive sampling resulted in 42 healthcare students (8 adult, 8 child and 9 mental health nursing and 17 midwifery students) taking part. Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted at the end of participants' Year One (DC1). Data analysis incorporated inductive and deductive approaches in a hybrid synthesis. Participants described a 'values journey' where their values, particularly communication, courage and wanting to make a difference, were both challenged and retained. Participants personal journeys also acknowledged the: 'courage it takes to use values'; 'reality of values in practice' and 'need for self-reflection on values'. A 'values journey' may begin early in a healthcare student's education programme. This is important to recognize so that appropriate interventions designed to support students in higher education and clinical practice can be implemented. The values incorporated in VBR should be continually evaluated for fitness for purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hansen, Katharine; Oliphant, Gary C.; Oliphant, Becky J.; Hansen, Randall S.
Studies have shown the importance of employment interview preparation in boosting the confidence and performance of students and jobseekers when they interview. This article reviews several techniques for preparing students for mock job interviews and, hence, actual job interviews. For instructors who would like to enhance the learning value of…
Norman, E J
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.
Ward, Deborah J
To investigate the barriers to and motivators for learning infection prevention and control as identified by midwifery students. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 undergraduate midwifery students within one large university. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Barriers to good clinical practice were identified by students which were concordant with previous literature related to reasons for non-compliance with infection control precautions. Issues such as competing demands specific to midwifery were also identified. Factors which act as barriers to learning good practice in placements included conflicting information and practices from different staff and placement areas and staff attitudes towards students who tried to comply with precautions. Motivators to good practice included the perceived vulnerability of infants to infection, the role modelling of good practice to new mothers and the monitoring of practice. This study demonstrated that midwifery students perceive barriers and motivators to learning infection prevention and control in their clinical placements. Many of the barriers identified are related to the attitudes and practices of qualified staff. Some of the motivators are related specifically to midwifery practice. Midwives need to be aware of the effects of what is observed in practice on midwifery students and how their practices and attitudes can influence learning both positively and negatively. As healthcare-associated infection and poor compliance with precautions are a global problem, this research should be of benefit to midwives and midwifery educators worldwide in terms of addressing barriers and ensuring better clinical education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Callaway, Paul; Melhado, Trisha; Walling, Anne; Groskurth, Jordan
Interviewing for residency positions is increasingly stressful for students and challenging for programs. Little information is available about the costs and time invested by students in interviewing or about the key factors in decisions to accept interview offers. Our objective was to assess the time and financial costs of residency interviewing for an entire class at a regional campus and explore factors influencing student decisions to accept interviews. We used a 14-item survey administered electronically immediately following National Resident Matching Program results. The response rate was 75% (49 of 65 students). About half interviewed in primary care specialties. Thirty students (63%) applied to 20 or more programs, and 91% were offered multiple interviews out of state. Seventy percent limited interviews by time and cost. Other important factors included personal "fit," program reputation, and the quality of residents. About 50% of the students spent more than 20 days and $1,000-$5,000 interviewing; 29% reported spending over $5,000. Students used multiple funding sources, predominantly loans and savings. Primary care applicants applied to fewer out-of-state programs, reported fewer interview days and lower expenses, but received more financial support from programs. Students invested considerable time and resources in interviewing, and these factors significantly influenced their decisions about accepting interviews. The other major factors in interview decisions concerned personal comfort with the program, especially the residents. The costs and time reported in this study could be greater than other schools due to the regional campus location or lower due to the high proportion of students interviewing in primary care.
Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.
Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…
Caddle, Mary C.
This research consists of teacher interviews, student interviews, and classroom observations, all based around the mathematical content area of combinatorics. Combinatorics is a part of discrete mathematics concerning the ordering and grouping of distinct elements. The data are used in four separate analyses. The first provides evidence that…
Sheldon, Lisa A.
Motivational interviewing, which began as a counseling technique in addiction recovery, is a client-centered tool for making changes, increasing helpful behaviors and decreasing unhelpful behaviors. It relies on an individual's intrinsic motivation and interest in change, using a non-confrontational approach to frame goals in a practical,…
The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...
Gray, Kara E.; Hrepic, Zdeslav; Itza-Ortiz, Salomon F.; Allbaugh, Alicia R.; Engelhardt, Paula V.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Zollman, Dean A.
We discuss the implications of a framework to characterize student reasoning in an interview and its underpinnings in cognitive psychology. Our framework, described in a previous paper in these Proceedings, enables a researcher to identify various cognitive elements used by a student during an interview. Our thesis is that this framework can help identify reasoning paths used by the students. We discuss how this framework can be applied to both a coarse and fine grained analysis of reasoning and how it can be used to infer a student's implicit reasoning processes.
Petrosoniak, Andrew; McCarthy, Anne; Varpio, Lara
The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities (including harms and benefits) of international health electives (IHEs) involving medical trainees. This exploration contributes to the ongoing debate about the goals and implications of IHEs for medical trainees. This qualitative study used anonymous, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. All participants had previous international health experiences. Between September 2007 and March 2008, we interviewed a convenience sample of health care professionals (n=10) and medical trainees (n=10). Using a modified grounded theory methodology, we carried out cycles of data analysis in conjunction with data collection in an iterative and constant comparison process. The study's thematic structure was finalised when theme saturation was achieved. Participants described IHEs in both negative and positive terms. IHEs were described as unsustained short-term contributions that lacked clear educational objectives and failed to address local community needs. Ethical dilemmas were described as IHE challenges. Participants reflected that many IHEs included aspects of medical tourism and the majority of participants described the IHE in negative terms. However, a few participants acknowledged the benefits of the IHE. Specifically, it was seen as an introduction to a career in global health and as a potential foundation for more sustainable projects with positive host community impacts. Finally, despite similar understandings among participants, self-awareness of medical tourism was low. International health electives may include potential harms and benefits for both the trainee and the host community. Educational institutions should encourage and support structured IHEs for trainee participation. We recommend that faculties of medicine and global health educators establish pre-departure training courses for trainees and that IHE opportunities have sufficient structures in place to mitigate the negative effects of medical
Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…
Tandy, Cynthia; Vernon, Robert; Lynch, Darlene
A prototype standardized client was created and programmed to respond to students in the 3D virtual world of Second Life. This automaton, called a "chatbot," was repeatedly interviewed by beginning MSW students in a practice course as a learning exercise. Initial results were positive and suggest the use of simulated clients in virtual…
Jacobs, Jesse C; Guralnick, Michael L; Sandlow, Jay I; Langenstroer, Peter; Begun, Frank P; See, William A; O'Connor, Robert Corey
Applicant interviews for urology residency positions are a stressful and costly process for students, faculty, and staff. We conducted a prospective survey to better determine what urology applicants perceive as an ideal interview process to gain sufficient knowledge about a training program. A questionnaire was anonymously completed by all urology residency applicants interviewing at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2007 to 2013. Questionnaire subject headings included "ideal interview format," "factors contributing to understanding the residency program," and "factors contributing to final rank list order." Questionnaires were distributed to and completed by 221 senior medical students applying for a urology residency position. Most respondents (>80%) reported they would prefer to partake in 5 to 7 faculty interviews in an office setting with the total interview process spanning half to three-fourths of the workday. Spending time with current residents was considered the most valuable tool to acquire knowledge about a residency program. The most important criteria when ranking a program were resident satisfaction, resident operative experience, and perceived strength of faculty. Academic urology programs may wish to consider applicant ideals when organizing residency interviews. Interaction with current residents appears to be the most valuable resource allowing applicants to garner knowledge about a urology training program. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roh, HyeRin; Park, Kyung Hye; Jeon, Young-Jee; Park, Seung Guk; Lee, Jungsun
Identifying patients' agendas is important; however, the extent of Korean medical students' agenda-setting abilities is unknown. The study aim was to investigate the patterns of Korean medical students' agenda solicitation. A total of 94 third-year medical students participated. One scenario involving a female patient with abdominal pain was created. Students were video-recorded as they interviewed the patient. To analyze whether students identify patients' reasons for visiting, a checklist was developed based on a modified version of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to the Medical Interview: Communication Process checklist. The duration of the patient's initial statement of concerns was measured in seconds. The total number of patient concerns expressed before interruption and the types of interruption effected by the medical students were determined. The medical students did not explore the patients' concerns and did not negotiate an agenda. Interruption of the patient's opening statement occurred in 4.62±2.20 seconds. The most common type of initial interruption was a recompleter (79.8%). Closed-ended questions were the most common question type in the second and third interruptions. Agenda setting should be emphasized in the communication skills curriculum of medical students. The Korean Clinical Skills Exam must assess medical students' ability to set an agenda.
Association du personnel
New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the âﾜpeople at CERNâ the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.
Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend
Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....
CERN. Geneva; Posada, Jorge; Quartulli, Marco
Background Vicomtech is visiting CERN to expose their activities and explore possible lines of collaboration. As part of the programme they will be offering a presentation, staged in three parts: Presentation of Vicomtech – Seán Gaines Descriptions of technologies and specialities – Dr. Jorge Posada Details on projects related to the development of visually-based algorithms for intelligent storage, processing, visualization and interaction with Big Data, for massive sources of information. – Dr. Marco Quartulli. The full programme to the visit is here Abstract Mining semi-structured data is fundamental for archive monitoring, understanding and exploitation. Typical analysis systems are based on a three-tiered architecture, in which efficient databases feed highly parallelised application servers that in turn feed client user interfaces. Yet the sharing of analysis, content identification and semantic level summarization tasks among the two bot...
Bassett, Andrew Mark; Brosnan, Caragh; Southgate, Erica; Lempp, Heidi
There has been much interest in the transitions along the medical education continuum. However, little is known about how students from non-traditional backgrounds experience both the move to, and through Medical School, and their ambitions post-graduation. This research sought to understand the transitional journey into, and through undergraduate medical education, and future career aspirations for first-in-family (FiF) medical students. Based on a interpretivist epistemological perspective, 20 FiF students from one English Medical School participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants were identified according to purposive inclusion criteria and were contacted by email via the student association at the Medical School and academic year leaders. The team approach to the thematic analysis enhanced the findings credibility. This research was part of an international collaboration. In the first transition, 'The Road to Medical School', a passion for science with an interest in people was a motivator to study medicine. Participants' parents' shared the elation of acceptance into Medical School, however, the support from school/college teachers was a mixed experience. In 'The Medical School Journey' transition, knowledge about the medical curriculum was variable. 'Fitting' in at Medical School was a problem for some, but studying for an elite degree elevated social status for many study participants. A source of support derived from senior medical student peers, but a medical degree could sacrifice students' own health. In the final transition, 'Future Plans', a medical career was perceived to have intrinsic value. Clarity about future aspirations was related to clinical experience. For some, career trajectories were related to a work-life balance and future NHS working conditions for Junior Doctors. The transitions highlighted in this article have important implications for those educators interested in a life cycle approach to widening participation in
Grabowski, Christina J
(adj. resid. = 13.2, p holistically selected applicants averaged significantly more hours than academically selected students in the areas of pre-medical school paid employment (F = 10.99, mean difference = 657.99, p holistic admissions criteria comprised of applicant attributes and experiences in addition to academic metrics resulted in a more diverse interview pool than using academic metrics alone. These findings add support for the use of holistic review in the application screening process as a means for increasing diversity in medical school interview pools.
Colella, H.; Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.
The benefits for student participants of undergraduate research opportunities have been well documented. However, advancements in information and communications technologies (ICT) and cultural shifts around online education and virtual peer-to-peer interaction have lead to new models in which to structure such experiences. Currently, these ICT-enabled Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs connect geographically distributed interns in supportive e-learning communities while maintaining a traditional local mentoring arrangement. To document and explore the effects of distributed REU Sites in more depth, six interns from such a program, the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS) REU, were selected at random and asked to be interviewed about the REU experience. The primary targets of the interviews are to understand the mentor/mentee relationships, feeling of support and development and value of near-peer and far-peer relationships throughout their internship in a distributed REU program, and whether they receive the training necessary to gain confidence as a researcher. We also examine the various communication technologies as well as best practices and strategies that can increase intern connectedness. Pre-internship interviews were conducted in-person at the start of the centralized internship orientation week, while post-internship interviews were virtual (e.g. video chat with Skype or Google Hangout). These semi-structured interviews have full audio recordings and subsequent transcriptions. An additional, virtual follow-up interview will be conducted next spring after the interns have an opportunity to attend and present their research at a national conference (e.g., AGU). Interview material will be analyzed through a process of coding, sorting, local integration, and inclusive integration. Results will also be triangulated with pre- and post- survey data both from participants and other survey data from previous years of the IRIS
Widder-Prewett, Rebecca; Draime, Juanita A; Cameron, Ginger; Anderson, Douglas; Pinkerton, Mark; Chen, Aleda M H
Objective. To determine the impact of student or faculty facilitation on student self-assessed attitudes, confidence, and competence in motivational interviewing (MI) skills; actual competence; and evaluation of facilitator performance. Methods. Second-year pharmacy (P2) students were randomly assigned to a student or faculty facilitator for a four-hour, small-group practice of MI skills. MI skills were assessed in a simulated patient encounter with the mMITI (modified Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity) tool. Students completed a pre-post, 6-point, Likert-type assessment addressing the research objectives. Differences were assessed using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results. Student (N=44) post-test attitudes, confidence, perceived or actual competence, and evaluations of facilitator performance were not different for faculty- and student-facilitated groups. Conclusion. Using pharmacy students as small-group facilitators did not affect student performance and were viewed as equally favorable. Using pharmacy students as facilitators can lessen faculty workload and provide an outlet for students to develop communication and facilitation skills that will be needed in future practice.
Koenigsfeld, Carrie F; Wall, Geoffrey C; Miesner, Andrew R; Schmidt, Ginelle; Haack, Sally L; Eastman, Darla K; Grady, Sarah; Fornoff, Anisa
To determine whether a faculty-led mock-interview activity enhanced pharmacy student preparation for the residency interview process and increased match rates. Twenty-eight doctor of pharmacy students volunteered for a 40-minute mock-interview session with 2-person faculty teams. A standard roster of 12 interview questions was derived from published literature and the faculty members' experience. Feedback on the student's interview performance was provided verbally during the session. Following the interview, students were given a 2-part survey instrument. The first part of the survey was administered immediately following the mock-interview session and the second part was administered after the standard date for residency program results (known as "Match Day"). Participant match rates were compared to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) national rates. 82.5% (23 of 27) of students in the mock-interview group matched a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) program. Compared to national rates (61.9%), more students in our surveyed mock-interview group matched a PGY1 residency (P = .015; odds ratio [OR] 3.546, 95% CI 1.161-12.116). Higher match rates were seen in the students completing the mock residency interview compared to ASHP national rates. In general, students completing the mock interview found the process helpful and felt better prepared for their residency interviews.
Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice
This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…
This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…
Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.
The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual
This study adds to the knowledge on smoking behavior among college students. Preliminary evidence indicates that text message-based motivational interviewing and smoking cessation self-efficacy may help guide successful smoking behavior interventions for college students.
Wilkinson, David; Casey, Mavourneen G; Eley, Diann S
To report, and determine reasons for, a change in the gender ratio observed among enrolled medical students after removal of the interview from the selection process. Cross-sectional study of 4051 students admitted to the medical program at the University of Queensland between 2004 and 2012. Students are enrolled either directly as graduates or via a school-leaver pathway. Change in proportions of male and female students over time, and gender-specific scores in the three sections of the GAMSAT (Graduate Medical School Admissions Test). Between 2004 and 2008 (when an interview was part of the selection process), 891 enrolled students (51.4%) were male, whereas between 2009 and 2012 (no interview), 1134 (57.7%; P interview was removed to 64.0% (514 students; P interview (reaching 73.8% in 2012). Between 2004 and 2012, male students consistently performed better than female students on GAMSAT section III (mean score, 71.5 v 68.5; P interview from the selection process. This change is limited to domestic direct graduate-entry students, and seems to be due to higher scores by male students in section III of the GAMSAT. The interview may play an important role in ensuring gender equity in selection, and medical schools should carefully monitor the consequences of changes to selection policy.
Oblinger, Diana G.
In this interview with Dr. Homero Lopez, who brings thirty-two years of higher education experience to his position as the founding president of Estrella Mountain Community College, (Maricopa County Community College District of Arizona), topics centered on how learning spaces and campus design are planned and implemented on Estrella Mountain…
Kirwan, Bernadette; Leather, Carol
This article reports research using case studies of 22 university students receiving study skills development funded by the Disabled Student's Allowance at an independent dyslexia consultancy. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. The students identify the primary benefits of the tuition as: developing an understanding of dyslexia…
Rovers, John; Miller, Michael J; Koenigsfeld, Carrie; Haack, Sally; Hegge, Karly; McCleeary, Erin
To measure agreement between advanced pharmacy practice experience students using a guided interview process and experienced clinical pharmacists using standard practices to identify drug therapy problems. Student pharmacists enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and clinical pharmacists conducted medication therapy management interviews to identify drug therapy problems in elderly patients recruited from the community. Student pharmacists used a guided interview tool, while clinical pharmacists' interviews were conducted using their usual and customary practices. Student pharmacists also were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the interview tool. Fair to moderate agreement was observed on student and clinical pharmacists' identification of 4 of 7 drug therapy problems. Of those, agreement was significantly higher than chance for 3 drug therapy problems (adverse drug reaction, dosage too high, and needs additional drug therapy) and not significant for 1 (unnecessary drug therapy). Students strongly agreed that the interview tool was useful but agreed less strongly on recommending its use in practice. The guided interview process served as a useful teaching aid to assist student pharmacists to identify drug therapy problems.
Orr, Claudia; Sherony, Bruce; Steinhaus, Carol
Employers continue to report that soft skills are critically important in obtaining employment and achieving long-term career success. Given the challenging job market for college graduates, business school faculty need to provide practical opportunities for students to develop their soft skills in professional settings. A longitudinal study was…
Kaul, Paritosh; Fisher, Jennifer H; Hanson, Janice L
To develop and evaluate an educational activity designed to teach the adolescent Home, Education and employment, Eating, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, and Safety (HEADS) examination. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were third-year medical students in their pediatric clerkships. Students received an article on the HEADS interview and attended an adolescent medicine educational session. The session included individualized goal-setting and coached role play. Students' skills in doing a HEADS interview were evaluated through a standardized patient encounter (SPE) with a checklist and a retrospective pre- and post-test survey. The SPE checklist was used to assess whether the students included questions in 6 key areas of a HEADS interview. One hundred fifty-two students participated. During the SPE, 90% of students queried the adolescent's home life, 91% education, 82% activities, 84% drug/substance abuse, 95% sexual history, and 61% symptoms of depression. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant difference in the students' ability to list key topic areas of the HEADS exam (P interview using the HEADS exam (P interview during a SPE. Only three-fifths of the students, however, included questions about symptoms of depression. Coached role play with goal-setting facilitated effective learning of this approach to adolescent interviewing. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The paper discusses the results of a study which explored advanced learners of English engagement with their mobile devices to develop learning experiences that meet their needs and goals as foreign language learners. The data were collected from 20 students by means of a semi-structured interview. The gathered data were subjected to qualitative…
Hall, Nathan C.; Jackson Gradt, Shannan E.; Goetz, Thomas; Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an attributional retraining program for helping upper-level undergraduates perform better in employment interviews as moderated by self-esteem levels. The sample consisted of 50 co-operative education students preparing for actual job interviews who were randomly assigned to an attributional…
Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben
The objective of this paper is to draw attention to four features that distinguish the pedagogy of patient interviewing from the teaching of other clinical skills: (a) students are not naive to the skill to be learned, (b) they encounter role models with a wide variability in interviewing styles, (c) clinical teachers are not usually specialists…
Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata; Sarkadi, Ágnes
Our interview study investigated what experiences Hungarian students with dyslexia have in the language learning group and concerning the general behavior, the instructional methods and assessment techniques of their language teachers. Long qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 students of different ages who studied foreign languages in a variety of educational settings. Our results indicate that the participants generally had negative experiences when studying in groups, especially i...
Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda; Blosser, Matthew
For this study, 82 general psychology students (51 females, 31 males) witnessed a peer cheating while completing a test. Following the incident, we tape recorded semi-structured interviews with each student who saw the cheating event for later analysis. Using qualitative coding and methodology, themes emerged regarding students' emotional…
Huang, SuHua; Capps, Matthew; Blacklock, Jeff; Garza, Mary
This study employed a convergent mixed-method research design to investigate reading habits of American college students. A total of 1,265 (466 male and 799 female) college students voluntarily participated in the study by completing a self-reported survey. Twelve students participated in semi-structured interviews and classroom observations.…
This qualitative research aims to examine the opinions of school administrators, teachers, and middle school students about what makes a good mathematics teacher. Interviews were conducted with thirty-five participants: ten school administrators, ten mathematics teachers, and fifteen middle school students. A semi-structured interview form…
Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali
This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students' presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and…
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…
Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa
This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…
Ong, Kian Win; Papakonstantinou, Yannis; Vernoux, Romain
NoSQL databases support semi-structured data, typically modeled as JSON. They also provide limited (but expanding) query languages. Their idiomatic, non-SQL language constructs, the many variations, and the lack of formal semantics inhibit deep understanding of the query languages, and also impede progress towards clean, powerful, declarative query languages. This paper specifies the syntax and semantics of SQL++, which is applicable to both JSON native stores and SQL databases. The SQL++ sem...
Ciston, Shannon; Sehgal, Sanya; Mikel, Tressa; Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel
Adult undergraduate students aged 25+ in engineering disciplines are an important demographic bringing a wealth of life experience to the classroom. This study uses qualitative data drawn from semi-structured interviews with two groups of undergraduate chemical engineering students at a large, public research university: adult students with…
Houghton, Catherine E; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy
The Clinical Skills Laboratory has become an essential structure in nurse education and several benefits of its use have been identified. However, the literature identifies the need to examine the transferability of skills learned there into the reality of practice. This research explored the role of the Clinical Skills Laboratory in preparing nursing students for the real world of practice. This paper focuses specifically on the perceptions of the teaching and assessment strategies employed there. Qualitative multiple case study design. Five case study sites. Interviewees (n=58) included academic staff, clinical staff and nursing students. Semi-structured interviews. The Clinical Skills Laboratory can provide a pathway to practice and its authenticity is significant. Teaching strategies need to incorporate communication as well as psychomotor skills. Including audio-visual recording into assessment strategies is beneficial. Effective relationships between education institutions and clinical settings are needed to enhance the transferability of the skills learned. The Clinical Skills Laboratory should provide an authentic learning environment, with the appropriate use of teaching strategies. It is crucial that effective links between educators and clinical staff are established and maintained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty
Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…
Park, Sang E; Price, Mirissa D; Karimbux, Nadeem Y
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the dental school admissions interview score as a noncognitive indicator of performance in predoctoral dental education, with specific attention to whether a correlation existed between the admissions interview scores and performance on the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The study population consisted of all 175 students in the Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) DMD Classes of 2012 through 2016. Data on students' gender and age on entering dental school were self-reported using their applications for admission to the HSDM DMD program. Data on students' OSCE scores for three examination sessions were collected from the Office of Dental Education. The results showed that the students' interview scores did not significantly correlate with OSCE performance on any of the three exams. Performance on the first and second OSCEs did, however, correlate with performance on the third OSCE (pinterview score. These results suggest that although the admissions interview scores can serve as an important resource in student selection, with the lack of association between interview and OSCE scores, it is possible that the communication skills required for the interview do not directly overlap with those required for OSCE success.
Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine
The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…
Yu, Mong-lin; Brown, Ted; Etherington, Jamie
This study investigated occupational therapy students' experiences of their alternative fieldwork placement at one childcare center where there was no established occupational therapy service. A semi-structured focus group interview explored four students' placement experiences. The interview was audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…
This study examines the influence of faculty mentorship in the shaping of African American doctoral student success. A case analysis framework is used to investigate the belief systems that doctoral students held about their doctoral experience. Data collection involved a one-phase semi-structured interview protocol used to gather information…
Kaltman, Stacey; Talisman, Nicholas; Pennestri, Susan; Syverson, Eleri; Arthur, Paige; Vovides, Yianna
Effective strategies for teaching communication skills to health professions students are needed. This article describes the design and evaluation of immersive and interactive video simulations for medical students to practice basic communication skills. Three simulations were developed, focusing on patient-centered interviewing techniques such as using open-ended questions, reflections, and empathic responses while assessing a patient's history of present illness. First-year medical students were randomized to simulation or education-as-usual arms. Students in the simulation arm were given access to three interactive video simulations developed using Articulate Storyline, an e-learning authoring tool, to practice and receive feedback on patient-centered interviewing techniques to prepare for their Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Trained raters evaluated videos of two OSCE cases for each participant to assess specific communication skills used during the history of present illness component of the interview. Eighty-seven percent of the students in the simulation arm interacted with at least one simulation during the history of present illness. For both OSCE cases, students in the simulation arm asked significantly more open-ended questions. Students in the simulation arm asked significantly fewer closed-ended questions and offered significantly more empathic responses in one OSCE case. No differences were found for reflections. Students reported that the simulations helped improve their communication skills. The use of interactive video simulations was found to be feasible to incorporate into the curriculum and was appealing to students. In addition, students in the simulation arm displayed more behaviors consistent with the patient-centered interviewing model practiced in the simulations. Continued development and research are warranted.
Margolis, Amanda R.; Martin, Beth A.; Mott, David A.
Objective To determine the feasibility and fidelity of student pharmacists collecting patient medication list information using a structured interview tool and the accuracy of documenting the information. The medication lists were used by a community pharmacist to provide a targeted medication therapy management (MTM) intervention. Design Descriptive analysis of patient medication lists collected via telephone interviews. Participants 10 trained student pharmacists collected the medication lists. Intervention Trained student pharmacists conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews with 80 English-speaking community dwelling older adults using a structured interview tool to collect and document medication lists. Main outcome measures Feasibility was measured using the number of completed interviews, the time student pharmacists took to collect the information, and pharmacist feedback. Fidelity to the interview tool was measured by assessing student pharmacists’ adherence to asking all scripted questions and probes. Accuracy was measured by comparing the audio recorded interviews to the medication list information documented in an electronic medical record. Results On average it took student pharmacists 26.7 minutes to collect the medication lists. The community pharmacist said the medication lists were complete and that having the medication lists saved time and allowed him to focus on assessment, recommendations, and education during the targeted MTM session. Fidelity was high with an overall proportion of asked scripted probes of 83.75% (95%CI: 80.62–86.88%). Accuracy was also high for both prescription (95.1%, 95%CI: 94.3–95.8%) and non-prescription (90.5%, 95%CI: 89.4–91.4%) medications. Conclusion Trained student pharmacists were able to use an interview tool to collect and document medication lists with a high degree of fidelity and accuracy. This study suggests that student pharmacists or trained technicians may be able to collect patient medication
Margolis, Amanda R; Martin, Beth A; Mott, David A
To determine the feasibility and fidelity of student pharmacists collecting patient medication list information using a structured interview tool and the accuracy of documenting the information. The medication lists were used by a community pharmacist to provide a targeted medication therapy management (MTM) intervention. Descriptive analysis of patient medication lists collected with telephone interviews. Ten trained student pharmacists collected the medication lists. Trained student pharmacists conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews with 80 English-speaking, community-dwelling older adults using a structured interview tool to collect and document medication lists. Feasibility was measured using the number of completed interviews, the time student pharmacists took to collect the information, and pharmacist feedback. Fidelity to the interview tool was measured by assessing student pharmacists' adherence to asking all scripted questions and probes. Accuracy was measured by comparing the audio-recorded interviews to the medication list information documented in an electronic medical record. On average, it took student pharmacists 26.7 minutes to collect the medication lists. The community pharmacist said the medication lists were complete and that having the medication lists saved time and allowed him to focus on assessment, recommendations, and education during the targeted MTM session. Fidelity was high, with an overall proportion of asked scripted probes of 83.75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.62-86.88%). Accuracy was also high for both prescription (95.1%; 95% CI, 94.3-95.8%) and nonprescription (90.5%; 95% CI, 89.4-91.4%) medications. Trained student pharmacists were able to use an interview tool to collect and document medication lists with a high degree of fidelity and accuracy. This study suggests that student pharmacists or trained technicians may be able to collect patient medication lists to facilitate MTM sessions in the community pharmacy
Tai, Samantha; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Barr, Caitlin
Effective clinical communication is pivotal to the provision of quality hearing health care. To date, audiology students reportedly felt ill-prepared when counseling patients about their hearing impairment, yet there is a paucity of studies exploring how clinical communication is taught and learned in audiology programs. Thus, the aims of the study were (a) to explore final year audiology students' perspectives of their own clinical communication skills during an in-house university clinical placement and (b) to explore students' perceptions of their clinical communication education. Using a qualitative description approach, students were asked to coview their filmed clinical encounter using video reflexivity during a semistructured interview on clinical communication education. Fifteen final year graduate audiology students from The University of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study. The interviews were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically. The overarching themes of striving to be patient-centered, assessment shapes behavior, and power relations emerged from students' reflection of their own clinical encounter. In addition, the theme what students want described the perceived teaching methods that assisted students' clinical communication practices. The findings of this study highlight the challenges that students perceived during their clinical placement as they strive to enact a patient-centered interaction. An assessment rubric that incorporates communication skills can provide greater opportunities for feedback and self-reflection. Additionally, clinical communication education that adopts experiential learning and is longitudinally integrated into the curriculum can further reinforce students' communication learning needs.
Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Hart, John M; Soriano, Heidi L
Obtaining a job as a college graduate is partly dependent on interview performance. We used a multiple baseline design across skills to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training with self-evaluation for five college students. Training effects were evaluated using simulated interviews as baseline and posttraining assessments. All participants acquired targeted skills, but we observed some individual differences. Participants were satisfied with training outcomes and rated the procedures as acceptable. Furthermore, ratings from university staff who provide interview training indicated that training improved performance across several skills for the majority of participants. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
The purpose of this research is to examine the views of university students on the presence and exposure of cyber bully behavior. The research study group consists of 10 male students who are higher education students. One of the qualitative research methods is "case study". In this direction, a "semi-structured interview form"…
Cowley, Paul; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis
This study explores the initial higher education experiences of first-year international students in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 new international students undertaking a business degree at a U.K. university. The students described the key motivating factors for studying abroad and the…
Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn
The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how college-level minority student leaders make meaning of those leadership experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 students. Major findings noted a strong personal motivation to participate in student leadership positions. Further research on the impact of familial…
Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth
Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.
Chao, Theodore; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.
Teaching mathematics for understanding requires listening to each student's mathematical thinking, best elicited in a one-on-one interview. Interviews are difficult to enact in a teacher's busy schedule, however. In this study, the authors utilize smartphone technology to help mathematics teachers interview a student in a virtual one-on-one…
This article presents a case study of student-initiated use of Facebook Groups in doing a team project for an online journalism course. Drawing upon the concept of affinity space and a theoretical taxonomy of asynchronous online discussion, the present study triangulates classroom observation, semi-structured student interviews, and microanalysis…
Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Kocakülah, Sabri
The aim of this study is to reveal secondary school students' misconceptions about simple electric circuits and to define whether specific misconceptions peculiar to Turkish students exist within those identified. Data were obtained with a conceptual understanding test for simple electric circuits and semi-structured interviews. Conceptual…
Preston, Jane P.; Claypool, Tim R.
The purpose of this paper is to identify motivators that support educational success, as perceived by Aboriginal high school students enrolled in two urban Saskatchewan schools. Twelve semi-structured individual interviews revealed that students were motivated by a hospitable school culture, relevant learning opportunities, and positive personal…
Critical thinking skills in students, employees and citizens are endorsed for a wide range of positive reasons. What seems less well-known and the aim of this research was to investigate how students make sense of these skills. A semi-structured interview was loosely designed, using questions to ascertain criticality skills before, during and at…
Study abroad brings an enriching experience to students' academic and personal lives. This narrative essay relays two students' experiences with study abroad sojourns and touches upon their technology use during their study abroad as recounted in semi-structured interviews. Details of their cultural experiences and reflections thereof as well as…
Attrition, which courses in the humanities and social sciences particularly suffer from, is a major problem for universities and students. This paper investigates the reasons students give for prematurely discontinuing studying the Bachelor of Arts. This is a qualitative study that thematically analyses semi-structured interviews. The sample…
In this article we aim to establish the ways in which these experiences influence the student teachers' perception of the teaching profession. Semi-structured interviews with all student teachers were used to collect the data while content analysis was used to identify themes and analyse the data. We established that, despite ...
M, Schoo A; S, Lawn; E, Rudnik; C, Litt J
Many undergraduate and graduate-entry health science curricula have incorporated training in motivational interviewing (MI). However, to effectively teach skills that will remain with students after they graduate is challenging. The aims of this study were to find out self-assessed MI skills of health students and whether reflecting on the results can promote transformative learning. Thirty-six Australian occupational therapy and physiotherapy students were taught the principles of MI, asked to conduct a motivational interview, transcribe it, self-rate it using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) tool and reflect on the experience. Student MI skills were measured using the reported MITI subscores. Student assignments and a focus group discussion were analysed to explore the student experience using the MITI tool and self-reflection to improve their understanding of MI principles. Students found MI challenging, although identified the MITI tool as useful for promoting self-reflection and to isolate MI skills. Students self-assessed their MI skills as competent and higher than scores expected from beginners. The results inform educational programs on how MI skills can be developed for health professional students and can result in transformative learning. Students may over-state their MI skills and strategies to reduce this, including peer review, are discussed. Structured self-reflection, using tools such as the MITI can promote awareness of MI skills and compliment didactic teaching methods.
Howard, Lisa M; Williams, Beverly A
The purpose of this article is to describe how nursing students learned and used motivational interviewing (MI) in a community-based clinical context at a primary care vascular risk reduction clinic focused on health promotion. A focused ethnography was used to access a sample of 20 undergraduate nursing students, 16 patients, and 2 instructors. Data were generated from participant observations, field notes, student journals, and interviews (one-on-one and focus group). Central to the students' experience was their transformation because of learning and using MI. Three sub themes describe the social processes that shaped the student experience: learning a relational skill, engaging patients, and collaborating as partners. It is feasible for nursing students to learn MI and use this approach to enhance collaborative care in a primary care setting. The experience can be transformative for students. Supporting patients to adopt healthy lifestyles is a significant role for nurses in practice. The findings provide key insights and strategies for nurse educators teaching students a collaborative communication approach, such as MI, to engage patients in health behavior change. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin
As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…
Wright, Sylvia A.
This study examines the impact of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) on college age students 18-25 years old. Qualitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews with students and significant others, writing samples and transcript documents, examine functional impairments of students with AD/HD as well as functional…
This study was carried out to identify the benefits and drawbacks of using mobile social network application WhatsApp in the education of Secondary Education students. In this research, survey model was used and open-ended question form to 145 students together with semi-structured interview technique to 6 students were employed and answer to the…
van Scheppingen, Corinne; Lettinga, Ant T.; Duipmans, Jose C.; Maathuis, Care G. B.; Jonkman, Marcel F.
The objective of this study was to identify and specify the problems of children with epidermolysis bullosa. The questions explored were: (i) What do children with epidermolysis bullosa experience as the most difficult problems; (it) What is the impact of these problems on their daily life; and
Harding, S R; D'Eon, M F
Teaching patient-centered interviewing skills to medical students can be challenging. We have observed that 1st-year medical students, in particular, do not feel free to concentrate on the interviewing skills because they are preoccupied with complicated technical medical knowledge. The Lego simulation we use with our 1st-year students as part of a professional-skills course overcomes that difficulty. The Lego activity is a role play analogous to a doctor-patient interview that uses identical sets of Legos for the "doctor" and for the "patients" and a small construction that represents a patient history. With a simple questionnaire, data were collected from students at different points during instruction. Results indicate that the Lego activity was very effective in helping students learn the importance of open-ended questioning. It also was rated as highly as the very dynamic interactive part of the instructional session. The effectiveness of the Lego activity may be due to the properties of analogies.
This article describes a small-scale study exploring the perspectives of five undergraduate students with dyslexia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two universities in the UK. The interviews explored participants' perceptions of their dyslexia label and how it had affected their academic success. The aim of the research was to…
Castañeda, Sergio Bernal
This paper explores strategies used by teachers of English in Spain to compensate for learning limitations associated with student age. As part of a qualitative study of multiple cases, twenty teachers from different vocational programs volunteered to participate in semi-structured interviews. The interviews revealed the difficulties that older…
Boyd, Diane; Bath, Caroline
This research considers the views and perspectives of a group of students on an Education Studies and Early Years course in an English university that took part in an arts project inspired by the philosophy and pedagogy of the Reggio Emilia preschools in Italy. This ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire which…
Laidlaw, Anita Helen; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde
Funding: Medical School, University of St Andrews Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 undergraduate students from 5 different subject areas. Interviews wer...
Full Text Available The use of stimulants for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (NE among students is a subject of increasing public awareness. The risk of addiction development by stimulant use for NE is still unanswered. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were carried out among 18 university students experienced in the nonmedical use of methylphenidate and amphetamines for NE assessing aspects of addiction. Interviews were tape-recorded, verbatim-transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach. The interviews showed that participants—the majority had current or lifetime diagnoses of misuse or addiction to alcohol or cannabis—reported an awareness of the risk of addiction development associated with stimulant use and reported various effects which may increase their likelihood of future stimulant use, for example, euphoric effects, increase of self-confidence, and motivation. They also cited measures to counteract the development of addiction as well as measures taken to normalize again after stimulant use. Students were convinced of having control over their stimulant use and of not becoming addicted to stimulants used for NE. We can conclude that behavior and beliefs of the students in our sample appear to be risky in terms of addiction development. However, long-term empirical research is needed to estimate the true risk of addiction.
Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete
This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to…
The present study aimed at exploring the educational, social and emotional experiences of individuals with dyslexia both during school and tertiary education. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Greek students with dyslexia who were enrolled in higher education institutions. The data analysis was carried out with…
Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Borzabadi, Davood; Dashtestani, Reza
This study aimed to analyze perceptions of Iranian English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students on their computer literacy levels. A total of 641 undergraduate students of civil engineering and 34 EAP instructors participated in the study. Data collection instruments included questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Findings confirmed that…
This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…
Tösten, Rasim; Toprak, Mustafa; Kayan, M. Selman
This study is a descriptive phenomenological research that aims to reveal Syrian refugee children' experiences within formal public schools in Turkey. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews from 28 teachers who teach these refugee Syrian students. Results show that the students are under the effect of post-traumatic stress…
Haugen, Heidi Østbø
This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…
Perrin, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Jennifer; Grimes, Ashley; Bryson, Laura
While previous research has examined the various relationships between fear and learning in K-12 academic settings, the relationship is surprisingly unexplored amongst law students. Using a descriptive qualitative approach, we examine the role fear plays in law students' learning experiences. Through a series of semi-structured interviews a few…
Simmons, Andrew N.
With concern over parental involvement in students' academic lives on the rise, research is needed to provide guidance for advisors and parents. In this article, student-parent interactions about academic and career decisions are examined. Data come from the Brown University Office of Institutional Research and semi-structured interviews with…
This article reports on phenomenographic research which explored the qualitative differences in post-secondary students' accounts of their networked learning experiences. Data was generated using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants. Phenomenographic analysis led to a configuration of variation in students' accounts…
Russo-Gleicher, Rosalie J.
This article provides qualitative insights into addressing the issue of student retention in online classes in higher education. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted at random with 16 faculty who teach online courses at a large community college in the Northeast about how to improve online student retention. Qualitative analysis…
Banwell, Jenessa; Kerr, Gretchen
The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches' perspectives on the personal development student-athletes experience through interuniversity sport. Additionally, it explored the ways in which coaches understand, enable, and facilitate the personal development of student-athletes. Eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with…
Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany
The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…
Galvin, J; Suominen, E; Morgan, C; O'Connell, E-J; Smith, A P
What is known on the subject? Stress can impact students on mental health nurse training. This can have implications at the individual level (e.g. their own mental health) and at the level of the organization (e.g. sickness absence and attrition). What this paper adds to existing knowledge? We interviewed 12 mental health nursing students regarding the stress they experienced during training. Participants described how the academic demands can at times be unbearable during clinical placements. There were also issues with 'being a student' on some placements, with participants describing negative attitudes towards them from staff. The younger participants reported feeling overwhelmed on their initial placements and described some of the main challenges of mental health work for them. Raising concerns about the quality of care on wards was also described as particularly challenging for the students. What are the implications for practice? This paper can be useful to help training providers support mental health nursing students. Recommendations include reducing academic demands during clinical placements and extending and promoting existing support services beyond normal 9 am-5 pm working hours, even if these services are limited. Younger students could be better supported by being allocated to the more well-resourced placements in the early stages of their training. Raising awareness among staff of the tasks students can and cannot perform can help improve staff/student relations. Finally, students should be educated about the issues around raising concerns on placements to help the government's drive for a more open and transparent National Health Service (NHS). Previous studies investigating stress in nursing students focus on general nursing students or adopt quantitative measures. A qualitative study focusing specifically on mental health nursing students is required. One-to-one interviews were carried out with mental health nursing students (n = 12). Data were
Al Qaroot, Bashar S; Sobuh, Mohammad
Problem-based learning (where rather than feeding students the knowledge, they look for it themselves) has long been thought of as an ideal approach in teaching because it would encourage students to acquire knowledge from an undetermined medium of wrong and right answers. However, the effect of such approach in the learning experience of prosthetics and orthotics students has never been investigated. This study explores the implications of integrating problem-based learning into teaching on the students' learning experience via implementing a research-informed clinical practice module into the curriculum of last year prosthetics and orthotics undergraduate students at the University of Jordan (Amman, Jordan). Qualitative research pilot study. Grounded theory approach was used based on the data collected from interviewing a focus group of four students. Students have identified a number of arguments from their experience in the research-informed clinical practice where, generally speaking, students described research-informed clinical practice as a very good method of education. Integrating problem-based learning into teaching has many positive implications. In particular, students pointed out that their learning experience and clinical practice have much improved after the research-informed clinical practice. Findings from this investigation demonstrate that embedding problem-based learning into prosthetics and orthotics students' curriculum has the potential to enhance students' learning experience, particularly students' evidence-based practice. This may lead to graduates who are more knowledgeable and thus who can offer the optimal patient care (i.e. clinical practice). © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Ekong, Gladys; Kavookjian, Jan; Hutchison, Amber
Objective. To assess first-year pharmacy (P1) students' predispositions (eg, perceptions for empathy, intercultural sensitivity, and motivational interviewing (MI) as a patient-centered communication skillset) and identify potential curricula content/communication skills training needs. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect students' self-reported perceptions for empathy, intercultural sensitivity, counseling contexts, and projected future MI use. Relationships between variables were explored and logistic regression was used to evaluate intention for using MI in future patient encounters. Results. There were 134 students who participated. Higher predisposition for empathy and for intercultural sensitivity were significantly correlated. Significant predictors for applying MI in future patient encounters were sex, confidence with counseling skills, and current use of MI. Conclusion. Results suggest the need to incorporate innovative training strategies in communication skills curricula. Potential areas include empathy, intercultural sensitivity and significant predictor variables for future MI use. Further investigation in other schools is needed.
Kala, Nesli; Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa
The present study describes high school students' conceptions about acids and bases in terms of pH, pOH, microscopic level, strength, and concentration. A total of 27 high school students participated in the study. The data was collected using 3 POE tasks and a semi-structured interview. The data analysis demonstrated that most of the students had…
Castro, Erin L.; Cortez, Edén
This qualitative study examines the experiences of six Mexican community college transfer students attending a research-intensive institution in the Pacific Northwest. Using semi-structured interviews, the objectives of this study were to 1) understand how Mexican students made meaning of their transfer experiences and 2) how those experiences…
Galperin, D.; Raviolo, A.
This work analysed the evolution of day/night cycle conceptions held by students of different ages and teachers in the Patagonian region of Argentina. The research was based on drawings, written explanations and semi-structured individual interviews. The results showed that both teachers and students had significant comprehension problems. These…
Verbeck, Teresa A.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…
Santoro, Ninetta; Sosu, Edward; Fassetta, Giovanna
This article reports on a study that examined Scottish student teachers' attitudes to study-abroad and the reasons underpinning their reluctance to participate in these programmes. Data collection comprised a mixed-methods approach consisting of a survey of 318 student-teachers in one Scottish university followed by semi-structured interviews with…
Alloh, Folashade T.; Tait, Desiree; Taylor, Clare
This study explored the factors that contribute to the health experience of Nigerian students in the United Kingdom. Challenges faced by international students include dietary issues, isolation, stress, depression, and others. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted combination of purposive sampling and snowball sampling techniques were…
The purpose of the present research was to reveal students' perceptions regarding the use of the interactive whiteboard in the mathematics classroom within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 58 secondary school students (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades) to collect data. The data obtained…
Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel; Huisman, Jeroen
In this paper we examine the perceptions of ERASMUS agents' of Polish students' participation in the EP. We provide a Bourdieusian analyse of the cultural and social capital acquisition of students based on the qualitative data, collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Erasmus agents, of a European research project. We argue…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate career intentions of international master's students in hospitality and tourism management (HTM) in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 19 participants at two different U.S. institutions. Interview questions were designed to better understand students' career intentions upon graduation and the determinants behind the plans. Results indicated that student's career intention should include measure...
Kumar, Swapna; Johnson, Melissa
The purpose of our research was to explore faculty members' experiences with online mentoring during the dissertation stage of an online doctoral program. During semi-structured interviews, four mentors reflected on their online mentoring of students, specifically the strategies that worked well, challenges faced while mentoring online, and other…
Poulakis, Mixalis; Dike, Craig A.; Massa, Amber C.
This study investigated eight Greek international college students' experiences of acculturation and acculturative stress at a mid-western university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and Consensual Qualitative Research methodology was utilized for data analysis to identify contextual themes and…
Wang, Yueh-Ling; Volker, Deborah L.
This qualitative study used a Husserlian phenomenological approach to obtain an understanding of the essences of five experienced Taiwanese school nurses' lived experience of caring for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Data analysis entailed a modified method from…
Hart, Jeni; Lester, Jaime
The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand how gender is constructed at a women's college. Specifically, the researchers use Judith Butler's (1990) work on performativity to frame how members of the campus community perceive transgender students are integrated into the college. Through semi-structured interviews with faculty,…
This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…
Although scholarship has addressed issues around serving international students in U.S. and Canadian libraries, reports on how Chinese graduate students use information in Chinese universities, especially for a particular discipline, are rare. In this study, the author interviewed 15 graduate students and researchers in a top-ranked chemistry…
Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito
This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Thirty-one Japanese undergraduate and postgraduate students in Australian universities participated in semi-structured interviews to examine the interpersonal relationships between Japanese students and other nationalities in Australia, in particular, Australians and other international students. It was found that the Japanese students tended to form closer relationships and feel more comfortable in communicating with other Asian students than Australians, and that many regard Asian students ...
Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu
This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students' food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of v...
CABAROĞLU, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Neşe; ALTINEL, Zeynep
This paper reports findings from a study on student and teacher perceptions of misbehaviour Data were gathered via questionnaires observations and semi structured interviews from 6 teachers and 22 misbehaving students in six different schools with three different socio economic levels The data revealed that misbehaving students 8217; explanations and interpretations of misbehaviour their causes and the interventions strategies used did not allways share similar attributes with those of t...
Poirier, Maria K; Clark, Matthew M; Cerhan, Jane H; Pruthi, Sandhya; Geda, Yonas E; Dale, Lowell C
To examine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing training on improving medical students' knowledge of and confidence in their ability to counsel patients regarding health behavior change. In the spring of 2002, 42 first-year medical students participated in a counseling course on health behavior change. Three small groups focused on learning and practicing motivational interviewing techniques using brief lectures, interactive class activities, student role-plays, and simulated patients. Students completed an identical precourse and postcourse questionnaire that measured their confidence and knowledge regarding counseling skills in health behavior change. The medical students reported improved confidence in their understanding of motivational interviewing after participation in the course (very confident, 77%) compared with before the course (very confident, 2%). Each of the 8 confidence items were compared before and after the course using a signed rank test. All comparisons indicated a significant improvement (P improvement; 31% of students answered all the questions correctly before the course, and 56% answered all the questions correctly after the course (P = .004). These results show that teaching motivational interviewing techniques to first-year medical students can enhance student confidence in and knowledge of providing counseling to patients regarding health behavior change.
Tao, Yuexian; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; Rodgers, Sheila E.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore factors that effect nursing students' decisions of whether to take rural jobs in China. Methods: An exploratory interview study was conducted in China during May and June 2011. Eleven final year nursing students were purposively recruited from four nursing schools in one eastern area in China. The…
Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård
healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed......Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...
Ramli Bin Basri, Baharak Talebloo
Current researches on internationalization claim studying overseas as a set of potential that assist the augmentation of globalization. This article presents the Multicultural Benefits and challenges for International Students during Period of their Study in university Putra Malaysia. Qualitative method and convenience sampling was applied. Semi-structured interview and in depth interviews were conducted on 20 postgraduate students from various fields of study. The result of study sho...
This study aims at identification of views of teachers, students and their parents at Near East College in North Cyprus on use of tablets in education. The research is a descriptive case study. In collection of data, semi-structured interviews appropriate for qualitative research methods are used. Study group for this research is composed of high…
Banfield, James; Wilkerson, Brad
The aim of this study was to assess gamification as a method of experiential learning theory (ELT) on student motivation and self-efficacy to perform System Engineering/Information Assurance (IA) tasks. The study was a basic qualitative method, whereby data was collected via semi-structured interview and then analyzed for recurring themes and…
Whittle, Rachael J.; Telford, Amanda; Benson, Amanda C.
This research explored teacher perceptions of how they influence academic performance of Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical Education students. VCE Physical Education teachers (n = 37) from 31 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia participated in a qualitative study using focus groups with a semi-structured interview schedule.…
Ünver, Semiha Kula; Güzel, Esra Bukova; Dede, Ayse Tekin; Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci
The purpose of this study is to examine a mathematics student teacher's lessons by using example types named "teaching concepts and procedures" and "the provision of exercises." The participant's two lessons regarding the probability concept were observed and the semi-structured interviews were realized. The participant…
Tsegay, Samson Maekele; Zegergish, Mulgeta Zemuy; Ashraf, Muhammad Azeem
Using semi-structured interview and review of documents, this study analyzes the pedagogical practices and students' experiences in Eritrean Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The study indicated that pedagogical practices are affected by instructors' pedagogical skills and perceptions, and the teaching-learning environment. Moreover, the…
The purpose of this study was to determine the views of science and technology teachers about the effects of 6th, 7th and 8th grade science and technology courses on students' entrepreneurship skills. In the study, phenomenographic method was used and data were collected through a semi-structured interview method with 8 questions. 5 science and…
Burke, Lee-Ann; Murphy, Elizabeth
This study explores how female students compare learning computer technology in a single- versus a mixed- gender school setting. Twelve females participated, all of whom were enrolled in a grade 12 course in Communications' Technology. Data collection included a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview and focus groups. Participants described…
Lassiter, Pamela S.; Sifford, Amy McCarthy
This phenomenological inquiry explored the experiences and reactions of five school counselors who worked in a school that banned a Gay-Straight Alliance club. Specifically, the authors examined how counselors' perceptions of the ban influenced their advocacy for LGBTQQ students. The results of semi-structured interviews revealed one overarching…
Contreras León, Janeth Juliana; Chapetón Castro, Claudia Marcela
This study investigates the impact of implementing collaborative learning from a social and dialogical perspective on seventh graders' interaction in an English as a foreign language classroom at a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. Thirty students participated in this action research where field notes, questionnaires, semi-structured interviews,…
Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia
In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…
Wingard, Crystal Burroughs
The present action research study describes an Interactive Mathematics Review Program (IMRP) developed by the participant-researcher to enable remedial algebra students to learn in a cooperative classroom with pedagogy that promoted collaboration and hands-on, active learning. Data are comprised of surveys, field notes, semi-structured interviews,…
Arthur, Nancy; Flynn, Sarah
This research focused on the career decision and planning needs of a unique group of migrants: international students who are completing their studies as temporary immigrants and who are embarking on the career journey of employment and permanent immigration. A semi-structured interview employing a Critical Incident Technique was used to assess…
Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.
This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…
Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios
We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…
Salinas, Dánisa; Ayala, Maximiliano
The objective of this study is to explore the process of professional identity construction of two English as a foreign language student-teachers from a sociocultural theoretical lens. A qualitative case study was conducted through personal narratives, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory…
Mason, Henry D.
This article reports a qualitative study that explored South African conceptions and enactment of life purpose. Data collected using semi-structured interviews with 25 first-year university students (female = 56%, age range = 18-25) offer a unique insight into African young adults' conceptions of life purpose. From a phenomenological analysis…
Kelly, Maureen E.; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P.; Murphy, Andrew W.
Background International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. Methods This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 we...
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...
Keifenheim, Katharina Eva
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Among the clinical skills needed by all physicians, history taking is one of the most important. The teaching model for peer-assisted history-taking groups investigated in the present study consists of small-group courses in which students practice conducting medical interviews with real patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the expectations, experiences, and subjective learning progress of participants in peer-assisted history-taking groups.Methods: The 42 medical student participants completed a 4-month, peer-assisted, elective history-taking course, which both began and ended with a subjective assessment of their interview skills by way of a pseudonymized questionnaire. Measures comprised the students’ self-assessment of their interview skills, their expectations of, and their experiences with the course and especially with the peer tutors. Results: Medical students’ most important motivations in attending peer-assisted history-taking groups were becoming able to complete a structured medical interview, to mitigate difficult interviewing situations, and to address patients’ emotional demands appropriately. By the end of the course, students’ self-assessment of both their interview skills and management of emotional issues improved significantly. Students especially benefitted from individual feedback regarding interview style and relationship formation, as well as generally accepted and had their expectations met by peer tutors. Conclusions: To meet the important learning objectives of history-taking and management of emotional issues, as well as self-reflection and reflection of student–patient interactions, students in the field greatly appreciate practicing medical interviewing in small, peer-assisted groups with real patients. At the same time, peer tutors are experienced to be helpful and supportive and can help students to overcome inhibitions in making contact with patients.
Gale, Julia; Ooms, Ann; Grant, Robert; Paget, Kris; Marks-Maran, Di
With recent reports of public enquiries into failure to care, universities are under pressure to ensure that candidates selected for undergraduate nursing programmes demonstrate academic potential as well as characteristics and values such as compassion, empathy and integrity. The Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) was used in one university as a way of ensuring that candidates had the appropriate numeracy and literacy skills as well as a range of communication, empathy, decision-making and problem-solving skills as well as ethical insights and integrity, initiative and team-work. To ascertain whether there is evidence of bias in MMIs (gender, age, nationality and location of secondary education) and to determine the extent to which the MMI is predictive of academic success in nursing. A longitudinal retrospective analysis of student demographics, MMI data and the assessment marks for years 1, 2 and 3. One university in southwest London. One cohort of students who commenced their programme in September 2011, including students in all four fields of nursing (adult, child, mental health and learning disability). Inferential statistics and a Bayesian Multilevel Model. MMI in conjunction with MMI numeracy test and MMI literacy test shows little or no bias in terms of ages, gender, nationality or location of secondary school education. Although MMI in conjunction with numeracy and literacy testing is predictive of academic success, it is only weakly predictive. The MMI used in conjunction with literacy and numeracy testing appears to be a successful technique for selecting candidates for nursing. However, other selection methods such as psychological profiling or testing of emotional intelligence may add to the extent to which selection methods are predictive of academic success on nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Okyere, Paul; Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth
The study sought to assess the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions in reducing alcohol consumption among college students, as compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. It also sought to identify the potential moderators to MI intervention effects. Database sources consulted included Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLE, PsycLIT, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Included studies were (1) underpinned by experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental designs; (2) studies in which participants were either college males only or females only or both; and (3) studies in which adaptations of MI were based on key MI principles. Excluded studies were (1) non-English language studies; (2) studies not published from 2000-2012; (3) studies in which participants were not college students; (4) studies in which intervention was not delivered by face-to-face approach; and (5) studies that failed to embark on postintervention follow-ups. A total of 115 abstracts were screened. These were narrowed down to 13 studies from which data for the study were extracted. Selected studies were underpinned by experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental designs. Owing to the heterogeneity in selected studies, a narrative synthesis was used. MI interventions were found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption among college students, when compared to alternative interventions or no intervention. Potential moderators of MI intervention effects were identified to include practitioner's adherence to MI techniques and individual's drinking motives. MI presents itself as a promising tool that can augment the many existing social-environmental strategies of health promotion.
Kasemsap, Bharani; Lee, Hugo Yu-Hsiu
This study aims to explore the application of reading strategies to the reading of English texts by Thai vocational college students. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys, think-aloud experiments and semi-structured interviews. The research results reveal different typologies of reading strategies adopted by lower and higher level English…
Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus
Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…
Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Bernard, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to operationalize the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict the sleep intentions and behaviors of undergraduate college students attending a Midwestern University. Data collection spanned three phases. The first phase included a semi-structured qualitative interview (n = 11), readability by…
The importance of science to the economy and for the progression of society is widely acknowledged. Yet, there are concerns that minority ethnic students in the UK are underrepresented, and even excluded, from post-compulsory science education and careers "in" science. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 semi-structured interviews with…
Chan, Lap Ki; Bridges, Susan M.; Doherty, Iain; Ng, Manwa L.; Jin, Jun; Sharma, Neel; Chan, Nam Kiu; Lai, Henrietta Yan Yu
Mobile devices are increasingly being used by undergraduate students to access online information in the problem-based learning (PBL) process, initially in the self-directed phase, and more recently within face-to-face tutorials. This qualitative study across three undergraduate health professional programs used semi-structured interviews to…
Glazer, Greer; Startsman, Laura F; Bankston, Karen; Michaels, Julia; Danek, Jennifer C; Fair, Malika
Health profession schools use interviews during the admissions process to identify certain non-cognitive skills that are needed for success in diverse, inter-professional settings. This study aimed to assess the use of interviews during the student admissions process across health disciplines at schools in the United States of America in 2014. The type and frequency of non-cognitive skills assessed were also evaluated. Descriptive methods were used to analyze a sample of interview rubrics collected as part of a national survey on admissions in the health professions, which surveyed 228 schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and public health. Of the 228 schools, 130 used interviews. The most desirable non-cognitive skills from 34 schools were identified as follows: communication skills (30), motivation (22), readiness for the profession (17), service (12), and problem-solving (12). Ten schools reported using the multiple mini-interview format, which may indicate potential for expanding this practice. Disparities in the use of interviewing across health professions should be verified to help schools adopt interviews during student admissions processes.
Nagpal, Smita; Ritchie, Martin H.
Counselor education faculty were interviewed regarding the evaluation criteria and decision-making processes used during selection interviews. Ten characteristics were identified that participants looked for during interviews. There was a high degree of agreement among participants on the evaluation criteria they used. However, the same…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI, Burnout (OLBI, Depression (MDI at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77% responded on both occasions, 80 (63% of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27% had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students
Full Text Available Dartmouth’s Critical Moments project is designed to promote discussions among faculty and graduate students about the retention of students, particularly women and minorities, in science, math, and engineering (SME disciplines. The first phase of the ongoing project has been the development of four case stories, which are fictionalized composites drawn from surveys and interviews of real Dartmouth students. The surveyed population was 125 students in general chemistry. Of the 77 who agreed to be interviewed, 61 reported having experienced a critical moment – i.e., a positive or negative event or time that had a significant impact on the student’s academic life. Leading critical moments were a poor grade on an exam; challenge from group work; excitement from an internship; and falling in love with a non-SME discipline from other coursework. Interviews of 13 students who had negative critical moments led to the development of case stories for: Antoinetta ’09, who had a disappointing group experience; Dalila ’08, who was poorly prepared; Greg ’09, who got in over his head in his first year; and Michelle ’08, who was shocked by her result in the first exam. The case stories are being discussed by graduate students, TA and faculty in various workshops at the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning.
Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid
One of the key strategies in students? learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors? experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian?s Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions ...
Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret
This paper offers a qualitative thematic analysis of the impacts of cyberbullying on post-secondary students, faculty, and administrators from four participating Canadian universities. These findings were drawn from data obtained from online surveys of students and faculty, student focus groups, and semi-structured interviews with faculty members and university administrators. The key themes discussed include: negative affect, impacts on mental and physical health, perceptions of self, impact...
Full Text Available Background: There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods: At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results: The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion: This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.
Terry, John; Strait, Gill; McQuillin, Sam; Smith, Bradley H.
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief client-centred intervention that increases intrinsic motivation for change. Little research has been conducted on MI to promote academic behaviours, but two studies found that one session of MI did improve middle-school students' math grades [Strait, G., Smith, B., McQuillin, S., Terry, J., Swan, S., &…
Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila
This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…
Lackner, Christine; Martini, Tanya
In the context of a Transition to Work course for fourth-year psychology majors, we had students use an e-portfolio to self-reflect on the learning experiences they deemed most significant during their degree. Such significant learning experiences can be drawn upon when answering behavioral job interview questions. We examined whether students…
Abughosh, Susan; Wang, Xin; Serna, Omar; Esse, Tara; Mann, Amanda; Masilamani, Santhi; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, Ekere James; Fleming, Marc
Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence. To examine the effect of an MI telephone intervention conducted by pharmacy students in improving adherence to ACEIs/ARBs among Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP) patients with both DM and HTN. A prospective study was conducted among patients enrolled in a Texas MAP. Medical claims data were used to identify patients with DM and HTN, and pharmacy claims were observed to recognize those who filled either an ACEI or an ARB during June 2014. Patients with a 6-month proportion of days covered (PDC) sustainability of the intervention effect for longer time periods and its influence on associated clinical outcomes. This project was supported by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation (PhRMA). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of PhRMA. The funding agency was not involved in research design, analysis, or reporting results. Funding was obtained by Abughosh. Holstad provided a consultation regarding the MI guide and provided the MI training. Study concept and design were contributed by Abughosh and Fleming, along with Serna, Esse, and Holstad. Serna, Esse, Mann, Holstad, and Masilamani collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse. The manuscript was written by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse and revised
Lesser, Lawrence M.; Wagler, Amy E.; Salazar, Berenice
English language learners (ELLs) are a rapidly growing part of the student population in many countries. Studies on resources for language learners--especially Spanish-speaking ELLs--have focused on areas such as reading, writing, and mathematics, but not introductory probability and statistics. Semi-structured qualitative interviews investigated…
Mayat, Nafisa; Amosun, Seyi Ladele
This study explored the perceptions of academic staff towards admission of students with disabilities, and their accommodation once accepted into an undergraduate Civil Engineering program in a South African university. Qualitative responses relating to the perceptions of five academic staff were obtained through semi-structured interviews. The…
Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune
This study explores the psychometric properties of three instruments: a semi-structured interview, a questionnaire and a sorting task. The central question is which instrument is most suitable to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education.
Stievenart, M.; Casonato, M.; Muntean, A.; Van de Schoot, R.
The Friends and Family Interview (FFI; Steele & Steele, 2005 Steele, H. and Steele, M. 2005. The construct of coherence as an indicator of attachment security in middle childhood: The Friends and Family Interview, New York, NY: Guilford Press. ), a semi-structured interview assessing attachment
This case study offers insights into the motivation and experiences of a cyber-student, an individual who completes all or portions of an online class for the registered student. The cyber-student shares information on the inner-workings of online companies specializing in matching cyber-students with potential clients. A portrait of both a…
This article explores the walking interview as a qualitative tool to assess campus climate. Using examples from a study that employed the walking interview, the author elucidates how this method of data collection allows for in situ understandings of participants' perceptions, spatial practices, biographies, social architecture, and social realms…
Spanjer, Jerry; Mei, van der Sijrike; Cornelius, Bert; Brouwer, Sandra; Klink, van der Jac
PURPOSE: The Disability Assessment Structured Interview (DASI) is a semi-structured interview for assessing functional limitations of claimants in a work disability evaluation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a 3-day DASI training course on the quality of assessment interviews of
Nissen, Stine Karen; Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher; Tonnesen, Pia Beck
explores the potential of photo-elicitation interviews as a qualitative path to affect. This particular type of interview is shaped as conversations about self-produced images of mathematics. When conducting the photo elicitation interviews, researchers also introduce their own photographs......The identification of the right prompts, to which young children can respond easily, is a challenge to researchers, even more so when it comes to studies of affect (McDonough and Sullivan, 2014). Attempting to capture 3rd grade students’ verbalized perspectives on mathematics, this study also...... into the interview context, along with the photographs of the child's experiences. Both serve as the basis for a child-directed interview (Clark, 1999)....
Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the
Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the
Sjöström, Susanne; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion among medical students in Maharastra, India, we conducted in-depth interviews with medical students in their final year of education. We used a qualitative design conducting in-depth interviews with twenty-three medical students in Maharastra applying a topic guide. Data was organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. The participants described a fear to provide abortion in their future practice. They lacked understanding of the law and confused the legal regulation of abortion with the law governing gender biased sex selection, and concluded that abortion is illegal in Maharastra. The interviewed medical students' attitudes were supported by their experiences and perceptions from the clinical setting as well as traditions and norms in society. Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol was believed to be unsafe and prohibited in Maharastra. The students perceived that nurse-midwives were knowledgeable in Sexual and Reproductive Health and many found that they could be trained to perform abortions in the future. To increase chances that medical students in Maharastra will perform abortion care services in their future practice, it is important to strengthen their confidence and knowledge through improved medical education including value clarification and clinical training.
This paper presents a critical investigation of a group of 11 religious education (RE) student teachers' views of the promotion of fundamental British values (FBV) undertaken in 2015. Using qualitative methods, data were collected in two semi-structured group interviews. Drawing from the perspectives of Foucauldian methodology and critical theory,…
Full Text Available According to research, while moderately gifted students can often fit in the regular classrooms with differentiated instructions, pull-out programs, or acceleration options, highly gifted students do better when they are grouped with other intellectually-advanced peers in accordance with their strengths, interests, and background knowledge of a topic. Each of these students requires special attention and management strategies to develop better cognitive, social, emotional, and physical skills. Thanks to the grouping strategy, highly gifted students can study concepts at the appropriate pace, depth, and complexity so that these students feel valued and normal (Neville, 2007; Rogers, 2007. In order to fully meet these students’ needs, creating a school for highly, exceptionally, and profoundly gifted students would be a more beneficial plan compared to requiring them to stay within the regular classroom, accelerating, or grade skipping. Rogers (2002 pointed out that these students showed more academic growth by studying with other intellectual peers in separate classrooms. According to VanTassel-Baska (2006, identification, curriculum, program design, staff development, parental involvement assessment, and evaluation areas were essential for gifted program development. In accordance with the program development guidelines noted above, in this presentation, the process of developing and implementing a program for highly gifted students in Science, Math, Reading, and Social Studies will be provided based on an interview with Lynette Breedlove, Ph.D. who is the director of Advanced Academic Studies & Secondary Counseling at Spring Branch Independent School District in Houston, TX.
The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...
Mani, Sudha; Kothandaraman, Prabakar; Kashyap, Rajiv; Ashnai, Bahar
Sales competitions provide students with opportunities to apply their understanding of sales. Despite a long tradition of scholarship on sales role-plays, the answer to what drives student performance in sales competitions remains elusive. In this research, we examine how motivation (work engagement) and ability (cognitive aptitude and…
Silvestre, Nuria; Ramspott, Anna; Pareto, Irenka D.
The starting point for this study is the importance of linguistic competence in deaf students as part of their process of socialization and the formation of their self-concept. With the 56 deaf students who participated in the research, we consider the following sociodemographic variables: age, sex and degree of hearing loss, and the educational…
Kurpis, Lada Helen; Hunter, James
Business schools can increase their competitiveness by offering students intercultural skills development opportunities integrated into the traditional curricula. This article makes a contribution by proposing an approach to developing students' cultural intelligence that is based on the cultural intelligence (CQ) model, experiential learning…
Lin, M.; Hsu, W.; Hung, M.; Su, Y.; Crawford, Paul; Tang, C.
Communication is closely related to safe practice and patient outcomes. Given that most clinicians fall into routines when communicating with patients, it is important to address communication issues early. This study explores Taiwanese nursing students’ experiences of communication with patients with cancer and their families. Senior nursing students who had cared for cancer patients were recruited to participate in focus group interviews. These semi-structured interviews were recorded and t...
Hohman, Melinda; Pierce, Paloma; Barnett, Elizabeth
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based communication method to assist clients in resolving their ambivalence regarding change. With a school emphasis on evidence-based practice and learning outcomes, a social work department implemented a semester-long course on MI. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline skills and…
Presents an interview with Claudio S. Hutz, who is dean of Instituto de Psicologia at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, where he has been teaching psychology since 1977. Discusses topics such as teaching psychology in Brazil and developing critical thinking skills. (CMK)
Roman, Brenda; Borges, Nicole; Morrison, Ann K.
Background: Despite a large percentage of health care costs being related to smoking, obesity, and substance abuse, most physicians are not confident in motivating patients to change health behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a directive, patient-centered approach for eliciting behavior change. The purpose of this study was to teach…
Marília Rosa de Oliveira; Ana Rita Arrigo Leonel; Juliana Helena Montezeli; Andréia Bendine Gastaldi; Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins; Cristiano Caveião
Objective: to present the conception of undergraduate nursing students participating in an integrated project on health education on first aid. Methods: qualitative research conducted at the Universidade Estadual de Londrina with five senior nursing students, participating in the project “Nursing in clinical and surgical urgent and emergency care.” We applied semi-structured interviews with content analysis. Results: the following categories emerged: Health education as a facilitator for acad...
Yi-An Jason Chen
The way in which Taiwanese students use English names to construct their identities in a new sociocultural setting has received minimal scholarly attention. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 10 Taiwanese international students, I focused on how the use of ethnic names and English names is structured through social interaction and cultural context at an American university. The results suggest that the acquisition of an English name is not a personal choice, but an authoritative order...
Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder
Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.
Maluf, David A.; Tran, Peter B.
Object-Relational database management system is an integrated hybrid cooperative approach to combine the best practices of both the relational model utilizing SQL queries and the object-oriented, semantic paradigm for supporting complex data creation. In this paper, a highly scalable, information on demand database framework, called NETMARK, is introduced. NETMARK takes advantages of the Oracle 8i object-relational database using physical addresses data types for very efficient keyword search of records spanning across both context and content. NETMARK was originally developed in early 2000 as a research and development prototype to solve the vast amounts of unstructured and semi-structured documents existing within NASA enterprises. Today, NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput open database framework for managing, storing, and searching unstructured or semi-structured arbitrary hierarchal models, such as XML and HTML.
Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)
Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…
Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Talamantes, Efrain; Fancher, Tonya; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter
Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 performance and third-year clerkship Honors, measures affecting residency matching. While URM status was not associated with the measures, students with greater SED had lower Step 1 scores and fewer Honors. Students with higher MMI scores had more Step 1 failures, but more Honors. The findings identify areas to address in medical school admissions, student support, and evaluation processes, which is important given the need for a more representative physician workforce.
André Minella; Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho
We develop and estimate a medium-size, semi-structural model for Brazil's economy during the inflation targeting period. The model captures key features of the economy, and allows us to investigate the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy. We decompose the monetary channels into household interest rate, firm interest rate, and exchange rate channels. We find that the household interest rate channel plays the most important role in explaining output dynamics after a monetary policy shock...
suggested by the teachers. Students emphasized the importance of the learning environment being safe, appreciative and inclusive. All 23 students stated that they learned from playing, observing and/or giving feedback. Learnings were focused around personal issues such as seeing one self and others from......Background Health professionals who are skilled at communicating are a prerequisite for providing services of high quality. Physiotherapists work within health promotion and support people in change of lifestyle. The aim of this project was to gain insight into physiotherapy students’ motivation...... questionnaire. 23 students completed the questionnaire (46%). A content analysis of data was made, themes categorized and developed. Findings Students expressed personal development and working with own cases as important motivational factors for coming to class. 83 % had read all or parts of the literature...
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees
Wells, Harvey; Jones, Anna; Jones, Sue C.
In formal learning settings, there will always be instances of resistance to learning from students, resulting in either open conflict or withdrawal and consequent disillusionment on the part of both students and teachers. This paper presents a set of principles and associated practices for responding to disengagement from learning in constructive…
Doll, Jessica L.
Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…
Charlie Nutt has been an active member of the National Academic Advising Association (NACADA) since 1991 and currently is the NACADA Executive Director. NACADA promotes and supports quality academic advising in institutions of higher education to enhance the educational development of students. Nutt's current responsibilities as executive director…
Quantitative research suggests that medical students' empathy declines during their training. This meta-ethnography asks: What new understanding may be gained by a synthesis of interview-based qualitative research on medical students' views and experiences of empathy? How can such a synthesis be undertaken? A meta-ethnography synthesizes individual qualitative studies to generate knowledge increasing understanding and informing debate. A literature search yielded eight qualitative studies which met the inclusion criteria. These were analyzed from a phenomenological and interpretative perspective. The meta-ethnography revealed a conceptual confusion around empathy and a tension in medical education between distancing and connecting with patients. Barriers to empathy included a lack of patient contact and a strong emphasis on the biomedical over the psycho-social aspects of the curriculum. A number of influences discussed in the paper lead students to adopt less overt ways of showing their empathy. These insights deepen our understanding of the apparent decline in empathy in medical students. The lessons from these studies suggest that future curriculum development should include earlier patient contact, more emphasis on psycho-social aspects of care and address the barriers to empathy to ensure that tomorrow's doctors are empathetic as well as competent.
Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum
This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…
Flávia Baccin Fiorante
Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the learning path of the students attending belong to low-income segment in Physical Education teacher degrees in Faculdades Integradas Einstein of Limeira through bibliography and field researches, using a semi structured interview. The results showed that, four of them students show similar answers related to habitus, cultural knowledge deficit, attendance at sporting events, empathy to Physical Education subject during academic life, sport activities during their childhood. We concluded that facts may help understand the professional choice made by the interviewed students.
In much of science education research, the content of talk tends to be attributed to the persons who produce the sound-words in a speech situation. A radically different, sociological perspective on language-in-use grounded in Marxism derives from the work of L. S. Vygotsky and the members of the circle around M. M. Bakhtin. Accordingly, each word belongs to speaker and recipient simultaneously. It represents collective consciousness and, therefore, shared ideology, which can no longer be attributed to the individual. The purpose of this study is to develop a sociological perspective on language in science education, a perspective in which language continuously changes. I articulate this position in the context of classroom and interview talk with 14-year-old Swiss non-academically streamed lower secondary students about technology and science. In this context, science classrooms and interviews are shown to be microcosms of Swiss (German) culture and society reproduced in and through the situated talk about science and technology.
Alexander, Andrew George; Deas, Deborah; Lyons, Paul Eric
Imaging and its optimal use are imperative to the practice of medicine, yet many students don't receive a formal education in radiology. Concurrently, students look for ways to take time away from medical school for residency interviewing. Web-based instruction provides an opportunity to combine these imperatives using online modalities. A largely Web-based course in radiology during the 4th year of medical school was evaluated both for its acceptance to students who needed to be away from campus for interviews, and its effectiveness on a nationally administered standardized test. All students were placed into a structured program utilizing online videos, online modules, online textbook assignments, and live interactive online lectures. Over half of the course could be completed away from campus. The Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology test exam bank was used as a final exam to evaluate medical knowledge. Positive student feedback included the freedom to travel for interviews, hands-on ultrasound training, interactive teaching sessions, and quality Web-based learning modules. Negative feedback included taking quizzes in-person, a perceived outdated online textbook, and physically shadowing hospital technicians. Most students elected to take the course during the interview months of October through January. The Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology final exam results (70.5%) were not significantly different than the national cohort (70%) who took the course in-person. Test scores from students taking the course during interview travel months were not significantly different from students who took the course before (P=.30) or after (P=.34) the interview season. Students desire to learn radiology and often choose to do so when they need to be away from campus during the fall of their 4th year of study to accomplish their residency interviews. Web-based education in radiology allows students' interview traveling and radiology course
Winter, Clare; McKenzie, Karen
There has been limited research into how teachers view and respond to relational aggression in girls. The existing research is largely quantitative and questionnaire based and has indicated that gender stereotypes may influence teachers’ perceptions of female aggression. The present study adopted a qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews to explore how seven teachers (six females and one male) working in a single sex (all girls) school, experienced and perceived female student ...
Alabdulaziz, M.; Higgins, S.
This paper will investigate the relationship between technology use and the use of constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used for the purpose of this research, which were undertaken with three mathematics teachers from school A which used technology, and the other three from school B, which did not use technology. We found that technology can support constructivist approach when teaching and...
Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric
To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.
van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.
Objectives In addition to our target Muslim populations, we aim also to gather information on their community leaders, as well as the policy makers whose policies confront them. We aim through a series of semi-structured interviews to gain information on the position of a variety of community
Ansari Saleh Ahmar
Full Text Available Universitas Negeri Makassar (UNM have a number of prospective students is quite a lot. Based on data released by the BAPSI UNM (2015 that the data student candidates of UNM who passed the selection with SNMPTN SBMPTN selection as 3,791 people. If the prospective graduate students interviewed are normally it will take a long time and will certainly make students uncomfortable. Therefore it is necessary design an information systems to solving this problem. This research aim to develop an information system to facilitate the process queue. The method used in this research is to use the three stages in the Software Development Life Cycle method namely Initiation Phase, Development/Acquisition Phase, and Implementation Phase. This information system development using PHP and CodeIgniter as a its framework. This design results will be obtained an queues and interviews information system that can be used to manage the queue and interview data. By implementing this system, it potentially reduce time to wait and the process of managing results of interviews can be obtained directly without a process of inputting interview repeat if done manually.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the media literacy levels of secondary school students who attend media literacy courses. In this qualitative study, interview method was used to gather required data. In this qualitative study, interview method was used to gather required data. The interviews were conducted with 10 secondary school students of grade 8 attending media literacy courses by using semi-structured interview forms developed by the researcher. The questions used in semi-structured interview forms were prepared considering the outcomes of Media Literacy program related to units in Media Literacy Lesson Teacher Guide Book such as What is Communication?, Mass Communication, Media, Television, Newspaper and the Internet. The data gathered through the student's interviews were analyzed by applying content analysis method. Having evaluated the research results, it was concluded that the students who attend Media Literacy courses have a bit data and skills as knowing what communication is, using media and knowing its functions, telling the difference between TV program sorts in terms of their functions, knowing smart signs and explanations and obeying them, knowing basic concepts about newspaper and knowing and applying basic concepts concerning internet usage.
Shochet, Robert; King, Julie; Levine, Rachel; Clever, Sarah; Wright, Scott
by patients such that they must be adept at improvising. Because of the gap that currently exists in interview skills training programmes, we hypothesised that the field of improvisational theatre would effectively supplement the traditional curriculum. Improvisation relies on listening, confidence and responding instinctively and spontaneously. 13,14 In this paper, we describe our efforts to develop a brief curriculum for medical students providing training in the art of theatre improvisation, with the goal of enhancing students' confidence and performance in clinical encounters. We hoped that this innovative curricular experience would establish a venue where secondyear medical students could learn and practise improvisational skills that might prove helpful in their communications with patients during medical encounters.
Information Communication Technology to support and include Blind students in a school for all An Interview study of teachers and students’ experiences with inclusion and ICT support to blind students
Rony, Mahbubur Rahman
The topic of this is this study is how blind students and teachers experiences Information Communication Technology as a tool to support and include blind students in a school for all. The study investigates how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enables blind students to adjust into non-special schools. The research method used to collect data is interview. The goal is to get insight to teachers and students’ experiences with inclusion and ICT as a tool to support blind student...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... for life story research, it can also be used for ther types of studies where interviews are made....... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...
Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente
At the kick-off meeting in Vienna October 2005 it was agreed that partners would conduct a limited number of interviews to make an initial survey of issues that would be relevant for the production of the manual & guide. It was therefore the objective of the interviews to produce knowledge about...... technological skills specifically required for live online language teaching define need for qualification of the live online language teacher The Danish team conducted 4 semi-structured interviews with teachers. The interviews were made on the basis of an interview guide discussed by all partners in December...
Schopper, Heather; Rosenbaum, Marcy; Axelson, Rick
Experts suggest observation and feedback is a useful tool for teaching and evaluating medical student communication skills during the clinical years. Failing to do this effectively risks contributing to deterioration of students' communication skills during the very educational period in which they are most important. While educators have been queried about their thoughts on this issue, little is known about what this process is like for learners and if they feel they get educational value from being observed. This study explored student perspectives regarding their experiences with clinical observation and feedback on communication skills. A total of 125 senior medical students at a U.S. medical school were interviewed about their experiences with observation and feedback. Thematic analysis of interview data identified common themes among student responses. The majority of students reported rarely being observed interviewing, and they reported receiving feedback even less frequently. Students valued having communication skills observed and became more comfortable with observation the more it occurred. Student-identified challenges included supervisor time constraints and grading based on observation. Most feedback focused on information gathering and was commonly delayed until well after the observed encounter. Eliciting students' perspectives on the effect of observation and feedback on the development of their communication skills is a unique way to look at this topic, and brings to light many student-identified obstacles and opportunities to maximize the educational value of observation and feedback for teaching communication, including increasing the number of observations, disassociating observation from numerically scored evaluation, training faculty to give meaningful feedback, and timing the observation/feedback earlier in clerkships.
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Carol A. Puhl
Full Text Available South Africa has eleven official languages, but English is by far the most commonly used medium of instruction in schools. It is therefore essential that the English proficiency of preservice teachers be accurately assessed by means of a valid, reliable and feasible assessment instrument. As there are so many tertiary institutions responsible for teacher certification in the country, standards of oral assessment vary widely. This paper describes a semi-structured oral proficiency test, designed to meet these needs. Possibilities for further development of the test are explored Suid-Afrika erken elf amptelike tale, maar Engels is die medium wat verreweg die meeste in skole gebruik word Dit is dus noodsaaklik dat onderwysstudente se taalvaardigheid in Engels akkuraat gemeet moet kan word dm. v. 'n geldige, betroubare en toepaslike meetinstrument. Die feit dat so baie tersiere inrigtings in Suid-Afrika betrokke is by die sertifisering van onderwysers, lei onvermydelik tot groot skommelinge in standaarde. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n semigestruktureerde mondelinge taalvaardigheidstoets wat ontwikkel is om in die behoeftes te voorsien. Moontlikhede vir die verdere ontwikkeling van die toets word ondersoek.
Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.
Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.
Thiam, Mouhamadou; Bennacer, Nacéra; Pernelle, Nathalie; Lô, Moussa
SHIRIis an ontology-based system for integration of semi-structured documents related to a specific domain. The system’s purpose is to allow users to access to relevant parts of documents as answers to their queries. SHIRI uses RDF/OWL for representation of resources and SPARQL for their querying. It relies on an automatic, unsupervised and ontology-driven approach for extraction, alignment and semantic annotation of tagged elements of documents. In this paper, we focus on the Extract-Align algorithm which exploits a set of named entity and term patterns to extract term candidates to be aligned with the ontology. It proceeds in an incremental manner in order to populate the ontology with terms describing instances of the domain and to reduce the access to extern resources such as Web. We experiment it on a HTML corpus related to call for papers in computer science and the results that we obtain are very promising. These results show how the incremental behaviour of Extract-Align algorithm enriches the ontology and the number of terms (or named entities) aligned directly with the ontology increases.
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...
Jones, Mandy; McIntyre, Judith; Naylor, Sandra
To explore the preparedness of final-year physiotherapy students for their progression into employment, and identify what universities can do to facilitate a smooth transition. A single-cohort study, utilising a qualitative design incorporating a survey followed by transcribed and coded semi-structured interviews. Interviews were held in the Placement and Careers Centre at Brunel University, London. Sixty final-year full- and part-time students participated in the survey, and 12 final-year full- and part-time students participated in the semi-structured interviews. Sixty students completed a questionnaire which explored their preparedness for employment. Questions related to the current job situation, the application process and the student's ideal first post. Responses from the questionnaire were analysed and discussed further through a digitally recorded interview. Twelve students were interviewed by an experienced interviewer from a non-physiotherapy background. Students felt unprepared for employment. Forty-seven per cent wanted a rotational post, but 26% would only spend 6 months and 39% would only spend 1 year looking for a job. Seventy-one percent would change career and 99% would work abroad if they were unable to secure a post in the UK. Most importantly, students could not identify transferable skills required by potential employers; only 25% cited effective communications, and 10% cited flexible working as a transferable skill. Self-management skills (e.g. prioritisation, time management and documentation) were not perceived as essential for employment. The job market requires physiotherapy graduates to possess transferable skills which can be applied to any situation. Many are integral to the profession and the undergraduate curriculum; however, analysis and assimilation of these skills cannot be assumed. Universities should reflect on their curriculum delivery to produce graduates who meet employers' expectations and make a smooth transition into the
Whiteside, Diana; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy
To consider the experiences of final-year physiotherapy students who have experienced workplace bullying on a clinical internship. Qualitative methodology using individual semi-structured interviews. A university in the Midlands region of the UK. Eight undergraduate physiotherapy students who had experienced one incident of bullying on a clinical internship. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews. Four main themes were identified: (1) external and situational influences of bullying; (2) students' reactions to the experience of bullying; (3) inability to reveal the experience; and (4) overcoming problems. Bullying had a range of adverse effects on the students, with many expressing self-doubt in their competence and viewing their supervisor as unapproachable and unsupportive. Five students were not initially able to recognise the experience as bullying. In addition, students did not feel able to report the experience and use the support mechanisms in place. This may have been a result of having concerns that the problem would escalate if they reported the experience and, as a consequence, have a negative effect on their grade. Students were keen to offer a range of strategies for clinical practice in order to prevent bullying for future generations of students. Students' health, security and confidence in their ability as a physiotherapist can be at great risk from bullying. Steps are needed to ensure that students are better protected from bullying, and feel more able to address bullying behaviour during clinical internships. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette
When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...
Much of the work of user-centered design practitioners involves some type of interviewing. While interviewing is an important skill, many colleagues have little or no formal training in interviewing methods and often learn on the job with limited feedback on the quality of their interviews. This book teaches readers about the three basic interview methods: structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews. The author discusses the various strengths, weaknesses, issues with each type of interview, and includes best practices and procedures for conducing effective
Vos, Martina S.; Putter, Hein; Leurs, Amber; Rooijmans, Harry G. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Houwelingen, Hans C.
Based on Weissman and Hackett's comprehensive definition of denial, a semi-structured interview was developed to measure denial in cancer patients. The denial in cancer interview (DCI) covers both the patients' recount of their illness experience and the expert's impression of the level of denial in
Mesman, R.; Faber, M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Berden, H.
Objective: To contribute to a better understanding of volume-outcome relationships in surgery by exploring Dutch surgeons' views on the underlying mechanism. Design: A qualitative study based on face-to-face semi structured interviews and an inductive content analysis approach. Setting: Interviews
He, Jun; Guo, Yi Maggie
It is important for MIS educators to have a good understanding of what IT knowledge and skills are required in business. In this study, 103 open job positions in the Midwestern United States were investigated via semi-structured interviews with hiring companies. The interviews with key business recruiters suggest that IT knowledge and skills are…
Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L; Carson, Maggie N
Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses. This research identified six factors that influence nursing students' clinical education: interpersonal, socio-cultural, instructional, environmental, emotional and physical factors. The research has developed a dynamic model of learning in clinical contexts, which offers opportunities to understand how students' learning is influenced multifactorially during clinical placements. The understanding and application of the model can improve nursing instructional design, and subsequently, nursing students' learning in clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the importance of the interview for developing ethical and moral-civic behaviours and consciousness. These aspects are often neglected in school activities, because the interview is used for developing the communicate competences or for make a social researches. Our paper analyze the value of interview from the civic, moral, ethic educational perspective. In this sense, we are used more observations and case studies. The theoretical aspects and examples of good practice hope the teacher to develop ethical awareness.
Full Text Available The authors in this paper draw attention to the importance of an instrument that can analyze student’s misconception.This study described the kind of the misconception in acid-base theory, and the percentage students’ misconception occur in every subconcept of acid-base theory. The design of this study is a descriptive method, involved 148 of 11th grade science students from Senior High School, which divided into two classes are high cognitive and low cognitive. Further analysis of using Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI as a diagnostic instrument is used to explore misconception which in that test included evaluating only content knowledge with considering the reason behind the students' choice of response and their certainty of response in every question. The result of data analysis has shown that misconception occurred in high cognitive class, gained 43,86% and misconception occurred in low cognitive class, gained 24,63%. Based on the diagnostic interview has shown that misconception occurred in students due to students does not understand the concept well and they related the one concept to the other concepts with partial understanding, the result students make the failed conclusions. The type of misconception occurred is a conceptual misunderstanding. According to the data analysis showed that Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI is effective used to analyze students’ misconceptions and the diagnostic interview is effective used to know the reasons that caused students which having misconceptions.
Tongnopparat, N.; Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.
This study aimed to investigate student reasoning about harmonic oscillations. We conducted a semi-structured interview based on three situations of harmonic motions—(1) a mass attaching to spring and horizontally oscillating without damping, (2) the same situation but vertically oscillating and (3) a mass attaching to spring and oscillating in viscous liquid. Forty-five second-year students taking a vibrations and wave course at Chiang Mai University, Thailand participated in a fifteen-minute interview, which was video-recorded. The videos were transcribed and analyzed by three physics instructors. As results, we found that most students had misconceptions about angular frequency and energy mostly in the second and third situations.
Longworth, Mary K
the aim of this study was to examine the attitudes of student midwives towards skills training and practise. The objectives were to explore the factors in the skills laboratory environment and in clinical practice which affect how successfully student midwives transfer into clinical practice the various skills they have learnt in preparation for an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. a review of the background literature revealed that there were many variables related to successful transfer of skills in general but there appeared to be a gap around perceived factors affecting transfer of skills of student midwives. a mixed methods design was conducted using both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews between June and August 2010. questionnaires were administered to all midwifery students at one university in Wales. These were later followed by semi-structured interviews for 6 student midwives who were purposively selected from all year groups. the results from the questionnaires revealed that a majority of students had positive attitudes to educators and mentors and to their skills acquisition experience in the skills laboratory and to the available opportunities to practise in clinical practice. Although students believed in the transferability of skills from the laboratory setting to clinical practice, a majority thought that clinical practice provided them with a better opportunity to learn clinical skills. The semi-structured interviews demonstrated that facilitating factors in the skills laboratory included having adequate instruction as well as having a designated space. Hindering factors included unrealistic models and equipment. In clinical practice, facilitating factors included having the opportunities to practise skills and support and feedback from the mentor. Hindering factors included deficits in the student-mentor relationship. this study highlighted that midwifery students must be adequately prepared to carry out clinical skills
Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi
To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The important role that metacognition plays as a predictor for student mathematical learning and for mathematical problem-solving, has been extensively documented. But only recently has attention turned to primary grades, and more research is needed at this level. The goals of this paper are threefold: (1) to present metacognitive framework during mathematics problem-solving, (2) to describe their multi-method interview approach developed to study student mathematical metacognition, and (3) to empirically evaluate the utility of their model and the adaptation of their approach in the context of grade 2 and grade 4 mathematics problem-solving. The results are discussed not only with regard to further development of the adapted multi-method interview approach, but also with regard to their theoretical and practical implications.
Aim The promotion of a distributed leadership model in health care means there is an expectation that undergraduate training should contribute to the development of nursing students' leadership capabilities. However, there is concern that the nursing degree programme is not sufficiently preparing students. This study explored nursing students' perceptions of leadership before qualifying, and how prepared they felt to take on leadership roles. Method Data were collected from 20 undergraduate nursing students, using a Straussian grounded theory approach, through three focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Findings These suggest students are disengaged from the learning of leadership, and preparation for leadership in clinical areas is problematic, as students are exposed to flawed role modelling. Conclusion Discrepancies between nurse education and the realities of clinical practice mean that successfully preparing nursing students for leadership roles will be challenging within current provision.
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Neşe Kutlu Abu
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate classroom teachers’ views about the education of gifted students in regular classrooms. The sample of the study is composed of ten primary school teachers working in the city of Amasya and had gifted students in their classes. In the present study, phenomenological research design was used. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed descriptively in the QSR N-Vivo package program. The findings showed that teachers did not believe a need for differentiating curriculum for gifted students; rather they expressed that regular curriculum was enough for gifted students. Based on the findings, it is clear that teachers need training both on the need of differentiated education for gifted students and strategies and approaches about how to educate gifted students. Teachers’ attitudes towards gifted students in regular classrooms should be investigated so that teachers’ unsupportive beliefs about differentiation for gifted students also influence their attitudes towards gifted students.
The objective of this study was to investigate the experiences of middle school students when concept maps were used as a learning tool. Twenty-nine students' written responses, concept maps and videotapes were analyzed. Out of 29 students, thirteen students were interviewed using a semi-structured and open-ended interview protocol. The students' initial written responses provided us with the students' initial reactions to concept maps. The videotapes captured the students' behavior, and interpersonal interactions. The interviews probed students': (1) knowledge about drawing concept maps, (2) perception of the meaning and usefulness of concept maps, and (3) attitudes towards concept maps. The results indicated that the students viewed concept maps as useful tools in learning science. They believed that concept maps organized and summarized the information, which thereby helped them understand the topic easily. They also believed that concept maps had some cognitive benefits. However, the students viewed concept maps as hard to construct because it was difficult for the students to think of related concepts. The students' initial written responses, interviews and videotapes indicated that the students seemed to see both positive and negative aspects of concept maps. Some students' had more positive and some had more negative attitudes.
Ayantoye, Catherine Adekemi; Luckner, John L
The population of students who are deaf or hard of hearing is becoming more culturally and/or linguistically diverse. However, there is a paucity of practitioner literature and research available to professionals and families to guide decision making about daily practices with these students and their families. The study identified factors that contribute to the success of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds who receive the majority of their education in inclusive settings. Students were recruited from two schools in two school districts in a western state. Students, educators, interpreters, and parents participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Observations of the students were also done. Analysis of the data included coding the transcribed interviews and the field notes to identify common themes. Seven themes emerged and are reported. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Guided reflection as a tool to deal with the theory– practice gap in critical care ... was used during semi-structured interviews during the data collection process. ... a description of incidents experienced, critical analysis of knowledge, critical ...
This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…
Trevor Uyi OMORUYI
Full Text Available International students’ contribution to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs tends to be considered from different aspects. There is an inadequate substantiation base that would allow academics, researchers and other stakeholders understand the importance of overseas students in the UK Business Schools. This paper investigates the contribution of international students to Business School in the UK HEIs. The research was exploratory and part of a bigger project on how and why Business Schools in the UK use Relationship Marketing to retain international students. It employed semi-structured interviews with 18 members of staff from four Business Schools in the North of England. Findings indicate that international students’ definition tends to differ amongst staff members within the Business Schools. Business Schools’ management perceive overseas students as an integral part of their institutions, especially as their overall contributions cannot be over-emphasised. The sample size and use of semi-structured interviews, as a single data gathering strategy, does not allow broad generalisation of findings. The obtained evidence can still be used as a platform for further research in this area.
Canel, Azize Nilgün
In this study, the Adlerian Interview Form has been used as a semi-structured, in-depth interview method to identify the experiences of six participants regarding Adler's concepts of early recollections and life style. Subsequent to transcribing the obtained information, recollections to be included in the analysis were subjected to the criterion…
To discuss the use of Skype as a medium for undertaking semi-structured interviews. Internet-based research is becoming increasingly popular, as communication using the internet takes a bigger role in our working and personal lives. Technology such as Skype allows research encounters with people across geographical divides. The semi-structured interview is a social encounter with a set of norms and expectations for both parties ( Doody and Noonan 2012 ). Proceedings must take account of the social context of both semi-structured interviews per se, and that of internet mediated communication. The findings of the qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study are compared with other reports comparing the use of Skype with face-to-face and telephone interviews. This paper is a methodological discussion of the use of Skype as an online research methodology. Choosing Skype as a means of interviewing may affect the characteristics of participants and decisions about consent. Rapport, sensitivity and collaboration may be addressed differently in Skype interviews compared with face-to-face interviews. Skype offers researchers the opportunity to reach a geographical spread of participants more safely, cheaply and quickly than face-to-face meetings. Rapport, sensitivity and degrees of collaboration can be achieved using this medium. The use of Skype as a medium for semi-structured interview research is better understood. This paper contributes to the growing body of literature on the use of the internet as a medium for research by nurses.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of a study which explored advanced learners of English engagement with their mobile devices to develop learning experiences that meet their needs and goals as foreign language learners. The data were collected from 20 students by means of a semi-structured interview. The gathered data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of the study demonstrated that, on the one hand, some subjects manifested heightened awareness relating to the advantageous role of mobile devices in their learning endeavors, their ability to reach for suitable tools and retrieve necessary information so as to achieve their goals, meet their needs and adjust their learning of English to their personal learning styles, and on the other, a rather intuitive and/or ad hoc use of their mobile devices in the classroom.
Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.
For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students' ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper "Some alternative views of energy" ["Phys. Educ." 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts' "alternative frameworks"…
Wei, Fang-Yi Flora
This unit activity is integrated into the chapters on radio of the appropriate course--Survey of Mass Media, Broadcast Journalism, News Writing, Media Programing, or Communication Technology. Employing the concept of a "hot-clock radio format," the purpose of this unit activity is to motivate students' collaborative learning in news…
This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sjöström, Susanne; Essen, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion amo...
Tenney, Nienke H.; Schotte, Chris K. W.; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.
In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD population (n=65) with
This study aims to investigate how a number of students who are at the end of a teachers’ educations program in social studies, geography, religion and history interpret that the national curriculums states that every teacher is responsible for students language development and should be supportive of language backgrounds. In the light of the curriculums the study explores how the teacher education students feel that the education has prepared them for teaching children with Swedish as a seco...
Bassett, A M; Baker, C; Cross, S
There is limited research around how mental health (MH) student nurses interpret and differentiate between people's religious and cultural beliefs and the existence of psychopathological symptomatology and experiences. Here we focus on one cultural issue that arose from research exploring how MH student nurses approach and interpret religion and culture in their practice - that is, the difficulties in determining the clinical significance of the religious beliefs and experiences expressed by the people they care for. While problems with establishing the cultural boundaries of normality in clinical assessments are an important area of debate in cultural psychiatry, it remains a peripheral issue in MH nurse education. An anthropologically informed qualitative research design underpinned 'critical incident' (CI)-focused ethnographic interviews with 36 second and third-year MH nursing field students and seven undergraduate MH branch lecturers. Follow up focus groups were also carried out. Interview transcripts were subject to thematic analysis. Four subthemes were identified under the broad theme of the clinical significance of religious-type expression and experience: (1) identifying the difference between delusions and religious belief; (2) identifying whether an experience was hallucination or religious experience; (3) the clinical implications of such challenges; and (4) applying religion-specific knowledge. There are clinical implications that may result from the difficulties with assessing the clinical significance of religious beliefs and experiences, identified in both our research and within international cultural psychiatry literature and research. Misinterpretation and therefore wrongly assessing someone's experience as pathological is a significant concern. It is suggested that CI analysis could be adapted to help nurses, nursing students and nurse educators recognize the religious dimensions of mental distress, particularly those that then potentially
Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani
This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.
Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret
This paper offers a qualitative thematic analysis of the impacts of cyberbullying on post-secondary students, faculty, and administrators from four participating Canadian universities. These findings were drawn from data obtained from online surveys of students and faculty, student focus groups, and semi-structured interviews with faculty members and university administrators. The key themes discussed include: negative affect, impacts on mental and physical health, perceptions of self, impacts regarding one's personal and professional lives, concern for one's safety, and the impact of authorities' (non) response. Students reported primarily being cyberbullied by other students, while faculty were cyberbullied by both students and colleagues. Although students and faculty represent different age levels and statuses at the university, both groups reported similar impacts and similar frustrations at finding solutions, especially when their situations were reported to authorities. It is important that universities pay greater attention to developing effective research-based cyberbullying policies and to work towards fostering a more respectful online campus culture.
Van Hees, Valérie; Moyson, Tinneke; Roeyers, Herbert
The transition into higher education constitutes a precarious life stage for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research on how students with ASD navigate college life is needed for the development of adequate support. This study investigated the challenges and support needs of 23 students with ASD in higher education through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed following the principles of Grounded Theory. Students faced difficulties with new situations and unexpected changes, social relationships, problems with information processing and time management and had doubts about disclosure. Facing these challenges simultaneously in the domains of education, student life and daily (independent) living, had a major impact on students' well being. Besides these challenges, students also reported benefits that contributed to success in the three domains. They pointed out to a set of recommendations for support. These findings are linked with previous research and implications for higher education institutions are extrapolated on the basis of these findings.
Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren
: Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments...
Oleson, J. C.
As part of my Ph.D. research on criminal genius, I conducted 44 semi-structured interviews. One of the 44 subjects, in particular, stood out. This noteworthy individual claimed that he had killed 15 people. His story was particularly interesting because--unlike most social research involving serial killers--he claimed that he had never been…
Schlichter, Bjarne; Sigvardsen, Kari; Jonsson, Sofia
in the curriculum. Method - The study is based on interpretative research (Walsham, 2006; Yin, 2003) and the method chosen was a qualitative case study (Myers, 2009). The data for this study was collected through fieldwork and semi-structured interviews. The fieldwork was conducted during the autumn semester 2010...... of first semester undergraduate students. Keywords -Motivation; first year undergraduate students; Management Information Systems; teaching assistants. Paper type - Research paper....... to the processes in a company. 2) Methods for formal modeling of processes, data and occurrences. 3) An introduction to a company's information systems and the relationship of these to business strategies. In addition to the lectures and tutorials, the students have to hand in a prescribed group assignment...
Lin, Fang-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Lee, Tzu-Ying
Traditionally, the 'five rights' (right patient, right route, right drug, right time, and right dose) principle is taught to be practiced during every medication administration process. Nursing educators use this principle to evaluate student performance. However, health care unit factors and education system characteristics that can contribute to student errors should not be underestimated. Students often felt stressed when medicating children during clinical practicum. The voices of these students are rarely represented. To understand students' experiences and perceptions of medication administration during their pediatric clinical practicum. A descriptive qualitative study design was adopted. A university in Northern Taiwan. A total of 34 undergraduate students who had completed a pediatric clinical practicum participated in a one-on-one interview. Each student was interviewed according to a semi-structured interview guide and was encouraged to disclose individual feelings and thoughts toward their experiences in pediatric medication administration. Eight themes emerged. The findings suggest that to decrease students' anxiety and increase their competence, pediatric instructors should improve their teaching strategies to better prepare students for clinical training. Providing self-directed learning activities and resources to improve students' familiarity with medication and medication safety knowledge is necessary. Instructors should provide students with a secure environment to discuss their medication errors. The 'nine rights' should be taught in fundamental nursing courses to enhance students' awareness during the medication administration process, and students should continue to practice the 'nine rights' in later pediatric clinical courses. Equal importance should be given to system failures that impact patient safety. © 2013.
Kelly, Maureen E; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P; Murphy, Andrew W
International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 were eligible to sit a previously validated 10 station MMI. Quantitative data comprised: demographics, selection tool scores and First Year Assessment scores. Qualitative data comprised separate focus groups with MMI Assessors, EU and Non-EU students. 109 students participated (45% of class). Of this 41.3% (n = 45) were Non-EU and 35.8% (n = 39) did not have English as first language. Age, gender and socioeconomic class did not impact on MMI scores. Non-EU students and those for whom English was not a first language achieved significantly lower scores on MMI than their EU and English speaking counterparts (difference in mean 11.9% and 12.2% respectively, PIELTS) (r = 0.5, PIELTS (r = 0.44; p = 0.006; n = 38) and EU school exit exam (r = 0.52; p<0.001; n = 56). MMI predicted EU student OSCE performance (r = 0.27; p = 0.03; n = 64). In the analysis of focus group data two overarching themes emerged: Authenticity and Cultural Awareness. MMI was considered a highly authentic assessment that offered a deeper understanding of the applicant than traditional tools, with an immediate relevance to clinical practice. Cultural specificity of some stations and English language proficiency were seen to disadvantage international students. Recommendations included cultural awareness training for MMI assessors, designing and piloting culturally neutral stations, lengthening station duration and providing high quality advance information to candidates. MMI is a welcome addition to assessment armamentarium for
While literature suggests that nurses report incidents or potentially unsafe care delivery, there is little evidence on student nurses' practice in this area. To explore the factors that influence student in reporting concerns about practice. A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured interviews with six student nurses. Student nurses said they do not always report potentially unsafe practice they have witnessed. Four main themes were identified: the student-mentor relationship in clinical placement; actual or potential support provided by both the practice area and university; students' own personal confidence and professional knowledge base; and fear of failing clinical placements. The nursing profession needs to take stock of current organisational culture and practice, and address issues around reporting in practice. Recommendations are made to improve mentorship, nurse training and for further research.
Seylani, Khatereh; Negarandeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Easa
Nursing education is both formal and informal. Formal education represents only a small part of all the learning involved; and many students learn more effectively through informal processes. There is little information about nursing student informal education and how it affects their character and practice. This qualitative study explores undergraduate nursing student perceptions of informal learning during nursing studies. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with a sample of undergraduate nursing students (n = 14). Strauss and Corbin's constant comparison analysis approach was used for data analysis. The categories that emerged included personal maturity and emotional development, social development, closeness to God, alterations in value systems, and ethical and professional commitment. Findings reveal that nursing education could take advantage of informal learning opportunities to develop students' nontechnical skills and produce more competent students. Implications for nursing education are discussed.
Interviews Robert Torres, a Nuyorican who excelled at school and escaped the ghetto while his family remained, then made a documentary about the situation. This interview examines how poverty affects children; how teachers can help impoverished Hispanic students; how teachers helped him; how educators should be compensated; what making the…
Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha
Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.
Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Gustavsson, Maria; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena
To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire.
Mariana Cristina Lobato dos Santos Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available The 15-minute family interview is a condensed form of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM and CFIM that aims to contribute to the establishment of a therapeutic relationship between nurses and family and to implement interventions to promote health and suffering relief, even during brief interactions. This study investigated the experience of nurses from the Family Health Strategy (FHS who used the 15-minute interview on postpartum home. The qualitative research was conducted in three stages: participants' training program, utilization of the 15-minute family interview by participants, and interviews with nurses. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight nurses. The thematic analysis revealed two main themes: dealing with the challenge of a new practice and evaluating the assignment. This work shows that this tool can be used to deepen relationships between nurses and families in the Family Health Strategy.
Alsup, Philip R.
Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.
Montalvo, Frank F.
Describes the critical-incident interview, a cross-cultural training technique that helps social work students assess clients' ethnic- and racial-identity development. Uses examples from student interviews to present the steps involved in teaching the technique. Includes guidelines for selecting and interviewing informants, and gives three scales…
Lutz, Gabriele; Pankoke, Nina; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hofmann, Marzellus; Zupanic, Michaela
Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse. A qualitative design was applied using semi-structured focus group interviews with preclinical students and semi-structured individual interviews with mentors and co-mentors. The interview data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Students' attitudes towards reflective discourse on professional challenges were diverse. Some students valued the new program and named positive outcomes regarding several features of professional development. Enriching experiences were described. Others expressed aversive attitudes. Three reasons for these were given: unclear goals and benefits, interpersonal problems within the groups hindering development and intrapersonal issues such as insecurity and traditional views of medical education. Participants mentioned several program setup factors that could enhance how students engage in such groups: explaining the program thoroughly, setting expectations and integrating the reflective discourse in a meaningful way into the curriculum, obliging participation without coercion, developing a sense of security, trust and interest in each other within the groups, randomizing group composition and facilitating group moderators as positive peer and faculty role models and as learning group members. A well-designed and empathetic setup of group mentoring programs can help raise openness towards engaging in meaningful reflective discourse. Reflection on and communication of
Bowden, Fran Martin; Lordly, Daphne; Thirsk, Jayne; Corby, Lynda
Dietitians of Canada has collaborated with experts in knowledge translation and transfer, technology, and dietetic practice to develop and implement an innovative online decision-support system called Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition (PEN). A study was conducted to evaluate the perceived facilitators and barriers that enable dietitians to use or prevent them from using PEN. As part of the overall evaluation framework of PEN, a qualitative descriptive research design was used to address the research purpose. Individual, semi-structured telephone interviews with 17 key informants were completed, and the interview transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis. Respondents identified several facilitators of and barriers to PEN use. Facilitators included specificity to dietetics, rigorous/expert review, easy accessibility, current content, credible/secure material, well-organized/easy-to-use material, material that is valuable to practice, and good value for money. Barriers included perceived high cost, fee structuring/cost to students, certain organizational aspects, and a perceived lack of training for pathway contributors. This formative evaluation has indicated areas in which PEN could be improved and strategies to make PEN the standard for dietetic education and practice. Ensuring that PEN is meeting users' knowledge needs is of the utmost importance if dietitians are to remain on the cutting edge of scientific inquiry.
Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Parsa Yekta, Zohreh
The nurse teachers tried to have a complete understanding of the educational contents, to transfer knowledge to nursing students better, and to facilitate the process of education. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of Iranian nursing students regarding the characteristics of academic nurse teachers. In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, data were collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 Iranian nursing students and the audio-taped and transcribed interviews analyzed according to Van Manen´s method. The main theme emerged during data analysis, was "humanistic approach to nursing education". The theme was extracted from 2 sub-themes including 'ethical necessities' and 'effective interaction'. The findings present greater understanding of humanistic approach to nursing education.
McGraw, Caroline; Abbott, Stephen; Brook, Judy
Values based recruitment emerges from the premise that a high degree of value congruence, or the extent to which an individual's values are similar to those of the health organization in which they work, leads to organizational effectiveness. The aim of this evaluation was to explore how candidates and selection panel members experienced and perceived innovative methods of values based public health nursing student selection. The evaluation was framed by a qualitative exploratory design involving semi-structured interviews and a group exercise. Data were thematically analyzed. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with selection panel members. Twenty-two successful candidates took part in a group exercise. The use of photo elicitation interviews and situational judgment questions in the context of selection to a university-run public health nursing educational program was explored. While candidates were ambivalent about the use of photo elicitation interviews, with some misunderstanding the task, selection panel members saw the benefits for improving candidate expression and reducing gaming and deception. Situational interview questions were endorsed by candidates and selection panel members due to their fidelity to real-life problems and the ability of panel members to discern value congruence from candidates' responses. Both techniques offered innovative solutions to candidate selection for entry to the public health nursing education program. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina
The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…
Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.; Braet, C.; Arntz, A.; Beelen, I.
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (Kid-SCID) is a semi-structured interview for the classification of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study presents a first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Kid-SCID in a Dutch sample of children
Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism.
Catarina Aparecida Sales
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to know the definitions nursing students have concerning the death-dying process. A descriptive-qualitative study developed in 2010, with 65 students of the first and last year of Nursing in a public university. Data was collected through semi-structured interview and submitted to content analysis. Data showed that the students possess diverse opinions concerning this process, per times seeing it as natural however difficult to be understood and accepted, especially because it brings pain, suffering, losses and family unstableness. They also revealed that they do not feel prepared to experience terminality in their future customers. The results reinforce the importance of having the thematic approached in the beginning of the undergraduate course, in curricular components or in extra-curricular activities, in order to provide the development of necessary support to experiencethe death-dying process of the customers.
Bermúdez-Herrera, Azucena; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Priotto, Elis Maria Teixeira; Sampaio, Julliane Messias Cordeiro
Drugs consumption is as ancient as humanity. It has always existed and is associated with culture, in its historical and social context. The aim of this research is to know and analyze the perception of students from the Nursing School at the University of Guayaquil about legal and illegal drugs consumption. The methodological approach was qualitative, descriptive and exploratory. The sample consisted of eleven first-year students from the Nursing School. Individual and semi structured interviews were used for data collection. Thematic content analysis was adopted, in which five themes were identified: The economic situation, domestic violence, migration of close relatives, influence of the media that surround us, and ignorance about the topic. With a view to enhancing awareness on this hard reality that hurts and prejudices humanity, knowing students' perceptions contributes to identify their needs and create possibilities for health care interventions, particularly health promotion.
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a deeper understanding of the teaching qualities of effective lecturers that vocational students desire, students assessment preferences and preferred learning environments. This study gives a voice to higher vocational students as it is important for vocational educators to learn what attracts students to effective learning. Due to the inquiry’s exploratory nature, an interpretivist approach was used, and a constructivist grounded approach using qualitative data was adopted. A purposive approach to multiple case study selection was used where the unit of analysis was a higher vocational student. The perceptions and expectations of vocational undergraduate (EQF level 6 students in two disciplines (applied science and engineering were explored, to identify what may constitute good practice. A total of ten participants from two different institutes within the vocational university college agreed to be interviewed. Semi-structured and photo-elicitation interviews were applied. In addition, the Powerful Learning Environments (PLEs Framework was used as a preliminary tool to aid in the decision-making process for data collection. Iterative analysis was used for the semi- structured interviews, whilst a constant-comparative method was used for the photo- elicitation image analysis. Overall, the expectations and preferences between both groups were very similar. Results show that students expect to be taught by interactive lectures that relate theory to practice that will prepare them for the job. Formal lectures including presentations were the least favoured. Regarding teaching qualities, students expect approachable and understanding lecturers who provide concrete industrial examples. Assessment preferences included home based assignments and research projects. The preferred learning environment is in line with most characteristics of the Powerful Learning Environment. Evidence shows that there is no
Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Bustamante D, Carolina; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Ortiz M, Liliana; Espinoza P, Camila; Bastías V, Nancy
Understanding how autonomous students are capable of regulating their own learning process is essential to develop self-directed teaching methods. To understand how self-directed medical students approach learning in medical schools at University of Concepción, Chile. A qualitative and descriptive study, performed according to Grounded Theory guidelines, following Strauss & Corbin was performed. Twenty medical students were selected by the maximum variation sampling method. The data collection technique was carried out by a semi-structured thematic interview. Students were interviewed by researchers after an informed consent procedure. Data were analyzed by the open coding method using Atlas-ti 7.5.2 software. Self-directed learners were characterized by being good planners and managing their time correctly. Students performed a diligent selection of contents to study based on reliable literature sources, theoretical relevance and type of evaluation. They also emphasized the discussion of clinical cases, where theoretical contents can be applied. This modality allows them to gain a global view of theoretical contents, to verbalize knowledge and to obtain a learning feedback. The learning process of autonomous students is intentional and planned.
Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
Puri, Aditi; Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Dominick, Christine
This study explores the perceptions of health profession students participating in academic service learning in Morocco with respect to adapting health care practices to cultural diversity. Authors utilized semi-structured, open-ended interviews to explore the perceptions of health profession students. Nine dental hygiene and nursing students who traveled to Morocco to provide oral and general health services were interviewed. After interviews were recorded, they were transcribed verbatim to ascertain descriptive validity and to generate inductive and deductive codes that constitute the major themes of the data analysis. Thereafter, NVIVO 8 was used to rapidly determine the frequency of applied codes. The authors compared the codes and themes to establish interpretive validity. Codes and themes were initially determined independently by co-authors and applied to the data subsequently. The authors compared the applied codes to establish intra-rater reliability. International service learning experiences led to perceptions of growth as a health care provider among students. The application of knowledge and skills learned in academic programs and service learning settings were found to help in bridging the theory-practice gap. The specific experience enabled students to gain an understanding of diverse health care and cultural practices in Morocco. Students perceived that the experience gained in international service learning can heighten awareness of diverse cultural and health care practices to foster professional growth of health professionals.
This article describes a phenomenological research study exploring the effect of social interaction upon mental health nurse student learning. Central to this study are ideas about Communities of Practice as described by Wenger et al. (2011). The researcher conducted two focus groups and four semi-structured interviews with mental health nurse students at various stages of their training. The study found that students understand personal progress by comparison with others and that there is a relationship between peer group membership and learning outcomes. Students interpret academic studies and theoretical knowledge in a dynamic relationship with clinical practice where successful learning depends upon careful negotiation of social boundaries. Whilst acknowledging limitations this paper concludes by tentatively suggesting some implications for future nurse education practice which recognises the socially mediated nature of learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rillotta, Fiona; Arthur, Jillian; Hutchinson, Claire; Raghavendra, Parimala
Inclusive post-secondary education (PSE) delivers positive personal, social and academic outcomes. However, there is limited support for students with intellectual disability (ID) to participate in higher education, particularly in Australia. This study investigated the expectations and experiences of students with ID in an inclusive individual support PSE programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with students ( n = 4) and peer mentors ( n = 6) at the beginning and end of one academic semester. Participants were asked about inclusive practices, goal attainment, mentoring experiences and skill development. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Four major themes and several subthemes were identified: self-determination (e.g. self-confidence), social development (e.g. social networks), intellectual development (e.g. subject knowledge) and inclusive practices. The results emphasized the value of inclusive PSE for students with ID. Recommendations regarding future practices of inclusive PSE for people with ID are provided.
Brad M. Maguth
Full Text Available This study undertook a five month qualitative investigation into technology use amongst twelve high school social studies students in two different sites in the Midwestern United States. This study examined students’ use of technology and its relationship to three dimensions of citizenship in a global age: understand global events, issues, and perspectives, participate in global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and advocate on global problems and issues to think and act globally. Collecting data through semi-structured student interviews, online-threaded discussions and document analysis, I triangulated findings, and employed a qualitative approach. The study finds a relationship between student participants’ use of technology and their serving as engaged citizenship in a global age. In using technology, students accessed international news and information, joined global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and produced digital content for international audiences.
MacCullagh, Lois; Bosanquet, Agnes; Badcock, Nicholas A
People with dyslexia are vastly under-represented in universities (Katusic et al., , Richardson & Wydell, ; Stampoltzis & Polychronopoulou, ). This situation is of concern for modern societies that value social justice. This study was designed to explore learning experiences of university students with dyslexia and factors that could contribute to their success. Thirteen students with dyslexia and 20 non-dyslexic peers were interviewed about their university learning experiences using a semi-structured qualitative approach. Students with dyslexia described engaging in learning activities intensively, frequently and strategically. They reported challenges and strengths relating to study skills, lectures, assessments, technology and support services. They also described helpful strategies including self-directed adaptive techniques, provisions from lecturers and assistance from the university. These findings suggest that students with dyslexia experience broad challenges at university, but helpful strategies may be available. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Akl, Elie A; Maroun, Nancy; Major, Stella; Afif, Claude; Chahoud, Bechara; Choucair, Jacques; Sakr, Mazen; Schünemann, Holger J
In the context of a worldwide physician brain drain phenomenon, Lebanon has the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa. In this manuscript we aim to identify and develop a conceptual framework for the factors underlying the decisions of graduating Lebanese medical students to train abroad. We conducted two focus groups and seven semi-structured individual interviews with 23 students. In the deductive analysis (based on the push-pull theory), students reported push factors in Lebanon and pull factors abroad related to five dimensions. They focused predominantly on how training abroad provides them with a competitive advantage in an oversaturated Lebanese job market. An inductive analysis revealed the following emerging concepts: repel factors abroad and retain factors locally; societal expectations that students should train abroad; marketing of abroad training; and an established culture of migration. The marketing of abroad training and the culture of migration are prevalent in the academic institutions.
Jessica Faye Heal
Full Text Available This article outlines four research methods we’ve employed to enhance how students from low-income backgrounds engage in research exploring effective teaching. It firstly outlines the need to be innovative, drawing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and then moves on to explain two methods that scaffold a semi-structured interview, one child-led classroom tour and finally a creative ‘draw and tell’ approach. It argues that these methods are successful because they disrupt the researcher-participant power imbalance using the following techniques: Familiarity to the student, empowering the student to be an expert, and giving the student choice.
Keselman, Alla; Quasem, Sanjana; Kelly, Janice E; Dutcher, Gale A
This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of a graduate-level internship for Latino and Native American library science students or students who are interested in serving those populations. The authors analyzed semi-structured interviews with thirteen internship program graduates or participants. The analysis suggests that the program increased participants' interest in health sciences librarianship and led to improved career opportunities, both in health sciences libraries and other libraries with health information programming. It also highlights specific factors that are likely to contribute to the strength of career pipeline programs aiming to bring Latino and Native American students and students who are interested in serving those communities into health librarianship. Exposing graduate-level interns to a broad range of health sciences librarianship tasks, including outreach to Latino and Native American communities and formal mentorship, is likely to maximize interns' interests in both health sciences librarianship and service to these communities.
Full Text Available Background & Aim Low Back Pain (LBP is a widespread problem. Very few past studies which focus on the attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of LBP of UK and international students exist. This study compares attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of low back pain between UK students and International students studying at Sheffield Hallam University. Methods The study involved 12 participants (6 UK and 6 international students studying at Sheffield Hallam University. Data was collected by conducting face to face semi structured, recorded interviews. Interviews were later transcribed verbatim. In order to analyse the data obtained, thematic analysis was carried out, using themes found in data transcriptions. Results Four main themes were identified from the data obtained from interviews. These were; personal health and medical related, work related, everyday day life and culture related and government policy and law related. Main themes identified consisted of other smaller themes. Conclusion Attitudes and beliefs belonging to UK and international students at Sheffield Hallam University are related to four main themes; personal health and medical, work, everyday day life and culture and government policy and law. The study identified differences in attitudes and beliefs between UK and International students. As students are the next generation of employees, the study could aid in increasing knowledge of causes of LBP of students in the UK and Internationally, therefore preventing low back pain incidences in the future.
Magalhães-Sant’Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate
Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics...... and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010–2011). The content of the interview...... transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing...
de Oliveira Camillo, Simone; Lúcia da Silva, Ana; Jefferson do Nascimento, Alan
This study aimed to identify and interpret the perceptions presented by undergraduate students of a Nursing course after internship in Mental Health. Twelve nursing undergraduate students at the Nursing School of ABC Foundation - Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed. These interviews using a semi-structure script were performed and recorded in August 2004. Through Content Analysis, thematic modality, four categories were identified, 1. mental health: providing understanding of the other; 2. respect for the human being: the importance of listening, 3. mental health: contributing for a contextualized view of the patient and 4. nursing graduation: undesirable "signs and symptoms" of the profession. The analysis and the discussion of these categories suggest the possibility of teaching based on the human condition. Thus, we support the idea of new research been carried out, considering that the Mental Health discipline must be valued in the Political and Pedagogical projects of the Nursing Undergraduate Courses.
Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Goldstein, Henri; Lamont, Ronald F; Joergensen, Jan Stener
to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11 obstetric healthcare professionals working in a perinatal setting. a thematic descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional's experiences were recorded verbatim during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed, and analysed using a descriptive analysis methodology. motivational interviewing was found to be a useful method when communicating with obese pregnant women. The method made the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style both when encountering pregnant women and in their interaction with colleagues. However, most of the healthcare professionals emphasised that time was crucial and they had to be dedicated to the motivational interviewing method. The healthcare professionals further stated that it enabled them to become more professional in their daily work and made some of them feel less 'burned out', 'powerless' and 'stressed' as they felt they had a communication method in handling difficult workloads. healthcare professionals experienced motivational interviewing to be a useful method when working perinatally. The motivational interviewing method permitted heightened awareness of the healthcare professionals communication method with the patients and increased their ability to handle a difficult workload. Overall, lack of time restricted the use of the motivational interviewing method on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: The objective of medical education is to train competent and qualified workforce in order to provide services in various health environments. One of the important objectives of Operating Room students is to train workforce who can involve in patient’s health and recovery. Training these students should cause clinical ability and independent decision making during surgery. Since students during internship face with many problems, this study has been conducted to explore and describe the challenges and experiences.Methods: This qualitative study is a phenomenology that was conducted based on 20 students in the last semester of Operating Room associate’s degree with purposive sampling. Deep and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and data were analyzed by content analysis method.Results: The findings in 5 main themes: (1 Physical space and equipment in the operating room, (2 The student’s position in operating room, (3 Integrating knowledge and action, (4 Managing education environment and 5- Student’s viewpoint about operating room and working in it.Conclusions: Interviews with students revealed the educational environment challenges with which they are faced during their study. Teachers can provide solutions to overcome the challenges and create a positive atmosphere for students' learning using results of this study and students may continue their interest in education and improve the quality of their education.Keywords: CLINICAL EDUCATION, OPERATING ROOM STUDENTS, CHALLENGE
Miller, James; Reynolds, Judith; Noble, P. C.; Altschuler, Lee; Schauber, Holli
Four short articles provide teaching tips for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom, including the use of Moos, a video jigsaw, practicing oral language skills with interviews and student-read dictations, an ask the expert activity which builds learner confidence in speaking in front of groups of people. (Author/VWL)
Chan, Zenobia C Y; Stanley, David John; Meadus, Robert J; Chien, Wai Tong
This study aims to help nurse educators/academics understand the perspectives and expectations of students providing their feedback to educators about teaching performance and subject quality. The aim of this study is to reveal students' voices regarding their feedback in nurse education in order to shed light on how the current student feedback practice may be modified. A qualitative study using focus group inquiry. Convenience sampling was adopted and participants recruited from one school of nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 66 nursing students from two pre-registration programs were recruited for seven focus group interviews: one group of Year 1 students (n=21), two groups of Year 3 students (n=27), and four groups of Final Year students (n=18). The interviews were guided by a semi-structured interview guideline and the interview narratives were processed through content analysis. The trustworthiness of this study was guaranteed through peer checking, research meetings, and an audit trail. The participants' privacy was protected throughout the study. Four core themes were discerned based on the narratives of the focus group interviews: (1) "timing of collecting feedback at more than one time point"; (2) "modify the questions being asked in collecting student feedback"; (3) "are electronic means of collecting feedback good enough?; and (4) "what will be next for student feedback?". This study is significant in the following three domains: 1) it contributed to student feedback because it examined the issue from a student's perspective; 2) it explored the timing and channels for collecting feedback from the students' point of view; and 3) it showed the preferred uses of student feedback. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, Geoffry D.
A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program. The participants of the study were 50 FL students who were in their second year at a state university in Turkey. All participants had already taken the first year reading course and were enrolled in the second year reading course. It was based on two qualitative research instruments. The first instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered to all participants. The second one was a semi-structured interview conducted with half of the participants to obtain more in depth information concerning the modifications that had been introduced. Both instruments revealed that students responded positively to the modifications introduced. The results of the study put forward that obtaining students’ opinions, giving them responsibility and involving them in decision making processes enhance their motivation, confidence and analytical skills while reading in a foreign language.
Beca, Juan Pablo; Browne, Francisca; Valdebenito, Carolina; Bataszew, Alexander; Martínez, María José
Patients are becoming increasingly active in their relationship with medical professionals. Their relationship with medical students needing to learn clinical skills, may be specially problematic if patients are not willing to accept their involvement in the medical team. To examine patient's perceptions of their relation with medical students and their agreement to let students be part of the treating team. Qualitative study using taped semi-structured interviews addressed to inpatients from one public and one private hospital in Chile. Both groups of patients acknowledged that students dedicated more time to them, but they expressed their preference to limit student's participation to clinical history taking and physical examination. They also expected them to be observers rather than actors. Patients from the private hospital emphasized that only one student per instructor should participate in their care. Patients from the public hospital were more compliant about student's participation. The right to refuse students' involvement in their care was clearly known by all patients from the private system and by most patients from the public hospital. Patients in Chilean public and private hospitals were in general positive regarding student's participation in their care. Students' clinical practice ought to strictly respect patients's rights, and patients should be considered volunteers who generously agree to cooperate with the education of medical students.
Sumiya, Motofumi; Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.
Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one’s own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture. PMID:29408894
Full Text Available Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.
Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...
Kemp, Matthew W; Lazarus, Benjamin M; Perron, Gabriel G; Hanage, William P; Chapman, Elaine
The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i) determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii) improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships. 32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17), and one in the United States (n = 15) were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis. Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff. These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a 'valued' supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be designed to contain a minimum level of formalised
Matthew W Kemp
Full Text Available The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships.32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17, and one in the United States (n = 15 were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis.Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff.These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a 'valued' supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be designed to contain a minimum level
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the responses of university students in social anxiety situations in order to create a psychological counselling program with a structured group based on Cognitive Behavioural and Existential Approaches. These responses involve the behaviour and thoughts of the university students in situations where they experience or anticipate social anxiety. The semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers was used in the study during the face-to-face interviews with fifty-one 4th year students from the Guidance and Psychological Counselling (GPC and Pre-School Teaching (PST departments. The scope of the interview form includes the situations where 1 students experience social anxiety in the school setting and their thoughts and behaviours regarding these situations, 2 the situations where they anticipate social anxiety in their future profession, and 3 the situations where they experience social anxiety in their daily lives. Our aim was to collect data from these areas. The data collected were analysed through content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the thoughts regarding the social anxiety situations of the final year students studying in Guidance and Psychological Counselling and Pre-School Teaching departments are generally negative and their behaviour usually presents as desertion or avoidance.
Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina
Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. The purpose of this study was to explore students' motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast). Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students' pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research should be directed at development and analysis of comprehensive FP curricula
Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Ho, Amber
Consideration of motivation in higher education has often been drawn upon theories and research that were based upon school or workplace studies. This paper reports an open naturalistic study to better characterize the motivational orientation of students in higher education. Open semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 36 students from three universities in Hong Kong. The analysis used an exploratory grounded theory approach. Motivation was characterized as a framework with six continua with positive and negative poles. On enrolment, students had positions on the six facets of motivation, which shifted as they progressed through their degree, according to perceptions of their teaching and learning environment. The positive poles of the six continua were given labels: compliance, individual goal setting, interest, career, sense of belonging and university lifestyle. The formulation of motivational orientation is consistent with contemporary social cognitive theories of motivation in that it has been characterized as a multifaceted phenomenon, with students expressing context-dependent multiple motives.
Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej
such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. Methods: A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...... to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. Conclusions: It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to inform staff about how they work and are operated and that students are an appropriate target group...
Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.
The selection and interview forms for use in selecting students for the Georgia Governor's Honors Program are provided. These forms are: Science Interview Summary Sheet; Interview Form for Candidates in Music; State College Musicality Test; Mathematics Interview Sheet; Criteria for Selection of Students for Mathematics, 1972; Visual Arts…
Full Text Available Active learning has been linked with increased student motivation, engagement and understanding of course material. It promotes deep learning, helping to develop critical thinking and writing skills in students. Less well understood, however, are the responses of international students to active learning. Using social constructivist theory, the purpose of this study is to examine domestic and international student perceptions of active learning introduced into large undergraduate Accounting Information Systems lectures. Several active learning strategies were implemented over one semester and examined through the use of semi-structured interviews as well as pre- and post- implementation surveys. Our results suggest broad improvements for international students in student engagement and understanding of unit material when implementing active learning strategies. Other key implications include international student preference for active learning compared with passive learning styles, and that international students may receive greater benefits from active learning strategies than domestic students due to social factors. Based on these findings this paper proposes that educators should seek to implement active learning to better assist and integrate students of diverse backgrounds.
Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter. Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...
Reyes, Andrew Thomas; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Forchuk, Cheryl; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda
The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience. Stress is considered to be a major factor affecting the health, well-being and academic performance of nursing students. Resilience has been extensively researched as a process that allows individuals to successfully adapt to adversity and develop positive outcomes as a result. However, relatively little is known about the resilience of nursing students. A constructivist, grounded theory qualitative design was used for this study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 38 nursing students enrolled in a four-year, integrated baccalaureate nursing degree programme at a university in Ontario, Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from January to April 2012 using a semi-structured interview guide. The basic social process of 'pushing through' emerged as nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience. Participants employed this process to withstand challenges in their academic lives. This process was comprised of three main phases: 'stepping into', 'staying the course' and 'acknowledging'. 'Pushing through' also included a transient 'disengaging' process where students were temporarily unable to push through their adversities. The process of 'pushing through' was based on a progressive trajectory, which implied that nursing students enacted the process to make progress in their academic lives and to attain goals. Study findings provide important evidence for understanding the phenomenon of resilience as a dynamic, contextual process that can be learnt and developed, rather than a static trait or personality characteristic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Patterson, Freyr; Fleming, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathryn; Ninness, Nadine
Professional practice education is a core and essential component of occupational therapy training. With increasing numbers of education programmes and more students requiring professional practice placements, development of innovative models of professional practice education has emerged, but these require investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate student experiences and perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program model of professional practice education in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. A qualitative approach, guided by phenomenological theory was used. Participants were 15 students who had completed a professional practice placement in the Student-Led Groups Program. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. Three over-arching themes emerged from the data; balance of support and freedom, development of clinical skills and missed opportunities. Students described how the structure of the placement facilitated independent learning and autonomy that was balanced with support from clinicians and student peers. Students perceived that they had developed a breadth of clinical skills and also had missed some learning opportunities in this professional practice placement structure. Overall student perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program were positive, supporting the continued use of this model of professional practice education in this setting. The results highlight the value of structured and consistent approaches for supervision, including the use of formal approaches to peer supervision in the initial stages of learning. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Cassidy, Simon; Coffey, Michael; Murphy, Fiona
To develop a substantive theoretical explanation of how mentors make sense of their experiences where nursing students are on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice. The reluctance of Registered Nurse mentors to fail nursing students in clinical practice despite concerns about competence remains a contemporary issue in international healthcare education. Mentors' assessment decisions have considerable impact for a variety of key stakeholders, not least for students in these circumstances. Grounded theory qualitative study. Phase one involved 20 individual semi-structured interviews with nurse mentors in one United Kingdom National Health Service Health Board (July-October 2009). Phase two included eight individual semi-structured interviews and seven focus groups with mentors and practice educators (n = 38) in four further Health Boards (June 2011-February 2012). Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding consistent with grounded theory method. Three categories 'the conundrum of practice competence,' 'the intensity of nurturing hopefulness,' and 'managing assessment impasse,' led to the study's substantive theoretical explanation - 'Seeking authorization: Establishing collective accountability for mentorship.' This demonstrates how mentors are dependent on key sources of support and feedback to validate their assessment decision-making, notwithstanding substantial personal, professional and organizational pressures. We conclude that management of borderline assessment situations is considerably developed by recognition of the authorizing effects of a wider community of assessors. Consequently, we identify the personal, professional and organizational implications involved in the preparation, support and regulation of mentors specifically during borderline assessment circumstances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler.......Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler....
The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These
Silvia Raquel Salim
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to understand how university students learn, and to comprehend the motivations and learning strategies they use when deciding in what field to major. We chose a combined research design: qualitative and quantitative. We applied the Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Learning and Studying Processes (CEPEA to Biochemistry students attending the National University of Tucumán (Argentina, and performed individual semi-structured interviews. Cluster analysis allowed us to identify three groups of students having who use different learning approaches: deep, superficial and ambivalent. We found that learning approaches are closely related with some teaching practices that encourage or inhibit them; among these are the types of learning evaluation.
Full Text Available This research aims to explore the factors encouraging entrepreneurial intentions at the Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano (ITM - Metropolitan Technological Institute, located in Medellín. The methodological design set out is a qualitative type through the application of 29 semi-structured interviews to undergraduate students from Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano (ITM. They were interrogated about identified opportunities for new products, family social influence to create a business, balance between work and private life, as well as the motivating situation for business creation. Among the results, it was observed that students searched for creating a business by the expectation of labor independence. Among the suggestions, is set out that universities adopt teaching models oriented to entrepreneurship in order to have an overview over structure of the business sector when students finish their studies.
Yi-An Jason Chen
Full Text Available The way in which Taiwanese students use English names to construct their identities in a new sociocultural setting has received minimal scholarly attention. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 10 Taiwanese international students, I focused on how the use of ethnic names and English names is structured through social interaction and cultural context at an American university. The results suggest that the acquisition of an English name is not a personal choice, but an authoritative order that originates from private English education in Taiwan. Even though the choice of ethnic and English names in the United States is often constrained by linguistic factors, the use of English names by Taiwanese international students not only discloses their attitudes toward English name adoption, but also greatly influences their identity and acculturation.
Gerdprasert, Sailom; Pruksacheva, Tassanee; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip
This study aimed to develop a web-based learning media on the process and mechanism of labour for the third-year university nursing and midwifery students. This media was developed based on integrating principles of the mechanism of labour with the 5Es inquiry cycle and interactive features of information technology. In this study, the web-based learning unit was used to supplement the conventional lecture as in the traditional teaching. Students' achievements were assessed by using the pre- and post-test on factual knowledge and semi-structured interviews on attitude to the unit. Supplementation with this learning unit made learning significantly more effective than the traditional lecture by itself. The students also showed positive attitude toward the learning unit. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beauregard, Philippe; Arnaert, Antonia; Ponzoni, Norma
Smartphones have the potential to revolutionize the way in which nurses practice by facilitating access to evidence-based resources, however their integration in nursing practice remain variable. Millennials tend to be more comfortable with technology, yet find themselves limited in their ability to use smartphones within the context of clinical practice. Using a qualitative descriptive design, we explored nursing students' perceptions of using smartphones in the community practicum. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted and verbatim transcripts were subjected to data analysis. The sample consisted of 8 undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy. Students' narratives describe unclear expectations regarding the use of smartphones that force them to adopt individualized strategies to maintain their professional image and avoid negative consequences. A cultural shift will be required at the academic and organizational levels if we are to foster acceptance of smartphones in community practice going forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Katherine Louise; Chang, Esther
The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council competency standards highlight the need to provide holistic care that is inclusive of spiritual care. Literature shows that internationally many nurses feel unsure of how to provide spiritual care which has been attributed to a lack of spiritual care education during undergraduate nursing programs. This study explores the impact of a spiritual care subject in an undergraduate nursing program in an Australian tertiary institution. Qualitative research design using in-depth semi-structured interviews. A tertiary institution with a Christian orientation in Sydney, Australia. Six undergraduate nursing students who had completed the spiritual care subject. Two themes emerged from the data: Seeing the person as a whole and Being with the person. The spiritual care subject had a positive impact on the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students. In particular students perceived themselves more prepared to provide holistic care that was inclusive of spiritual care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi
To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (Passessment (Psatisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (Psatisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.
Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A
This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to identify individual and familial factors students cite as the reasons for dropping out of school or being at the risk of doing so. We interviewed a total of twelve students who dropped out of school or are at the risk of dropping out of primary (six students or secondary school (six students and four parents. A semi-structured interview was used. We singled out four categories of students, determined by their perception of the reasons for dropping out of school. Those categories included: underage pregnancy, assuming a parental role, problematic behaviour (thefts, fights and weak motivation for school and learning. It seems justified to look for a typology of dropout cases since each of the selected groups of students requires specific preventive measures in order to secure continuation of their education. Furthermore, research has shown that, when it comes to their children dropping out of school, parents tend to blame the child’s character traits they deem unchangeable. The failure of school staff to help the child further encourages this belief in parents.
Naylor, S.; Ferris, C.; Burton, M.
Introduction: This study explores the expectations and experiences of newly qualified diagnostic radiographers during their transition into practice. Methods: This was a longitudinal study using interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology. Data were gathered from four students who participated in a focus group. This informed semi structured interviews with a further eight students who were interviewed prior to starting work and three times over the following twelve months. Results: Themes generated from the data included; experience, fitting in, and identity. Conclusion: This study brings to light the experiences of newly qualified diagnostic radiographers. The findings are open to theoretical generalizability and raise issues that may be used by academic staff in the preparation of students and managers who support newly qualified staff members. - Highlights: • Diagnostic radiographers are well prepared for most clinical practice. • Clinical education cannot fully prepare students for the reality of practice. • Being familiar with a hospital, and staff, reduces the stress of starting work. • Newly qualified radiographers struggle taking responsibility for students. • Professional identity is a key issue in the transition from student to practitioner.
Langlois, Sylvia; Lymer, Erin
The use of patient centred approaches to healthcare education is evolving, yet the effectiveness of these approaches in relation to professional ethics education is not well understood. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and learning of health profession students engaged in an ethics module as part of a Health Mentor Program at the University of Toronto. Students were assigned to interprofessional groups representing seven professional programs and matched with a health mentor. The health mentors, individuals living with chronic health conditions, shared their experiences of the healthcare system through 90 minute semi-structured interviews with the students. Following the interviews, students completed self-reflective papers and engaged in facilitated asynchronous online discussions. Thematic analysis of reflections and discussions was used to uncover pertaining to student experiences and learning regarding professional ethics. Five major themes emerged from the data: (1) Patient autonomy and expertise in care; (2) ethical complexity and its inevitable reality in the clinical practice setting; (3) patient advocacy as an essential component of day-to-day practice; (4) qualities of remarkable clinicians that informed personal ideals for future practice; (5) patients' perspectives on clinician error and how they enabled suggestions for improving future practice. The findings of a study in one university context suggest that engagement with the health mentor narratives facilitated students' critical reflection related to their understanding of the principles of healthcare ethics.
Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131
Perera, Janaki I.; Quinlivan, Brendan T.; Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zadik, Oren H.; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.
In light of recent literature in educational psychology, this study investigates instructional support and students' autonomy at a small technical undergraduate school. Grounded theory is used to analyze twelve semi-structured open-ended interviews about engineering students' experiences in Introductory Mechanics that includes Lecture, Recitation, and Laboratory components. Using data triangulation with each course component as a unit of analysis, this study examines students' course enjoyment as a function of instructional support and autonomy. The Lecture utilizes traditional instructor-centered pedagogy with predominantly passive learning and no student autonomy. The Recitation creates an active learning environment through small group work with a moderate degree of autonomy. The Laboratory is designed around self-guided project-based activities with significant autonomy. Despite these differences, all three course components provide similar levels of instructional support. The data reveal that students enjoy the low autonomy provided by Lecture and Recitations while finding the Laboratory frustrating. Analyses indicate that the differences in autonomy contribute to students' misinterpretation of the three course components' value within the context of the entire course.
Understanding chemical reactions is crucial in learning chemistry at all educational levels. Nevertheless, research in science education has revealed that many students struggle to understand chemical processes. Improving teaching and learning about chemical reactions demands that we develop a clearer understanding of student reasoning in this area and of how this reasoning evolves with training in the discipline. Thus, we have carried out a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews as the main data collection tool to explore students reasoning about reaction mechanism and causality. The participants of this study included students at different levels of training in chemistry: general chemistry students (n=22), organic chemistry students (n=16), first year graduate students (n=13) and Ph.D. candidates (n=14). We identified major conceptual modes along critical dimensions of analysis, and illustrated common ways of reasoning using typical cases. Main findings indicate that although significant progress is observed in student reasoning in some areas, major conceptual difficulties seem to persist even at the more advanced educational levels. In addition, our findings suggest that students struggle to integrate important concepts when thinking about mechanism and causality in chemical reactions. The results of our study are relevant to chemistry educators interested in learning progressions, assessment, and conceptual development.
Akey, Ann Kosek
This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations, and observations of class meetings. Students came into the course having strong practical experience with plants from their agricultural backgrounds. Students did not always connect aspects of plant biology that they studied in class, particularly respiration and photosynthesis, to plant growth requirements. The instructor was able to bridge the gap between some practical knowledge and textbook knowledge with experiences other than the Fast Plant project. Most students held an incomplete picture of plant reproduction that was complicated by differences between agricultural and scientific vocabulary. There is need for teaching approaches that help students tie together their knowledge of plants into a cohesive framework. Experiences that help students draw on their background knowledge related to plants, and which give students the opportunity to examine and discuss their ideas, may help students make more meaningful connections. The Fast Plant project, a positive experience for most students, was seen by these undergraduate students as being more helpful in learning about scientific experimentation than about plants. The process of designing and carrying out their own experiments gave students insight into experimentation, provoked their curiosity, and resulted in a sense of ownership and accomplishment.
Verdonk, Petra; Räntzsch, Viktoria; de Vries, Remko; Houkes, Inge
Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians' perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns' perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010-2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one's self and show off competencies and motivation ("Show What You Know…"). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… "And Deal With Stress Yourself"). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as 'professional and self-confident', remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the 'masculine protest' may benefit from a culture that embraces more collaborative styles, such as having open conversation
Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy
Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection
Full Text Available Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method: We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results: We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast. Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions: Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research
Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.
Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes were found: (1 finding an inner source of calm, (2 sharing a human struggle, (3 staying focused in learning situations, (4 moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5 feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270......Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270...
This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...
Christiansen, Ask Vest
Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping.......Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping....
British painter Francis Bacon (1909-1992) was known for the eloquence with which he talked about his art. He was easy to talk to, and was interviewed countless times by numerous critics. However, when studying Bacon's paintings one soon comes across the published interviews with art critic and curator David Sylvester (1924-2001), who interviewed him as many as 18 times between 1962 and 1986. Art historian Sandra Kisters argues that Sylvester's interviews with Bacon are carefully constructed a...
Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard
relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....
Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M
We have performed this research to assess the effect of work-place based assessment (WBA) practice on medical students' learning approaches. The research was conducted at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine from 1 March to 31 July 2012. We conducted a qualitative, phenomenological research utilizing semi-structured individual interviews with medical students exposed to WBA. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed verbatim, analyzed, and themes were identified. We preformed investigators' triangulation, member checking with clinical supervisors and we triangulated the data with a similar research performed prior to the implementation of WBA. WBA results in variable learning approaches. Based on several affecting factors; clinical supervisors, faculty-given feedback, and assessment function, students may swing between surface, deep and effort and achievement learning approaches. Students' and supervisors' orientations on the process of WBA, utilization of peer feedback and formative rather than summative assessment facilitate successful implementation of WBA and lead to students' deeper approaches to learning. Interestingly, students and their supervisors have contradicting perceptions to WBA. A change in culture to unify students' and supervisors' perceptions of WBA, more accommodation of formative assessment, and feedback may result in students' deeper approach to learning.
Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Gargari, Rahim Badri; Ghahramanian, Akram; Tabrizi, Faranak Jabbarzadeh; Keogh, Brian
A review of the literature shows that the range of self-esteem in nursing students ranges from normal to low. It is hypothesized that different contextual factors could affect levels of self-esteem. The main aim of this study was to explore these factors from the viewpoint of Iranian nursing students using a qualitative approach. A qualitative content analysis study. Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, 2014. Fourteen student nurses and two qualified nurses. This study has been applied to various depths of interpretation. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. Fourteen student nurses and two qualified nurses were interviewed. Two main themes of the "pressure factors" with subthemes: low self-efficacy, sense of triviality, ineffective instructor-student interaction, low self-confidence and "protective factors" with subthemes: knowledge acquisition, mirror of valuability, professional autonomy, religious beliefs, and choosing the nursing field with interest was extracted in this study. Results showed that these themes have interaction with each other like a seesaw, as pressure factors decrease, the effect of protective factors on the self-esteem are increased. Nurse educators not only should try to improve the students' skills and knowledge, but should also try to enhance the protective factors and decrease pressure factors by enhancing the nursing students' feeling of being important, using participatory teaching methods, considering students' feedback, and attempting to improve facilities at the clinics are also recommended. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nyangeni, Thando; Du Rand, Suzette; Van Rooyen, Dalena
Social media have become a popular communication system that has transformed communication from the traditional to the Web-based model. Because social media use has no limitations to place and time, it is now used extensively at clinical facilities. Social media useis becoming a popular activity amongst students at Nursing Education Institutions (NEI) in South Africa. However, lack of accountability and unethical use of social media by nursing students in South Africa has been reported. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media. A qualitative, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design was used to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding the responsible use of social media. Twelve nursing students registered for the undergraduate nursing degree were purposely selected and interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview method. The results of this research study demonstrate that nursing students use socialmedia irresponsibly. Nursing students experience blurred boundaries between personal and professional lines and lack accountability when using social media. The extensive use of social media in the clinical environment, by healthcare students, requires a joint effort by Nursing Education Institutions and healthcare facilities to ensure that social media are used in an ethically acceptable manner. The implementation of the recommendations of this research study could positively influence legally and ethically acceptable use of social media at healthcare facilities.
Gibbs, Sheena Simpkins; Kulig, Judith C
The world's population is getting older, which will inevitably cause increased demands for nurses to provide high quality care to this demographic. Attitudes have been shown to influence the quality of care that older adults receive. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of what influences nursing students' attitudes towards older adults. This article reports on one of three inter-connected research questions of a mixed methods study that explored the relationship between clinical instructors' attitudes and nursing students' attitudes towards older adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 clinical instructors and 13 nursing students. Interview data was analyzed using thematic analysis. A conceptual model was developed from the research findings, which revealed that nursing instructors are seen as strong role models for their students, and as role models, they influence students through demonstrations, expectations and support. As a result, nursing students mirror the attitudes of their instructors towards older adults. Findings from this study highlight the strong connection between nursing instructors' and students' attitudes. This has important implications for nursing education including strategies that instructors can employ to enhance students' attitudes towards older adults. Insights from this study also have the potential to improve the quality of care that future nurses provide to older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winter, Peter D.; Linehan, Mark J.
Purpose: To acknowledge the tacit rules underpinning academic practice of undergraduate radiographers in determining normality vs. abnormality when appraising skeletal images. Methodology: Twelve students were interviewed (individually) using in-depth semi-structured questions. Interviews were mediated through a PowerPoint presentation containing two digital X-ray images. Each image was based on a level of expertise; the elementary (Case 1) and the complicated (Case 2). The questions were based on regular ‘frames’ created from observing tutor–student contact in class, and then validated through a group interview. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse was then utilised as a data analysis instrument to determine how third year diagnostic radiography students interpreted X-ray images, in relation to the ‘recognition’ and ‘realisation’ rules of the Educational Theoretical Framework. Conclusion: Bernstein's framework has made it possible to specify, in detail, how issues and difficulties are formed at the level of the acquirer during interpretation. The recognition rules enabled students to meaningfully recognise what trauma characteristics can be associated with the image and the demands of a detailed scrutiny so as to enact a competent interpretation. Realisation rules, made it possible for students to establish their own systematic approach and realise legitimate meanings of normality and abnormality. Whereas obvious or visible trauma generated realisation rules (represented via homogenous terminology), latent trauma authorised students to deviate from legitimate meanings. The latter rule, in this context, has directed attention to the student issue of visioning abnormality when images are normal
Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.
Oey, Esther Ruth
The purpose of this study was to examine if and in what ways white, urban middle school science teachers use experiences of being marginalized or feeling different to connect to students coming from backgrounds unlike their own---especially students who are racially, culturally, linguistically and otherwise different from them, the school culture and the dominant society. Personal biography was used to frame this study. Data consisted of structured and semi-structured interviews and classroom observations of one female and two male science teachers gathered over one academic year. Results indicated that experiences with difference may be used to inform teachers' practices, but personal biography alone was insufficient to enable the teachers to reflect on their experiences with race, class, gender, and difference. Also, attending to emotions appeared to be an important factor in helping students develop cognitive skills in science classrooms.
Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten
Students with intellectual disabilities may lack sufficiently developed skills to initiate qualitatively good social interactions; thus, they might be in need of assistance. This study examined special education teachers' role in facilitating peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities in a mainstream school context. The study was based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with nine special education teachers who belong to special education groups in lower secondary schools. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify themes. The teachers made substantial efforts to promote social competence and ensure optimal conditions to foster peer interactions. An "academic-oriented" education, divergent attitudes, challenges in teacher collaboration, and organizational constraints may be barriers. In a mainstream school, the role of special education teachers appears to be dependent on the basic values of the school management in terms of real opportunities to foster peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities.
Ali Riza Sekerci
Full Text Available Aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of argumentation in the chemistry laboratory on conceptual comprehension of students. This research follows a triangulation design, categorized under mixed-method design variations, which include both qualitative and quantitative research designs. The research is conducted with 91 first grade university students studying in two different classes of the Department of Science Education, Kazım Karabekir Education Faculty at the Ataturk University, located in eastern Turkey. One class was randomly designated as the experimental group, with another as the control group. Research data was collected via a General Chemistry Laboratory Concept Test (GCLCT containing 33 items, a test containing ten open-ended items, a semi-structured interview form, and a written feedback form, all designed by the researchers. Data from the GCLCT were analyzed through predictive statistics method, while data from the open-ended questions, semi-structured interview and written feedback form were analyzed through the descriptive analysis method. It is concluded from this research, that there is statistically significant difference between the GCLC post-test averages of the experimental and control groups. It was found that when compared to the control group, the proportion of experimental group students who answered the GCLC post-test items correctly is higher. In addition to this, the proportion of students who demonstrated misconceptions were higher in the control group students compared to the experimental group. It is concluded by this research, that argumentation provides more effective results in terms of comprehension of fundamental chemistry concepts, when compared to a traditional approach.
Full Text Available A Review of: Melles, A., & Unsworth, K. (2015. Examining the reference management practices of humanities and social science postgraduate students and academics. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 46(4, 250-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00048623.2015.1104790 Objective – To understand patterns in reference management practices of postgraduate students and faculty members at one institution. Design – Mixed methods online survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Public research university in Australia. Subjects – The survey included responses from 81 postgraduate students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 postgraduate students and 13 faculty members. Methods – The researchers distributed an 18-item survey via email to approximately 800 people who previously registered for EndNote training sessions. Survey participants were also recruited via a website advertisement. The researchers recruited postgraduate student interview participants from the list of survey respondents. Librarians invited faculty members to participate in the semi-structured interviews. Interview audio recordings were transcribed and coded for data analysis. Main Results – The survey found that 71.4% (n=55 of respondents used reference management software (RMS and 29% (n=22 did not. Over half of the students who did not use an RMS described other ad hoc or “manual” (p. 255 methods for organizing and tracking references. The majority of participants reported using EndNote (67.53%, n=52, while few respondents reported using other RMS tools like Zotero (1.3%, n=1 or Mendeley (1.3%, n = 1. Software awareness (49.32%, n=36, recommendations from faculty members (30.14%, n=22, and University support (47.95%, n=35 were the primary motivations for choosing a specific RMS. Other important factors included ease of use (32.88%, n=24 and integration with Microsoft Word (46.58%, n=34. Students preferred RMS features that support the process of
Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke
Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.
Morgan, Debra A
International nursing electives have been identified as a positive learning experience for students. However, whilst there are risks associated with international student placements in general, there is a scarcity of research specifically relating to student nurse's experiences of risk. This study aimed to investigate UK undergraduate student nurse experiences of risk during an international placement. A phenomenological methodology was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with student nurses who had recently returned from an international clinical placement abroad. Ten, second year student nurses, studying on a pre-registration diploma/BSc (Hons) Nursing Studies/Registered Nurse programme from one UK University participated in the study. Findings from the study highlighted that students felt that three types of risk existed; physical risk, clinical-professional risk and socio-cultural risk. Perceptions of risk were influenced by sociological theory relating to the concept of 'the other' and students attempted to reduce risk by employing strategies to reduce 'Otherness'. They also applied psychological theory relating to heuristics such as 'safety in numbers.' It also emerged from the study that exposure to perceived risk enhanced learning as students reported that it encouraged personal and professional development in particular and so assisted students in their move toward self-actualisation. It is suggested, and intended, that findings from this study can be applied to the preparation of students to further enhance their safety and learning experience during international placements abroad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
BACKGROUND: Studies on food intake in the UAE especially in relation to the student life are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate eating habits of undergraduate students. METHODS: A cohort of 146 undergraduate students studying Physiology at Zayed University completed a semi-structured questionnaire. A student ...
Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia; Shaw, Julie
International or foreign students are those who enrol in universities outside their country of citizenship. They face many challenges acculturating to and learning in a new country and education system, particularly if they study in an additional language. This qualitative inquiry aimed to explore the learning and acculturating experiences of international nursing students to identify opportunities for teaching innovation to optimise the experiences and learning of international nursing students. Undergraduate and postgraduate international nursing students were recruited from one campus of an Australian university to take part in semi-structured interviews. A purposive and theoretically saturated sample of 17 students was obtained. Interviews were audio-recorded and field notes and interview data were thematically analysed. Expressing myself and Finding my place were the two major themes identified from the international student data. International nursing students identified that it took them longer to study in comparison with domestic students and that stress negatively influenced communication, particularly in the clinical setting. Additionally international nursing students identified the need to find supportive opportunities to speak English to develop proficiency. Clinical placement presented the opportunity to speak English and raised the risk of being identified as lacking language proficiency or being clinically unsafe. Initially, international nursing students felt isolated and it was some time before they found their feet. In this time, they experienced otherness and discrimination. International nursing students need a safe place to learn so they can adjust and thrive in the university learning community. Faculty and clinical educators must be culturally competent; they need to understand international nursing students' needs and be willing and able to advocate for and create an equitable environment that is appropriate for international nursing
Chapman, Jarrett Michael
Teachers are expected to improve their planning, instruction, and assessment as they progress through their career. An important component to teachers knowing what to modify in their teaching style is being able to solicit meaningful feedback from students. This mixed-methods study was conducted to provide teachers with a quantitative method to collect data about their teaching using the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). Phase 1 allowed students to provide anonymous feedback to their teachers that the teachers could later reflect upon in conjunction with the students' other feedback. Using measures of central tendencies, it was determined that of the five categories of the CLES the area of student negotiation was statistically different from the other categories. While eight teachers had sufficient (n>10) student data to be invited to participate in Phase 2, only five of the teachers choose to participate in a semi-structured interview to further examine the potential differences between teacher and student perception of student negotiation with the curriculum, instruction and assessment that occurs in the classroom. Coding the interview transcripts led to three categories: 1) teaching style (with themes including curriculum, instruction, and assessment, and sub themes of teacher centered and student centered); 2) external pressures (with themes of standards , standardized tests, and socioeconomic conditions); 3) effectiveness of student negotiation (with themes of positive effect or no effect on motivation). The five teachers who participated in Phase 2 had varying levels of awareness and willingness to adjust their classroom curriculum, instruction, and assessment to include student negotiation. All but one teacher, however, saw the value in increasing student negotiation in the classroom and desired to continue to change their teaching to include more student negotiation.
Abigail R. Wills
Full Text Available Various indicators suggest that many students in developing countries are not learning in school. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1 evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs of primary, secondary, and university institutions; and (2 understand barriers to student progression through the education system. To address these aims, we conducted 63 semi-structured interviews in June and August 2012 with science and math teachers in five population centers, across all three levels of the public and private school system. We found that crowded classes, limited resources (pedagogical and infrastructural, an average student age range of seven years per classroom (suggestive of grade repetition and/or late school starting age, and discontinuities in the language of instruction explain why teachers estimated that almost 25% of their students would not finish school. Although most secondary and university teachers taught the sciences only in French, they estimated that just one-third of students could fully understand the language. There were also urban-rural and public-private disparities. Teachers in urban areas were significantly more likely to teach using French than their rural counterparts, while public schools housed significantly larger classes than private institutions. While resource equalisation will help to resolve many of these disparities, improved early training in professional languages and increased local autonomy in designing appropriate curriculums will be necessary to tackle other shortfalls.
Waller, Samara Susan
This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.
Full Text Available College student-athletes (SAs may experience difficulties while transitioning from college, which could reduce their overall wellness. However, it is essential to understand positive transition experiences and outcomes, as this can guide future research and intervention efforts. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that led to higher levels of wellness in former SAs. Semi-structured interviews guided by the Indivisible Self Model were completed with former SAs (n = 12. Overall, participants displayed high levels of wellness - most prominently in terms of work and exercise. Many SAs perceived their current wellness was equal, if not better compared to when they were SAs. These results illustrate examples of successful transitions of former SAs, which can guide future research and interventions.
Williams, Janet B W; Kobak, Kenneth A
The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to improve reliability with other scales. To describe the development and test-retest reliability of a structured interview guide for the MADRS (SIGMA). A total of 162 test-retest interviews were conducted by 81 rater pairs. Each patient was interviewed twice, once by each rater conducting an independent interview. The intraclass correlation for total score between raters using the SIGMA was r=0.93, Preliability. Use of the SIGMA can result in high reliability of MADRS scores in evaluating patients with depression.
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients’ experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative research interview is given as well as information about the form and content of qualitative interviews required for developing PRO measures. Particular attention is paid to the description of interviewing approaches (e.g., semi-structured and in-depth interviews, individual vs. focus group interviews). Information about how to get prepared for a qualitative interview is provided with the description of how to develop discussion guides for exploratory or cognitive interviews. Interviewing patients to obtain knowledge regarding their illness experience requires interpersonal and communication skills to facilitate patients’ expression. Those skills are described in details, as well as the skills needed to facilitate focus groups and to interview children, adolescents and the elderly. Special attention is also given to quality assurance and interview training. The paper ends on ethical considerations since interviewing for the development of PROs is performed in a context of illness and vulnerability. Therefore, it is all the more important that, in addition to soliciting informed consent, respectful interactions be ensured throughout the interview process. PMID:24499454
Fernandes, João M.; Afonso, Paulo; Fonte, Victor; Alves, Victor; Ribeiro, António Nestor
Universities seek to promote entrepreneurship through effective education approaches, which need to be in permanent evolution. Nevertheless, the literature in entrepreneurship education lacks empirical evidence. This article discusses relevant issues related to promoting entrepreneurship in the software field, based on the experience of a 15-European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System course. This course seeks to instil in the students the recognition of the need to reconcile technical and business visions, organisational and commercial aspects, most of which have never been addressed previously. A series of semi-structured interviews made it possible to obtain relevant insights about the teaching-learning process underlying this course and its evolution over a seven-year period. Materials related with this course have been analysed, namely guidelines produced by the teachers and deliverables produced by the students. This article discusses the dimensions that were identified as fundamental for promoting entrepreneurship skills in the field of software, namely teamwork, project engagement, and contact with the market.
Full Text Available There is an interest among Swedish teachers to locate teaching outdoors. This study focuses on four teachers in grades 4-6, to explore their intentions and objectives with regular teaching outdoors. Datasources consist of semi-structured interviews, descriptions on successful activities, and reflections on metaphors. The use of intentional analysis and Bloom’s revised taxonomy on teachers’ objectives show that the teachers stress the out-of-school learning that draws on the actual world and concrete material. Yet their objectives with these authentic experiences are diverse. Two teachers have mainly cognitive objectives with a holistic view of knowledge where outdoor and indoor interact. To become knowledgeable, each individual student needs teaching in this proper context. The other two teachers primarily have affective objectives, in a dichotomy between learning theoretical knowledge indoors, and learning practical, concrete knowledge outdoors. They consider the outdoor arena as crucial for students with learning difficulties.
Full Text Available In this period of increasing competition among universities and demographic decline in the Czech Republic, every manager working within the academic sphere must focus on optimizing the marketing activities of tertiary education. The aim of this study is to analyze the methods and styles of marketing communications universities and their faculties use when communicating with prospective students. The paper identifies procedures which help to optimize the choice, combination and connection of elements and activities of the marketing communications mix in relation with prospective students. A semi-structured interview and questionnaire method were used to achieve the research objective. The study concludes by discussing the research outcomes. Also, practical recommendations are discussed and interpreted and proposals are presented for further research into the marketing strategy of Czech universities and their faculties.
Full Text Available A Review of: Vinyard, M., Mullally, C., & Colvin, J.B. (2017. Why do students seek help in an age of DIY? Using a qualitative approach to look beyond statistics. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 56(4, 257-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/rusq.56.4.257 Abstract Objective – To explore how undergraduate students look for information and the reasons these students seek assistance from a librarian. Design – Qualitative research. Setting – A university in Southern California. Subjects – 10 students were interviewed: 1 freshman, 1 sophomore, 5 juniors, and 3 seniors. Methods – Students who met with a librarian for longer than 20 minutes were invited to participate in the study, and interviews were conducted within six weeks of this interaction. Semi-structured interviews were scheduled for one hour blocks and were audio-recorded and transcribed afterward. Interview data was analyzed using applied thematic analysis. The researchers used NVivo to assist with the process of coding data. Main Results – Once all transcripts were coded, the researchers identified the following six themes related to how students look for information and the reasons they asked for assistance: how students research, personal perceptions of research skills, assumptions (students’ misperceptions about library services, motivation for asking for help, path to the librarian (how students contacted librarians and their reason for selecting a particular librarian, and experience working with a librarian. Conclusion – Overall, the research results demonstrate that students prefer to conduct research independently but will consult a librarian if they are not able to find what they need, if they find the research question especially challenging, or if they have spent an unreasonable amount of time conducting research. In-class library instruction, along with professor referrals are the most effective methods for encouraging students to seek out library assistance.
Memon, A; Wark, L; Holley, A; Bull, R; Koehnken, G
This paper addresses two methodological and theoretical questions relating to the Cognitive Interview (CI), which previous research has found to increase witness recall in interviews. (1) What are the effects of the CI mnemonic techniques when communication techniques are held constant? (2) How do trained interviewers compare with untrained interviewers? In this study, witnesses (college students) viewed a short film clip of a shooting and were questioned by interviewers (research assistants) trained in conducting the CI or a Structured Interview (SI)--similar to the CI except for the "cognitive" components--or by untrained interviewers (UI). The CI and SI groups recalled significantly more correct information compared to the UI group. However they also reported more errors and confabulated details. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed in terms of precisely identifying the CI facilitatory effects and consequent good practice in the forensic setting.
Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Läärä, Riitta; Kyrö, Tuuli; Lindeman, Sari
The purpose of this study was to describe how psychology and medical students assess their own competency and skills before and after training, in which role-play was used to teach interpersonal and communication skills. Interpersonal and communication skills were assessed with a semi-structured questionnaire before and after the training. The students of both medicine and psychology estimated their skill levels to be higher after the course. The psychology students estimated their skills for communication, motivating interviewing, empathy and reflection, and change orientation to be better at the end of the course. Medical students estimated their communication skills, motivating interviewing skills, and change orientation skills to be better at the end of the course. Even a short period of training in interpersonal and communication skills can positively affect the self-assessed skills of the medical students. In the future, it would be worthwhile to pay attention to reflective teaching practices in the training of both medical and psychology students. The cognitive and emotional components of these practices help students to develop their own communication skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fredriksson, Alexandra; Pelger, Susanne
The aim of this study is to explore how tertiary science students' use of metaphors in their popular science article writing may influence their understanding of subject matter. For this purpose, six popular articles written by students in physics or geology were analysed by means of a close textual analysis and a metaphor analysis. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. The articles showed variation regarding the occurrence of active (non-conventional) metaphors, and metaphorical concepts, i.e. metaphors relating to a common theme. In addition, the interviews indicated that students using active metaphors and metaphorical concepts reflected more actively upon their use of metaphors. These students also discussed the possible relationship between subject understanding and creation of metaphors in terms of conceptual blending. The study suggests that students' process of creating metaphorical concepts could be described and visualised through integrated networks of conceptual blending. Altogether, the study argues for using conceptual blending as a tool for monitoring and encouraging the use of adequate metaphorical concepts, thereby facilitating students' opportunities of understanding and influencing the learning of science.
Zardosht, Roghayeh; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Razavi, Mohammad Etezad; Ahmady, Soleiman
Clinical education is an integral part of the surgical technology curriculum, in which students combine and integrate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and philosophies of the profession. It is difficult to learn and adapt to different types of skills and roles in the operating room environment. This qualitative study examines the difference between the clinical education of Surgical Technology and other clinical settings, and the challenges faced by students in the field, within the course. This was a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2016. The participants in this study were 16 baccalaureate surgical technology students of the University for Medical Sciences in Khorasan Razavi province. A semi-structured interview method was run to collect the required data. The sampling was initially purposive, then in the snowball method which continued until data saturation. All interviews were recorded, then transcribed, and analyzed using a continuous comparative method and conventional qualitative content analysis method. From the deep and rich descriptions of the participants, three themes including "stressful environment", "controversy between anticipation of role and reality", and "humiliating experiences" as well as a general theme of "bitter education" were obtained. Students' orientation before attending the operating room, accompanying, supporting, and a full-time attendance of the specialist instructor, strengthening the prerequisite knowledge and skills for the students in this field, teaching ethics, and professional interactions, play an important role in the student's acceptance of the operating room, in the surgery team and the improvement of the quality of clinical education of these students.
Josephson, Anna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
Objectives This pilot study explores the perceptions of medical students and their individual mentors who advised them in a specialised programme where students gained insight into non-tradition career paths. Methods Twelve medical students in years 3-6 at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden were recruited to the Prominentia mentor programme where they were individually paired with mentors who met with them to discuss and advise them on non-traditional career paths. Application letters of students to join the programme as well as electronically distributed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to assess the perceptions of mentors and students to the programme. Both the questionnaire and the interview transcripts were thematised using content analysis. Results In terms of expectations and requests, the application letters showed that all students specified their career goals and the type of mentor they desired. Whereas mentors in general had fewer requests and some had no specific demands. In light of perceived effects, all mentors felt they discussed future careers with their students and the majority of students responded the same way, with some interesting deviations. Most discussed topics during meetings were: future career, medical education, combinations of private life and work, and work environment. Conclusions This pilot study revealed that students appreciated receiving inspiration and seeing career path opportunities outside academic medicine as well as receiving support in personal and professional development and guidance about the students’ role as a doctor. However, discrepancies were found regarding how mentors and students respectively perceived the mentor programme.
Effects of Low- Versus High-Fidelity Simulations on the Cognitive Burden and Performance of Entry-Level Paramedicine Students: A Mixed-Methods Comparison Trial Using Eye-Tracking, Continuous Heart Rate, Difficulty Rating Scales, Video Observation and Interviews.
Mills, Brennen W; Carter, Owen B-J; Rudd, Cobie J; Claxton, Louise A; Ross, Nathan P; Strobel, Natalie A
High-fidelity simulation-based training is often avoided for early-stage students because of the assumption that while practicing newly learned skills, they are ill suited to processing multiple demands, which can lead to "cognitive overload" and poorer learning outcomes. We tested this assumption using a mixed-methods experimental design manipulating psychological immersion. Thirty-nine randomly assigned first-year paramedicine students completed low- or high-environmental fidelity simulations [low-environmental fidelity simulations (LF(en)S) vs. high-environmental fidelity simulation (HF(en)S)] involving a manikin with obstructed airway (SimMan3G). Psychological immersion and cognitive burden were determined via continuous heart rate, eye tracking, self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), independent observation, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was assessed by successful location of obstruction and time-to-termination. Eye tracking confirmed that students attended to multiple, concurrent stimuli in HF(en)S and interviews consistently suggested that they experienced greater psychological immersion and cognitive burden than their LF(en)S counterparts. This was confirmed by significantly higher mean heart rate (P cognitive burden but this has considerable educational merit.
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW), and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Hanson, Sarah E; MacLeod, Martha L; Schiller, Catharine J
During both teacher-led clinical practica and precepted practica, students interact with, and learn from, staff nurses who work on the clinical units. It is understood that learning in clinical practice is enhanced by positive interactions between staff nurses and nursing students. While much is known about preceptors' experiences of working with nursing students, there is little evidence to date about staff nurses' perspectives of their interactions with students in teacher-led practica. To understand teacher-led clinical practica from the perspective of staff nurses. A qualitative descriptive approach answers the question: How do staff nurses perceive their contributions to nursing students' learning during teacher-led practica? Nine staff Registered Nurses (RNs) working within a regional acute care hospital in western Canada were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts were analyzed using cross case analysis to discover themes and findings were checked by several experienced RNs. Analysis showed that nurses' interactions with nursing students are complicated. Nurses want to "train up" their future colleagues but feel a heavy burden of responsibility for students on the wards. This sense of burden for the staff nurses is influenced by several factors: the practice environment, the clinical instructor, the students themselves, and the nurses' understanding of their own contributions to student learning. Staff nurses remain willing to support student learning despite multiple factors that contribute to a sense of burden during teacher-led practica. Workplace environment, nursing program, and personal supports are needed to support their continuing engagement in student learning. Nurses need to know how important they are as role models, and the impact their casual interactions have on student nurses' socialization into the profession. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blane, David N.; Macdonald, Sara; Morrison, David; O’Donnell, Catherine A.
Background Primary care has a key role to play in the prevention and management of obesity, but there remain barriers to engagement in weight management by primary care practitioners. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders in adult weight management services on the role of primary care in adult weight management. Methods Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with nine senior dietitians involved in NHS weight management from seven Scottish health bo...
Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja
Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three wom...
Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community.
Full Text Available The end-of-term student evaluations have a twofold purpose: to provide information for administrators to make personnel decisions, and to help instructors to improve the quality of their teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate the ‘utility’ of the Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI. To that end, the concerns of the administrators, instructors and students regarding the use of the SRI in formative and summative evaluations are questioned. This study also investigates possible variables associated with the SRI: 1 what are the differences in ratings among the below-average, average and the above-average students? and 2 what is the correlation between the students’ grades and ratings? The participants of the study consisted of 5 administrators, 17 instructors and 292 students from the faculty of education of a foundation university in Ankara. A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods was adopted. In the first phase, causal comparative and correlation research methods were implemented. In the second phase, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the SRI among the below-average, average and above-average students. The correlation between the student grades and the SRI was significant at a low level. The SRI were reportedly utilised to make teaching more effective and to make decisions when employing part-time personnel only. The permanent personnel were not affected by the SRI. Suggestions have been put forward to verify the usefulness of SRI.
Parker, Johanna E; Hudson, Ben; Wilkinson, Tim J
General practice is under-represented in student career choices. This study aimed to identify and explore factors that influence the attitudes of final year medical students to general practice as a career. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of focus groups of final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were used to interpret the data. General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in influencing medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career. Students identified their general practice placement during medical school training and personal contact with their own GP as principal factors. The media portrayal of general practice and the attitudes of friends and family were also influential. Students were positively influenced when they were made to feel part of the team, involved with consultations, allowed to carry out practical procedures under supervision, and witnessed what they perceived as good medical practice during clinical placements. Positive experiences often occurred later in training, when students felt more confident of their clinical abilities. While students reported occasional negative comments about general practice by some hospital doctors, these had a lesser role in influencing their perceptions of general practice compared with their own experiences, both as students and patients. GPs have a strong influence, positively and negatively, on the attitudes of medical students to general practice as a career. Effective influences include being made to feel welcome, involved, valued, and given legitimate roles during clinical placements.
Peters-Burton, Erin E.
To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…
Horne, Patricia Lynne
The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).
Garcia, P P N S; Gottardello, A C A; Wajngarten, D; Presoto, C D; Campos, J A D B
The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the experiences of students enrolled in the last year of dentistry school with ergonomic practice. This is a qualitative, observational and cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample design. The sample comprised students enrolled in the last year of dentistry in Araraquara-UNESP (n = 29). The data were collected by means of open semi-structured and individual interviews, captured by a digital voice recorder. The students were interviewed in their own university at a time that was previously scheduled, and care was taken to provide a private and welcoming environment to carry out the interviews. A script containing questions related to practices in ergonomics was prepared at the university. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative-quantitative Collective Subject Discourse technique with the aid of Qualiquantisoft ® software program. It was found that more than half of the students (58.6%) believe that adopting an ergonomic posture is important to prevent future problems, pain and occupational diseases, and 62.1% of the students confirm having difficulties in adopting ergonomic postures due to the types of treatment required and the regions of the mouth being treated. The main reasons stated for the fact that their colleagues do not adopt ergonomic postures are lack of attention, practice and forgetfulness (44.8%) and difficulty in visualising the operatory field or the procedure performed (27.6%). It is possible to conclude that the students interviewed know ergonomic principles and their importance in occupational health. However, they found it difficult to put these principles into practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carter, Christine; Sellman, Edward
This article applies socio-cultural theories to explore how differences in essay writing experience are constituted for a group of students identified as dyslexic. It reports on a qualitative study with eleven student writers, seven of whom are formally identified as dyslexic, from the schools of archaeology, history and philosophy in a 'traditional' UK university. Semi-structured interviews before, during and after writing a coursework essay revealed well-documented dyslexia-related difficulties and also strong differences in how writing was experienced. The multiple and fluid dimensions that construct these differences suggest the importance of position within the context, previous and developing writing and learning experience, and metacognitive, meta-affective and metalinguistic awareness. They also suggest tensions between specialist and inclusive policies in relation to writing pedagogy for students identified as dyslexic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stewart, Greg L; Dustin, Susan L; Barrick, Murray R; Darnold, Todd C
The authors examined how an applicant's handshake influences hiring recommendations formed during the employment interview. A sample of 98 undergraduate students provided personality measures and participated in mock interviews during which the students received ratings of employment suitability. Five trained raters independently evaluated the quality of the handshake for each participant. Quality of handshake was related to interviewer hiring recommendations. Path analysis supported the handshake as mediating the effect of applicant extraversion on interviewer hiring recommendations, even after controlling for differences in candidate physical appearance and dress. Although women received lower ratings for the handshake, they did not on average receive lower assessments of employment suitability. Exploratory analysis suggested that the relationship between a firm handshake and interview ratings may be stronger for women than for men.
Byrd, Marquita L.; Robinson, Andrea
The interview is a special case of interpersonal communication. It is a communication event with a serious and predetermined purpose with the basic mode of communication being the asking and answering of questions. People are engaged in interviews throughout their lives from the employment setting to the counseling setting. This annotated…
Hass, Michael R.
Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…
Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe
the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration.......Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration....
Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron
Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...
Can empathy be taught? How can we protect the embryonic forms of empathy germinating in our medical students? Can we immunize them against the ravages to their humanism, astutely observed to occur by Henry Silver, Dean of the University of Colorado in 1982, when he published his clear-sighted commentary, Medical Students and Medical School (Silver, 1982; Krugman, 2008). Although studies show that empathy is damaged during medical school, the author proposes that empathic growth through medical school might be possible if enlightened teaching methods are implemented by governing boards, such as the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The author shares a novel teaching method adapted from a technique used by child psychiatrists, storytelling.
Kjellin Ifverson, Ebba
Information and communications technology (ICT) is a broad concept, which is often discussed in relation to the development of education. More specially, ICT can be seen as a tool to help teachers individualize students’ education. Students who have literacy difficulties, such as dyslexia, are in constant need of new techniques to help them learn and new tools to make their educational development easier. The aim of this thesis is to show what views teachers have regarding using ICT in Englis...
Conn, P Jeffrey
Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.
Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Stenfors, Terese
To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student's individual needs. However, balancing the student's level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report experiences from the perspectives of students, their patients and supervisors
Roberts, Ron; Sanders, Teela; Myers, Ellie; Smith, Debbie
Increasing evidence points to student involvement in the sex industry. The current study comprised a cross-sectional sample of 315 undergraduates at a London university. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data were gathered on students' financial and employment circumstances and their views on participation in sex work. Results suggested…
Razack, Saleem; Hodges, Brian; Steinert, Yvonne; Maguire, Mary
Calls to increase medical class representativeness to better reflect the diversity of society represent a growing international trend. There is an inherent tension between these calls and competitive student selection processes driven by academic achievement. How is this tension manifested? Our three-phase interdisciplinary research programme focused on the discourses of excellence, equity and diversity in the medical school selection process, as conveyed by key stakeholders: (i) institutions and regulatory bodies (the websites of 17 medical schools and 15 policy documents from national regulatory bodies); (ii) admissions committee members (ACMs) (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 9]), and (iii) successful applicants (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 14]). The work is theoretically situated within the works of Foucault, Bourdieu and Bakhtin. The conceptual framework is supplemented by critical hermeneutics and the performance theories of Goffman. Academic excellence discourses consistently predominate over discourses calling for greater representativeness in medical classes. Policy addressing demographic representativeness in medicine may unwittingly contribute to the reproduction of historical patterns of exclusion of under-represented groups. In ACM selection practices, another discursive tension is exposed as the inherent privilege in the process is marked, challenging the ideal of medicine as a meritocracy. Applicants' representations of self in the 'performance' of interviewing demonstrate implicit recognition of the power inherent in the act of selection and are manifested in the use of explicit strategies to 'fit in'. How can this critical discourse analysis inform improved inclusiveness in student selection? Policymakers addressing diversity and equity issues in medical school admissions should explicitly recognise the power dynamics at play between the profession and marginalised groups. For greater inclusion and to avoid one
Petersen, Kit Stender
In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee.......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...
McMillan, Sara S; Thangarajah, Thachaayini; Anderson, Claire; Kelly, Fiona
Various factors influence decision making in over-the-counter (OTC) medicine consultations, yet limited studies have focused, in-depth, on the thought process of pharmacy staff. This includes pharmacy students as pharmacists-in-training. To explore the factors that influence pharmacy students' decisions in relation to OTC consultations and choice of OTC medicine/s. Semi-structured interviews using the critical incident technique were undertaken with ten pharmacy students in Australia, who also worked as part-time pharmacy staff. Nine key themes were identified to influence pharmacy student decision making in OTC consultations, including customer response, confidence and scope of practice. Product requests were reported as more challenging due to customer expectations and experiences in other pharmacies, states or countries. Although negative customer response influenced some students to supply medicines in contradiction of evidence, an overarching concern for safety meant that a medicine was only supplied if unlikely to cause harm. Students reported developing confidence in OTC decision making more from real-life practice than university training; greater confidence was identified for inquiries more frequently experienced in the pharmacy. Students perceived that customers had assumptions around support staff, and were happier to talk to students than assistants. This study further identified that OTC decision making is a complex process for pharmacy students. Additional opportunities for experiential learning within this area are suggested, such as work-based placements or in-class activities such as role-plays with simulated patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, Rebecca D; Schlairet, Maura C
Nurse educators rely on the tenets of educational theory and evidence-based education to promote the most effective curriculum and facilitate the best outcomes. The flipped classroom model, in which students assume personal responsibility for knowledge acquisition in a highly engaging and interactive environment, supports self-directed learning and the unique needs of clinical education. To understand how students perceived their experiences in the flipped classroom and how students' learning dispositions were affected by the flipped classroom experience. A phenomenological approach was used to gain deeper understanding about students' perspectives, perceptions and subjective experiences of the flipped classroom model. The focus of the study was on characteristics of student learning. Fourteen Bachelors of Science of Nursing (BSN) students at a regional university in the southeastern United States. Using data transcribed from face-to-face, semi-structured interviews, experiential themes were extracted from the qualitative data (student-reported experiences, attributes, thoughts, values, and beliefs regarding teaching and learning in the context of their experience of the flipped classroom) using Graneheim's and Lundman's (2004) guidelines; and were coded and analyzed within theoretical categories based on pedagogical, andragogical or heutagogical learning dispositions. Experiential themes that emerged from students' descriptions of their experiences in the flipped classroom included discernment, challenge, relevance, responsibility, and expertise. The flipped classroom model offers promising possibilities for facilitating students' movement from learning that is characteristic of pedagogy and andragogy toward heutagogical learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michalec, Barret; Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Mahoney, Margaret
Studies have consistently highlighted the deleterious impact of burnout and compassion fatigue on professional nurses' well-being and willingness to remain in the profession. Yet, as to what extent these noxious conditions are suffered among nursing students is still unclear. In this study 436 undergraduate nursing students completed surveys assessing their experiences of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction (factors of burnout and compassion fatigue). There were no significant differences found between 3rd and 4th year students' reports of detrimental conditions and those of the 1st or 2nd year students. Furthermore, 4th year students reported significantly higher levels of personal accomplishment compared to 1st and 2nd year students. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 3rd and 4th year students revealed that their clinical exposure during these years (especially during the 4th year) may enhance their other-orientation as well as promote role actualization, which may serve as protective features. Students did, however, express concern regarding an inevitable onset of burnout at some point during their professional careers. It is suggested that a key to understanding the onset and experience of burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses is to continue to examine the transition from student to professional nurse and the cultural atmosphere of nursing education compared to professional practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Pals Svendsen, Lisbet; Mondahl, Margrethe; Faizi, Ahmad Zaki
Foreign language and culture learning suffers from a bad image in Danish Upper Secondary schools and German is not an exception. It means that the majority of Danish Upper Secondary school students are not particularly interested in learning the language. Therefore, intrinsic motivation plays...... which was conducted on the basis of semi-structured focus group interviews with n=50 high school students and n=2 high school teachers shows that the ICT tools Photostory, MovieMaker and Voki indeed have an influence on students’ perceived intrinsic motivation in connection with German language...... a pivotal role in German language and culture learning in Denmark. One didactic initiative proposed to remedy the lack of intrinsic motivation is the introduction of various ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools. This is the background for the research described in this article. Our study...
Essien-Wood, Idara R.
Given the lack of literature on Undergraduate African American females in the sciences (UAAFS), this study sought to explicate their experiences at one large, predominantly White, Research I institution in the southwestern United States. In particular, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the academic success and persistence of Black females in the natural and physical sciences. Data was collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 Black female science majors. Findings from this study identified several supportive mechanisms for academic success: family, religion, teaching assistants and friends. Also identified were seven barriers to academic success: employment, lack of diversity, cultural dissonance, unwelcoming Research I environment, faculty, advisors, classmates, and lab groups. Further, an analysis of students' responses revealed numerous instances of racial and gender micro-aggressions. Recommendations are provided to address factors identified as affecting student academic success and persistence as well as a culture of micro-aggressive behavior.
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
Dinmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda
Introduction: Professional socialization is a critical aspect of nursing students' development, which begins with entry into the nursing program and continues when their professional practice begins. The aim of this study was to explore the socialization of Iranian BSN students in the nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing Straussian version of the grounded theory (1998) method was used. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants chosen from two large nursing schools in an urban area through purposive and theoretical sampling. The data were analyzed, using the constant comparative method. Results: Five main categories and eleven subcategories emerged and integrated around one core category. Professional metamorphosis as the core variable was a complex and interrelated process (consisting of three stages: dependence, disintegration, and integration) with dynamic, ongoing, and personal features influenced by professional and extra-professional context. The students assumed a passive role in the initial of their studies. However, during the last year of the educational program, they gradually involved actively in dealing with own personal and professional issues. Conclusion: This study introduced "professional metamorphosis of BSN students" as a substantive grounded theory in the socio-cultural context of the health care system in Iran. During this process, students move from outsider personal position to insider professional position. The nurse educators and administrators may develop effective educational interventions to promote professional socialization of students with an understanding of the promoting and driving forces influencing socialization.
Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Márquez U, Carolina; Pérez V, Cristhian; Bustamante D, Carolina; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Bastías V, Nancy; Espinoza P, Camila
Motivation is an essential aspect in the training process of medical students. The association that motivation can have with learning self-regulation is of utmost importance for the design of curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation. To describe the motivational aspects of self-directed learning among medical students from a traditional Chilean University. A qualitative, descriptive study based on grounded theory of Strauss and Corbin. Twenty 4th and 5th year medical students were selected using a maximum variation sampling technique. After obtaining an informed consent, semi-structured interviews and field notes were carried out. Data were analyzed to the level of open coding through Atlas-ti 7.5.2. From the student point of view, personal motivational aspects are linked to the search for information, constant updating, the perception of the physician-patient relationship and interest in subject matters. From the scope of teachers, a main issue is related to their ability to motivate students to develop independent study skills. Personal motivational aspects facilitate the development of independent study skills, specifically in the search of information. The role of teachers is crucial in promoting these skills and the perception of medical students from their learning process.
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were investigated with the aid of paper and pencil tests ( n = 86) and semi-structured interviews ( n = 5) at the start of a thermal physics course at the University of Eastern Finland. The paper and pencil test revealed that the students had difficulties in applying content taught during earlier education in a new context: only a few of them were able to produce a correct explanation for the phenomenon. A majority of the students used either explanations with invalid but physically correct models, such as the ideal gas law or a microscopic model, or erroneous dependencies between quantities. The results also indicated that students had problems in seeing deficiencies or inconsistencies in their reasoning, in both test and interview situations. We suggest in our conclusion that the contents of upper secondary school thermal physics courses should be carefully examined to locate the best emphases for different laws, principles, concepts, and models. In particular, the limitations of models should be made explicit in teaching and students should be guided towards critical scientific thinking, including metaconceptual awareness.
Lin, M-F; Hsu, W-S; Huang, M-C; Su, Y-H; Crawford, P; Tang, C-C
Communication is closely related to safe practice and patient outcomes. Given that most clinicians fall into routines when communicating with patients, it is important to address communication issues early. This study explores Taiwanese nursing students' experiences of communication with patients with cancer and their families. Senior nursing students who had cared for cancer patients were recruited to participate in focus group interviews. These semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed for content analysis. Among the 45 participants, about 36% of them never received any communication training. Up to 76% of the participants stated that their communication with cancer patients was difficult and caused them emotional stress. Subsequent data analysis revealed four themes: disengagement, reluctance, regression and transition. Students' negative communication experiences were related to the patients' terminally ill situation; the students' lack of training, low self-efficacy and power status, poor emotional regulation, and cultural considerations. The findings of this study provide a deeper understanding of nursing students' communication experiences in oncology settings within the cultural context. Early and appropriate communication training is necessary to help students regulate their emotions and establish effective communication skills. Further studies are needed to examine the relationship among students' emotional labour, communication skills and outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Villiers, Tania; Mayers, Pat M; Khalil, Doris
Violence is a growing problem worldwide in the field of health care and within the nursing profession. A study comprising a survey and focus groups with nursing students, and interviews with nurse educators was conducted to examine nursing students' perceptions and experiences of violence at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape, South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all nursing students. Two hundred and twenty three (n = 223) respondents completed the questionnaire. Focus groups were conducted with purposively sampled student participants and semi-structured interviews with nurse educators. The findings indicated that the nature of the violent incidents experienced by students on campus, especially in the residences, ranged from verbal abuse to violation of students' property and personal space, and could be attributed primarily to substance abuse. Violence among student nurses could negatively affect learning. In a profession in which nurses are exposed to violence in the workplace, it is important that violence in the learning environment is actively prevented and respect of individual rights, tolerance and co-operation are promoted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tjoflåt, Ingrid; Razaonandrianina, Julie; Karlsen, Bjørg; Hansen, Britt Sætre
To describe how Malagasy and Norwegian nursing students experience an educational exchange program in Madagascar. Previous studies show that nursing students participating in an educational exchange program enhanced their cultural knowledge and experienced personal growth. However, few studies have described two-way exchange programs, including experiences from both the hosts' and the guest students' perspectives. This study applies a descriptive qualitative design. Data were collected in 2015 by means of five semi-structured interviews with Malagasy students and two focus group interview sessions with Norwegian students. They were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted in Madagascar. The data analyses revealed one main theme and two sub-themes related to the Malagasy and Norwegian nursing students' experiences. Main theme: complementary knowledge sharing; sub-themes: (1) learning from each other and (2) challenges of working together. The findings indicate that both the Malagasy and Norwegian nursing students experienced the exchange program as valuable and essential in exchanging knowledge. They also highlighted challenges, linked mainly to language barriers and the lack of available resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Full Text Available This issue of Designs for Learning features an interview with professor Staffan Selander, who has contributed in important ways to the shaping of the field we talk about as “designs for learning”. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests, influences and experiences that have formed a background to the development of his theoretical approach to issues concerning education and learning.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
S. R. S. Varadhan is the recipient of the 2007 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. On May 21, 2007, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Varadhan was interviewed by Martin Raussen of Aalborg University and Christian Skau of the Norwegian University of Science...... and Technology. This interview originally appeared in the September 2007 issue of the European Mathematical Society Newsletter....
de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Parkington, Karisa; Mirenda, Pat; Cain, Kate; MacLeod, Andrea A N; Segers, Eliane
The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual opportunities. The participants were individuals with expertise either in special needs and/or language education to support bilingualism (e.g., second language (L2) instruction), who served as key informants about service delivery and/or policy in these areas. Six themes emerged as salient during the analysis: we include all kids, special needs drives it, time/scheduling conflicts, IEP/IPP/statement drives it, it's up to the parents, and service availability. The results suggested that access to language programs and services is limited for children with DD, even though participants at all sites reported adherence to a philosophy of inclusion. A priority on special education services over language services was identified, as well as barriers to providing children with DD access to programs and services to support bilingual development. Some of these barriers included time and scheduling conflicts and limited service availability. Additionally, the role of parents in decision making was affirmed, although, in contrast to special education services, decision-making about participation or exemption from language programs was typically left up to the parents. Overall, the results suggest a need for greater attention to providing supports for both first (L1) and L2 language development for bilingual children with DD and greater access to available language programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
What do midwives need to know about approaches of women towards labour pain management? A qualitative interview study into expectations of management of labour pain for pregnant women receiving midwife-led care in the Netherlands
Klomp, T.; Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Hutton, E.K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objective: to investigate factors important to women receiving midwife-led care with regard to their expectations for management of labour pain. Design: semi-structured ante partum interviews and analyses using constant comparison method. Participants: fifteen pregnant women between 36 and 40 weeks
What do midwives need to know about approaches of women towards labour pain management? A qualitative interview study into expectations of management of labour pain for pregnant women receiving midwife-led care in the Netherlands
Klomp, T.; Mannien, J.; Jonge, A. de; Hutton, E.K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: to investigate factors important to women receiving midwife-led care with regard to their expectations for management of labour pain. DESIGN: semi-structured ante partum interviews and analyses using constant comparison method. PARTICIPANTS: fifteen pregnant women between 36 and 40 weeks
Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This research project explored Native American students’ perceptions of the Edmon Low Library at Oklahoma State University (OSU. The study sought to understand how Native American students perceived the role of the academic library in their lives, and which elements of the library students depicted and described as holding meaning for them. Methods – Photo-elicitation, a form of visual research and a participatory research method, was the primary method chosen to explore students’ perceptions of the library. To qualify for this study, students self-identified as Native American and as frequent library users. They also had completed three or more semesters of study at OSU. Five students followed a photo prompt for taking at least fifteen pictures of the library, then participated in two separate interviews with the primary researcher. Participants also completed a demographic/questionnaire form, answered semi-structured questions, and ranked the photos they took. Results – This study produced several emergent findings. First, students expressed uncertainty about the library’s books. Second, functional library tools such as express printers and library signage played a valuable role for facilitating student work. Third, the method of photo-elicitation was enjoyable for students and served as library discovery. Fourth, Native American resources and exhibits in the library had varied salience for students. Conclusion – Limited research focuses on Native American students in academic libraries, particularly on how students use and experience the library. Exploring how individual students who identify as Native American perceive the university library enhanced our understanding of how libraries in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs can best serve and support students. This study provided insight into the method of photo-elicitation interviews. This research also provided practical benefits for student
Background Currently only a few reports exist on how to prepare medical students for skills laboratory training. We investigated how students and tutors perceive a blended learning approach using virtual patients (VPs) as preparation for skills training. Methods Fifth-year medical students (N=617) were invited to voluntarily participate in a paediatric skills laboratory with four specially designed VPs as preparation. The cases focused on procedures in the laboratory using interactive questions, static and interactive images, and video clips. All students were asked to assess the VP design. After participating in the skills laboratory 310 of the 617 students were additionally asked to assess the blended learning approach through established questionnaires. Tutors’ perceptions (N=9) were assessed by semi-structured interviews. Results From the 617 students 1,459 VP design questionnaires were returned (59.1%). Of the 310 students 213 chose to participate in the skills laboratory; 179 blended learning questionnaires were returned (84.0%). Students provided high overall acceptance ratings of the VP design and blended learning approach. By using VPs as preparation, skills laboratory time was felt to be used more effectively. Tutors perceived students as being well prepared for the skills laboratory with efficient uses of time. Conclusion The overall acceptance of the blended learning approach was high among students and tutors. VPs proved to be a convenient cognitive preparation tool for skills training. PMID:23402663
Discusses the value of communications skills in geographical education. Describes the use of realistic interviews that were a part of small-group project work. Explains that students wrote job specifications, a curriculum vitae, a cover letter, and conducted interview panels. (CMK)
Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H.; Stenfors, Terese
Objective To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. Design A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Setting Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Subjects Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Main outcome measures Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Results A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student’s individual needs. However, balancing the student’s level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. Conclusions High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report
Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth
Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.
Quantum mechanics is widely recognised as an important and difficult subject, and many studies have been published focusing on students’ conceptual difficulties. However, the sociocultural aspects of studying such an emblematic subject have not been researched to any large extent. This study explores students’ experiences of undergraduate quantum mechanics using qualitative analysis of semi-structured interview data. The results inform discussions about the teaching of quantum mechanics by adding a sociocultural dimension. Students pictured quantum mechanics as an intriguing subject that inspired them to study physics. The study environment they encountered when taking their first quantum mechanics course was however not always as inspiring as expected. Quantum mechanics instruction has commonly focused on the mathematical framework of quantum mechanics, and this kind of teaching was also what the interviewees had experienced. Two ways of handling the encounter with a traditional quantum mechanics course were identified in the interviews; either students accept the practice of studying quantum mechanics in a mathematical, exercise-centred way or they distance themselves from these practices and the subject. The students who responded by distancing themselves experienced a crisis and disappointment, where their experiences did not match the way they imagined themselves engaging with quantum mechanics. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to efforts to reform the teaching of undergraduate quantum mechanics.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.
Full Text Available Internationalisation of education and student mobility (incoming and outgoing has become a significant factor in the sphere of higher education. These processes lead to interaction between local students and exchange students, as well as between exchange students and host universities. Being in the foreign country for a certain period (one or two semesters requires some cultural and social adaptation that could or could not be problematic for various reasons. In order to maximise benefits for the exchange students and host universities, it is important to identify existing problems and to offer possible solutions. The aim of the current paper is to research the critical aspects of cultural adaptation process of ERASMUS students in Latvia. The international group that consists of a professor of the University College of Economics and Culture and three exchange students from Italy and Spain carried out the research. The empirical methods used were the following: a survey of ERASMUS students (non-probability purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with the host university ERASMUS coordinators. The data processing methods were the descriptive statistics as well as the thematic content analysis. On the basis of critical issues identified during the research process, the authors worked a set of practical solutions aimed at the host institutions.
Parris, Leandra N; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel
Interactions through technology have an important impact on today's youth. While some of these interactions are positive, there are concerns regarding students engaging in negative interactions like cyberbullying behaviors and the negative impact these behaviors have on others. The purpose of the current study was to explore participant suggestions for both students and adults for preventing cyberbullying incidents. Forty high school students participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Participant experiences and perceptions were coded using constant comparative methods to illustrate ways in which students and adults may prevent cyberbullying from occurring within their school and community. Students reported that peers would benefit from increasing online security, as well as becoming more aware of their cyber-surroundings. Regarding adult-provided prevention services, participants often discussed that there is little adults can do to reduce cyberbullying. Reasons included the difficulties in restricting online behaviors or providing effective consequences. However, some students did discuss the use of in-school curricula while suggesting that adults blame people rather than technology as potential ways to prevent cyberbullying. Findings from the current study indicate some potential ways to improve adult efforts to prevent cyberbullying. These strategies include parent/teacher training in technology and cyberbullying, interventions focused more on student behavior than technology restriction, and helping students increase their online safety and awareness.
Parris, Leandra N.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel
Introduction: Interactions through technology have an important impact on today's youth. While some of these interactions are positive, there are concerns regarding students engaging in negative interactions like cyberbullying behaviors and the negative impact these behaviors have on others. The purpose of the current study was to explore participant suggestions for both students and adults for preventing cyberbullying incidents. Methods: Forty high school students participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Participant experiences and perceptions were coded using constant comparative methods to illustrate ways in which students and adults may prevent cyberbullying from occurring within their school and community. Results: Students reported that peers would benefit from increasing online security, as well as becoming more aware of their cyber-surroundings. Regarding adult-provided prevention services, participants often discussed that there is little adults can do to reduce cyberbullying. Reasons included the difficulties in restricting online behaviors or providing effective consequences. However, some students did discuss the use of in-school curricula while suggesting that adults blame people rather than technology as potential ways to prevent cyberbullying. Conclusion: Findings from the current study indicate some potential ways to improve adult efforts to prevent cyberbullying. These strategies include parent/teacher training in technology and cyberbullying, interventions focused more on student behavior than technology restriction, and helping students increase their online safety and awareness. PMID:25157306
Full Text Available Video-linked lectures allow healthcare students across multiple sites, and between university and hospital bases, to come together for the purposes of shared teaching. Recording and streaming video-linked lectures allows students to view them at a later date and provides an additional resource to support student learning. As part of a UK Higher Education Academy-funded Pathfinder project, this study explored medical students' perceptions of video-linked lectures and video-streaming, and their impact on learning. The methodology involved semi-structured interviews with 20 undergraduate medical students across four sites and five year groups. Several key themes emerged from the analysis. Students generally preferred live lectures at the home site and saw interaction between sites as a major challenge. Students reported that their attendance at live lectures was not affected by the availability of streamed lectures and tended to be influenced more by the topic and speaker than the technical arrangements. These findings will inform other educators interested in employing similar video technologies in their teaching.Keywords: video-linked lecture; video-streaming; student perceptions; decisionmaking; cross-campus teaching.
Fox, Ann; Emrich, Teri
Efforts to support workforce development led to the launch of a new master of public health program aimed at improving access to graduate studies for practising nutrition professionals. The first cohort of students identified employer support as a key determinant of their success. In order to identify ways of addressing both student and employer needs, we explored the perspectives of students' employers. Seventeen in-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with employers. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were organized using NVivo software and coded thematically. All employers indicated support for employee education and development in principle, but most faced practical challenges related to limited staffing during education leaves. Organizational policies varied considerably across employer groups. Collective agreements that guided education policy were seen to ensure consistent support for employees, but also to limit creative approaches to education support in some situations. Employers highly valued graduate student projects that were directly related to the workplace; these projects presented opportunities for collaboration among the university, students, and employers. Universities need to work with employers and other stakeholders to identify ways of overcoming barriers to public health nutrition graduate education and workforce development.
Abi-El-Mona, Issam; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad
This study aimed to elucidate college freshmen science students, secondary science teachers, and scientists' perceptions of 'scientific' argument; to compare participants' perceptions with Stephen Toulmin's analytical framework of argument; and to characterize the criteria that participants deployed when assessing the 'quality' or 'goodness' of arguments. Thirty students, teachers, and scientists-with 10 members in each group-participated in two semi-structured individual interviews. During the first interview, participants generated an argument in response to a socioscientific issue. In the second interview, each participant 'evaluated' three arguments generated by a member from each participant group without being privy to the arguer's group membership. Interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. The findings point to both similarities and differences between participants' conceptions of argument and those based on Toulmin's analytical framework. Participants used an array of common and idiosyncratic criteria to judge the quality or goodness of argument. Finally, contrary to expectations, participants independently agreed that the 'best' arguments were those generated by participant science teachers.
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...
International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.
McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E
Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also
Huang, Hui-Man; Huang, Chu-Yu; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Cheng, Su-Fen
Clinical reasoning is an essential core competence for nurses. Maintaining quality of care and safety of patients results from cultivation of student's clinical reasoning competency. However, the concept of clinical reasoning in nursing students is complex and its meaning and process needs further clarification. The objectives were to explore the meaning of clinical reasoning competency in Taiwanese nursing students and to operationalize the concept in order to structure a framework illustrating the process of clinical reasoning. Thirteen seasoned nursing experts who had more than ten years of experience in nursing education or clinical practice participated in the interviews. The interviews were conducted in settings that the participants perceived as convenient, quiet and free of disturbance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and field notes were taken. The data were analyzed using Waltz et al.'s (2010) method of content analysis. The data revealed four domains and 11 competency indicators. The four domains include: awareness of clinical cues, confirmation of clinical problems, determination and implementation of actions, and evaluation and self-reflection. Each domain comprises of 2-4 indicators of clinical reasoning competency. In addition, this study established a framework for cultivation of clinical reasoning competency in nursing students. The indicators of clinical reasoning competency in nursing students are interwoven, interactive and interdependent to form a dynamic process. The findings of this study may facilitate evaluation of nursing students' clinical reasoning competency and development of instruments to assess clinical reasoning in nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.
Berkhout, Joris J; Helmich, Esther; Teunissen, Pim W; van den Berg, Joost W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
The importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) has been broadly recognised by medical education institutions and regulatory bodies. Supporting the development of SRL skills has proven difficult because self-regulation is a complex interactive process and we know relatively little about the factors influencing this process in real practice settings. The aim of our study was therefore to identify factors that support or hamper medical students' SRL in a clinical context. We conducted a constructivist grounded theory study using semi-structured interviews with 17 medical students from two universities enrolled in clerkships. Participants were purposively sampled to ensure variety in age, gender, experience and current clerkship. The Day Reconstruction Method was used to help participants remember their activities of the previous day. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed iteratively using constant comparison and open, axial and interpretive coding. Self-regulated learning by students in the clinical environment was influenced by the specific goals perceived by students, the autonomy they experienced, the learning opportunities they were given or created themselves, and the anticipated outcomes of an activity. All of these factors were affected by personal, contextual and social attributes. Self-regulated learning of medical students in the clinical environment is different for every individual. The factors influencing this process are affected by personal, social and contextual attributes. Some of these are similar to those known from previous research in classroom settings, but others are unique to the clinical environment and include the facilities available, the role of patients, and social relationships pertaining to peers and other hospital staff. To better support students' SRL, we believe it is important to increase students' metacognitive awareness and to offer students more tailored learning opportunities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tang, Kok-Sing; Yang, Xiangyu
Research examining the relationship between science and religion has often painted a narrative of conflict for students with various religious beliefs. The purpose of this paper is to present a counter-narrative based on a study carried out in Singapore, which provides a unique multi-ethnic and multi-religious environment and geopolitical context to study the phenomenon. Informed by the theories of collateral learning, situated cognition and agency, the study examined how a group of high school biology students viewed and negotiated the relationship between biological evolution and their beliefs in Christianity. Case study methodology and semi-structured interviews were used to generate thick descriptions of their views. Findings from the study illustrate how the students exhibited agency in deliberately creating multiple resolution mechanisms as they recognised and negotiated the conceptual and social tensions between the worldviews of evolution and creationism. The findings suggest that the students exhibited more agency in resolving the perceived conflict between science and religion than we tend to ascribe based on previous interpretative accounts that emphasised confrontation, alienation and marginalisation. The implication is that students' agency in negotiating the differing worldviews between science and religion should be seen as a resource for the learning of evolution, rather than a hindrance.
Tássia Pereira Alves
Full Text Available Inclusion is a social process in school aims to change attitudes and to build a position to cover everyone without distinction. Thus, the objective was to analyze the representations of deaf students on their inclusion in physical education classes. It is qualitative, descriptive and analytical, attended eight deaf students from 2 public schools in a city in the countryside of Bahia. For data production, it was used a semi -structured interview, through the aid of an interpreter of Brazilian Sign Language (Libras, at the same time, it was translated by the interpreter and transcribed by the researchers. Data analysis used the technique of categorical content analysis. The inclusion of deaf people in physical education classes still failed to materialize and in fact, even having found some teachers with pedagogical actions that proved to be inclusive, yet they still leave many gaps, regarding satisfactory learning of students because they simply just integrate deaf students in the classroom. It is necessary that the school and the teacher ensure that the curriculum is accessible to them, so that they can contribute to the construction of citizenship, motor development, cognitive and social-emotional student.
Electrochemistry is considered by students to be a difficult topic in chemistry. This research was a mixed methods study guided by the research question: At the end of a unit of study, what are students' understandings of electrochemistry? The framework of analysis used for the qualitative and quantitative data collected in this study was comprised of three categories: types of knowledge used in problem solving, levels of representation of knowledge in chemistry (macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate), and alternative conceptions. Although individually each of the three categories has been reported in previous studies, the contribution of this study is the inter-relationships among them. Semi-structured, task-based interviews were conducted while students were setting up and operating electrochemical cells in the laboratory, and a two-tiered, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument was designed to identify alternative conceptions that students held at the end of the unit. For familiar problems, those involving routine voltaic cells, students used a working-forwards problem-solving strategy, two or three levels of representation of knowledge during explanations, scored higher on both procedural and conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held fewer alternative conceptions related to the operation of these cells. For less familiar problems, those involving non-routine voltaic cells and electrolytic cells, students approached problem-solving with procedural knowledge, used only one level of representation of knowledge when explaining the operation of these cells, scored higher on procedural knowledge than conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held a greater number of alternative conceptions. Decision routines that involved memorized formulas and procedures were used to solve both quantitative and qualitative problems and the main source of alternative conceptions in this study was the overgeneralization of theory
Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust
The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.
Ivan Livindo de Senna Corrêa
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the construction of autonomy, life trajectories and the work, as well as the knowledge of self-employed workers and students of Adult and Adolescents Education (EJA of Colégio de Aplicação from UFRGS. The study also tries to find reasons that made these individuals return to school. The data collecting was done through questions and a semi structured interview. The obtained results were: a the reasons for returning to school were knowledge, personal improvement and job upward; b the autonomy is relative to work conditions and decision making; c the trajectories were fragmented throughout child labor and school exclusion; d the knowledge experience is constituted by the observation, daily relationships and by the autonomously search for information and knowledge.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica
This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…
Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis
Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…
Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine
Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…
von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey
This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...
Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…
This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…
van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.
This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of
Van Hees, Valérie; Roeyers, Herbert; De Mol, Jan
This study examined how 34 senior students and first-year college students with autism spectrum disorder, their mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 26) navigate the higher education transition, and how this context impacts on dynamics in the parent-child relationships. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles. Both parties were confronted with an abundance of challenges and experienced strong feelings of ambivalence, stress and anxiety. Differences in perspectives occurred regarding the construction of adulthood, the acquisition of autonomy, disclosure and subscribing to support services. These differences caused tensions in the parent-child relationship, hindering the transformation of the relationship into an adult-like mutual relationship. Clinical implications are extrapolated on the basis of these findings.
Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte
Prior research on the use of patients as teachers has focused on testing the effectiveness of this practice and exploring its benefits for students. However, very little is known about the added value of patient teaching and how it relates to patient-centred learning. The aim of this study was to explore whether there is added value in using patients as instructors in health professions education and, if there is, to examine how it is constituted. Group interviews were conducted with physiotherapy and occupational therapy students who had attended a 3-hour optional class entitled 'Thoughtful joint examination and respectful patient contact'. This class was delivered by patient-instructors (PIs), who were patients with rheumatism certified to teach. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews continued until data saturation occurred (seven interviews). The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using content analysis. The main finding of this study is that PI sessions facilitate a learning environment in which the content matter is complemented by the provision of realism and individual perspectives on rheumatism, the pedagogical format is characterised by authenticity and intimacy in the style of instruction and feedback, and the PI-student relationship is characterised by balanced teacher-student power relations that support the legitimacy of learning and make space for the asking of questions and the making of mistakes. This study indicates that, in terms of power relations, the PI-student relationship differs from those between faculty teachers and students, and students and patients in the clinic. The formation of a professional identity by students may clash with the fulfilment of their learning tasks in the clinical environment. The study indicates that patient-centredness can be fostered in the PI-student relationship. This is probably supported by the absence of faculty staff involvement in PI teaching sessions
Gostelow, N; Barber, J; Gishen, F; Berlin, A
Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers. A semi-structured group interview was conducted with six voluntary participants. Two hundred and eighty-nine students completed questionnaires. 85% (n = 246) completed the online lesson. Students agreed the session helped their understanding of key concepts (mean 3.2), was improved by having an actor (mean = 3.6), and was enjoyable (mean = 3.2). Thematic analysis of qualitative questionnaire and interview data revealed three themes: engagement; structure; and attitudes towards social determinants of health. The simulation increased clinical relevance and students gained understanding of the impact of health inequalities upon individuals. This paper indicates flipped learning can increase clinical relevance and engagement in population health and person-centered care. Further work could assess changes in practice and attitudes of future doctors in tackling such global health challenges.
Hutsebaut, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Feenstra, D.J.; Weekers, L.C.; De Saeger, H.
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes
Østergaard, Elisabeth Bomholt; Sritharan, Sophia Sajitha; Thomsen, Pernille Maja
Title Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study Authors Elisabeth Bomholt Østergaard, Sophia Sajitha Sritharan, Pernille Maja Thomsen, Anne Dal Kristiansen, Anders Løkke Background: Surprisingly few people in Denmark with Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) engage in physical activity even though it is evident that pulmonary rehabilitation has positive effects on activity level, dyspnea, anxiety, fatigue and quality of life. Aims: To explore why people with COPD do not engage in physical activity and their motivational...... factors for being physically active. Methods: Fieldwork among five people with COPD in Jutland, Denmark 2013-2016 using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Supplementary short semistructured interviews with three general practitioners, and participation in a closed Facebook-group for people with COPD...
Visser, Lennart; Korthagen, Fred A J; Schoonenboom, Judith
Within the field of procrastination, much research has been conducted on factors that have an influence on academic procrastination. Less is known about how such factors may differ for various students. In addition, not much is known about differences in the process of how factors influence students' learning and what creates differences in procrastination behavior between students with different levels of academic procrastination. In this study learning characteristics and the self-regulation behavior of three groups of students with different levels of academic procrastination were compared. The rationale behind this was that certain learning characteristics and self-regulation behaviors may play out differently in students with different levels of academic procrastination. Participants were first-year students ( N = 22) with different levels of academic procrastination enrolled in an elementary teacher education program. The selection of the participants into three groups of students (low procrastination, n = 8; average procrastination, n = 8; high procrastination, n = 6) was based on their scores on a questionnaire measuring the students' levels of academic procrastination. From semi-structured interviews, six themes emerged that describe how students in the three groups deal with factors that influence the students' learning: degree program choice, getting started with study activities, engagement in study activities, ways of reacting to failure, view of oneself, and study results. This study shows the importance of looking at differences in how students deal with certain factors possibly negatively influencing their learning. Within the group of students with average and high levels of academic procrastination, factors influencing their learning are regularly present. These factors lead to procrastination behavior among students with high levels of academic procrastination, but this seems not the case among students with an average level of academic
Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.
Mann, Melissa J.; Yanson, Regina; Lambert, Alysa D.
Interviews are a critical component of assessing a candidate's fit in an organization. Students aspiring to be managers or human resource professionals will need to complete an interview to successfully gain employment and then, in turn, will be responsible for conducting interviews to effectively ascertain the capabilities and motivation of job…
Abdolrahimi, Mahbobeh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Ebadi, Abbas
Health communication (HC) is considered an important task of nurses to provide high quality and holistic care as well as to improve patient health. The nursing student-patient HC is an abstract concept and needs to be clarified. Therefore, this study was conducted to increase the knowledge about nursing students' HC with patients by considering various participants' viewpoints. In this conventional qualitative content analysis, 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with six nursing students, six nursing instructors, and six patients in educational hospitals affiliated to the University of Medical Sciences. Credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability were established to validate the trustworthiness of the data. The process of data collection and analysis lasted 9 months. After data analysis, two categories were generated: (A) "junior nursing student-patient communication," with two subcategories of "performing social communication with patients" and "failure to build therapeutic relationships with patients," and (B) "senior nursing student-patient communication" with two subcategories of "establishing effective communication with patients" and "performing one-way communication with patients." More attention should be paid to improve HC through shifting towards student-centered approaches in nursing curriculum. Further, role model nurses and clinical educators should guide nursing students for institutionalizing HC in future nurses.
Cassidy, Wanda; Jackson, Margaret
This paper offers a qualitative thematic analysis of the impacts of cyberbullying on post-secondary students, faculty, and administrators from four participating Canadian universities. These findings were drawn from data obtained from online surveys of students and faculty, student focus groups, and semi-structured interviews with faculty members and university administrators. The key themes discussed include: negative affect, impacts on mental and physical health, perceptions of self, impacts regarding one’s personal and professional lives, concern for one’s safety, and the impact of authorities’ (non) response. Students reported primarily being cyberbullied by other students, while faculty were cyberbullied by both students and colleagues. Although students and faculty represent different age levels and statuses at the university, both groups reported similar impacts and similar frustrations at finding solutions, especially when their situations were reported to authorities. It is important that universities pay greater attention to developing effective research-based cyberbullying policies and to work towards fostering a more respectful online campus culture. PMID:28786941
Huhn, Daniel; Eckart, Wolfgang; Karimian-Jazi, Kianush; Amr, Ali; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
While the number of international students has increased over the last decade, such students face diverse challenges due to language and cultural barriers. International medical students suffer from personal distress and a lack of support. Their performance is significantly lower than non-international peers in clinical examinations. We investigated whether international students benefit from a peer-led exam preparation course. An exam preparation course was designed, and relevant learning objectives were defined. Two evaluations were undertaken: Using a qualitative approach, tutees (N = 10) were asked for their thoughts and comments in a semi-structured interview at the end of the semester. From a quantitative perspective, all participants (N = 22) were asked to complete questionnaires at the end of each course session. International students reported a range of significant benefits from the course as they prepared for upcoming exams. They benefited from technical and didactic, as well as social learning experiences. They also considered aspects of the tutorial's framework helpful. Social and cognitive congruence seem to be the key factors to success within international medical students' education. If tutors have a migration background, they can operate as authentic role models. Furthermore, because they are still students themselves, they can offer support using relevant and understandable language.
Gopee, Neil; Deane, Mary
Students develop better academic writing skills as they progress through their higher education programme, but despite recent continuing monitoring of student satisfaction with their education in UK, there has been relatively little research into students' perceptions of the active support that they need and receive to succeed as academic writers. To examine the strategies that university students on health or social care courses utilise to develop as writers in the face of many pressures and demands from different sources. Qualitative research conducted at a British University into undergraduates' writing practices in the field of healthcare. Ten participants took part in semi-structured interviews, half of whom were international students. The data was analysed by the researchers from the field of writing development using thematic analysis. The main findings are that certain students struggle as academic writers if they do not receive tuition on appropriate and effective academic writing through institutional provisions, or through non-institutional strategies, that can promote success with the writing process. There is also uncertainty over the extent to which nurse educators are expected to teach academic writing skills, alongside their discipline-specific subject areas. Both institutional provisions for academic writing development, such as a dedicated writing support department, and non-institutional factors such as peer-collaboration should be fully recognised, supported and resourced in tertiary education at a time when students' satisfaction and performance are high on the agenda. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gower, Shelley; Duggan, Ravani; Dantas, Jaya A R; Boldy, Duncan
To examine understandings of global health issues among nursing students following participation in an international clinical placement during their pre-registration university education. Universities use international clinical placements, especially in developing countries, to develop cultural awareness in students; however, little is known about the longer term influences on students' understandings of global nursing. A retrospective cross-sectional design was used, using an exploratory, descriptive qualitative approach. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with a purposive sample of 25 pre-registration nursing students from four Western Australian universities who undertook clinical placements across five countries. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings highlight that students developed new understandings around health systems including fragility of resource access, differences in clinical practice and variances in nursing roles between settings. Students also experienced challenges but were able to appreciate alternative world viewpoints. International clinical placements can develop greater awareness and help students form realistic strategies for using their nursing skills globally. Pre-placement training in cultural awareness and health system realities, along with strong supervisory support, is critical to success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mpho P Jama
Full Text Available Higher education institutions, including medical schools, still grapple with the challenge of poor academic performance of students. Some studies report the positive results of providing academic guidance for common challenges such as poor and/or ineffective time management, study methods, test- and exam-taking techniques and management, and the high academic workload of undergraduate medical students. However, limited detailed insights and understanding of medical students who experience more complex challenges are available. This study was conducted at a medical school in South Africa to determine undergraduate medical students’ perceptions of factors affecting their academic performance. A total of 89 semi-structured interviews were held with undergraduate medical students who were identified as having academic problems between 2012 and 2015. According to the results, more blacks, males and first- and second year students experienced poor academic performance. Prominent findings included the harsh realities and implications of lack of accommodation for black students; how poor academic performance can lead to an array of other social and psychological problems, such as withdrawal of bursaries and negative achievement emotions that some students experience. Compared to the usual objective measures of individual ability, the rich qualitative data of cases presented in this study reveal critical, real insights and understanding of students’ challenges from their own perspective.
Mokhtari Nouri, Jamileh; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid
One of the key strategies in students' learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors' experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian's Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions with 20 nursing students based on purposive and theoretical sampling was done for explaining role modeling process from four nursing faculties in Tehran. Through basic coding, an effort to comprehensive growth and excellence was made with the basic social process consisting the core category and through selective coding three phases were identified as: realizing and exposure to inadequate human and professional growth, facilitating human and professional growth and evolution. The role modeling process is taking place unconscious, involuntary, dynamic and with positive progressive process in order to facilitate overall growth in nursing student. Accordingly, the design and implementation of the designed model can be used to make this unconscious to conscious, active and voluntarily processes a process to help education administrators of nursing colleges and supra organization to prevent threats to human and professional in nursing students' education and promote nursing students' growth.
Yolanda Raquel Lapeña-Moñux
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: this paper explores the experiences of registered nurses working with Spanish nursing students within the hospital. Methods: a qualitative phenomenological approach was followed. Purposeful sampling was employed. Twenty-one registered nurses, from a public hospital located in Spain, were included in the study. Data were collected by means of unstructured and semi-structured interviews and were analysed using Giorgi's proposal. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research were followed. Results: three main themes described the experience of registered nurses: "The nurse's relationship with nursing students"; most nurses emphasized the importance of the first contact with students and they considered students' attitude to be key. "Defining the role of the student in clinical practice"; it is necessary to unify the nurse's role and interventions to avoid misleading students and establish priorities in clinical practice. "Building bridges between clinical settings and the University"; the need to establish a common ground and connection between the university and hospital clinical settings was emphasized. Nurses felt that the training program should also be designed by the clinical settings themselves. Conclusions: understanding the meaning of nursing students with registered nurses might gain a deeper insight into their expectations.
Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh
Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.