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Sample records for semi-insulating gaas doped

  1. Influence of substrate on the performances of semi-insulating GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, R; Nava, F; Canali, C; Lanzieri, C

    2000-01-01

    A study of the carrier transport mechanism, the charge collection efficiency and the energy resolution has been carried out on semi-insulating GaAs X-ray detectors realised on substrates with concentrations of acceptor dopants N sub a , varying from 10 sup 1 sup 4 to 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3. The electron collection efficiency (ECE) and the reverse current were found to decrease with increasing N sub a , while the resistivity of the material was found to increase. At room temperature, the best collection efficiency (95%) and the best energy resolution (13.7 keV FWHM) for 59.5 keV X-rays of the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am source, have been achieved with the less doped detectors (N sub a approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3). The concentrations of ionised EL2 sup + , determined by optical measurements in IR regions, was shown to increase with N sub a and to be quasi-inversely proportional to the ECE values. This behaviour strongly supports the hypothesis that the EL2 defects play a main role in the compensation o...

  2. Light controlled prebreakdown characteristics of a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangrong, Ma; Wei, Shi; Weili, Ji; Hong, Xue

    2011-12-01

    A 4 mm gap semi-insulating (SI) GaAs photoconductive switch (PCSS) was triggered by a pulse laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse energy of 0.5 mJ. In the experiment, when the bias field was 4 kV, the switch did not induce self-maintained discharge but worked in nonlinear (lock-on) mode. The phenomenon is analyzed as follows: an exciton effect contributes to photoconduction in the generation and dissociation of excitons. Collision ionization, avalanche multiplication and the exciton effect can supply carrier concentration and energy when an outside light source was removed. Under the combined influence of these factors, the SI-GaAs PCSS develops into self-maintained discharge rather than just in the light-controlled prebreakdown status. The characteristics of the filament affect the degree of damage to the switch.

  3. A comparative study of Mg and Pt contacts on semi-insulating GaAs: electrical and XPS characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubecký, F.; Kindl, Dobroslav; Hubík, Pavel; Mičušík, M.; Dubecký, M.; Boháček, P.; Vanko, G.; Gombia, E.; Nečas, V.; Mudroň, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, Feb (2017), s. 131-135 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : semi-insulating GaAs * metal-semiconductor contact * interface * work function * electron transport * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  4. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  5. Sulfur passivation of semi-insulating GaAs: Transition from Coulomb blockade to weak localization regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: Bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Chaikina, E. I. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Division de Fisica Aplicada (Mexico); Danilovskii, E. Yu.; Gets, D. S.; Klyachkin, L. E.; L’vova, T. V.; Malyarenko, A. M. [Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The sulfur passivation of the semi-insulating GaAs bulk (SI GaAs) grown in an excess phase of arsenic is used to observe the transition from the Coulomb blockade to the weak localization regime at room temperature. The I–V characteristics of the SI GaAs device reveal nonlinear behavior that appears to be evidence of the Coulomb blockade process as well as the Coulomb oscillations. The sulfur passivation of the SI GaAs device surface results in enormous transformation of the I–V characteristics that demonstrate the strong increase of the resistance and Coulomb blockade regime is replaced by the electron tunneling processes. The results obtained are analyzed within frameworks of disordering SI GaAs surface that is caused by inhomogeneous distribution of the donor and acceptor anti-site defects which affects the conditions of quantum- mechanical tunneling. Weak localization processes caused by the preservation of the Fermi level pinning are demonstrated by measuring the negative magnetoresistance in weak magnetic fields at room temperature. Finally, the studies of the magnetoresistance at higher magnetic fields reveal the h/2e Aharonov–Altshuler–Spivak oscillations with the complicated behavior due to possible statistical mismatch of the interference paths in the presence of different microdefects.

  6. Noise behaviour of semi-insulating GaAs particle detectors before and after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Biggeri, U; Lanzieri, C; Leroy, C; Nava, F; Vanni, P

    1999-01-01

    Charge signal and noise were studied in non-irradiated and irradiated Schottky barrier, circular pad detectors of 100 mu m thick made on semi-insulating gallium arsenide at Alenia S.p.A., as a function of the reverse bias (V/sub a/), the shaping time ( tau ) and the fluence (f), for minimum ionising electrons yielded by a /sup 106/Ru source. The detectors have been irradiated with protons (energy 24 GeV) up to a fluence of about 2*10/sup 14/ p/cm/sup 2/. A charge signal degradation is observed for irradiated detectors. The charge signals for MIP's at 500 V are reduced from 12900 electrons before irradiation to 6600 electrons after about 2*10/sup 14/ p/cm/sup 2/ at a temperature of 7 degrees C and with a shaping time of 20 ns, typical of LHC inter-bunch crossing time (25 ns). The charge signal is found independent of tau for full depletion condition (V/sub a/>or =100 V). The measurement of the charge signal as a function of V/sub a/ shows that the full depletion voltage decreases from 100 V for non-irradiated ...

  7. A comparative study of Mg and Pt contacts on semi-insulating GaAs: Electrical and XPS characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubecký, F., E-mail: elekfdub@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava, SK-84104 (Slovakia); Kindl, D.; Hubík, P. [Institute of Physics CAS, v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-16200 Prague (Czech Republic); Mičušík, M. [Polymer Institute, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava, SK-84541 (Slovakia); Dubecký, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 30. dubna 22, CZ-70103 Ostrava 1 (Czech Republic); Boháček, P.; Vanko, G. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava, SK-84104 (Slovakia); Gombia, E. [IMEM-CNR, Parco area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma, I-43010 (Italy); Nečas, V. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, SUT, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava, SK-81219 (Slovakia); Mudroň, J. [Department of Electronics, Academy of Armed Forces, Demänová 393, Liptovský Mikuláš, SK-03106 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Explored were diodes with full-area low/high work function metal contacts on semi-insulating GaAs (S). • The Mg-S-Mg diode is promising for radiation detectors for its low high-field current. • The XPS analysis of Mg-S interface shows presence of MgO instead of Mg metal. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the symmetric metal-SI GaAs-metal (M-S-M) diodes with full-area contacts on both device sides, in order to demonstrate the effect of contact metal work function in a straightforward way. We compare the conventional high work function Pt contact versus the less explored low work function Mg contact. The Pt-S-Pt, Mg-S-Mg and mixed Mg-S-Pt structures are characterized by the current-voltage measurements, and individual Pt-S and Mg-S contacts are investigated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The transport measurements of Mg-S-Pt structure show a significant current decrease at low bias while the Mg-S-Mg structure shows saturation current at high voltages more than an order of magnitude lower with respect to the Pt-S-Pt reference. The phenomena observed in Mg-containing samples are explained by the presence of insulating MgO layer at the M-S interface, instead of the elementary Mg, as confirmed by the XPS analysis. Alternative explanations of the influence of MgO layer on the effective resistance of the structures are presented. The reported findings have potential applications in M-S-M sensors and radiation detectors based on SI GaAs.

  8. Simulating and modeling the breakdown voltage in a semi-insulating GaAs P+N junction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resfa, A.; Menezla, Brahimi. R.; Benchhima, M.

    2014-08-01

    This work aims to determine the characteristic I (breakdown voltage) of the inverse current in a GaAs PN junction diode, subject to a reverse polarization, while specifying the parameters that influence the breakdown voltage of the diode. In this work, we simulated the behavior of the ionization phenomenon by impact breakdown by avalanche of the PN junctions, subject to an inverse polarization. We will take into account both the trapping model in a stationary regime in the P+N structure using like material of basis the III-V compounds and mainly the GaAs semi-insulating in which the deep centers have in important densities. We are talking about the model of trapping in the space charge region (SCR) and that is the trap density donor and acceptor states. The carrier crossing the space charge region (SCR) of W thickness creates N electron—hole pairs: for every created pair, the electron and the hole are swept quickly by the electric field, each in an opposite direction, which comes back, according to an already accepted reasoning, to the crossing of the space charge region (SCR) by an electron or a hole. So the even N pair created by the initial particle provoke N2 ionizations and so forth. The study of the physical and electrical behaviour of semiconductors is based on the influence of the presence of deep centers on the characteristic I(V) current-tension, which requires the calculation of the electrostatic potential, the electric field, the integral of ionization, the density of the states traps, the diffusion current of minority in the regions (1) and (3), the current thermal generation in the region (2), the leakage current in the surface, and the breakdown voltage.

  9. Two-photon photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation from unintentionally doped and semi-insulating GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godiksen, R. H.; Aunsborg, T. S.; Kristensen, P. K.; Pedersen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Unintentionally doped and semi-insulating Fe-doped GaN crystals grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy have been investigated with two-photon photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation spectroscopy to reveal doping effects on the nonlinear optical properties and thus indirectly on crystal properties. Like for linear luminescence, it is found that Fe doping strongly reduces nonlinear luminescence. Recording of second-harmonic generation spectra in transmission probing bulk properties shows no significant difference between doped and un-doped crystals. Reflected second-harmonic generation probing 50-100 nm at the surface, on the other hand, shows significantly lower signal from the doped sample. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy shows that the Fe concentration is higher at the surface than in the bulk of the doped crystal. It is suggested that this causes higher defect density and degraded order in the surface region, thus reducing the second-harmonic signal.

  10. Wafer-scale processing technology for monolithically integrated GaSb thermophotovoltaic device array on semi-insulating GaAs substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Dutta, Partha S.; Brown, Eric; Borrego, Jose M.; Greiff, Paul

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the entire fabrication and processing steps necessary for wafer scale monolithic integration of series interconnected GaSb devices grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. A device array has been fabricated on complete 50 mm (2 inch) diameter wafer using standard photolithography, wet chemical selective etching, dielectric deposition and single-sided metallization. For proof of concept of the wafer-scale feasibility of this process, six large-area series interconnected GaSb p-n junction thermophotovoltaic cells with each cell consisting of 24 small-area devices have been fabricated and characterized for its electrical connectivity. The fabrication process presented in this paper can be used for optoelectronic and electronic device technologies based on GaSb and related antimonide based compound semiconductors.

  11. High energy oxygen irradiation-induced defects in Fe-doped semi-insulating indium phosphide by positron annihilation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S.; Mandal, A.; Sohel, Md. A.; Saha, A. K.; Das, D.; Sen Gupta, A.

    2017-02-01

    Positron annihilation technique is applied to study the recovery of radiation-induced defects in 140 MeV oxygen (O6+) irradiated Fe-doped semi-insulating indium phosphide during annealing over a temperature region of 25∘C-650∘C. Lifetime spectra of the irradiated sample are fitted with three lifetime components. Trapping model analysis is used to characterize defect states corresponding to the de-convoluted lifetime values. After irradiation, the observed average lifetime of positron τavg = 263 ps at room temperature is higher than the bulk lifetime by 21 ps which reveals the presence of radiation-induced defects in the material. A decrease in τavg occurs during room temperature 25∘C to 200∘C indicating the dissociation of higher order defects, might be due to positron trapping in acceptor-type of defects (VIn). A reverse annealing stage is found at temperature range of 250∘C-425∘C for S-parameter probably due to the migration of vacancies and the formation of vacancy clusters. Increase in R-parameter from 325∘C to 425∘C indicates the change in the nature of predominant positron trapping sites. Beyond 425∘C, τavg, S-parameter and R-parameter starts decreasing and around 650∘C, τavg and S-parameter approached almost the bulk value showing the annealing out of radiation-induced defects.

  12. Subsurface Fe-doped semi-insulating GaN templates for inhibition of regrowth interface pollution in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Y.; Azize, M.; Baron, N.; Bougrioua, Z.; Chenot, S.; Tottereau, O.; Massies, J.; Gibart, P.

    2008-03-01

    The regrowth of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures on semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates, after exposure to air, results in the presence of parasitic conducting channels at regrowth interface (RI). Air contamination of the SI GaN templates is responsible for n-type doping and explains this parallel conduction. The parasitic conducting channel results in poor pinch-off characteristics ( Ileakage˜1 mA/mm at bias gate-source voltage above pinch-off voltage) and poor inter-device isolation and makes necessary to equip reactors with acceptor sources to compensate the n-type doping at the RI. To overcome this, we developed a new method of local Fe doping used in GaN templates for inhibiting RI pollution and proved to be efficient. Using this annihilation method permits to reduce by several orders of magnitude buffer leakage current. Such HEMT structures regrown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) or by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) exhibit two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with 300 K mobilities above 2000 cm 2/V s at carrier densities 9-10×10 12 cm -2 with a perfect charge control.

  13. A contribution for the detection of deep defects in semi-insulating GaAs by means of PICTS; Ein Beitrag zum Nachweis tiefer Stoerstellen in halbisolierendem GaAs mittels PICTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychowitz, G.

    2006-02-03

    The PICTS procedure is one of the most frequently applied methods for the characterization of semi-insulating semiconductors. The methodical progresses in the determination of defect parameters by this proceudure are presented in this thesis. as practicable method for the detection of a temperature-dependent change of the occupation ratio of a trap the normation of the PICTS spectra on the emission rate of the electrons is introduced. It is shown that peaks, in which this normation fails, must not applied for the determination of the defect parameters. The studies prove that for the complete charge-alteration of the defects a suitable excitation intensity must be applied. By PICTS measurements on copper-doped samples a systematic dependence of the peak heights of copper-correlated peaks on the copper content of the samples is detected. By the studies it is proved that copper can be detected by means of PICTS up to a minimal AES copper concentration of [Cu{sub min}]approx5.10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}.

  14. Anomalous diffusion of Ga and As from semi-insulating GaAs substrate into MOCVD grown ZnO films as a function of annealing temperature and its effect on charge compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion behavior of arsenic (As and gallium (Ga atoms from semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs into ZnO films upon post-growth annealing vis-à-vis the resulting charge compensation was investigated with the help of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The films, annealed at 600 ºC and 700 ºC showed p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of 1.1 × 1018 cm−3 and 2.8 × 1019 cm−3 respectively, whereas those annealed at 800 ºC showed n-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1016 cm−3. It is observed that at lower temperatures, large fraction of As atoms diffused from the SI-GaAs substrates into ZnO and formed acceptor related complex, (AsZn–2VZn, by substituting Zn atoms (AsZn and thereby creating two zinc vacancies (VZn. Thus as-grown ZnO which was supposed to be n-type due to nonstoichiometric nature showed p-type behavior. On further increasing the annealing temperature to 800 ºC, Ga atoms diffused more than As atoms and substitute Zn atoms thereby forming shallow donor complex, GaZn. Electrons from donor levels then compensate the p-type carriers and the material reverts back to n-type. Thus the conversion of carrier type took place due to charge compensation between the donors and acceptors in ZnO and this compensation is the possible origin of anomalous conduction in wide band gap materials.

  15. Stability and diffusion of interstitital and substitutional Mn in GaAs of different doping types

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Decoster, S; Correia, JG; Amorim, LM; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A

    2012-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn impurities (< 0.05%) in undoped (semi-insulating) and heavily $n$-type doped GaAs, by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn produced at ISOLDE/CERN. In addition to the majority substituting for Ga, we locate up to 30% of the Mn impurites on tetrahedral interstitial sites with As nearest neighbors. In line with the recently reported high thermal stability of interstitial Mn in heavily $p$-type doped GaAs [L. M. C. Pereira et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201905 (2011)], the interstitial fraction is found to be stable up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. By varying the concentration of potentially trapping defects, without a measurable effect on the migration energy of the interstitial impurities, we conclude that the observed high thermal stability is characteristic of isolated interstitial Mn. Being difficult to reconcile with the general belief that interstitial Mn is the donor defect that out-dif...

  16. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  17. Terahertz radiation from delta-doped GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Hansen, Ole; Sørensen, Claus Birger

    1994-01-01

    Terahertz pulse emission from four different delta-doped molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs samples is studied. We observe a decrease of the emitted THz pulse amplitude as the distance of the delta-doped layer from the surface is increased, and a change in polarity of the THz pulses as compared...

  18. Cooperative transition of electronic states of antisite As defects in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambri Mohamed, Mohd; Tien Lam, Pham; Bae, K. W.; Otsuka, N.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic properties resulting from localized spins associated with antisite arsenic ions AsGa+ in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) layers were studied by measuring the magnetization of lift-off samples. With fast cooling, the magnetization of samples at 1.8 K becomes significantly lower than that expected from Curie-type paramagnetism in the range of the applied field to 7 T, and a transition from low magnetization to the magnetization of paramagnetism occurs upon the heating of samples to 4.5 K. With slow cooling, on the other hand, samples have a paramagnetic temperature dependence throughout the measurement-temperature range. The magnetization was found to decrease monotonically when a sample was kept at a fixed low temperature. These observations are explained by the cooperative transition of electron states of AsGa defects, which is closely related to the normal-metastable state transition of EL2 defects in semi-insulating GaAs. The results of the magnetization measurements in the present study suggest that AsGa+ ions are spontaneously displaced at low temperature without photoexcitation in Be-doped LT-GaAs. The similarity of the transition observed in this system to the normal-metastable state transition of the EL2 defect was also suggested by first-principle calculations of the electron state of an AsGa defect with a doped Be atom.

  19. Electrical Properties of Polytypic Mg Doped GaAs Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cifuentes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical transport properties of individual Mg doped GaAs nanowires are investigated. It is shown that Mg can be successfully used as a nontoxic p-type dopant in GaAs nanowires. The doping levels, expanding over two orders of magnitude, and free holes mobility in the NW were obtained by the analysis of field effect transistors transfer curves. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity above room temperature shows that the polytypic structure of the NWs strongly modifies the NWs charge transport parameters, like the resistivity activation energy and holes mobility. At lower temperatures the NWs exhibit variable range hopping conduction. Both Mott and Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping mechanisms were clearly identified in the nanowires.

  20. Poole-Frenkel Effect and Phonon-Assisted Tunneling in GaAs Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Katzenmeyer, Aaron M.; Léonard, François; Talin, A. Alec; Wong, Ping-Show; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    We present electronic transport measurements of GaAs nanowires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Despite the nanowires being doped with a relatively high concentration of substitutional impurities, we find them inordinately resistive. By measuring sufficiently high aspect-ratio nanowires individually in situ, we decouple the role of the contacts and show that this semi-insulating electrical behavior is the result of trap-mediated carrier transport. We observe Poo...

  1. Self-Assembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Walzer, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This letter reports the self-assembly and analysis of CdSe nanocrystal monolayers on both p- and a-doped GaAs substrates. The self-assembly was performed using a 1,6-hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to link CdSe nanocrystals to GaAs substrates. Attenuated total reflection Fourier tran...

  2. Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, Alberto; Heiss, Martin; Colombo, Carlo; Ruelle, Thibaud; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Laboratoire des Materiaux Semiconducteurs, Institut des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Krogstrup, Peter; Roehr, Jason A.; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Sorensen, Claus B.; Nygard, Jesper [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-01-07

    The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also show that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.

  3. Ab initio study of (Fe, Ni) doped GaAs: Magnetic, electronic properties and Faraday rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbai, Y.; Ait Raiss, A.; Bahmad, L.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-06-01

    The interesting diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), was doped with the transition metals magnetic impurities: iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni), in one hand to study the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the material Ga(Fe, Ni) As, in the other hand to investigate the effect of the doping on the properties of this material, the calculations were performed within the spin polarized density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with AKAI KKR-CPA method, the density of states (DOS) for different doping concentrations were calculated, giving the electronical properties, as well as the magnetic state and magnetic states energy, also the effect of these magnetic impurities on the Faraday rotation as magneto-optical property. Furthermore, we found the stable magnetic state for our doped material GaAs.

  4. Andreev reflections at interfaces between delta-doped GaAs and superconducting Al films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1996-01-01

    By placing several Si delta-doped layers close to the surface of a GaAs molecular beam epitaxy-grown crystal, we achieve a compensation of the Schottky barrier and obtain a good Ohmic contact between an in situ deposited (without breaking the vacuum) Al metallization layer and a highly modulation...

  5. Wavelength dependent laser-induced etching of Cr–O doped GaAs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    formation of qualitatively superior nanostructure under sub-bandgap photon illumination. 2. Experimental. Two pieces of samples were prepared from Cr–O doped. GaAs 〈100〉 wafer with a resistivity of 10. 7 ohm-cm in HF solution. Prior to etching the samples were degreased with acetone, propane and methanol. The Cr ...

  6. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Jeppesen, Peter Krogstrup

    2017-01-01

    our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top......GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating...... transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio $\\sim {10...

  7. Very Heavily Doped N-Type GaAs Obtained With Pulsed Laser Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Andrzej; Chin, Tim; Compaan, Alvin; Bhat, Ajit

    1988-08-01

    A study of carrier activation and mobility was performed in pulsed laser annealed samples of GaAs implanted with doses of Si and Se from 2.2x1012 to 6.0x1014 cm-2. The samples were annealed using a pulsed XeCl excimer laser ( λ=308 nm) and a pulsed dye laser ( λ=728 nm) with energy densities from 0.1 to 0.9 J/cm2 and a 10 nsec pulse. Very high carrier concentrations of 3x1019 and 1.5x1019 cm-3 were obtained for best n-type GaAs samples annealed with the dye laser and excimer laser, respectively. Dye laser consistently produced higher activation than excimer laser annealing. A transient reflectivity experiment was performed to identify the GaAs melt threshold and the melt phase dynamics of the GaAs,under the nitride cap. The threshold energies for cap damage were 0.34 and 0.12 J/cm2 for excimer and dye lasers, respectively. High carrier activation, as measured by Van der Pauw method, was achieved even for lightly doped samples although the room temperature Hall mobility was low. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the threshold energies for the GaAs implant layer recrystallization and for optimum carrier activation.

  8. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Topaloglu, S, E-mail: andrey.lysov@uni-due.de [Department of Electronics Engineering, Maltepe University, Marmara Egitim Koeyue, 34857, Maltepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  9. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, A.; Offer, M.; Gutsche, C.; Regolin, I.; Topaloglu, S.; Geller, M.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F.-J.

    2011-02-01

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  10. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Topaloglu, S; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  11. Photovoltaic Properties of p-Doped GaAs Nanowire Arrays Grown on n-Type GaAs(111B Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouravleuv AD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Au-assisted GaAs p-type-doped NW arrays on the n-type GaAs(111B substrate and their photovoltaic properties. The samples are grown at different substrate temperature within the range from 520 to 580 °C. It is shown that the dependence of conversion efficiency on the substrate temperature has a maximum at the substrate temperature of 550 °C. For the best sample, the conversion efficiency of 1.65% and the fill factor of 25% are obtained.

  12. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan; Tackeuchi, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3-3.1 ns at 10-100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10-77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  13. Semi-insulating GaAs-based Schottky contacts in the role of detectors of ionising radiation: An effect of the interface treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanco, J; Darmo, J; Krempasky, M; Besse, I; Senderak, R

    1999-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the substrate material quality plays a key role in the performance of back-to-back detectors of ionising radiation based on semi-insulating (SI) material. The aim of this paper is to evaluate usually overlooked problem, namely the influence of the Schottky contact preparation on detector performance. We report on different approaches to modify and control the quality of the metal/SI GaAs interface via a treatment of the SI-GaAs surface by means of low-temperature hydrogen plasma and wet etching. The measured electrical and detecting properties of such structures display a strong dependence on the history and the way the GaAs surface is treated prior to the metal evaporation. We point out, therefore, that the semiconductor surface treatment before the Schottky metallization plays a role of comparable importance to the influence of the SI-GaAs substrate properties on detector performances. (author)

  14. Reflectance-difference spectroscopy as an optical probe for in situ determination of doping levels in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lara-Velazquez, I.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guel-Sandoval, S.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78000 (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on in situ Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy measurements carried out on GaAs(001). Measurements were performed at temperatures of 580 C and 430 C, in both n and p-type doped films and for both (2 x 4) and c(4 x 4) reconstructions. Samples employed were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy with doping levels in the range from 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. We demonstrate the potential of Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy for impurity level determinations under growth conditions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Effect of thin emitter set-back layer on GaAs delta-doped emitter bipolar junction transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, K. L.; Yoon, S. F.

    2005-05-01

    GaAs delta-doped emitter bipolar junction transistors (δ-BJT) with different emitter set-back layer thicknesses of 10to50nm were fabricated to study the emitter set-back layer thickness effect on device dc performance. We found that the current gain decreases following decrease in the emitter set-back layer thickness. A detailed analysis was performed to explain this phenomenon, which is believed to be caused by reduction of the effective barrier height in the δ-BJT. This is due to change in the electric-field distribution in the delta-doped structure caused by the built-in potential of the base-emitter (B-E ) junction. Considering the recombination and barrier height reduction effects, the thickness of the emitter set-back layer should be designed according to the B-E junction depletion width with a tolerance of ±5nm. The dc performance of a δ-BJT designed based on this criteria is compared to that of a Al0.25Ga0.75As /GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Both devices employed base doping of 2×1019cm-3 and base-to-emitter doping ratio of 40. Large emitter area (AE≈1.6×10-5cm-2) and small emitter area (AE≈1.35×10-6cm-2) device current gains of 40 and 20, respectively, were obtained in both types of transistors passivated by (NH4)2S treatment. The measured current gain of the GaAs δ-BJT is the highest reported for a homojunction device with such high base-to-emitter doping ratio normally used in HBT devices.

  16. Nano-structure fabrication of GaAs using AFM tip-induced local oxidation method: different doping types and plane orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kyoung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we have fabricated nano-scaled oxide structures on GaAs substrates that are doped in different conductivity types of p- and n-types and plane orientations of GaAs(100 and GaAs(711, respectively, using an atomic force microscopy (AFM tip-induced local oxidation method. The AFM-induced GaAs oxide patterns were obtained by varying applied bias from approximately 5 V to approximately 15 V and the tip loading forces from 60 to 180 nN. During the local oxidation, the humidity and the tip scan speed are fixed to approximately 45% and approximately 6.3 μm/s, respectively. The local oxidation rate is further improved in p-type GaAs compared to n-type GaAs substrates whereas the rate is enhanced in GaAs(100 compared to and GaAs(711, respectively, under the identical conditions. In addition, the oxide formation mechanisms in different doping types and plane orientations were investigated and compared with two-dimensional simulation results.

  17. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Tackeuchi, Atsushi, E-mail: atacke@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215028 (China)

    2014-03-17

    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3–3.1 ns at 10–100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10–77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  18. Poole-Frenkel effect and phonon-assisted tunneling in GaAs nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenmeyer, Aaron M; Léonard, François; Talin, A Alec; Wong, Ping-Show; Huffaker, Diana L

    2010-12-08

    We present electronic transport measurements of GaAs nanowires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Despite the nanowires being doped with a relatively high concentration of substitutional impurities, we find them inordinately resistive. By measuring sufficiently high aspect ratio nanowires individually in situ, we decouple the role of the contacts and show that this semi-insulating electrical behavior is the result of trap-mediated carrier transport. We observe Poole-Frenkel transport that crosses over to phonon-assisted tunneling at higher fields, with a tunneling time found to depend predominantly on fundamental physical constants as predicted by theory. By using in situ electron beam irradiation of individual nanowires, we probe the nanowire electronic transport when free carriers are made available, thus revealing the nature of the contacts.

  19. GaAs FET Device Fabrication and Ion Implantation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-25

    NRL has centered on the growth of high purity undoped semi-insulating GaAs by 1 the pyrolytic boron nitride encapsulation technique. NRL ion...and Subtitle) ! 23A’.!WVRD .0 GR a .FEV GOCP.SSPONTNO.. PERFORING A IZ NAM AD1RIE.ATION AND ELEMENTNPROJET, TASImPLA A•ION,,ECHNOLOGY Qc Q epD ]&79

  20. Effect of Si δ-doped layer position on optical absorption in GaAs quantum well under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen; Almansour, Shaffa; Algrafy, Emane

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, the position and the concentration of Si δ-doped layer on the intersubband transitions and absorption lineshape in GaAs quantum well are studied. The electron energy structure and the optical absorption coefficient are calculated by solving Poisson and Schrödinger equations self-consistently. The obtained theoretical results show that the energy differences between the consecutives levels, the confining potential and the optical absorption coefficient depend not only on the hydrostatic pressure but also on the Si δ-doped layer position. Especially, we have found that the optical absorption coefficient can be red or blue shifted by moving the Si δ-doped layer from the middle of the quantum well to the interface with the quantum barrier. This behavior in optical absorption gives us a new degree of freedom in different device applications based on electronic transitions.

  1. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on two-dimensional delocalized electronic states of the epitaxial N δ-doped layer in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Harada, Yukihiro; Baba, Takeshi; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-03-14

    We have conducted rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for improving the two-dimensional (2D) arrangement of electronic states in the epitaxial nitrogen (N) δ-doped layer in GaAs. RTA rearranged the N-pair configurations in the GaAs (001) plane and reduced the number of non-radiative recombination centers. Furthermore, a Landau shift, representing the 2D delocalized electronic states in the (001) plane, was observed at around zero magnetic field intensity in the Faraday configuration.

  2. Emission-wavelength tuning of InAs quantum dots grown on nitrogen-δ-doped GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaizu, Toshiyuki, E-mail: kaizu@crystal.kobe-u.ac.jp [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Taguchi, Kohei; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    We studied the structural and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on nitrogen (N) δ-doped GaAs(001). The emission wavelength for low-density N-δ doping exhibited a blueshift with respect to that for undoped GaAs and was redshifted with increasing N-sheet density. This behavior corresponded to the variation in the In composition of the QDs. N-δ doping has two opposite and competing effects on the incorporation of Ga atoms from the underlying layer into the QDs during the QD growth. One is the enhancement of Ga incorporation induced by the lattice strain, which is due to the smaller radius of N atoms. The other is an effect blocking for Ga incorporation, which is due to the large bonding energy of Ga-N or In-N. At a low N-sheet density, the lattice-strain effect was dominant, while the blocking effect became larger with increasing N-sheet density. Therefore, the incorporation of Ga from the underlying layer depended on the N-sheet density. Since the In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the GaAs cap layer during capping also depended on the size of the as-grown QDs, which was affected by the N-sheet density, the superposition of these three factors determined the composition of the QDs. In addition, the piezoelectric effect, which was induced with increased accumulation of lattice strain and the associated high In composition, also affected the PL properties of the QDs. As a result, tuning of the emission wavelength from 1.12 to 1.26 μm was achieved at room temperature.

  3. Electron-spin dynamics in Mn-doped GaAs using time-resolved magneto-optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, I. A.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Zhukov, E. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2009-08-01

    We study the electron-spin dynamics in p -type GaAs doped with magnetic Mn acceptors by means of time-resolved pump-probe and photoluminescence techniques. Measurements in transverse magnetic fields show a long spin-relaxation time of 20 ns that can be uniquely related to electrons. Application of weak longitudinal magnetic fields above 100 mT extends the spin-relaxation times up to microseconds which is explained by suppression of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus spin relaxation for the electron on the Mn acceptor.

  4. Optical power-driven electron spin relaxation regime crossover in Mn-doped bulk GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzhuber, F.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Astakhov, G. V.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate tunability of the electron spin lifetime in Mn-doped GaAs by purely optical means. The observed behavior stems from a crossover of the electron spin relaxation rate with increasing excitation density, first decreasing due to the exchange interaction of Mn bound holes with Mn ions, and then increasing again as the valence band is populated and Bir-Aranov-Pikus relaxation sets in. On this account, we explain the complex spatial spin polarization profiles emerging from inhomogeneous optical excitation, which are the result of the combined action of this nonmonotonic spin relaxation characteristics and the intricate photocarrier decay dynamics.

  5. The effect of doping on low temperature growth of high quality GaAs nanowires on polycrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarld, Matt; Teran, Alan; Luengo-Kovac, Marta; Yan, Lifan; Moon, Eun Seong; Beck, Sara; Guillen, Cristina; Sih, Vanessa; Phillips, Jamie; Mirecki Milunchick, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The increasing demand for miniature autonomous sensors requires low cost integration methods, but to date, material limitations have prevented the direct growth of optically active III-V materials on CMOS devices. We report on the deposition of GaAs nanowires on polycrystalline conductive films to allow for direct integration of optoelectronic devices on dissimilar materials. Undoped, Si-doped, and Be-doped nanowires were grown at Ts = 400 °C on oxide (indium tin oxide) and metallic (platinum and titanium) films. Be-doping is shown to significantly reduce the nanowire diameter and improve the nanowire aspect ratio to 50:1. Photoluminescence measurements of Be-doped nanowires are 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than undoped and Si-doped nanowires and have a thermal activation energy of 14 meV, which is comparable to nanowires grown on crystalline substrates. Electrical measurements confirm that the metal-semiconductor junction is Ohmic. These results demonstrate the feasibility of integrating nanowire-based optoelectronic devices directly on CMOS chips.

  6. Three-fold Symmetric Doping Mechanism in GaAs Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, M.H.T.; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; Leshchenko, E.D.

    2017-01-01

    A new dopant incorporation mechanism in Ga-assisted GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Off-axis electron holography revealed that p-type Be dopants introduced in situ during molecular beam epitaxy growth of the nanowires were distributed inhomogeneously in the nanowire...... to explain the unique radial and azimuthal variation of the active dopants in the GaAs nanowires....

  7. Electrical properties of C{sub 60} delta-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishinaga, Jiro [School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); PRSTO, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Hayashi, Takashi; Hishida, Kiyoshi; Horikoshi, Yoshiji [School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    C{sub 60} {delta}-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers are grown by migration enhanced epitaxy method. Sticking coefficients of C{sub 60} on GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces and electrical characteristics of the layers are investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) measurements. SIMS profiles indicate that the layers have well-defined {delta}-doped structures, and the sticking coefficients of C{sub 60} on GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces are confirmed to be sufficiently high. ECV profiles of C{sub 60} {delta}-doped GaAs and AlGaAs layers suggest that C{sub 60} molecules in GaAs and AlGaAs lattices produce electron traps which can be charged or discharged by applied electric fields. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Calculation of transport parameters of gamma-radiation detectors based on semi-insulating semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharchenko A. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of fast determination of the high resistivity detector charge collection parameters with the use of the detector dosimetric characteristics and by means of mathematical simulation is proposed. A problem of calculation of charge collection parameters is investigated for planar gamma-radiation dosimetric detectors made from semi-insulating compound semiconductor CdTe (CdZnTe. An applicability of the considered method is verified by computer simulation for HgI2 gamma-radiation detectors. The considered method can be used in the development of both dosimetry and spectrometry devices for radiation monitoring and for monitoring of characteristic devices operating in hard radiation fields. KEY WORDS: mobility, life time, semiconductor detectors, semi-insulating semiconductors, CdTe, CdZnTe, HgI2, Monte-Carlo method.

  9. First Principles Electronic Structure of Mn doped GaAs, GaP, and GaN Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Thomas C [ORNL; Temmerman, Walter M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Szotek, Zdzislawa [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Svane, Axel [University of Aarhus, Denmark; Petit, Leon [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations of Mn doped III-V semiconductors based on the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) as well as the self-interaction corrected local spin density method (SIC-LSD). We find that it is crucial to use a self-interaction free approach to properly describe the electronic ground state. The SIC-LSD calculations predict the proper electronic ground state configuration for Mn in GaAs, GaP, and GaN. Excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is found for magnetic moment and p-d exchange in (GaMn)As. These results allow us to validate commonly used models for magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate problem of extracting binding energies of localized levels from density functional theory calculations. We propose three approaches to take into account final state effects to estimate the binding energies of the Mn-d levels in GaAs. We find good agreement between computed values and estimates from photoemisison experiments.

  10. First-principles electronic structure of Mn-doped GaAs, GaP, and GaN semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, T C [Computer Science and Mathematics Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States); Temmerman, W M [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Szotek, Z [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Svane, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Petit, L [Computer Science and Mathematics Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States)

    2007-04-23

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations of Mn-doped III-V semiconductors based on the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) as well as the self-interaction corrected local spin-density method (SIC-LSD). We find that it is crucial to use a self-interaction free approach to properly describe the electronic ground state. The SIC-LSD calculations predict the proper electronic ground state configuration for Mn in GaAs, GaP, and GaN. Excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is found for the magnetic moment and p-d exchange in (GaMn)As. These results allow us to validate commonly used models for magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate problem of extracting binding energies of localized levels from density functional theory calculations. We propose three approaches to take into account final state effects to estimate the binding energies of the Mn d levels in GaAs. We find good agreement between computed values and estimates from photoemission experiments.

  11. High resistivity In-doped ZnTe: electrical and optical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Semi-insulating ZnTe prepared by In doping during Bridgman growth was found to have a resistivity of 5⋅74 × 107 ohm-cm, ... Thermally stimulated current (TSC) studies revealed 2 trap levels at depths of 202–222 meV and ... Possible models for semi-insulating behaviour and meta-stability are proposed. Keywords.

  12. Selfsimilar and fractal analysis of n-type delta-doped quasiregular GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    We study the electronic structure of n-type delta-doped quantum wells in GaAs in which the multiple well system is built according to the Fibonacci sequence. The building blocks A and B correspond to delta-doped wells with impurities densities n{sub 2DA} and n{sub 2DB}, and the same well width. The Thomas-Fermi approximation, the semi-empirical sp{sub 3}s* tight-binding model including spin, the Surface Green Function Matching method and the Transfer Matrix approach were implemented to obtain the confining potential, the electronic structure and the selfsimilarity of the spectrum. The fragmentation of the electronic spectra is observed whenever the building blocks A and B interact and it increases as the difference of impurities density between A and B increases as well. The wave function of the first sate of the fragmented bands presents critical characteristics, this is, it is not a localized state nor a extended one as well as it has selfsimilar features. So, the quasiregular characteristics are preserved irrespective of the complexity of the system and can affect the performance of devices based on these structures.

  13. Young’s modulus and creep compliance of GaAs and Ga1-xMnxAs ferromagnetic thin films under thermal stress at varied manganese doping levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kemei S.K.; Kirui M.S.K.; Ndiritu F.G.; Ngumbu R.G.; Odhiambo P.M.; Leite D.M.G.; Pereira A.L.J.; Da Silva J.H. Dias

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical mechanical analysis yields information about the mechanical properties of a material as a function of deforming factors, such as temperature, oscillating stress and strain amplitudes. GaAs and Mn-doped GaAs at varied levels, used in making electronic devices, suffer from damage due to changes in environmental temperatures. This is a defective factor experienced during winter and summer seasons. Hence, there was a need to establish the best amount of manganese to be doped in GaAs so ...

  14. Electronic structure of atomic-plane doped superlattice in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, A.; de la Cruz Estenoz, D.

    A special atomic-plane doped superlattice is proposed and studied, where both donors and acceptors are incorporated during MBE growth simultaneously into sheets spaced equidistantly by intrinsic regions of the growing semiconductor material. The donor-acceptor Pair (DAP)-distribution function displays characteristics features of the proposed pair-doped delta-superlattice (PD-δiδi-SL) which allow for their experimental verification by luminescence measurements. With excess doping of one type a narrow V-shaped potential is formed about the atomic planes generating a multiquantum-well structure. In the present paper the size quantization in V-shaped potential wells is studied, and exact analytic expressions for wavefunctions and energy levels are given as function of determining measures of potential well and superlattices. The sawtooth doping superlattice is a special case in our calculus.

  15. Thermal annealing behavior of deep levels in Rh-doped n-type MOVPE GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naz, Nazir A., E-mail: nazir_phys@yahoo.co [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, G-7/1, Islamabad (Pakistan); Qurashi, Umar S.; Zafar Iqbal, M. [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-12-15

    We report the results of isochronal annealing study of deep levels in Rh-doped n-type GaAs grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique has been employed to study the effects of annealing on deep levels in Rh-doped p{sup +}nn{sup +} junction samples. A majority-carrier emitting band of deep levels along with a high temperature peak (RhE1), corresponding to deep level energy position E{sub c}-0.92 eV and a minority-carrier emitting band of deep levels are identified with Rh-impurity prior to thermal annealing of our samples. In addition to these Rh-related deep levels, the well-known native defect EL2 at E{sub c}-0.79 eV is observed in majority-carrier emission spectra and two inadvertent deep-level defects, H1 at E{sub v}+0.09 eV and H3 at E{sub v}+0.93 eV, usually observed in reference (without Rh) samples, are also detected in the minority-carrier emission spectra of Rh-doped samples. At least one level is found to be introduced at E{sub c}-0.13 eV in Rh-doped samples at about the same temperature position as the level E(A)1, observed in reference samples, as a result of isochronal annealing, while the other two levels observed in reference samples could not be seen in annealed Rh-doped samples. Data on the annealing behavior and other characteristics of both Rh-related bands of deep levels observed in majority- and minority-carrier emission DLTS spectra, as well as for the high temperature Rh-related electron-emission peak, are presented. Possible interpretations of these results for the nature and structure of the different deep-level defects are discussed.

  16. On the infrared absorption coefficient measurement of thick heavily Zn doped GaAs using spectrally resolved modulated photothermal infrared radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, M.; Pal, S.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the infrared absorption coefficient in the mid-infrared range of a heavily Zn-doped GaAs wafer using spectrally resolved modulated photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR). The method allows us to measure the infrared absorption coefficient of (i) much thicker samples as compared to the one used in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in transmission configuration and (ii) with non-mirror-like surfaces as would be required for measurements in the reflection configuration. From the best fits of the theoretical model to the PTR results, the values of the infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of GaAs wafer are obtained. These values of infrared absorption coefficients are compared both with the literature values on very thin, similarly doped GaAs:Be sample and with infrared absorption coefficients calculated from FTIR specular reflectance measurements on the same sample. FTIR reflectance measurements demand additional assumptions for the evaluation of absorption coefficient and mirror-like surfaces. The results obtained from both experimental methods yield the same order of the infrared absorption coefficients. It is observed that the infrared absorption coefficient decreases with increasing wavelength because of inter-valence band transitions. However, only the infrared spectrum estimated using PTR exhibits free carrier absorption effect at a shorter wavelength as observed in previous works on very thin Be-doped GaAs samples. It is worth mentioning that the presented method is not limited to semiconductors, but can be used for other highly infrared absorbing samples. In addition, the spectrally resolved PTR measurements simultaneously provide the same values of thermal diffusivity of the GaAs wafer within estimation uncertainties thus demonstrating the reliability of the PTR method in the measurement of thermal diffusivity of such samples.

  17. Deep traps and temperature effects on the capacitance of p-type Si-doped GaAs Schottky diodes on (2 1 1) and (3 1 1) oriented GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaraf, R.; Sengouga, N.; Mari, R. H.; Meftah, Af.; Aziz, M.; Jameel, Dler; Al Saqri, Noor; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SILVACO-TCAD numerical simulator is used to explain the effect of different types of deep levels on the temperature dependence of the capacitance of p-type Si-doped GaAs Schottky diodes grown on high index GaAs substrates, namely (3 1 1)A and (2 1 1)A oriented GaAs substrates. For the (3 1 1)A diodes, the measured capacitance-temperature characteristics at different reverse biases show a large peak while the (2 1 1)A devices display a much smaller one. This peak is related to the presence of different types of deep levels in the two structures. These deep levels are characterized by the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. In the (3 1 1)A structure only majority deep levels (hole deep levels) were observed while both majority and minority deep levels were present in the (2 1 1)A diodes. The simulation software, which calculates the capacitance-voltage and the capacitance-temperature characteristics in the absence and presence of different types of deep levels, agrees well with the experimentally observed behavior of the capacitance-temperature properties. A further evidence to confirm that deep levels are responsible for the observed phenomenon is provided by a simulation of the capacitance-temperature characteristics as a function of the ac-signal frequency.

  18. Ga self-diffusion in isotopically enriched GaAs heterostructures doped with Si and Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norseng, Marshall Stephen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study attempts to advance the modeling of AlGaAs/GaAs/AlAs diffusion by experimental investigation of Ga self-diffusion in undoped, as-grown doped and Zinc diffused structures. We utilize novel, isotopically enriched superlattice and heterostructure samples to provide direct observation and accurate measurement of diffusion with a precision not possible using conventional techniques.

  19. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi- insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction dep...

  20. Performance characteristics of semi-insulator-and dielectric- passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in present and future high-energy physics experiments, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is a driving force for the development of high-voltage Si strip detectors. It is well known that mobile surface ions can affect the stability and long-term behaviour of Si detectors. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric- passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. Influence of the salient design parameters such as field oxide thickness, junction depth, metal-overhang width, and the surface charge on the breakdown performance of these structures are systematically analyzed, thus providing a comprehensive picture of the behaviour of metal-ove...

  1. Laser Annealing of GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    100> direction of several semi-insulating GaAs samples. A 300 keV Kr+ implantation to a dose of 1015/cm2 is found to produce an amor- phous layer about...International Scince center SC5163 .6QTR 0 4-J z~ 43O fG== .- I.4.0 4- 00. 0 0<~4 4oo 4- = M 0 I44z . AW 0- -4 LQ 0 .4 o 4 vZ4 04 -n I-> . *C- -0 > - 0 r

  2. Compensation mechanism in liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs Importance of melt stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. E.; Chen, R. T.; Elliott, K. R.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.; Yu, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the key to reproducible growth of undoped semi-insulating GaAs by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) technique is the control over the melt stoichiometry. Twelve crystals were grown from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts. The material was characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, localized vibrational mode far infrared spectroscopy, Hall-effect measurements, optical absorption, and photoluminescence. A quantitative model for the compensation mechanism in the semi-insulating material was developed based on these measurements. The free carrier concentration is controlled by the balance between EL2 deep donors and carbon acceptors; furthermore, the incorporation of EL2 is controlled by the melt stoichiometry, increasing as the As atom fraction in the melt increases. As a result, semi-insulating material can be grown only from melts above a critical As composition. The practical significance of these results is discussed in terms of achieving high yield and reproducibility in the crystal growth process.

  3. Germanium diffusion with vapor-phase GeAs and oxygen co-incorporation in GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Fu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-phase germanium diffusion has been demonstrated in Zn-doped and semi-insulating GaAs in sealed ampoules with GeAs powders and excess arsenic. Secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy (SIMS profiles indicate the presence of unintentional co-incorporation of oxygen in high densities (>1017/cm3 along with diffused germanium donors whose concentration (>>1018/cm3 determined by electro-chemical capacitance-voltage (ECV profiler shows significant compensation near the surface. The source of oxygen mainly originates from the GeAs powder which contains Ge-O surface oxides. Variable-temperature photoluminescence (PL shows that in GeAs-diffused samples, a broad peak ranging from 0.86-1.38 eV with the peak position around 1.1 eV predominates at low temperatures while the near band-edge luminescence quenches. The broad band is attributed to the GeGa-VGa self-activated (SA centers possibly associated with nearby oxygen-related defect complex, and its luminescence persists up to 400 K. The configurational-coordinate modeling finds that the SA defect complex has a thermal activation energy of 150-180 meV and a vibrational energy 26.8 meV. The presence of oxygen does not much affect the SA emission intensity but may have influenced the peak position, vibration frequency and activation energy as compared to other common donor-VGa defects in GaAs.

  4. Modification of the high-doped GaAs surface region by its exposure to 150 keV proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincik, E.; Jergel, M.; Kucera, M.; Brunel, M.; Cicmanec, P.; Smatko, V

    1999-01-03

    The interaction of 150 keV protons with a high-doped n-GaAs crystal has been investigated by X-ray diffraction at grazing incidence (XRDGI), photoreflectance (PR), photoluminescence (PL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The measurements confirmed that simultaneous with almost full loss of the semiconducting properties of the surface crystal region after applying the 10{sup 15} proton/cm{sup 2} dose, (1 1 1) oriented extended type of crystalline defect was formed. These defects have been identified as the (1 1 1) planes rotated by {approx}40 deg. with respect to the (1 1 1) planes of the undisturbed GaAs cubic structure. They are located at the hydrogenated GaAs layer/GaAs interface and induced by two effects: formation of microcracks prolonged throughout the implanted layer in 111 direction up to undisturbed GaAs crystal and strain arising at the corresponding interface. The role of the surface microcracks formed in the uppermost part of the reference sample as a consequence of unsuitable mechano-chemical polishing procedures in the evolution of the effect observed is also discussed.

  5. Characterization of epitaxial GaAs MOS capacitors using atomic layer-deposited TiO2/Al2O3 gate stack: study of Ge auto-doping and p-type Zn doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Shun Wong, Terence Kin; Li, Yang; Chia, Ching Kean; Das, Anindita; Mahata, Chandreswar; Gao, Han; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan; Kumar, Manippady Krishna; Seng, Hwee Leng; Maiti, Chinmay Kumar; Chi, Dong Zhi

    2012-02-02

    Electrical and physical properties of a metal-oxide-semiconductor [MOS] structure using atomic layer-deposited high-k dielectrics (TiO2/Al2O3) and epitaxial GaAs [epi-GaAs] grown on Ge(100) substrates have been investigated. The epi-GaAs, either undoped or Zn-doped, was grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method at 620°C to 650°C. The diffusion of Ge atoms into epi-GaAs resulted in auto-doping, and therefore, an n-MOS behavior was observed for undoped and Zn-doped epi-GaAs with the doping concentration up to approximately 1017 cm-3. This is attributed to the diffusion of a significant amount of Ge atoms from the Ge substrate as confirmed by the simulation using SILVACO software and also from the secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses. The Zn-doped epi-GaAs with a doping concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3 converts the epi-GaAs layer into p-type since the Zn doping is relatively higher than the out-diffused Ge concentration. The capacitance-voltage characteristics show similar frequency dispersion and leakage current for n-type and p-type epi-GaAs layers with very low hysteresis voltage (approximately 10 mV).PACS: 81.15.Gh.

  6. Fabrication of Ohmic contact on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate by laser thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yue; Lu, Wu-yue; Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhi-zhan, E-mail: zzchen@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The Ni contact layer was deposited on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate by magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited samples were treated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and KrF excimer laser thermal annealing (LTA), respectively. The RTA annealed sample is rectifying while the LTA sample is Ohmic. The specific contact resistance (ρ{sub c}) is 1.97 × 10{sup −3} Ω·cm{sup 2}, which was determined by the circular transmission line model. High resolution transmission electron microscopy morphologies and selected area electron diffraction patterns demonstrate that the 3C-SiC transition zone is formed in the near-interface region of the SiC after the as-deposited sample is treated by LTA, which is responsible for the Ohmic contact formation in the semi-insulating 4H-SiC.

  7. Cathodoluminescence of Yellow and Blue Luminescence in Undoped Semi-insulating GaN and n-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qi-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Xiao, Hong-Ling; Wang, Cui-Mei; Yang, Cui-Bai; Yin, Hai-Bo; Li, Jin-Min; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-03-01

    Yellow and blue luminescence in undoped GaN layers with different resistivities are studied by cathodoluminescence. Intense yellow and blue luminescence bands are observed in semi-insulating GaN, while in n-GaN the yellow luminescence and blue luminescence bands are very weak. The stronger yellow and blue luminescences in semi-insulating GaN are correlated to the higher edge-type dislocation density. The scanning cathodoluminescence image reveals strong defect-related luminescence at the grain boundaries where the dislocations accumulate. It is found that the relative intensity of the blue luminescence band to the yellow luminescence band increases with the cathodoluminescence beam energies and is larger in n-GaN with a lower density of edge-type dislocations. An approximately 3.35 eV shoulder next to the near-band-edge peak is observed in n-GaN but not in semi-insulating GaN. A redshift of the near-band-edge peak with cathodoluminescence beam energy is observed in both samples and is explained by internal absorption.

  8. Inhibition of interface pollution in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures regrown on semi-insulating GaN templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, M.; Bougrioua, Z.; Gibart, P.

    2007-02-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) structures regrown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates, after exposure to air, results in the presence of parasitic conducting channels at regrowth interface. Air contamination of the SI GaN templates generates this parallel conduction. The parasitic conducting channel involves poor pinch-off characteristics ( Ileakage˜0.1 mA at bias gate-source voltage above pinch off voltage) and poor inter-device isolation ( Ileakage˜0.001-0.1 mA). To overcome this, we developed a method of local Fe doping used in GaN templates for inhibiting regrowth interface pollution and proved to be efficient. Using this annihilation method permits to reduce 4-5 orders of magnitude buffer leakage current ( Ileakage˜ nA). Such HEMTs structures, with perfect charge control, have exhibited two-dimensional electron gas (2DEGs) with 300 K mobilities above 2000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at carrier densities 9×10 12 cm -2.

  9. Diodes based on semi-insulating CdTe crystals with Mo/MoO{sub x} contacts for X- and γ-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslyanchuk, O.; Kulchynsky, V.; Solovan, M. [Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Gnatyuk, V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Potiriadis, C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Attiki (Greece); Kaissas, I. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Attiki (Greece); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Brus, V. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    This paper reports on the possible applications of molybdenum oxide (Mo/MoO{sub x}) contacts in combination with semi-insulating CdTe crystals. The electrical contacts to p-type Cl-doped CdTe crystals were formed by the deposition of molybdenum oxide and pure molybdenum thin films by the DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Electrical properties of the prepared Mo-MoO{sub x}/p-CdTe/MoO{sub x}-Mo surface-barrier structures were investigated at different temperatures. It is shown that the rapid growth of the reverse current with increasing bias voltage higher than 10 V is caused by the space-charge limited currents. Spectrometric properties of the Mo-MoO{sub x}/p-CdTe/MoO{sub x}-Mo structures have been also analyzed. It is revealed that the developed heterojunction has shown promising characteristics for its practical application in X- and γ-ray radiation detector fabrication. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Effects of Si doping on the strain relaxation of metamorphic (Al)GaInP buffers grown on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.L. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123, People’ s Republic of China (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, J.R., E-mail: jrdong2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123, People’ s Republic of China (China); Sun, Y.R.; Zeng, X.L. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123, People’ s Republic of China (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Y.M.; Yu, S.Z.; Zhao, C.Y.; Yang, H. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123, People’ s Republic of China (China)

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of Si doping on the strain relaxation of the compositionally step-graded (Al)GaInP buffers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on (0 0 1) GaAs substrates with different miscuts toward (1 1 1)A. It is found that in the 2° samples, high Si doping can reduce both the α and β dislocation densities by delaying and suppressing the formation of phase separation in the buffer. In contrast, in the 7° samples, Si dopants deteriorate the buffer quality through increasing the dislocation density accompanying with the tilt reduction along the [1 1 0] direction, and a striking feature, bunches of β dislocations away from the interfaces, is observed in the [1 1 0] cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images. A cross-slip mechanism closely associated with the pinning effect of Si on α dislocation motion is proposed to explain the multiplication of β dislocations. These results indicate that selecting a moderate Si doping density and substrate miscut are critical for the design and fabrication of metamorphic optoelectronic devices.

  11. A new technique to study transient conductivity under pulsed monochromatic light in Cr-doped GaAs using acoustoelectric voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1991-01-01

    The transient conductivity of high-resistivity Bridgman-grown Cr-doped GaAs under pulsed monochromatic light is monitored using transverse acoustoelectric voltage (TAV) at 83 K. Keeping the photon flux constant, the height and transient time constant at the TAV are used to calculate the energy dependence of the trap density and its cross section, respectively. Two prominent trap profiles with peak trap densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm eV near the valence and the conduction bands are detected. These traps have very small capture cross sections in the range of 10 to the -23 to 10 to the -21st cm sq. A phenomenon similar to the persistent photoconductivity with transient time constants in excess of a few seconds in high-resistivity GaAs at T = 83 K is also detected using this technique. These long relaxation times are readily explained by the spatial separation of the photo-excited electron-hole pairs and the small capture cross section and large density of trap distribution near the conduction band.

  12. Origin of cooperative transition of antisite-Arsenic defects in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohd Ambri; Lam, Pham Tien; Otsuka, N.

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the origin of the cooperative transition of AsGa atoms in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers by magnetization measurements and first principle calculations. For first principle calculations, a large supercell was used to reproduce the average distance of AsGa atoms and Be atoms in experimental samples. With one AsGa atom and Be atom in each supercell and the periodic boundary condition, the calculated total energy of the AsGa at the substitutional site is lower than that at the interstitial site by 0.87 eV. The magnetization measurements have shown that the transition occurs in a sample with a GaAs substrate similar to that in lift-off samples, indicating that a uniform strain induced by the substrate does not affect the occurrence of the transition. These results suggest that the complex strain field induced by the coexistence of AsGa defects at substitution and interstitial site plays a major role in the cooperative transition.

  13. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Correia, JG; Decoster, S; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga$_{1−x}$Mn$_{x}$As.

  14. Study of the conduction-type conversion in Si-doped (631)A GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Hernandez, E.; Vazquez-Cortes, D.; Mendez-Garcia, V.H. [Coordinacion para la Innovacion y Aplicacion de la Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Sierra Leona 550, Col. Lomas 2a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78210 (Mexico); Shimomura, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bukyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Lopez-Lopez, M. [Physics Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico DF 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    We report the Si-doping of GaAs (631)A layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy under different As overpressure. From Hall effect measurements, we have found that the increase of the As pressure induces conduction conversion from p- to n-type, which is presumably related to lattice site switching of Si occupying an As site (where Si is acceptor) to a Ga site (where Si acts as a donor). This conversion is also studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The sharp conductivity conversion, at a critical As pressure value of 1.4-1.7 x 10{sup -5} mbar is reflected in the optical properties of the samples by a change of As vacancy defects into pairs of Ga vacancy and Ga antisite defects. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. High-speed photodiffractive effect in semi-insulating CdZnTe/ZnTe multiple quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi, A; Glass, A M; Olson, D H; Zydzik, G J; Short, K T; Feldman, R D; Austin, R F

    1992-05-01

    Single-pulse and cw measurements of the response of a semi-insulating CdZnTe/ZnTe multiple-quantum-well photorefractive device are presented. In single-pulse experiments, photodiffractive (absorption) gratings have been written with less than 1.8-microJ/cm(2) incident fluence, and a diffraction efficiency of 1.1% is obtained from the 1.56-microm active layer of the device. With an optimized structure, the ultimate response time of the device can be below 100 ps. In cw measurements a maximum diffraction efficiency of 1.35% is obtained.

  16. Effect of Si doping on cubic GaN films grown on GaAs(1 0 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dapeng; Yang, Hui; Li, J. B.; Li, S. F.; Wang, Y. T.; Zhao, D. G.; Wu, R. H.

    1999-10-01

    Epitaxial layers of cubic GaN have been grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with Si-doping carrier concentration ranging from 3×10 18 to 2.4×10 20/cm 3. Si-doping decreased the yellow emission of GaN. However, the heavily doped n-type material has been found to induce phase transformation. As the Si-doping concentration increases, the hexagonal GaN nanoparticles increase. Judged from the linewidth of X-ray rocking curve, Si-doping increases the density of dislocations and stacking faults. Based on these observations, a model is proposed to interpret the phase transformation induced by the generated microdefects, such as dislocations and precipitates, and induced stacking faults under heavy Si-doping.

  17. Polytype Stabilization of High-purity Semi-insulating 4H-SiC Crystal via the PVT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-li MAO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the conditions under which semi-insulating 4H-SiC crystals can grow are so specific, other polytypes such as 15R and 6H can easily emerge during the growth process. In this work, a polytype stabilization technology was developed by altering the following parameters: growth temperature, temperature field distribution, and C/Si ratio. In the growth process of high-purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC crystals, the generation of undesirable polytypes was prevented, and a crystal 100 % 4H-SiC polytype was obtained. A high C/Si ratio in powder source was shown to be advantageous for the stabilization of the 4H polytype. Several methods were applied to evaluate the quality of crystals precisely; these methods include Raman mapping, X-ray diffraction, and resistivity mapping. Results showed that the 3inch-wafer was entirely made of 4H polytype, the mean value of FWHM was approximately 40 arcsec, and the distribution of the resistivity value was between 106 Ω×cm and 107 Ω×cm.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12914

  18. Effect of the magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in double δ-doped GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rojas-Briseño, J. G.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we are reporting the computation for the Nonlinear Optical Rectification (NOR) and the Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG and THG) related with electronic states of asymmetric double Si-δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs matrix when this is subjected to an in-plane (x-oriented) constant magnetic field effect. The work is performed in the effective mass and parabolic band approximations in order to compute the electronic structure for the system by a diagonalization procedure. The expressions for the nonlinear optical susceptibilities, χ0(2), χ2ω(2), and χ3ω(3), are those arising from the compact matrix density formulation and stand for the NOR, SHG, and THG, respectively. This asymmetric double δ-doped quantum well potential profile actually exhibits nonzero NOR, SHG, and THG responses which can be easily controlled by the in-plane (x-direction) externally applied magnetic field. In particular we find that for the chosen configuration the harmonic generation is in the far-infrared/THz region, thus and becoming suitable building blocks for photodetectors in this range of the electromagnetic spectra.

  19. Structural properties of pressure-induced structural phase transition of Si-doped GaAs by angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kung-Liang; Lin, Chih-Ming; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Liao, Yen-Fa; Chuang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2016-02-01

    Pressure-induced phase transitions in n-type silicon-doped gallium arsenide (GaAs:Si ) at ambient temperature were investigated by using angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) under high pressure up to around 18.6 (1) GPa, with a 4:1 (in volume ratio) methanol-ethanol mixture as the pressure-transmitting medium. In situ ADXRD measurements revealed that n-type GaAs:Si starts to transform from zinc- blende structure to an orthorhombic structure [GaAs-II phase], space group Pmm2, at 16.4 (1) GPa. In contrast to previous studies of pure GaAs under pressure, our results show no evidence of structural transition to Fmmm or Cmcm phase. The fitting of volume compression data to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yielded that the zero-pressure isothermal bulk moduli and the first-pressure derivatives were 75 (3) GPa and 6.4 (9) for the B3 phase, respectively. After decompressing to the ambient pressure, the GaAs:Si appears to revert to the B3 phase completely. By fitting to the empirical relations, the Knoop microhardness numbers are between H PK = 6.21 and H A = 5.85, respectively, which are substantially smaller than the values of 7-7.5 for pure GaAs reported previously. A discontinuous drop in the pressure-dependent lattice parameter, N- N distances, and V/ V 0 was observed at a pressure of 11.5 (1) GPa, which was tentatively attributed to the pressure-induced dislocation activities in the crystal grown by vertical gradient freeze method.

  20. Young’s modulus and creep compliance of GaAs and Ga1-xMnxAs ferromagnetic thin films under thermal stress at varied manganese doping levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemei S.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical mechanical analysis yields information about the mechanical properties of a material as a function of deforming factors, such as temperature, oscillating stress and strain amplitudes. GaAs and Mn-doped GaAs at varied levels, used in making electronic devices, suffer from damage due to changes in environmental temperatures. This is a defective factor experienced during winter and summer seasons. Hence, there was a need to establish the best amount of manganese to be doped in GaAs so as to obtain a mechanically stable spin injector material to make electronic devices. Mechanical properties of Ga1-xMnxAs spin injector were studied in relation to temperatures above room temperature (25 °C. Here, creep compliance, Young’s moduli and creep recovery for all studied samples with different manganese doping levels (MDLs were determined using DMA 2980 Instrument from TA instruments Inc. The study was conducted using displace-recover programme on DMA creep mode with a single cantilever clamp. The samples were prepared using RF sputtering techniques. From the creep compliance study it was found that MDL of 10 % was appropriate at 30 °C and 40 °C. The data obtained can be useful to the spintronic and electronic device engineers in designing the appropriate devices to use at 30 °C and above or equal to 40 °C.

  1. Study of GaAs as a material for solar neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Markov, A V; Smirnov, N B; Govorkov, A V; Eremin, V K; Verbitskaya, E; Gavrin, V N; Kozlova, Y P; Veretenkin, Y P; Bowles, T J

    2000-01-01

    Semi-insulating GaAs crystals grown by liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique from Ga-rich melts were evaluated as a possible material for radiation detectors with a high active layer thickness. The density of deep traps, particularly the midgap EL2 donors pinning the Fermi level, was measured by various techniques in conducting and semi-insulating samples. For EL2 traps, a direct evidence of their partial neutralization in the space charge region of reverse biased Schottky diodes due to nonequilibrium capture of electrons is presented for the first time. It is shown that the density of EL2 centers decreases with decreased As composition of the melt very gradually, especially for post-growth annealed samples. Subsequently, if one aims to decrease the EL2 density to such an extent that it would make a serious impact on the depletion layer width in GaAs-based detectors one has to grow semi-insulating GaAs crystals from melts with As composition below about 43% which poses a problem for the preservation of hi...

  2. Photodetectors based on carbon nanotubes deposited by using a spray technique on semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Melisi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spray technique is used to perform low temperature deposition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on semi-insulating gallium arsenide in order to obtain photodectors. A dispersion of nanotube powder in non-polar 1,2-dichloroethane is used as starting material. The morphological properties of the deposited films has been analysed by means of electron microscopy, in scanning and transmission mode. Detectors with different layouts have been prepared and current–voltage characteristics have been recorded in the dark and under irradiation with light in the range from ultraviolet to near infrared. The device spectral efficiency obtained from the electrical characterization is finally reported and an improvement of the photodetector behavior due to the nanotubes is presented and discussed.

  3. Subgap time of flight: A spectroscopic study of deep levels in semi-insulating CdTe:Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousset, J.; Farella, I.; Cola, A., E-mail: adriano.cola@le.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems—Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM/CNR), Lecce I-73100 (Italy); Gambino, S. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi,” Università del Salento, Lecce I-73100 (Italy); CNR NANOTEC—Istituto di Nanotecnologia, Polo di Nanotecnologia c/o Campus Ecotekne, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-03-14

    We report on a study of deep levels in semi-insulating CdTe:Cl by means of a time-of-flight spectral approach. By varying the wavelength of a pulsed optical source within the CdTe energy gap, transitions to/from localized levels generate free carriers which are analysed through the induced photocurrent transients. Both acceptor-like centers, related to the A-center, and a midgap level, 0.725 eV from the valence band, have been detected. The midgap level is close to the Fermi level and is possibly a recombination center responsible for the compensation mechanism. When the irradiance is varied, either linear or quadratic dependence of the electron and hole collected charge are observed, depending on the dominant optical transitions. The analysis discloses the potentiality of such a novel approach exploitable in the field of photorefractive materials as well as for deep levels spectroscopy.

  4. Temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity of GaAs in the 100-305 K range measured by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, M.; Bennis, G. L.; Gupta, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the variation of the value of the thermal diffusivity of semi-insulating GaAs in the 100-305 K range. The method used is the pulsed photothermal displacement technique. This is a noncontact technique, and the value of the thermal diffusivity is derived from the temporal evolution of the signal rather than its amplitude. This makes the technique less susceptible to uncertainties. We find that the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of semi-insulating GaAs follows a power law as T-1.62, in disagreement with results obtained previously. Possible reasons for the deviation within this very important intermediate temperature range are discussed.

  5. Electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements and modeling of GaAs nanostructures with delta-doped layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakova, L.; Yakovlev, G.; Zubkov, V.

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents the results of electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling and simulation of quantum-sized semiconductor structures with quantum wells and delta-doped layers based on gallium arsenide. The experimental ECV data were obtained by superposition of measured capacitance-voltage characteristics during the gradual etching of the nanostructure. As a result of simulation, the concentration distribution and energy lineups for structures with delta-layers and quantum wells in gallium arsenide were calculated. The results of simulation are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and data found in literature.

  6. Recent improvements in detection performances of radiation detectors based on bulk semi-insulating InP

    CERN Document Server

    Dubecky, F; Necas, V; Sekacova, M; Fornari, R; Gombia, E; Bohácek, P; Krempasky, M; Pelfer, P G

    2002-01-01

    In this work, bulk semi-insulating (SI) InP wafers of four various producers have been used for the fabrication of radiation detectors. The tested detectors were prepared starting from the different materials in just one run in order to be sure that their performances were not influenced by technological processes. On one type of material various electrode technologies were used with the aim to analyze their role on the detector performances. The fabricated detectors were tested for detection performance by the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 5 sup 7 Co gamma-ray sources at below room temperature. The best detector was calibrated and tested also using sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma sources. The best detector gives an energy resolution of 7 keV FWHM and a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 82% (59.5 keV photopeak) at a temperature of 216 K. According to our knowledge, these results are the best which have been obtained with InP radiation detectors till now. The operation of SI InP detector...

  7. Fabrication of 4H-SiC lateral double implanted MOSFET on an on-axis semi-insulating substrate without using epi-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Woo; Seok, Ogyun; Moon, Jeong Hyun; Bahng, Wook; Jo, Jungyol

    2017-12-01

    4H-SiC lateral double implanted metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistors (LDIMOSFET) were fabricated on on-axis semi-insulating SiC substrates without using an epi-layer. The LDIMOSFET adopted a current path layer (CPL), which was formed by ion-implantation. The CPL works as a drift region between gate and drain. By using on-axis semi-insulating substrate and optimized CPL parameters, breakdown voltage (BV) of 1093 V and specific on-resistance (R on,sp) of 89.8 mΩ·cm2 were obtained in devices with 20 µm long CPL. Experimentally extracted field-effect channel mobility was 21.7 cm2·V‑1·s‑1 and the figure-of-merit (BV2/R on,sp) was 13.3 MW/cm2.

  8. Comparative evaluation of InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid infrared detection: p-i-n versus residual doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Melih; Kaldirim, Melih; Arikan, Bulent; Serincan, Uğur; Aslan, Bulent

    2015-08-01

    We report on the opto-electronic characterization of an InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) midwave infrared p-i-n photodetector structure (pin-SL) in comparison with the same structure with no intentional doping (i-SL). Both structures were grown on an n-GaSb substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The nominally undoped structure (i-SL) presented p-i-n like behavior and showed a photovoltaic mode photoresponse due to the residual doping and native defects in this material system. For ˜77 K operation, 0.76 and 0.11 A W-1 responsivity values were obtained at 4 μm from the pin-SL and i-SL structures, respectively. Activation energy analysis showed that the recombination current was dominant in both structures but different recombination centers were involved. The same i-SL structure was also grown on a semi-insulating (SI)-GaAs substrate to study the contribution of the substrate to the carrier density in the SL layers. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements showed that the nominally undoped structure presented both n-type and p-type conductivities; however, the temperature at which the carrier type switched polarity was observed to be at higher values when the i-SL structure was grown on the SI-GaAs substrate. In addition, a higher carrier density was observed for i-SL on the GaSb substrate than on the GaAs substrate.

  9. High resistivity In-doped ZnTe: electrical and optical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    insulating ZnTe prepared by In doping during Bridgman growth was found to have a resistivity of 5.74 × 107 ohm-cm, the highest reported so far in ZnTe, with ... Possible models for semi-insulating behaviour and meta-stability are proposed.

  10. Stoichiometry-controlled compensation in liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. E.; Chen, R. T.; Elliott, K. R.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the electrical compensation of undoped GaAs grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique is controlled by the melt stoichiometry. The concentration of the deep donor EL2 in the crystal depends on the As concentration in the melt, increasing from about 5 x 10 to the 15th per cu cm to 1.7 x 10 to the 16th per cu cm as the As atom fraction increases from 0.48 to 0.51. Furthermore, it is shown that the free-carrier concentration of semi-insulating GaAs is determined by the relative concentrations of EL2 and carbon acceptors. As a result, semi-insulating material can be obtained only above a critical As concentration (0.475-atom fraction in the material here) where the concentration of EL2 is sufficient to compensate residual acceptors. Below the critical As concentration the material is p type due to excess acceptors.

  11. Magnetic properties of 3d impurities in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykov, V.I. [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: vital@mse.kth.se; Korzhavyi, P.A. [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Smirnova, E.A. [Department of Theoretical Physics of Steel and Alloys, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Abrikosov, I.A. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Johansson, B. [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Electronic structure, thermodynamic, and magnetic properties of 3d-transition metal (TM) impurities in GaAs have been studied from first principles using Green's function approach. The studied TM impurities (V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) are found to form substitutional alloys on the Ga sublattice. The possibility of raising the Curie temperature T {sub C} in (GaMn)As by co-doping it with Cr impurities was examined on the basis of total energy difference between the disordered local moment (DLM) and the ferromagnetically ordered (FM) spin configurations. The calculated Curie temperature and magnetic moment have maxima for GaAs doped with Cr and Mn. The magnetic properties of Mn-doped GaAs are shown to be more sensitive to antisite As defects than those of Cr-doped GaAs. However, the Cr impurities are sensitive to the presence of acceptor defects, such as vacancies on the Ga sublattice. The investigation of the electronic structure of pseudo-ternary alloys (Ga{sub (1-x-y)}Mn{sub x}Cr{sub y})As has shown a mutual compensation of Mn and Cr impurities. Therefore, in order to reach the highest critical temperature, GaAs has to be separately doped with Cr or Mn impurities. The GaAs doped with Fe is found to be non-ferromagnetic.

  12. Nonlinear Microwave Performance of an Optoelectronic CPW-to-Slot line Ring Resonator on GaAs Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chul [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    A nonlinear optical-microwave interaction is carried out in an uniplanar CPW-to-Slot line ring resonator on the semi-insulating GaAs substrate, in which a Schottky photodetector is monolithic ally integrated as a coupling gap. When the capacitive reactance of the detector is modulated, the parametric amplification effect of the mixer occurs. In this device structure, the parametric amplification gain of 20 dB without the applied bias in RF signal is obtained. This microwave optoelectronic mixer can be used in the fiber-optic communication link. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to x-ray flash radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (FR). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Hauducoeur, A.; Nicolas, P.; Le Dain, L.; Hyvernage, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Vaujours, 77 - Courtry (FR)

    1991-12-31

    Semi-insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X ray single shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 {mu}rad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charges, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors.

  14. Evaluation of 320x240 pixel LEC GaAs Schottky barrier X-ray imaging arrays, hybridized to CMOS readout circuit based on charge integration

    CERN Document Server

    Irsigler, R; Alverbro, J; Borglind, J; Froejdh, C; Helander, P; Manolopoulos, S; O'Shea, V; Smith, K

    1999-01-01

    320x240 pixels GaAs Schottky barrier detector arrays were fabricated, hybridized to silicon readout circuits, and subsequently evaluated. The detector chip was based on semi-insulating LEC GaAs material. The square shaped pixel detector elements were of the Schottky barrier type and had a pitch of 38 mu m. The GaAs wafers were thinned down prior to the fabrication of the ohmic back contact. After dicing, the chips were indium bump, flip-chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration, and finally evaluated. A bias voltage between 50 and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector. Results on I-V characteristics, noise behaviour and response to X-ray radiation are presented. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard dental imaging X-ray source. The work done was a part of the XIMAGE project financed by the European Community (Brite-Euram). (author)

  15. Design and characterisation of high electron mobility transistors for use in a monolithic GaAs X-ray imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D.A. E-mail: d.boardman@surrey.ac.uk; Sellin, P.J

    2001-06-21

    A new design of monolithic GaAs pixel detector is proposed for medical and synchrotron applications. In this device a semi-insulating GaAs wafer will be used as both the detector element and the substrate for the integrated charge readout matrix. The charge readout matrix consists of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), which are grown epitaxially onto the GaAs substrate. Experimental characterisation of HEMTs has been carried out and their suitability for the proposed imaging device is assessed. Temperature measurements on initial devices showed the threshold voltage to be stable from room temperature down to -15 degree sign C. HEMT designs with lower leakage current that operate in enhancement mode have been fabricated and modelled using the Silvaco simulation package. These optimised devices have been fabricated using a gate recess, and exhibit enhancement mode operation and significantly reduced gate leakage currents.

  16. Growth and electrical characterization of Zn-doped InAs and InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, A., E-mail: andre.venter@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Shamba, P.; Botha, L.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2009-06-01

    The electrical properties of Zn doped InAs and InAsSb layers grown on semi-insulating GaAs by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy, using dimethyl zinc as the p-type dopant source, have been studied. The influence of dopant flow rate, V/III ratio and substrate orientation on the electrical properties of these InAs and InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} layers have been studied at a few appropriate growth temperatures. A promising group V source, tertiary butyl arsenic was used as an alternative to arsenic hydride in the case of InAs growth. The electrical properties of the InAs and InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} epitaxial layers were mainly studied by the Hall effect. However, surface accumulation in these materials results in deceptive Hall results being extracted. A two layer model (assuming the layer to consist of two parallel conducting paths viz. surface and bulk) has therefore been used to extract sensible transport properties. In addition, conventional Hall measurements ignores the high electron to hole mobility ratio in InAs and InAsSb leading to erroneous transport properties.

  17. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Naoya; Azarov, Alexander; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 1015 cm-3 range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ˜1014 cm-3). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400-1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  18. Crystallization of semi-insulating HVPE-GaN with solid iron as a source of dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwinska, M.; Piotrzkowski, R.; Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Teisseyre, H.; Amilusik, M.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Sochacki, T.; Takekawa, N.; Murakami, H.; Bockowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    Gallium nitride crystals were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using solid iron as a source of dopants. Three crystal growth processes were performed at constant HCl flow over the solid iron and with different gallium chloride flows. High structural quality ammonothermal GaN was used as seed material. No yellow luminescence and only weak near band edge luminescence were visible in all grown crystals. A sharp peak was observed at 1.298 eV. This was shown before as an intrinsic transition of Fe impurity in GaN. The grown crystals were highly resistive at room temperature. High-temperature Hall effect measurements revealed n-type conductivity with activation energy equal to 1.8 eV. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the presence of manganese in all three samples. The concentration of manganese was always higher than concentration of iron in the doped GaN.

  19. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  20. GaAs core--shell nanowires for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Josef A; Thompson, David A; LaPierre, Ray R

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of Te as an n-type dopant in GaAs core-shell p-n junction nanowires for use in photovoltaic devices. Te produced significant change in the morphology of GaAs nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process in a molecular beam epitaxy system. The increase in radial growth of nanowires due to the surfactant effect of Te had a significant impact on the operating characteristics of photovoltaic devices. A decrease in solar cell efficiency occurred when the Te-doped GaAs growth duration was increased.

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Optimization of p-doping in GaAs photon-recycling light-emitting diodes operated at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E.; Gao, M.; Buchanan, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Liu, H. C.

    2001-05-01

    The external efficiency of AlGaAs/GaAs photon-recycling light-emitting diodes operated at low temperature (80 K) and low current densities has been maximized by adjusting the beryllium doping concentration in the active region. A concentration of 8×1016 cm-3 was found close to the optimum: below this value the bimolecular recombination appears and above impurity-related transitions penalize the efficiency of photon-recycling effects.

  2. Evidence for plasma effect on charge collection efficiency in proton irradiated GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, F; Canali, C; Vittone, E; Polesello, P; Biggeri, U; Leroy, C

    1999-01-01

    The radiation damage in 100 mu m thick Schottky diodes made on semi-insulating undoped GaAs materials, were studied using alpha-, beta-, proton- and gamma-spectroscopy as well as I-V measurements. The results have been analysed within the framework of the Hecht model to investigate the influence of the plasma produced by short-range strongly ionising particles on the detector performance after 24 GeV proton irradiation. It has been found that with the mean free drift lengths for electrons and holes determined from alpha-spectra in overdepleted detectors, the charge collection efficiency for beta-particles, cce subbeta, is well predicted in the unirradiated detectors, while in the most irradiated ones, the cce subbeta is underestimated by more than 40%. The observed disagreement can be explained by assuming that the charge carrier recombination in the plasma region of such detectors, becomes significant.

  3. Deep levels induced by high fluence proton irradiation in undoped GaAs diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); Canali, C.; Nava, F. [Univ. of Modena (Italy); Ferrini, R.; Galli, M. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1998-12-31

    Semi-insulating liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown GaAs has been investigated after irradiation at high fluences of high-energy protons. Electron beam induced current observations of scanning electron microscopy evidenced a radiation stimulated ordering. An analysis has been carried out of the deep levels associated with defects as a function of the irradiation fluence, using complementary current transient spectroscopies. By increasing the irradiation fluence, the concentration of the native traps at 0.37 eV together with that of the EL2 defect significantly increases and, at the same time, two new electron traps at 0.15 eV and 0.18 eV arise and quickly increase in density.

  4. Low temperature annealing effects on the performance of proton irradiated GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanni, P.; Nava, F.; Canali, C.; Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L.; Lanzieri, C

    1999-08-01

    Semi-insulating, undoped, Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (SI-U LEC) GaAs detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons at the fluence of 5.6x10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The detector charge collection efficiency (CCE), for both electrons and holes is remarkably reduced after irradiation while the reverse current increases. The effect of annealing the detectors at temperatures ranging from 220 deg. C to 280 deg. C has been seen to reduce the reverse current and to increase the electron CCE, while the recovery of the hole CCE is negligible in irradiated detectors. Deep electron traps have been followed in their evolution with the heat treatment temperature by P-DLTS and C-V measurements. They recover by increasing the heat treatment temperature and this can explain the restoration observed in electron CCE.

  5. AlGaInAs quantum-well lasers with semi-insulating buried-heterostructure for high-speed direct modulation up to 40 Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, K.; Matsuda, M.; Takada, K.; Okumura, S.; Uetake, A.; Ekawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2009-11-01

    We introduce our recent works on directly-modulated AlGaInAs quantum-well lasers with semi-insulating buriedheterostructure for ultra-high-speed transmission. The short-cavity 1.3-μm-wavelength DFB lasers showed low-penalty transmission up to 13 km under direct modulation at 25 Gbps, as well as clearly-opened eye patterns by 40-Gbps direct modulation. For further reduction of driving current in the high-speed directly-modulated lasers, we developed the distributed reflector lasers with the active-region having the length of 100 μm or less, sandwiched by the passive reflectors. The fabricated distributed reflector lasers exhibited very high slope value of relaxation oscillation frequency of 4.0 GHz/mA1/2 and more. The distributed reflector lasers emitting in 1.3-μm wavelength region achieved 40-Gbps direct modulation with the driving current of 2/3 of that by the DFB lasers. By the distributed reflector lasers of 1.55- μm-wavelength, high temperature 40-Gbps operation was realized as well as reduction of driving current.

  6. Migration processes of the As interstitial in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. F.; Modine, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal migration processes of the As interstitial in GaAs were investigated using density-functional theory and the local-density approximation for exchange and correlation. The lowest-energy processes were found to involve the -1, 0, and +1 charge states, and to produce migration along ⟨110⟩-type directions. In the -1 and 0 charge states, migration proceeds via hops between split-interstitial stable configurations at bulk As sites through bridging saddle-point configurations in which the interstitial atom is equidistant from two adjacent bulk As sites. In the +1 charge state, the roles of these two configurations are approximately reversed and migration proceeds via hops between bridging stable configurations through higher-energy split-interstitial stable configurations bounded by a pair of distorted split-interstitial saddle-point configurations. The predicted activation energies for migration in the 0 and +1 charge states agree well with measurements in semi-insulating and p-type material, respectively. Also consistent with experiments, the approximate reversal of the stable and saddle-point configurations between the 0 and +1 charge states is predicted to enable carrier-induced migration with a residual activation energy of 0.05 eV.

  7. THz conductivity of semi-insulating and magnetic CoFe2O4 nano-hollow structures through thermally activated polaron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Rupali; Serita, Kazunori; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Mandal, Kalyan

    2016-11-01

    Herein, terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy is used to measure the complex conductivity of semi-insulating CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and nano-hollow spheres (NHSs) with different diameters ranging from 100 to 350 nm having a nanocrystalline shell thickness of 19 to 90 nm, respectively. Interestingly, the magnitude of conductivity for CoFe2O4 NPs and NHSs of same average diameter (˜100 nm) for a given frequency of 0.3 THz is found to be 0.33 S/m and 9.08 S/m, respectively, indicating that the hollow structure exhibits greater THz conduction in comparison to its solid counterpart. Moreover, THz conductivity can be tailored by varying the nano-shell thickness of NHSs, and a maximum conductivity of 15.61 S/m is observed at 0.3 THz for NHSs of average diameter 250 nm. A detailed study reveals that thermally activated polaronic hopping plays the key role in determining the electrical transport property of CoFe2O4 nanostructures, which is found to solely depend on their magnitude of THz absorptivity. The non-Drude conductivity of all CoFe2O4 nanostructures is well described by the Polaron model instead of the Drude-Smith model, which is relevant for backscattering of free electrons in a nanostructured material. The Polaron model includes intra-particle and interparticle polaronic conductivities for closely spaced magnetic nanostructures and provides a mean free path of 29 nm for CoFe2O4 NPs of diameter 100 nm, which is comparable with its average crystallite size, indicating the applicability of the developed model for nanomaterials where charge transport is determined by polaronic hopping. Finally, we have demonstrated the morphology and size dependent magnetic measurements of ferrimagnetically aligned CoFe2O4 nanostructures through a vibrating sample magnetometer in the temperature range of 80-250 K, revealing that the disordered surface spin layer of nanostructures significantly controls their magnetism.

  8. Development and characterization of a 3D GaAs X-ray detector for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros d’Aillon, Eric, E-mail: eric.grosdaillon@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC-Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE (France); Avenel, Marie-Laure [CEA, LETI, MINATEC-Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE (France); Farcage, Daniel [CEA, DEN-DPC, F-91191 GIF SUR YVETTE (France); Verger, Loïck [CEA, LETI, MINATEC-Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE (France)

    2013-11-01

    Conventional semiconductor X-ray detectors for medical imaging have either a planar or a pixelated structure. The options available for detection materials are limited by the natural trade-off between the absorption of incident photons and the collection of free charge carriers with these two structures. This trade-off can be avoided by using az 3D structure, in which electrodes are drilled into the detector's volume. This article describes a prototype 3D semiconductor detector, using semi-insulating GaAs. A laser drilling technique was used to create electrodes in the volume of the material. The holes created were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Electrode contacts were created using electroless Au deposition. The manufacturing process and the first gamma counting results obtained with {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co sources are presented. The system is capable of individual photon-counting without energy discrimination but requires further development to improve efficiency.

  9. Ion implanted GaAs nanowire pn junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Katharina; Stichtenoth, Daniel; Ronning, Carsten [II. Institute of Physics, University of Goettingen (Germany); Gutsche, Christoph; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz Josef [Solid-State Electronics Department, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ion beam doping of materials offers advantages in comparison to doping during growth or by diffusion. First, the impurity concentration as well as the lateral and depth distributions of the dopants are precisely controllable, and secondly, almost all elements can be implanted isotope-selective even beyond any solubility limit. We present studies on ion implanted gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire pn junctions. Nominal intrinsic GaAs nanowires were grown by the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles on top of GaAs(100) substrates. Sulphur, being a donor in GaAs, was implanted into the nanowires using different ion energies resulting in a uniform concentration profile. The now n-type doped nanowires were then reinserted into the metal organic vapour phase epitaxy system. After an annealing procedure, the growth of the nanowires was continued under the addition of an acceptor. Finally, the fabricated nanowire pn junctions were shaved from the growth substrate and processed with contacts on top of insulating carrier substrates. First results on the electrical characterization of these structures are shown.

  10. p- and n-type cubic GaN epilayers on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    As, D. J.; Schikora, D.; Greiner, A.; Lübbers, M.; Mimkes, J.; Lischka, K.

    1996-10-01

    Temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements are performed on cubic GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (100) GaAs substrates. We find that under N-rich conditions, cubic GaN films are p-type with hole concentrations of ~=1013 cm-3 and mobilities of about 350 cm2/V s at room temperature. The acceptors have an activation energy of EA=0.445+/-0.015 eV. Ga-rich growth conditions result in n-type conductivity with electron concentrations of about 1014 cm-3 and room-temperature mobilities of μn~=100cm2/V s. Since for n-type samples a strong influence of the underlaying semi-insulating GaAs substrate is observed, a two-layer model is used to evaluate the Hall data, yielding a shallow donor with an activation energy of ED=0.16+/-0.07 eV and a deeper donor with EDD=0.60+/-0.10 eV.

  11. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  12. The Features of GaAs and GaP Semiconductor Cathodes in an Infrared Converter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, H. Hilal; Tanrıverdi, Evrim

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the electrical and optical comparative analysis of semi-insulating GaAs and GaP photoconductive electrodes in an infrared converter system with a resistivity of >107 Ω cm for the same interelectrode distance d and gas pressure p experimentally and theoretically, when the discharge cell has been filled by argon. To provide the stability of the semiconductor electrode in Ar media, the experiments were carried out in Townsend and glow discharge regimes for various parameter sets of pressure, interelectrode gap and discharge voltage. When the discharge exceeds a critical voltage value, some N-shape CVC s, which stem from both semiconductors and Ar gas, have been observed. To compare the features of the GaAs and GaP cathodes, the COMSOL multiphysics programme is used under the Ar media. The mean electron energy, thermal velocity, surface charge density, space charge and initial electron densities, and electron mobilities have been calculated for both semiconductor materials. It has been found that the electron mobility μe, electron thermal velocity, surface charge density σ and mean electron energy of GaAs is higher than those of GaP; hence, GaAs has better opto-electronic features compared to GaP. In addition, the experiments on the optical explorations prove that GaAs exhibit better optical response in the infrared region. The explored transport characteristics of the semiconductor electrodes are of importance, and they have to be taken into account when studying plasma cells.

  13. Friedreich's ataxia GAA.TTC duplex and GAA.GAA.TTC triplex structures exclude nucleosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Haihe; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2008-11-07

    Both chromatin structure and formation of triplex DNA at expanded GAA TTC repeats have been shown to regulate the FXN gene silencing, which causes Friedreich's ataxia. Recent studies have suggested that the presence of heterochromatin at the long expanded GAA TTC repeats, which is enriched in hypoacetylated histones, deters the transcription of the FXN gene. However, neither direct histone binding nor the effect of histone acetylation on the GAA TTC duplex or the GAA GAA TTC triplex has been measured in vitro. In this study, GAA TTC repeating DNAs derived from the human FXN gene, and the GAA GAA TTC triplex, were examined for their ability to assemble single nucleosomes and nucleosome arrays. Competitive nucleosome reconstitution assays demonstrated that the GAA TTC duplex excludes nucleosomes (53% decrease compared to the pUC control DNA) and that the GAA GAA TTC triplex further lowers the nucleosome assembly efficiency (82% decrease compared to the duplex DNA). The difference in assembly efficiency is amplified more significantly when hypoacetylated histones are used, compared to assembly with hyperacetylated histones. By analyzing the formation of nucleosome arrays on GAA TTC-containing plasmids, the triplex structure was shown to destabilize the ability of adjacent sequences to assemble nucleosomes. These results provide the first direct binding measurements for the GAA TTC duplex and the GAA GAA TTC triplex, and on the effect of histone acetylation, towards dissecting the role of chromatin structure in silencing of the FXN gene. These findings suggest that these sequences could profoundly alter local chromatin structure, and the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro results supports recent studies showing that, in addition to DNA sequences, other factors such as epigenetic marks could be involved in the mechanism for inhibition of FXN gene expression.

  14. Impurity effects on both the creation and the migration of Ga vacancies in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Lam; Wei, Long; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Kawabe, Mitsuo

    1991-07-01

    The effects of impurities, such as Si and Be, on both the creation and the migration of Ga vacancies in annealing of GaAs were investigated by a slow positron beam technique. The results show that vacancies diffuse from the surface during the annealing and one of the dominant types is a monovacancy of Ga, VGa, in Be-doped GaAs and/or Si-doped GaAs, while the other is a divacancy of VGa-VAs in undoped GaAs. In annealing the bilayer structures composed of the Si-doped layer grown on the Be-doped layer, it was found that VGa is a major type of defect rather than VGa-VAs if the Si concentration is higher or lower than the Be one in GaAs, but VGa-VAs is dominant if the concentrations of the impurities are similar. This proposes that the interaction between Si and Be is stronger than that of VAs-BeGa and/or VGa-SiGa. The Ga interstitial IGa is created in the Be-doped layer where IGa interacts with VGa created from the surface and suppresses the migration of VGa. This supports the validity of the kick-out mechanism involving a column-III interstitial rather than the Longini mechanism for Be diffusion in GaAs. In Si-doped GaAs, VGa is created from the surface and the diffusion constant of VGa decreases with the increase of Si doping concentration. This implies that VGa forms a complex of SiGa-VGa and the interaction time of VGa at the Si donor by making a complex of SiGa-VGa is a rate-limiting step in the diffusion of VGa in GaAs. The present results propose the creation of IGa and VGa in the Be-diffused GaAs and in Si-diffused GaAs, respectively. This is consistent with the Fermi-level effect of the impurities on the creation of those defects.

  15. Stable Amplification and High Current Drop Bistable Switching in Supercritical GaAs Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadpanah, S.H; Jeppsson, B; Jeppesen, Palle

    1974-01-01

    Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance.......Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance....

  16. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of {approx}1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/{mu}Gy mm{sup 2}, for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  17. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno and Yutaka Oyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE, in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm-2. They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor.

  18. Performance analysis of undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) MOSFET at subthreshold regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, B.; Pradhan, K. P.; Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.; Sahu, P. K.; Mohapatra, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this work the sensitivity of process parameters like channel length (L), channel thickness (tSi), and gate work function (φM) on various performance metrics of an undoped cylindrical gate all around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) are systematically analyzed. Undoped GAA MOSFET is a radical invention as it introduces a new direction for transistor scaling. In conventional MOSFET, generally the channel doping concentration is very high to provide high on-state current, but in contrary it causes random dopant fluctuation and threshold voltage variation. So, the undoped nature of GAA MOSFET solves the above complications. Hence, we have analyzed the electrical characteristics as well as the analog/RF performances of undoped GAA MOSFET through Sentaurus device simulator.

  19. Breakover mechanism of GaAs photoconductive switch triggering spark gap for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liqiang; Shi, Wei; Feng, Qingqing

    2011-11-01

    A spark gap (SG) triggered by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) is presented. Currents as high as 5.6 kA have been generated using the combined switch, which is excited by a laser pulse with energy of 1.8 mJ and under a bias of 4 kV. Based on the transferred-electron effect and gas streamer theory, the breakover characteristics of the combined switch are analyzed. The photoexcited carrier density in the PCSS is calculated. The calculation and analysis indicate that the PCSS breakover is caused by nucleation of the photoactivated avalanching charge domain. It is shown that the high output current is generated by the discharge of a high-energy gas streamer induced by the strong local electric field distortion or by overvoltage of the SG resulting from quenching of the avalanching domain, and periodic oscillation of the current is caused by interaction between the gas streamer and the charge domain. The cycle of the current oscillation is determined by the rise time of the triggering electric pulse generated by the PCSS, the pulse transmission time between the PCSS and the SG, and the streamer transit time in the SG.

  20. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mario, Lorenzo [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Turchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.turchini@cnr.it [ISM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tian, Lin [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Rubini, Silvia [IOM-CNR, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza 34149, Trieste (Italy); Martelli, Faustino, E-mail: faustino.martelli@cnr.it [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Schottky barrier at the interface between Cu and GaAs nanowires was measured. • Individual nanowires were investigated by X-ray Photoemission Microscopy. • The Schottky barrier at different positions along the nanowire was evaluated. - Abstract: We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  1. Depth-dependent Detection Mechanisms of Coherent Phonons in n-type GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek Hrvoje

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient reflectivity measurements at different probing wavelengths reveal detection mechanisms of coherent phonon and phonon-plasmon coupled modes of n-doped GaAs to be strongly depth-dependent due to the carrier depletion at the surface.

  2. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals covalently bound to GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, K.; Marx, E.; Greenham, N.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of CdSe nanocrystals covalently attached to doped GaAs substrates using monolayers of 1,6-hexanedithiol. STM measurements showed the formation of stable, densely packed, homogeneous monolayers...

  3. Radiation hardness of GaAs sensors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šagátová, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sagatova@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia); Zaťko, Bohumír; Dubecký, František [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ly Anh, Tu [Faculty of Applied Science, University of Technology VNU HCM, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nečas, Vladimír; Sedlačková, Katarína; Pavlovič, Márius [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fülöp, Marko [University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation hardness of SI GaAs detectors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons was compared. • Good agreement was achieved between the experimental results and displacement damage factor of different types of radiation. • CCE and FWHM first slightly improved (by 1–8%) and just then degraded with the cumulative dose. • An increase of detection efficiency with cumulative dose was observed. - Abstract: Radiation hardness of semi-insulating GaAs detectors against {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, fast neutrons and 5 MeV electrons was compared. Slight improvements in charge collection efficiency (CCE) and energy resolution in FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) were observed at low doses with all kinds of radiation followed by their degradation. The effect occurred at a dose of about 10 Gy of neutrons (CCE improved by 1%, FWHM by 5% on average), at 1 kGy of electrons (FWHM decreased by 3% on average) and at 10 kGy of gamma-rays (CCE raised by 5% and FWHM dropped by 8% on average), which is in agreement with the relative displacement damage of the used types of radiation. Gamma-rays of MeV energies are 1000-times less damaging than similar neutrons and electrons about 10-times more damaging than photons. On irradiating the detectors with neutrons and electrons, we observed a global increase in their detection efficiency, which was caused probably by enlargement of the active detector area as a consequence of created radiation defects in the base material. Detectors were still functional after a dose of 1140 kGy of ∼1 MeV photons, 104 kGy of 5 MeV electrons but only up to 0.576 kGy of fast (∼2 to 30 MeV) neutrons.

  4. Asymmetric GaAs n-type double δ-doped quantum wells as a source of intersubband-related nonlinear optical response: Effects of an applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K.A.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calz. Solidaridad Esq. Paseo a La Bufa S/N. C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the conduction band electron states and the associated intersubband-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change are calculated for an asymmetric double n-type δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs-matrix. The effects of an external applied static electric field are included. Values of the two-dimensional impurities density (N{sub 2d}) of each single δ-doped quantum well are taken to vary within the range of 1.0×10{sup 12} to 7.0×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, consistent with the experimental data growth regime. The optical responses are reported as a function of the δ-doped impurities density and the applied electric field. It is shown that single electron states and the related optical quantities are significantly affected by the structural asymmetry of the double δ-doped quantum well system. In addition, a brief comparison with the free-carrier-related optical response is presented. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear optics in asymmetric double n-type δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs-matrix. • The system is considered under external applied electric field in growth direction. • The 2D impurity density is consistent with the experimental data growth regime. • The optical quantities are significantly affected by the structural asymmetry of the system.

  5. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  6. Effect of band gap narrowing on GaAs tunnel diode I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebib, A.; Hannanchi, R. [Laboratoire d' énergie et de matériaux, LabEM-LR11ES34-Université de sousse (Tunisia); Beji, L., E-mail: lotbej_fr@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' énergie et de matériaux, LabEM-LR11ES34-Université de sousse (Tunisia); EL Jani, B. [Unité de Recherche sur les Hétéro-Epitaxies et Applications, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-12-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical study of current-voltage characteristics of C/Si-doped GaAs tunnel diode. For the investigation of the experimental data, we take into account the band-gap narrowing (BGN) effect due to heavily-doped sides of the tunnel diode. The BGN of the n- and p-sides of tunnel diode was measured by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The comparison between theoretical results and experimental data reveals that BGN effect enhances tunneling currents and hence should be considered to identify more accurately the different transport mechanisms in the junction. For C/Si-doped GaAs tunnel diode, we found that direct tunneling is the dominant transport mechanism at low voltages. At higher voltages, this mechanism is replaced by the rate-controlling tunneling via gap states in the forbidden gap.

  7. Modeling and Design of Graphene GaAs Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based GaAs junction solar cell is modeled and investigated by Silvaco TCAD tools. The photovoltaic behaviors have been investigated considering structure and process parameters such as substrate thickness, dependence between graphene work function and transmittance, and n-type doping concentration in GaAs. The results show that the most effective region for photo photogenerated carriers locates very close to the interface under light illumination. Comprehensive technological design for junction yields a significant improvement of power conversion efficiency from 0.772% to 2.218%. These results are in good agreement with the reported experimental work.

  8. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  9. Investigation of the radiation hardness of GaAs sensors in an electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    K. Afanaciev, K; P. Bernitt, P; G. Chelkov, G; J. Gajewski, J; M. Gostkin, M; Ch Grah, Ch; R. Heller, R; H. Henschel, H; A. Ignatenko, A; Z. Krumshteyn, Z; S. Kulis, S; W. Lange, W; W. Lohmann, W; D. Mokeev, D; V. Novikov, V; M. Ohlerich, M; A. Rosca, A; A. Sapronov, A; R.S. Schmidt, R S; S. Schuwalow, S; O. Tolbanov, O; A. Tyazhev, A

    2012-01-01

    A compact and finely grained sandwich calorimeter is designed to instrument the very forward region of a detector at a future e+e− collider. The calorimeter will be exposed to low energy e+e− pairs originating from beamstrahlung, resulting in absorbed doses of about one MGy per year. GaAs pad sensors interleaved with tungsten absorber plates are considered as an option for this calorimeter. Several Cr-doped GaAs sensor prototypes were produced and irradiated with 8.5–10 MeV electrons up to a dose of 1.5 MGy. The sensor performance was measured as a function of the absorbed dose.

  10. Novel base doping profile for improved speed and power

    OpenAIRE

    Rehder, E. M.; Cismaru, C.; Zampardi, P. J.; Welser, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the effect of twonewbase doping profiles on the base transit time of a GaAs npn heterojunction bipolar transistor. The doping in a region close to the collector is reduced either by a doping grade or a stepwise reduction. Quasi-electric fields resulting from these doping gradients increase the minority carrier velocity and the beta of large area transistors. By focusing these doping changes adjacent to the collector, the amount of low-doped base material and t...

  11. Annealing effects on electrical and optical properties of ZnO films deposited on GaAs by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingchang; Liang, Hongwei; Zhao, Jianze; Feng, Qiuju; Bian, Jiming; Zhao, Ziwen; Zhang, Heqiu; Luo, Yingmin; Hu, Lizhong; Du, Guotong

    2008-09-01

    ZnO thin film was deposited on semi-insulating GaAs by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In situ annealing treatments were carried out under different temperature. Hall and photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that the electrical and optical properties of ZnO film were sensitively dependent on annealing temperature. The as-deposited ZnO film showed n-type conductivity and intense near band edge (NBE) emission combined with rather weak deep level (DL) emission. After annealing in the temperature of 520 and 560 °C the films exhibit p-type conductivity, meanwhile secondary ion mass spectroscopy demonstrated arsenic ion was uniformly distributed in the ZnO films. Distinctly recombination of donor acceptor pair (DAP) was observed from the p-type ZnO film. The calculated arsenic related acceptor binding energy is nearly consistent with that of As Zn-2V Zn acceptor complex. When the annealing temperature up to 640 °C, Ga ion began to diffuse into ZnO film and the film returned to n-type as well as donor related emission reappeared in the spectrum. The influence of GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of ZnO films was also discussed.

  12. Influence of arsenic flow on the crystal structure of epitaxial GaAs grown at low temperatures on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. L.; Imamov, R. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Trunkin, I. N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The influence of arsenic flow in a growth chamber on the crystal structure of GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 240°C on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates has been investigated. The flow ratio γ of arsenic As4 and gallium was varied in the range from 16 to 50. GaAs films were either undoped, or homogeneously doped with silicon, or contained three equidistantly spaced silicon δ-layers. The structural quality of the annealed samples has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It is established for the first time that silicon δ-layers in “low-temperature” GaAs serve as formation centers of arsenic precipitates. Their average size, concentration, and spatial distribution are estimated. The dependence of the film structural quality on γ is analyzed. Regions 100–150 nm in size have been revealed in some samples and identified (by X-ray microanalysis) as pores. It is found that, in the entire range of γ under consideration, GaAs films on (111)A substrates have a poorer structural quality and become polycrystalline beginning with a thickness of 150–200 nm.

  13. Next Generation Mid-Wave Infrared Cascaded Light Emitting Diodes: Growth of Broadband, Multispectral, and Single Color Devices on Gaas and Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provence, Sydney R.

    InAs/GaSb superlattices are an attractive material system for infrared light emitting diodes, due to the ability to tune the band gap throughout most of the infrared regime. A key consideration in the epitaxial growth of these heterostructures is crystalline material quality. In developing thick layers of epitaxially grown material, there are moderate amounts of elastic strain that can be incorporated into a heterostructure, beyond which deformations will form that will alleviate the lattice mismatch. This thesis investigates the optical and electronic properties of lattice-mismatched and strained materials through the study of thick dual-color light emitting diodes, broadband light emitting diodes, and InAs/GaSb superlattice devices developed on GaAs substrates and GaAs integrated circuits. A dual-color infrared light emitting diode is demonstrated emitting in the mid-wave infrared band at 3.81 mum and 4.72 mum. The design of the device stacks two independently operable InAs/GaSb superlattices structures on top of one another, so that 10 mum of material is grown with molecular beam epitaxy. Each layer is lattice-matched to a GaSb substrate. At quasi-continuous operation, radiances of 5.48 W/cm2-sr and 2.67 W/cm 2-sr are obtained. A broadband light emitting diode spanning the mid-wave infrared is demonstrated with eight stages of InAs/GaSb superlattices individually tuned to a different color. The performance of the device is compared with an identical eight stage device emitting in the middle of the mid-wave infrared. The emission of the fabricated broadband device spans from 3.2 ?m to 6 mum with peak radiance of 137.1 mW/cm2-sr. Growth of antimonide-based devices on GaAs is desirable to the relative transparency of semi-insulating substrates throughout the infrared, and as semi-insulating GaSb substrates are not available. The growth of bulk GaSb on GaAs is explored through different techniques in order to confine relaxation due to lattice mismatch strain to the

  14. Towards quantum dots on GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moesl, Johannes; Ludwig, Stefan [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Center for NanoScience, LMU Munich, Geschwister-Scholl- Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany); Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [TU Munich, Walter Schottky Institut, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); EPF, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires is an emergent research topic in the field of nanoelectronics, as they form an excellent building block for 0D and 1D applications and allow novel architectures and material combinations. We study electronic transport properties of catalyst-free MBE grown GaAs nanowires, p-doped at a number of different doping levels. Detailed characterization of the wires including electronic contacts fabricated by e-beam lithography and based on palladium or annealed zinc-silver alloys are discussed. Contact properties and a pronounced hysteresis of the current through the nanowires, as a backgate-voltage is swept, are explained within tentative models. In addition we present first transport measurements on quantum dots, which are defined electrostatically as well as by etched constrictions.

  15. GaAs LPE Growth Centrifuge - A Novel Facility to Produce High Purity GaAs Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterloher, Reinhard; Jakob, Gerd; Konuma, Mitsuharu; Haegel, Nancy; Haller, Eugene E.

    GaAs photoconductive detectors could extend the spectral response cut-off up to 300 μm. A continuous progress in material research has led to the production of pure, lightly and heavily doped n-type GaAs layers using the liquid phase epitaxy technique (LPE). Sample detectors demonstrated the expected infrared characteristics of bulk type devices. Modeling of BIB detector types predicts an improved IR sensitivity due to the attainable higher doping of the infrared sensitive layer, but gives also an estimate of the severe material requirements for the n-type blocking layer. With a new centrifugal technique for the LPE material growth we intend to achieve this goal: Contamination from outside during the LPE growth process is reduced by a suspension of the crucible on active magnetic bearings in a completely closed environment. Technical details of this unique equipment, first results of the achieved material quality in the initial growth runs and future steps to optimize operational parameters will be reported.

  16. Mosaic GaAs crystals for hard x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C.; Zanotti, L.; Zappettini, A.; Arumainathan, S.

    2008-08-01

    Recently the design of a Laue lens with field of view of 30 arcseconds and for x-rays in the energy range from 100 keV to 1 MeV has been proposed in which mosaic crystals are used as focussing elements. The proper mosaic angular spread is chosen as a compromise between intensity and energy resolution of the Laue lens. In the present work we consider the use of GaAs crystals as optical elements for hard x-ray astronomy. GaAs crystals have essentially the same electron density and lattice spacing as germanium, and are characterized by spontaneous formation of "cellular structures" with dislocations distribution at the boundaries between perfect zones of the crystal. Because of the presence of cellular structures Czochralsky grown GaAs show a natural degree of mosaicity. Several GaAs ingots grown by liquid encapsulating Czochralsky technique have been characterized by high resolution x-ray diffraction. Bragg diffraction profiles have been measured along ingot axes and diameters of doped, undoped or stoichiometry deviated GaAs crystals. Full width at half maximum values ranging from 15 to 40 arcseconds depending on the position were measured close to the proposed 30 arcsecond mosaicity required for the Laue lens. Appropriate growth conditions allow the control of the dislocation density and the modification of cellular structure responsible of the crystal mosaicity so that the possibility of obtaining crystals with a given degree of mosaicity by tuning the LEC growth conditions is proposed.

  17. Fabrication and electrical properties of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Shuai; Zhang, Xia; Yan, Xin; Chen, Xiong; Li, Liang; Cui, Jian-Gong; Huang, Yong-Qing; Ren, Xiao-Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the fabrications and characterizations of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays. The nanowires are grown on n-doped GaAs (111)B substrates using the Au-catalyzed vapor—liquid—solid mechanism by metal—organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Diethyl—zinc and silane are used as p- and n-type dopant precursors, respectively. Both the axial and radial diodes exhibit diode-like J—V characteristics and have similar performances under forward bias. Under backward bias, the axial diode has a large leakage current, which is attributed to the bending of the pn junction interface induced by two doping mechanisms in Au-catalyzed nanowires. The low leakage current and high rectification ratio make the radial diode more promising in electrical and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Axial pn-junctions formed by MOVPE using DEZn and TESn in vapor-liquid-solid grown GaAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolin, I.; Gutsche, C.; Lysov, A.; Blekker, K.; Li, Zi-An; Spasova, M.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on axial pn-junctions in GaAs nanowires. The nanowires were grown by MOVPE on (1 1 1)B GaAs substrates using the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism in combination with Au seed particles. At the low growth temperature of 400 °C any additional growth on the nanowire sidewalls can be excluded such that a pure axial pn-junction is realized. p-Type doping was provided by diethyl zinc, while tetraethyl tin was introduced for n-type doping. The impact of dopant supply was investigated both on structural properties and on carrier density. The carrier type was independently verified by processed nanowire metal-insulator FETs. The lengths of the whole pn-GaAs nanowires reach up to 20 μm while their diameters are up to a few 100 nm, as defined by the Au seed particles used. The pn-GaAs nanowire device exhibits diode-like I- V characteristics and strong electroluminescence. While the reverse current is in the low pA-regime, the forward current reaches a few μA, limited by the n-doped side. A diffusion voltage VD=1.4 V is determined, which corresponds to the GaAs band gap energy. To our knowledge this is the first axial GaAs pn-diode realized in a single GaAs nanowire.

  19. Wafer Bonding and Epitaxial Transfer of GaSb-based Epitaxy to GaAs for Monolithic Interconnection of Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A. Wang; D.A. Shiau; P.G. Murphy; P.W. O' brien; R.K. Huang; M.K. Connors; A.C. Anderson; D. Donetsky; S. Anikeev; G. Belenky; D.M. Depoy; G. Nichols

    2003-06-16

    GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb/InAsSb/GaSb epitaxial layers were bonded to semi-insulating GaAs handle wafers with SiO{sub x}/Ti/Au as the adhesion layer for monolithic interconnection of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. Epitaxial transfer was completed by removal of the GaSb substrate, GaSb buffer, and InAsSb etch-stop layer by selective chemical etching. The SiO{sub x}/TiAu provides not only electrical isolation, but also high reflectivity and is used as an internal back-surface reflector. Characterization of wafer-bonded epitaxy by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and time-decay photoluminescence indicates minimal residual stress and enhancement in optical quality. 0.54-eV GaInAsSb cells were fabricated and monolithically interconnected in series. A 10-junction device exhibited linear voltage building with an open-circuit voltage of 1.8 V.

  20. Ion-channeling studies of cubic GaN and In xGa 1 - xN on GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, J.; Haug, C.; Brenn, R.; Frey, T.; Schöttker, B.; As, D. J.

    1999-09-01

    Rutherford backscattering (RBS), dechanneling and angular scan measurements with 2 MeV 4He + ions have been performed to investigate molecular-beam epitaxially (MBE)-grown cubic GaN and In xGa 1 - xN layers on semi-insulating GaAs (0 0 1) substrates. The thickness of the epitaxial layers and the In concentration were determined by RBS, the crystalline quality by ion-channeling measurements. The predominant defect type was determined to be dislocations. Due to the lack of a perfect crystal we used an approximation for the minimum yield given by Lindhard and Barrett to normalize the measured minimum yields. The determined concentration of dislocations varies between 6×10 10 and 2.2×10 11 cm -2. Furthermore, a mosaic spread of crystallites was detected with angular scan measurements. Both the concentration of dislocations and the distribution of crystallite orientations do not show a significant dependence on the In concentration.

  1. Terahertz radiation on the base of accelerated charge carriers in GaAs; Terahertz-Strahlung auf der Basis beschleunigter Ladungstraeger in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyhaupt, Andre

    2008-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range between about 100 GHz and 5 THz can be used for spectroscopy and microscopy, but it is also promising for security screening and even wireless communication. In the present thesis a planar photoconducting large-area THz radiation source is presented. The device exhibits outstanding properties, in particular high THz field strength and generation efficiency and large spectral bandwidth with short THz pulse length. The THz emission is based on acceleration and deceleration of photoexcited carriers in semiconductor substrates. A metallic interdigitated structure at the surface of semi-insulating GaAs provides the electrodes of an Auston switch. In a biased structure photoexcited charge carriers are accelerated. Hence electromagnetic waves are emitted. An appropriately structured second metallization, electrically isolated from the electrodes, prevents destructive interference of the emitted waves. The structure investigated here combines several advantages of different conventional photoconducting THz sources. First, it provides high electric acceleration fields at moderate voltages owing to the small electrode separation. Second, the large active area in the mm2 range allows excitation by large optical powers of some mW. Optical excitation with near-infrared femtosecond lasers is possible with repetition rates in the GHz range. The presented results point out the excellent characteristics regarding the emitted THz field strength, average power, spectral properties, and easy handling of the interdigitated structure in comparison to various conventional emitter structures. Various modifications of the semiconductor substrate and the optimum excitation conditions were investigated. In the second part of this thesis the dynamic conductivity of GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As superlattices in an applied static electric field was investigated with time-resolved THz spectroscopy. The original goal was to explore whether the

  2. Focused ion beam fabrication of graded channel FET's in GaAs and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melngailis, John

    1987-06-01

    The focused ion beam is a unique semiconductor fabrication tool with many applications. Of these, markless/resistless implantation is perhaps the one with the greatest potential impact. It permits implant dose to be varied from point to point on a wafer. Thus, devices can be fabricated side by side with different doping densities, and the doping density can be varied from point to point within a device. Thus, lateral gradients of doping are possible. The aim of this contract is to produce field effect transistors in GaAs and Si with graded implants from source to drain. To achieve this, alignment procedures have to be developed to permit the focused ion beam implant to be positioned precisely relative to features fabricated by conventional means. In addition, models of the behavior of graded devices have to be developed.

  3. Photodetector fabrication by dielectrophoretic assembly of GaAs nanowires grown by a two-steps method

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Núñez, Carlos; Braña, Alejandro F.; López, Nair; Pau, José L.; García, Basilio J.

    2017-08-01

    GaAs nanowires (NWs) are promising advanced materials for the development of high performance photodetectors in the visible and infrared range. In this work, we optimize the epitaxial growth of GaAs NWs compared to conventional procedures, by introducing a novel two-steps growth method that exhibits an improvement of the resulting NW aspectratio and an enhancement of the NW growth rate. Moreover, we investigate the contactless manipulation of NWs using non-uniform electric fields to assemble a single GaAs NW on conductive electrodes, resulting in assembly yields above 90%/site and an alignment yields of around 95%. The electrical characteristics of the dielectrophoretic contact formed between the NW and the electrode have been measured, observing that the use of n-type Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as electrode material for NW alignment produces Schottky barrier contacts with the GaAs NW body. Moreover, our results show the fast fabrication of diodes with rectifying characteristics due to the formation of a low-resistance contact between the Ga catalytic droplet at the tip of the NW and the AZO electrode. The current-voltage measurements of a single GaAs NW diode under different illumination conditions show a strong light responsivity of the forward bias characteristic mainly produced by a change on the series resistance.

  4. Growth and characterization of Mn-doped cubic-GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Fumiyoshi [Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) and Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: fumi.takano@aist.go.jp; Ofuchi, Hironori [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Lee, JeungWoo [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Takita, Koki [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Akinaga, Hiro [Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) and Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    We report on the growth and characterization of Mn-doped cubic-GaN films. The n-type carriers, which are resulting from the formation of nitrogen vacancies, were intentionally utilized. For a 3% Mn sample with a high carrier density ({approx}1x10{sup 2} cm{sup -3}), we found substitutional Mn atoms on both the Ga-site and N-site, i.e. (Ga,Mn)N and Ga(N,Mn) exist together. A ferromagnetic behavior was observed in this sample at low temperature ({approx}5 K), although a 3% Mn semi-insulating sample in which Mn atoms substitute only the Ga-sites in the cubic-GaN lattice showed paramagnetism even at low temperature. The structural and magnetic properties of the relatively high Mn composition ({>=}5%) samples were found to be governed by precipitate clusters of antiferromagnetic GaMn{sub 3}N and ferromagnetic Mn{sub 4}N.

  5. The residual effects of germanium as an n-type dopant for GaAs during molecular beam epitaxial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-zhen; Milnes, A. G.

    1983-06-01

    In the molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs, the use of Ge as an n-type dopant results in a residual doping effect of the order of 10 16 cm -3, that can prevent the achievement of an abrupt doping change when the Ge effusion cell is shuttered. The extent of the problem is examined and it is shown that the parasitic doping may persist over a substantial part of a μm of growth under certain conditions. Interruption of the growth, with continued pumping of the growth chamber and maintenance of the arsenic flux, is found to be a method of minimizing the memory effect. From thermodynamic considerations it is suggested that the cause of the residual doping effect is a scavenging of Ge from the growth chamber in a series of reactions involving principally O 2, GeO, CO and As 2, C and H 2.

  6. GaAs Substrates for High-Power Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Georg; Berwian, Patrick; Buhrig, Eberhard; Weinert, Berndt

    GaAs substrate crystals with low dislocation density (Etch-Pit Density (EPD) ~10^18,^-3) are required for the epitaxial production of high-power diode-lasers. Large-size wafers (= 3 mathrm{in} -> >=3,) are needed for reducing the manufacturing costs. These requirements can be fulfilled by the Vertical Bridgman (VB) and Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) techniques. For that purpose we have developed proper VB/VGF furnaces and optimized the thermal as well as the physico-chemical process conditions. This was strongly supported by extensive numerical process simulation. The modeling of the VGF furnaces and processes was made by using a new computer code called CrysVUN++, which was recently developed in the Crystal Growth Laboratory in Erlangen.GaAs crystals with diameters of 2 and 3in were grown in pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN) crucibles having a small-diameter seed section and a conical part. Boric oxide was used to fully encapsulate the crystal and the melt. An initial silicon content in the GaAs melt of c (melt) = 3 x10^19,^-3 has to be used in order to achieve a carrier concentration of n = (0.8- 2) x10^18,^-3, which is the substrate specification of the device manufacturer of the diode-laser. The EPD could be reduced to values between 500,^-2 and 50,^-2 with a Si-doping level of 8 x10^17 to 1 x10^18,^-3. Even the 3in wafers have rather large dislocation-free areas. The lowest EPDs ( <100,^-2) are achieved for long seed wells of the crucible.

  7. Ultrafast properties of femtosecond-laser-ablated GaAs and its application to terahertz optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madéo, Julien; Margiolakis, Athanasios; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Hale, Peter J; Man, Michael K L; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Peng, Wei; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Dani, Keshav M

    2015-07-15

    We report on the first terahertz (THz) emitter based on femtosecond-laser-ablated gallium arsenide (GaAs), demonstrating a 65% enhancement in THz emission at high optical power compared to the nonablated device. Counter-intuitively, the ablated device shows significantly lower photocurrent and carrier mobility. We understand this behavior in terms of n-doping, shorter carrier lifetime, and enhanced photoabsorption arising from the ablation process. Our results show that laser ablation allows for efficient and cost-effective optoelectronic THz devices via the manipulation of fundamental properties of materials.

  8. Heterojunction Diodes and Solar Cells Fabricated by Sputtering of GaAs on Single Crystalline Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Silvestre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports fabrication details of heterojunction diodes and solar cells obtained by sputter deposition of amorphous GaAs on p-doped single crystalline Si. The effects of two additional process steps were investigated: A hydrofluoric acid (HF etching treatment of the Si substrate prior to the GaAs sputter deposition and a subsequent annealing treatment of the complete layered system. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM exploration of the interface reveals the formation of a few nanometer thick SiO2 interface layer and some crystallinity degree of the GaAs layer close to the interface. It was shown that an additional HF etching treatment of the Si substrate improves the short circuit current and degrades the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Furthermore, an additional thermal annealing step was performed on some selected samples before and after the deposition of an indium tin oxide (ITO film on top of the a-GaAs layer. It was found that the occurrence of surface related defects is reduced in case of a heat treatment performed after the deposition of the ITO layer, which also results in a reduction of the dark saturation current density and resistive losses.

  9. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  10. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David Emory [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies VGa. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1μm. Gallium vacancies, VGa, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 1019 cm-3 Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more AsGa in the layer. As AsGa increases, photoquenchable AsGa decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral AsGa content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed GaAs, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which AsGa-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to VGa enhanced diffusion of AsGa to As precipitates. The supersaturated VGa and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for AsGa-related defects gives 2.0 ± 0.3 eV and 1.5 ± 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the AsGa and VGa. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable AsGa-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 ± 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of AsGa-BeGa pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  11. Focused ion beam fabrication of graded channel FETs in GaAs and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melngailis, John

    1988-02-01

    The goal of this research is to exploit the novel capability of the focused ion beam to implant dopants whose density is a function of the lateral position. Thus, Field Effect Transistors in Gallium Arsenide and Silicon can be fabricated with a gradient of doping from source to drain. We have fabricated and tested such graded FET's in GaAs and have fabricated Si devices up to the point of focused ion beam implantation. In addition, programs for modeling the devices on the computer have been written. Recently, we have conceived and fabricated a new device: a tunable Gunn oscillator which makes use of doping gradients. To carry out these implantations, we have further developed the performance of our focused ion beam machine.

  12. Homojunction GaAs solar cells grown by close space vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Jason W. [University of Oregon; Ritenour, Andrew J. [University of Oregon; Greenaway, Ann L. [University of Oregon; Aloni, Shaul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Boettcher, Shannon W. [University of Oregon

    2014-06-08

    We report on the first pn junction solar cells grown by homoepitaxy of GaAs using close space vapor transport (CSVT). Cells were grown both on commercial wafer substrates and on a CSVT absorber film, and had efficiencies reaching 8.1%, open circuit voltages reaching 909 mV, and internal quantum efficiency of 90%. The performance of these cells is partly limited by the electron diffusion lengths in the wafer substrates, as evidenced by the improved peak internal quantum efficiency in devices fabricated on a CSVT absorber film. Unoptimized highly-doped n-type emitters also limit the photocurrent, indicating that thinner emitters with reduced doping, and ultimately wider band gap window or surface passivation layers, are required to increase the efficiency.

  13. Spin- and Energy Relaxation of Hot Electrons at GaAs Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Torsten; Hiebbner, Kevin; Schneider, Hans Christian; Aeschlimann, Martin

    The mechanisms for spin relaxation in semiconductors are reviewed, and the mechanism prevalent in p-doped semiconductors, namely spin relaxation due to the electron-hole exchange interaction, or Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism, is presented in some depth. It is shown that the solution of Boltzmann-type kinetic equations allows one to obtain quantitative results for spin relaxation in semiconductors that go beyond the original Bir-Aronov-Pikus relaxation-rate approximation. Experimental results using surface-sensitive two-photon photoemission techniques show that the relaxation time of the electron spin polarization in p-doped GaAs at a semiconductor/metal surface is several times longer than the corresponding bulk spin-relaxation times. A theoretical explanation of these results in terms of the reduced density of holes in the band-bending region at the surface is presented.

  14. Si diffusion in GaAs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Theoretical studies are carried out to ascertain the dominant mechanism of Si diffusion in GaAs. Lattice dynamical model calculations have shown that the most probable diffusion mechanism is through a single vacancy even though several experiments cannot fix the mechanism as substitutional, substitutional–.

  15. Gigant Eesti Gaas razdajot seti / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Gaas sõlmis firmadega, mis on aastate jooksul ehitanud kümneid kilomeetreid gaasitrasse, tähtajatud lepingud. Nüüd on viieteistkümnel firmal gaasijagamise litsents. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi kavandatavatest muutustest gaasi müümisel ja transportimisel. Kaart

  16. P-type Ge epitaxy on GaAs (100) substrate grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y.J.; Chia, C.K.; Liu, H.F.; Wong, L.M.; Chai, J.W.; Chi, D.Z.; Wang, S.J., E-mail: sj-wang@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The heterogeneous integration of p-Ge/GaAs by MOCVD indicates significance for the application in optoelectronic devices such as p-MOSFET, dual band photodetector, etc. • Many undesired pillar-structures were observed on the p-Ge epilayers and we found that the cause of the pillar-like structures was related to the Ge-Ga dimers formed during the growth. • We found that a GaAs substrate with fewer Ga or Ge danglings was helpful in suppressing the formation of the unwanted pillar-like structures and thus obtaining high quality p-Ge epilayers. - Abstract: In this work, Ga-doped Geranium (Ge) films have been grown on GaAs (100) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Undesired pillar structures have been observed on the epilayers prepared at relatively lower temperatures. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicated that the pillars are mainly consisted of Ga atoms, which is totally different from that of the Ge film. It was demonstrated that the pillar structures could be reduced by simply raising the growth temperature while keeping the other growth conditions unchanged. In this regard, the growth mechanism of the pillars was related to the Ge-Ga dimers formed during the growth of p-Ge films. By further studying the influence of a GaAs or Ge buffer layer on the growth of p-Ge layers, we found that the GaAs substrate with lower density of Ga or Ge dangling bonds was helpful in suppressing the formation of the undesired pillar structures.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures grown on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangir, R., E-mail: ravindrajangir@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Ganguli, Tapas; Tiwari, Pragya [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Porwal, S. [Semiconductor Laser Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Srivastava, Himanshu; Rai, S.K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Khattak, B.Q. [Accelerator Components Fabrication Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Oak, S.M. [Semiconductor Laser Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

    2011-09-01

    {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures including nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets were synthesized via thermal annealing of gold coated GaAs substrates in N{sub 2} ambient. GaAs substrates with different dopants were taken as the starting material to study the effect of doping on the growth and photoluminescence properties of {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures. The nanostructures were investigated by Grazing Incident X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence and optical absorbance. The selected area electron diffraction and High resolution-TEM observations suggest that both nanowires and nanobelts are single crystalline. Different growth directions were observed for nanowires and nanoribbons, indicating the different growth patterns of these nanostructures. The PL spectra of {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures exhibit a strong UV-blue emission band centered at 410 nm, 415 nm and 450 nm for differently doped GaAs substrates respectively. A weak red luminescence peak at 710 nm was also observed in all the samples. The optical absorbance spectrum showed intense absorption features in the UV spectral region. The growth and luminescence mechanism in {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures are also discussed.

  18. Electronic dynamics due to exchange interaction with holes in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hans Christian; Krauß, Michael

    2010-02-01

    We present an investigation of electron-spin dynamics in p-doped bulk GaAs due to the electron-hole exchange interaction, aka the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism. We discuss under which conditions a spin relaxation times for this mechanism is, in principle, accessible to experimental techniques, in particular to 2-photon photoemission, but also Faraday/Kerr effect measurements. We give numerical results for the spin relaxation time for a range of p-doping densities and temperatures. We then go beyond the relaxation time approximation and calculate numerically the spin-dependent electron dynamics by including the spin-flip electron-hole exchange scattering and spin-conserving carrier Coulomb scattering at the level of Boltzmann scattering integrals. We show that the electronic dynamics deviates from the simple spin-relaxation dynamics for electrons excited at high energies where the thermalization does not take place faster than the spin relaxation time. We also present a derivation of the influence of screening on the electron-hole exchange scattering and conclude that it can be neglected for the case of GaAs, but may become important for narrow-gap semiconductors.

  19. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ∼10{sup 7 }cm{sup −2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  20. High Growth Rate Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy for the Fabrication of GaAs Space Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, A.; Newman, F.; Monier, C.; Street, S.; Dargan, P.; Levy, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work it is shown that high quality GaAs photovoltaic devices can be produced by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) with growth rates comparable to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through the subsitution of group III solid sources by metal-organic compounds. The influence the III/V flux-ratio and growth temperatures in maintaining a two dimensional layer by layer growth mode and achieving high growth rates with low residual background impurities is investigated. Finally subsequent to the study of the optimization of n- and p doping of such high growth rate epilayers, results from a preliminary attempt in the fabrication of GaAs photovoltaic devices such as tunnel diodes and solar cells using the proposed high growth rate approach are reported.

  1. Precise analytical model for short channel Cylindrical Gate (CylG) Gate-All-Around (GAA) MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dheeraj; Vishvakarma, Santosh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    A compact analytical model is presented for device electrostatics of nanoscale Cylindrical Gate (CylG) Gate-All-Around (GAA) MOSFET, using isomorphic polynomial function for potential distribution. The model is based on solutions of 3D Laplace and Poisson's equations for subthreshold and strong inversion region respectively. In this paper, the short-channel effects are precisely accounted for by introducing z dependent characteristic length and the developed electrostatics is tested against analysis of crossover point for device under test. Further, the modeled subthreshold slope for lightly doped CylG GAA MOSFET has been improved by introducing z dependent characteristic length and the position of minimum center potential in the channel is obtained by virtual cathode position. A new model is proposed for threshold voltage, based on shifting of inversion charge from center line to silicon insulator interface.

  2. Arsene GaAs solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, L.; Caon, A.; Contini, R.; Daccolti, G.; Rossi, E.; Verzeni, G.; Bollani, B.; Flores, C.; Paletta, F.; Passoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    The GaAs solar array of ARSENE, a radioamateur spin stabilized spacecraft, is presented. The solar array uses typical Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) solar cells and consists of six body mounted solar panels; each panel comprises an aluminum honeycomb substrate with aluminum skins insulated on the active area. For the qualification and acceptance of the ARSENE solar array, an engineering solar panel was submitted to the qualification tests including thermal vacuum, thermal shocks. The flight units are submitted to the thermal vacuum test. The final acceptance tests include rotational, acoustic and vibration tests performed at satellite level. Predicted power output, GaAs solar cell manufacturing, solar panel assembly and testing are discussed.

  3. Characteristic measurement for femtosecond laser pulses using a GaAs PIN photodiode as a two-photon photovoltaic receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junbao; Xia, Wei; Wang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Photodiodes that exhibit a two-photon absorption effect within the spectral communication band region can be useful for building an ultra-compact autocorrelator for the characteristic inspection of optical pulses. In this work, we develop an autocorrelator for measuring the temporal profile of pulses at 1550 nm from an erbium-doped fiber laser based on the two-photon photovoltaic (TPP) effect in a GaAs PIN photodiode. The temporal envelope of the autocorrelation function contains two symmetrical temporal side lobes due to the third order dispersion of the laser pulses. Moreover, the joint time-frequency distribution of the dispersive pulses and the dissimilar two-photon response spectrum of GaAs and Si result in different delays for the appearance of the temporal side lobes. Compared with Si, GaAs displays a greater sensitivity for pulse shape reconstruction at 1550 nm, benefiting from the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the side lobes and the more centralized waveform of the autocorrelation trace. We also measure the pulse width using the GaAs PIN photodiode, and the resolution of the measured full width at half maximum of the TPP autocorrelation trace is 0.89 fs, which is consistent with a conventional second-harmonic generation crystal autocorrelator. The GaAs PIN photodiode is shown to be highly suitable for real-time second-order autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses. It is used both for the generation and detection of the autocorrelation signal, allowing the construction of a compact and inexpensive intensity autocorrelator.

  4. Effects of surface reconstruction on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb on GaAs using interfacial misfit array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Bo Wen, E-mail: jiab0001@e.ntu.edu.sg; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Low-defected GaSb and InSb were grown on GaAs by MBE using interfacial misfit dislocations. • X-ray reciprocal space mapping can be used to characterize misfit dislocations at the III-Sb/GaAs interface. • Uniform interfacial misfit dislocation array were observed by TEM and x-ray RSM. • (2 × 8) pre-growth Sb reconstruction promoted the formation of 90° misfit dislocations at the III-Sb/GaAs interface. • The electron mobility in GaSb and InSb layers on GaAs can be enhanced through optimizing pre-growth Sb reconstruction. - Abstract: The effects of pre-growth Sb reconstruction on a GaAs surface on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb (GaSb and InSb) on a (100) GaAs substrate using interfacial misfit array were investigated. All samples exhibited smooth surface with a root mean square (r.m.s.) roughness below 1.5 nm and nearly 100% relaxation. Modeling indicated that the distribution and types of misfit dislocations can be evaluated using a reciprocal space map (RSM) of the x-ray measurements. The interfacial misfit (IMF) arrays in III-Sb/GaAs samples were characterized by RSMs of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RSM results suggest that all samples exhibited highly uniformly distributed misfit dislocations, and pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb surface reconstruction promoted the formation of 90° dislocations in an IMF array. Hall measurements of unintentionally doped GaSb and InSb layers also suggested that the highest motilities at both 77 K and 300 K were achieved at the samples grown on GaAs with pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb reconstruction.

  5. Piezoelectric field in strained GaAs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wieczorek, Sebastian Maciej

    2005-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the piezoelectric field in strained bulk GaAs. The bound charge distribution is calculated and suitable electrode configurations are proposed for (1) uniaxial and (2) biaxial strain. The screening of the piezoelectric field is studied for different impurity concentrations and sample lengths. Electric current due to the piezoelectric field is calculated for the cases of (1) fixed strain and (2) strain varying in time at a constant rate.

  6. Terahertz-radiation generation and detection in low-temperature-grown GaAs epitaxial films on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B.; Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Buriakov, A. M.; Bilyk, V. R.; Mishina, E. D. [Moscow Technological University “MIREA” (Russian Federation); Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The efficiency of the generation and detection of terahertz radiation in the range up to 3 THz by LT-GaAs films containing equidistant Si doping δ layers and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) and (111)Ga substrates is studied by terahertz spectroscopy. Microstrip photoconductive antennas are fabricated on the film surface. Terahertz radiation is generated by exposure of the antenna gap to femtosecond optical laser pulses. It is shown that the intensity of terahertz radiation from the photoconductive antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga is twice as large as the intensity of a similar antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) and the sensitivity of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga as a terahertz-radiation detector exceeds that of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) by a factor of 1.4.

  7. Airway smooth muscle dysfunction in Pompe (Gaa-/- ) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Allison M; Liu, Donghai; Zieger, Marina; Xiong, Lang; Salemi, Jeffrey; Bellvé, Karl; Byrne, Barry J; Fuller, David D; ZhuGe, Ronghua; ElMallah, Mai K

    2017-06-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA), an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing lysosomal glycogen. Deficiency of GAA leads to systemic glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of skeletal muscle, motor neurons, and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle and motor neuron pathology are known to contribute to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, but the role of airway pathology has not been evaluated. Here we propose that GAA enzyme deficiency disrupts the function of the trachea and bronchi and this lower airway pathology contributes to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease. Using an established mouse model of Pompe disease, the Gaa-/- mouse, we compared histology, pulmonary mechanics, airway smooth muscle (ASM) function, and calcium signaling between Gaa-/- and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. Lysosomal glycogen accumulation was observed in the smooth muscle of both the bronchi and the trachea in Gaa-/- but not WT mice. Furthermore, Gaa-/- mice had hyporesponsive airway resistance and bronchial ring contraction to the bronchoconstrictive agents methacholine (MCh) and potassium chloride (KCl) and to a bronchodilator (albuterol). Finally, calcium signaling during bronchiolar smooth muscle contraction was impaired in Gaa-/- mice indicating impaired extracellular calcium influx. We conclude that GAA enzyme deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the trachea and bronchi and impairs the ability of lower ASM to regulate calcium and respond appropriately to bronchodilator or constrictors. Accordingly, ASM dysfunction may contribute to respiratory impairments in Pompe disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor planar junctions of aluminium on DELTA-doped gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas; Kutchinsky, jonatan

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated and characterized planar superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor (S-Sm-S) junctions with a high quality (i.e. low barrier) interface between an n++ modulation doped conduction layer in MBE grown GaAs and in situ deposited Al electrodes. The Schottky barrier at the S...

  9. Direct observation of doping incorporation pathways in self-catalytic GaMnAs nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Thuvander, M.; Siusys, A.

    2015-01-01

    Doping mechanisms of Mn in GaAs nanowires (NWs) that have been grown self-catalytically at 600 degrees C by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated using advanced electron microscopy techniques and atom probe tomography, Mn is found to be incorporated primarily in the form of non-magnetic t...

  10. Ruthenium related deep-level defects in n-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naz, Nazir A., E-mail: nazir_phys@yahoo.co [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, G-7/1, Islamabad (Pakistan); Qurashi, Umar S.; Majid, A.; Zafar Iqbal, M. [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-12-15

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to investigate deep levels in n-type Ru-doped GaAs grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). DLTS scans over a wide temperature range (12-470 K) reveal two prominent deep-level peaks associated with Ru, when compared with control samples with no deliberate Ru-doping. The well-known mid-gap defect EL2 is also observed in these scans. The Ru-related deep levels, Ru1 and Ru2, correspond to energy positions E{sub c}-0.46 eV and E{sub c}-0.57 eV in the upper-half-bandgap of GaAs. No prominent deep levels associated with Ru are observed in the lower half-bandgap in the injection DLTS spectra; only the three inadvertent levels already present in the as-grown, control material are observed in these spectra. Although a possible Ru-related peak may be present with a rather small concentration in these injection DLTS spectra, it is difficult to clearly identify this peak also present in the control (as-grown, without Ru) samples at a closely similar position. Interestingly, doping with Ru reveals an interesting significant suppression of the pre-existing deep levels, including EL2. Detailed emission rate signatures are presented for the Ru-related deep levels and analyzed to obtain the relevant deep-level characteristics. Both Ru1 and Ru2 are found to show strong dependence on electric field, as demonstrated by the shift in the corresponding DLTS peak positions with the applied reverse bias during electron emission.

  11. Structural and morphological TEM characterization of GaAs based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, Marcello

    2012-02-03

    The question of a structural and morphological characterization of GaAs based nanowires is the research interest of this thesis. For this purpose standard and analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed. New investigation methodologies are introduced in order to obtain a reliable interpretation of the results. The principal motivation on developing a new investigation method is the necessity to relate the results of crystal structure and morphology characterizations to microscopic and NW-specific parameters and not to macroscopic and general growth parameters. This allows a reliable comparison of NW characteristics and enhances the comprehension of their growth mechanism.The analysis of the results on crystal structure investigations, assuming this new perspective, delivers the fundamental finding that the axial growth of Au-assisted GaAs NWs can change in a pseudo Ga-assisted growth due to a non steady-state regime of the Ga accumulation process in the liquid droplet. The attempt to associate the observed crystal structures to one of these two growth modes reveals that zinc blende segments are most probably generated when a pseudo Ga-assisted growth occurs. This experimental evidence is in accordance with investigations developed by Glas et al. and Spirkoska et al. and with the current understanding of the NW growth mechanism and unifies the interpretation of catalytic growth of GaAs NWs. A Mn doped GaAs shell deposited at low temperature on core GaAs NWs is characterized for the first time. The growth is found to be epitaxial and to confer the quality of the core crystal to the shell crystal. As a consequence a high stacking fault density of the core NW limits the temperature of the shell growth due to the formation of clusters. Cross sections of (Ga,Mn)As shells are investigated. Simple kinetic and thermodynamical considerations lead to the conclusion of morphological instability of the low temperature radial growth. Analytical

  12. Airplane dopes and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  13. Shallow Levels Characterization in Epitaxial GaAs by Acousto-Optic Reflectance Shallow Levels Characterization in Epitaxial GaAs by Acousto-Optic Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Ibarra-Manzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical spectra of light reflection are detected under an influence of ultrasonic wave (UWon a GaAs wafer. The differential spectrum is calculated as a difference between those taken under UW and without that influence on a sample. This acousto-optic differential reflectance(AODR spectrum contains some bands that represent the energetic levels of the shallow centers in a sample. A physical basis of this technique is related to a perturbation of local states by UW. Here, a method is developed for characterization of local states at the surfaces and interfaces in crystals and low-dimensional epitaxial structures based on microelectronics materials. A theoretical model is presented to explain AODR spectra. Also, experiments using epitaxial GaAs structures doped by Te were made. Finally, theoretical and experimental results show that acousto-optic reflectance is an effective tool for characterization of shallow trapping centers in epitaxial semiconductor structures.En este trabajo, utilizamos el espectro de la luz reflejada en una muestra de Arsenuro de Galio (GaAs bajo la influencia de una onda ultrasónica. El diferencial espectral es calculado como una diferencia entre el espectro del material obtenido bajo la influencia del ultrasonido y aquél obtenido sin dicha influencia. Este diferencial de reflectancia espectral acusto-óptico (AODR contiene algunas bandas que representan los niveles energéticos de los centros en la superficie de la muestra. Esta técnica está basada en la perturbación de los estados locales generada por el ultrasonido. Particularmente, este trabajo presenta un método para caracterizar los estados locales en la superficie y las interfaces en los cristales, así como estructuras epiteliales de baja dimensión basadas en materiales semiconductores. Para ello, se presenta un modelo teórico para explicar dicho espectro de reflectancia diferencial (AODR. También se realizaron experimentos con estructuras de GaAs epitelial

  14. Doped Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David J. Norris; Alexander L. Efros; Steven C. Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The critical role that dopants play in semiconductor devices has stimulated research on the properties and the potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals, or colloidal quantum dots, doped...

  15. Focused ion beam fabrication of graded channel FET's (Field Effect Transistors) in GaAs and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melngailis, John J.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of this program is to fabricate field effect transistors in Silicon and GaAs in which the doping in the channel is varied as a function of distance from source to drain. The focused ion beam machine is a unique tool which is capable of producing such graded implants. In achieving this goal alignment procedures of the focused ion beam to existing features on the wafer have to be developed, and the focused ion beam implants must be characterized and compared to conventional implants. In addition, models of the behavior of the graded channel devices must be developed.

  16. Spin noise spectroscopy in GaAs (110) quantum wells: access to intrinsic spin lifetimes and equilibrium electron dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Georg M; Römer, Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; Hübner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael

    2008-11-14

    In this Letter, the first spin noise spectroscopy measurements in semiconductor systems of reduced effective dimensionality are reported. The nondemolition measurement technique gives access to the otherwise concealed intrinsic, low temperature electron spin relaxation time of n-doped GaAs (110) quantum wells and to the corresponding low temperature anisotropic spin relaxation. The Brownian motion of the electrons within the spin noise probe laser spot becomes manifest in a modification of the spin noise line width. Thereby, the spatially resolved observation of the stochastic spin polarization uniquely allows to study electron dynamics at equilibrium conditions with a vanishing total momentum of the electron system.

  17. Establishment of equilibrium of electrostatic potential by photo-irradiation in a GaAs quantum well at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masumi; Nomura, Shintaro; Delbecq, Matthieu; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Akazaki, Tatsushi, E-mail: m-yama@will.brl.ntt.co.j [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT corp. 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    We measured photoluminescence (PL) spectra from a 20-nm GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) grown on an n-type substrate by selectively exciting the GaAs at 2 K. We observed a two-stage change of PL spectra as a function of the total amount of photo-irradiation (p x t) after cooling down. This corresponds to the process of establishing the equilibrium of electrostatic potential between the sample surface and QW and between the QW and n-doped substrate.

  18. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  19. Optical pumping of hot phonons in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, C.L.; Yu, P.Y.

    1982-06-30

    Optical pumping of hot LO phonons in GaAs has been studied as a function of the excitation photon frequency. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model calculation which includes both inter- and intra-valley electron-phonon scatterings. The GAMMA-L and GAMMA-X intervalley electron-phonon interactions in GaAs have been estimated.

  20. Polarization and charge limit studies of strained GaAs photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    This thesis presents studies on the polarization and charge limit behavior of electron beams produced by strained GaAs photocathodes. These photocathodes are the source of high-intensity, high-polarization electron beams used for a variety of high-energy physics experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Recent developments on P-type, biaxially-strained GaAs photocathodes have produced longitudinal polarization in excess of 80% while yielding beam intensities of {approximately} 2.5 A/cm{sup 2} at an operating voltage of 120 kV. The SLAC Gun Test Laboratory, which has a replica of the SLAC injector, was upgraded with a Mott polarimeter to study the polarization properties of photocathodes operating in a high-voltage DC gun. Both the maximum beam polarization and the maximum charge obtainable from these photocathodes have shown a strong dependence on the wavelength of illumination, on the doping concentration, and on the negative electron affinity levels. The experiments performed for this thesis included studying the effects of temperature, cesiation, quantum efficiency, and laser intensity on the polarization of high-intensity beams. It was found that, although low temperatures have been shown to reduce the spin relaxation rate in bulk semiconductors, they don`t have a large impact on the polarization of thin photocathodes. It seems that the short active region in thin photocathodes does not allow spin relaxation mechanisms enough time to cause depolarization. Previous observations that lower QE areas on the photocathode yield higher polarization beams were confirmed. In addition, high-intensity, small-area laser pulses were shown to produce lower polarization beams. Based on these results, together with some findings in the existing literature, a new proposal for a high-intensity, high-polarization photocathode is given. It is hoped that the results of this thesis will promote further investigation on the properties of GaAs photocathodes.

  1. Resolution characteristics of graded doping and graded composition reflection-mode AlGaAs/GaAs photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjuan; Zhang, Daoli; Zou, Jijun; Peng, Xincun; Wang, Weilu; Zhang, Yijun; Chang, Benkang

    2015-11-01

    The resolution model of graded doping and graded composition reflection-mode AlGaAs/GaAs photocathode is solved numerically from the two-dimensional continuity equations. According to the model, the theoretical modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of different structure reflection-mode photocathodes were calculated, and the effects of doping concentration, Al composition, AlGaAs and GaAs layer thickness on the resolution of cathodes were analyzed. The simulation results show that both graded composition and graded doping structures can increase the resolution of photocathode, and the effect of graded composition structure is more pronounced. The resolution improvement is attributed to the built-in electric field induced by a graded composition or doping structure. The simulation results also show that the MTFs of cathodes are affected by the AlGaAs and GaAs layer thickness.

  2. Effects of substrates on Raman spectroscopy in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene transferred with poly (methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yangyang; Sun, Hengchao; Yan, Hui; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Yongzhe; Song, Xue Mei; Jia, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Graphene on copper foil produced through chemical vapor deposition has been transferred to different substrates and the Raman signatures from graphene on semi-insulating GaAs, n-GaAs, SiO2 (300 nm)/Si, boron-doped Si, phosphorus-doped Si have been studied. It is found that all the material varieties, morphology and lattice of substrates can influence the Raman scattering spectra from graphene. The obtained results are important for nanometrology of graphene and graphene based devices.

  3. Analytical model of threshold voltage degradation due to localized charges in gate material engineered Schottky barrier cylindrical GAA MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    The threshold voltage degradation due to the hot carrier induced localized charges (LC) is a major reliability concern for nanoscale Schottky barrier (SB) cylindrical gate all around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The degradation physics of gate material engineered (GME)-SB-GAA MOSFETs due to LC is still unexplored. An explicit threshold voltage degradation model for GME-SB-GAA-MOSFETs with the incorporation of localized charges (N it) is developed. To accurately model the threshold voltage the minimum channel carrier density has been taken into account. The model renders how +/- LC affects the device subthreshold performance. One-dimensional (1D) Poisson’s and 2D Laplace equations have been solved for two different regions (fresh and damaged) with two different gate metal work-functions. LCs are considered at the drain side with low gate metal work-function as N it is more vulnerable towards the drain. For the reduction of carrier mobility degradation, a lightly doped channel has been considered. The proposed model also includes the effect of barrier height lowering at the metal-semiconductor interface. The developed model results have been verified using numerical simulation data obtained by the ATLAS-3D device simulator and excellent agreement is observed between analytical and simulation results.

  4. Improvement in GAAS device yield and performance through substrate defect gettering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. J.; Peng, J.; Ormond, R.; Armistead, R. A.; Malbon, M.; Evans, C. A., Jr.

    1980-06-01

    The use of mechanically produced, back surface damage as a means of gettering impurities and defects in GaAs wafers has been investigated. Comparative analyses have been done on both ion implantation and mechanical back surface damage gettering techniques. The increased thermal stability of mechanically produced damage has shown ion implantation techniques to be less effective for gettering over long anneal periods at elevated temperatures. Stress gradients produced by graded dislocation distributions produce reductions in front surface defect concentrations and effective gettering of Au and Cr at the back surfaces. Thermal stability times of back surface damage at anneal temperatures of 700-800 C is typically on the order of 2 - 3 hours, corresponding to the point at which major back surface microstructural damage is largely annealed. Increases in the thermal stability period were attained by encapsulating the back surface with an As-doped SiO2 layer. Gettering of Cr by back surface damage was also investigated at low temperatures (300 C - 400 C) for anneal periods of 10 - 300 hrs. Measurable concentrations of Cr were detected with the process characterized by an activation energy of approximately 0.88 eV and a time dependent term, exp (theta square root of t). Using the developed gettering procedures, FET structures were fabricated on VPE layers on pregettered GaAs wafers. Dramatic improvements in yield per wafer, noise figures at higher frequencies and input capacitance values were obtained on "inscreened" wafers processed through a normal fabrication line.

  5. Thermostimulated THz Radiation Emission of GaAs at Surface Plasmon-Phonon Polariton Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundas ŠIRMULIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The THz radiation reflection, absorption and emission spectra of conductive n-GaAs/air surface are considered. The influence of thermostimulated surface plasmon-phonon (SPP polariton oscillations on THz radiation reflection, absorption and emission of high conductivity GaAs polished plates with electron density n = 7∙1017 cm–3 and 4∙1018 cm–3 and thickness of 350 mm is studied experimentally. The frequencies of thermostimulated transverse and longitudinal optical phonons and SPP oscillations, which characterize a heated lattice state, were determined. It is found that the heated highly doped interface layer (GaAs/air emits the THz radiation at selected frequencies of SPP oscillations in the (7 – 8 THz and (10 – 15 THz ranges. It is shown that thermal heating of the GaAs/air interface enhances the absorption of the incident THz radiation. The huge decrease of the incident radiation reflectivity at the SPP frequencies with an increase of GaAs temperature is observed experimentally. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.6318

  6. Electrical, optical, and analytical characterization of bulk hydrothermal ZnO crystals doped with indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Baran, M.; Mycielski, A.; Kochanowska, D.; Witkowska, B.; Kaliszek, W.; JakieŁa, R.; łusakowska, E.; Domukhovski, V.; Weģrzycki, M.

    2011-04-01

    The communication describes our research on a technique of making electrical contacts to semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te crystals for radiation detector applications. Since the electrical contacts made by deposition of Au directly onto the (Cd,Mn)Te surface turned out to be unreproducible, and the contacts made by deposition of monocrystalline layers of heavily doped semiconductors were unpractical for applications, our investigations were focused on the amorphous contact layers. The amorphous layers of heavily doped ZnTe:Sb or CdTe:In were evaporated on the "epi-ready" surfaces of good-quality, high-resistivity (108-1010 Ω cm) single crystals of (Cd,Mn)Te. The evaporation was carried out in the medium-high vacuum of about 10 -7 Torr. For electrical connections the amorphous contact layers were covered by an evaporated Au top layer. We investigated, the effect of thickness of the amorphous layer on the functioning of the contact. At the moment 1 μm thickness seems to be satisfactory.

  7. Free standing modulation doped core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirkoska, Dance; Dufouleur, Joseph; Xie, Qiushi [Walter Schottky Institut, Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Walter Schottky Institut, Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire des Materiaux Semiconducteurs, Institut des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Abstreiter, Gerhard [Walter Schottky Institut, Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institut for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Modulation doped AlGaAs/GaAs core-shell nanowire structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A Si delta-doping was introduced in the AlGaAs shell around the {l_brace}110{r_brace} facets of the GaAs core. The wires are typically highly resistive at low temperatures. However, they show a pronounced persistent photoconductivity effect indicating activation of free carriers from the delta-doped shell to the GaAs core. The n-type character of the channel is demonstrated by applying a back-gate voltage. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors with Semi-Insulated Gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    insulating substrate. Ohmic source and drain contacts of width Z are placed as shown. Between them is a Schottky barrier “gate” of l ength ~,. In norma ...in this manner is given in Figure 22. FETs were fabricated from this material using two different procedures. Both are essential l y the norma l...Forward, and H. L. Hartnagel , App l . Phys. Lett. 26, 569 (1975). 3. a. R. Pr un iaux , J. C. North , and A. V. Payer, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED

  9. Optical gain and large-signal characteristics of illuminated GaAs MESFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert B.; Uyemura, John P.

    1987-07-01

    The illuminated large-signal characteristics of a uniformly doped epitaxial GaAs MESFET have been measured when optically gated with an He-Ne laser source. The dependence of the measured optical gains on the applied electrical biases and optical intensity, position, and spot size indicate that the dominant dc gain mechanisms are transit time photoconductivity combined with an effective photovoltaic change in the pinchoff voltage. The photovoltaic change in the pinchoff voltage dominates for high optical power levels, while the photoconductive response dominates for low power levels. Optical gains in the range of 5-10 were measured for the photoconductive regime, while gains in the range of 50-70 were measured for the photovoltaic regime.

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy of cubic III-nitrides on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    As, D.J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy has successfully been used to grow crystalline layers of group III-nitrides (GaN, AlN and InN) with cubic (zinc-blende) structure on GaAs substrates. In this article, we discuss these efforts that, despite inherent difficulties due to the metastability of the c-III nitrides, led to substantial improvements of the structural, electrical and optical quality of these wide gap semiconductors. We review experimental work concerned with the epitaxy of c-GaN and the control of the growth process in-situ, the important issue of p- and n-type doping of c-GaN and investigations of the structural and optical properties of c-InGaN and c-AlGaN. (orig.)

  11. An analytical modeling approach for a gate all around (GAA) tunnel field effect transistor (TFET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Rakhi; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, R. S.; Gupta, Mridula

    2012-10-01

    An analytical model for a gate all around (GAA) Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) having circular and square cross section geometry has been proposed in this work describing the important device electrostatic parameters i.e. Surface Potential, Electric Field and Energy Band profile. Further, the model is extended for both a p-i-n and p-n-p-n architecture keeping in view the advantages offered by a p-n-p-n architecture (also known as tunnel source or halo doped TFET) over a p-i-n based TFET. The results obtained from the model have been validated with results obtained through Silvaco ATLAS 3D device simulation software.

  12. Nitrogen-concentration control in GaNAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using nitrogen δ-doping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mano, Takaaki; Jo, Masafumi; Kuroda, Takashi; Noda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Elborg, Martin; Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan and Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    GaNAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with nitrogen δ-doping were fabricated on GaAs (100) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High controllability of nitrogen-concentrations in the MQWs was achieved by tuning nitrogen δ-doping time. The maximum nitrogen concentration in the MQWs was 2.8%. The MQWs exhibit intense, narrow photoluminescence emission.

  13. Measuring the magnetic-field-dependent chemical potential of a low-density three-dimensional electron gas in n -GaAs and extracting its magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Aditya N.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report the magnetic-field-dependent shift of the electron chemical potential in bulk, n -type GaAs at room temperature. A transient voltage of ˜100 μ V was measured across a Au-Al2O3 -GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor in a pulsed magnetic field of ˜6 T . Several spurious voltages larger than the signal that had plagued earlier researchers performing similar experiments were carefully eliminated. The itinerant magnetic susceptibility of GaAs is extracted from the experimentally measured data for four different doping densities, including one as low as 5 ×1015cm-3 . Though the susceptibility in GaAs is dominated by Landau-Peierls diamagnetism, the experimental technique demonstrated can be a powerful tool for extracting the total free carrier magnetization of any electron system. The method is also virtually independent of the carrier concentration and is expected to work better in the nondegenerate limit. Such experiments had been successfully performed in two-dimensional electron gases at cryogenic temperatures. However, an unambiguous report on having observed this effect in any three-dimensional electron gas has been lacking. We highlight the 50 year old literature of various trials and discuss the key details of our experiment that were essential for its success. The technique can be used to unambiguously yield only the itinerant part of the magnetic susceptibility of complex materials such as magnetic semiconductors and hexaborides, and thus shed light on the origin of ferromagnetism in such systems.

  14. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Jason [University of Oregon; Ritenour, Andrew [University of Oregon; Boettcher, Shannon W. [University of Oregon

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  15. Epitaxial low-temperature growth of In0.5Ga0.5As films on GaAs(100) and GaAs(111) A substrates using a metamorphic buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, G. B.; Trunkin, I. N.; Klimov, E. A.; Klochkov, A. N.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Imamov, R. M.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2017-11-01

    A complex investigation of epitaxial In0.5Ga0.5As films grown on GaAs substrates with crystallographic orientations of (100) and (111) A in the standard high- and low-temperature modes has been performed. The parameters of the GaAs substrate and In0.5Ga0.5As film were matched using the technology of step-graded metamorphic buffer. The electrical and structural characteristics of the grown samples have been studied by the van der Pauw method, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission/ scanning electron microscopy. The surface morphology is found to correlate with the sample growth temperature and doping with silicon. It is revealed that doping of low-temperature In0.5Ga0.5As layers with silicon significantly reduces both the surface roughness and highly improves the structural quality. Pores 50-100 nm in size are found in the low-temperature samples.

  16. Adding GaAs Monolayers to InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers on (001) InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueming; Chacon, Rebecca; Uhl, David; Yang, Rui

    2005-01-01

    In a modification of the basic configuration of InAs quantum-dot semiconductor lasers on (001)lnP substrate, a thin layer (typically 1 to 2 monolayer thick) of GaAs is incorporated into the active region. This modification enhances laser performance: In particular, whereas it has been necessary to cool the unmodified devices to temperatures of about 80 K in order to obtain lasing at long wavelengths, the modified devices can lase at wavelengths of about 1.7 microns or more near room temperature. InAs quantum dots self-assemble, as a consequence of the lattice mismatch, during epitaxial deposition of InAs on ln0.53Ga0.47As/lnP. In the unmodified devices, the quantum dots as thus formed are typically nonuniform in size. Strainenergy relaxation in very large quantum dots can lead to poor laser performance, especially at wavelengths near 2 microns, for which large quantum dots are needed. In the modified devices, the thin layers of GaAs added to the active regions constitute potential-energy barriers that electrons can only penetrate by quantum tunneling and thus reduce the hot carrier effects. Also, the insertion of thin GaAs layer is shown to reduce the degree of nonuniformity of sizes of the quantum dots. In the fabrication of a batch of modified InAs quantum-dot lasers, the thin additional layer of GaAs is deposited as an interfacial layer in an InGaAs quantum well on (001) InP substrate. The device as described thus far is sandwiched between InGaAsPy waveguide layers, then further sandwiched between InP cladding layers, then further sandwiched between heavily Zn-doped (p-type) InGaAs contact layer.

  17. Multiband corrections for the semi-classical simulation of interband tunneling in GaAs tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, K.; Claveau, Y.; Hapiuk, D.; Fontaine, C.; Arnoult, A.; Taliercio, T.; Licitra, C.; Piquemal, F.; Bounouh, A.; Cavassilas, N.; Almuneau, G.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of multiband corrections on the current density in GaAs tunnel junctions (TJs) calculated with a refined yet simple semi-classical interband tunneling model (SCITM). The non-parabolicity of the considered bands and the spin-orbit effects are considered by using a recently revisited SCITM available in the literature. The model is confronted to experimental results from a series of molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs TJs and to numerical results obtained with a full quantum model based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and a 6-band k.p Hamiltonian. We emphasize the importance of considering the non-parabolicity of the conduction band by two different measurements of the energy-dependent electron effective mass in N-doped GaAs. We also propose an innovative method to compute the non-uniform electric field in the TJ for the SCITM simulations, which is of prime importance for a successful operation of the model. We demonstrate that, when considering the multiband corrections and this new computation of the non-uniform electric field, the SCITM succeeds in predicting the electrical characteristics of GaAs TJs, and are also in agreement with the quantum model. Besides the fundamental study of the tunneling phenomenon in TJs, the main benefit of this SCITM is that it can be easily embedded into drift-diffusion software, which are the most widely-used simulation tools for electronic and opto-electronic devices such as multi-junction solar cells, tunnel field-effect transistors, or vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  18. Doping droops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Chaturvedi, Harish; Kalra, Juhi; Kalra, Sudhanshu

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major concern in the athletic world. The misconception among athletes and their coaches is that when an athlete breaks a record it is due to some "magic ingredient" and not because of training, hard work, mental attitude and championship performance. The personal motivation to win in competitive sports has been intensified by national, political, professional and economic incentives. Under this increased pressure athletes have turned to finding this "magic ingredient". Athlete turns to mechanical (exercise, massage), nutritional (vitamins, minerals), pharmacological (medicines) or gene therapies to have an edge over other players. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has already asked scientists to help find ways to prevent gene therapy from becoming the newest form of doping. The safety of the life of athletes is compromised with all forms of doping techniques, be it a side effect of a drug or a new technique of gene doping.

  19. Excitation and De-Excitation Mechanisms of Er-Doped GaAs and A1GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Dysprosium Dy 4f106.2 1.10 0.908 67 Holmium Ho 4f 11652 1.10 0.894 68 Erbium Er 4f12632 1.11 0.881 69 Thulmium Tm 4f 136s 2 1.11 0.869 70 Ytterbium Yb...Resonance ( ESR ) experiments (52) also support this claim since they reveal that the Yb• occupies a site of tetrahedral symmetry, and that the Yb 2+ acceptor

  20. Diffusion of $^{52}$Mn in GaAs

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Following our previous diffusion studies performed with the modified radiotracer technique, we propose to determine the diffusion of Mn in GaAs under intrinsic conditions in a previously un-investigated temperature region. The aim of the presently proposed experiments is twofold. \\begin{itemize} \\item A quantitative study of Mn diffusion in GaAs at low Mn concentrations would be decisive in providing new information on the diffusion mechanism involved. \\item As Ga vacancies are expected to be involved in the Mn diffusion process it can be predicted that also the GaAs material growth technique most likely plays a role. To clarify this assumption diffusion experiments will be conducted for GaAs material grown by two different techniques. \\end{itemize} For such experiments we ask for two runs of 3 shifts (total of 6 shifts) with $^{52}$Mn$^{+}$ ion beam.

  1. Gaas tõstaks maakonna konkurentsivõimet / Marje Laugen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laugen, Marje

    2005-01-01

    Tõrvas peeti Valgamaa gaasiprojekti arutelu, kus osalesid AS-i Eesti Gaas, AS-i Fortum Termest ning Tõrva linna-, Helme valla- ja Valga maavalitsuse esindajad. Kommenteerib Valga maavanem Georg Trashanov

  2. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  3. Long intronic GAA repeats causing Friedreich ataxia impede transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punga, Tanel; Bühler, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a degenerative disease caused by deficiency of the protein frataxin (FXN). An intronic expansion of GAA triplets in the FXN-encoding gene, FXN, causes gene silencing and thus reduced FXN protein levels. Although it is widely assumed that GAA repeats block transcription via the assembly of an inaccessible chromatin structure marked by methylated H3K9, direct proof for this is lacking. In this study, we analysed different histone modification patterns along the human FXN gene in FRDA patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines. We show that FXN mRNA synthesis, but not turnover rates are affected by an expanded GAA repeat tract. Importantly, rather than preventing transcription initiation, long GAA repeat tracts affect transcription at the elongation step and this can occur independently of H3K9 methylation. Our data demonstrate that finding novel strategies to overcome the transcription elongation problem may develop into promising new treatments for FRDA.

  4. Identification a novel mononucleotide deletion mutation in GAA in pompe disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Milad; Behnam, Mahdieh; Behranvand-Jazi, Nafiseh; Yari, Ladan; Sheikh-Kanlomilan, Sajad; Salehi, Mansoor; Tahmasebi, Pardis; Amini, Mohaddeseh; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Hosseini, Nafisehsadat

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) gene usually lead to reduced GAA activity. In this study, we analyzed the mutations of GAA and GAA enzyme activity from one sibling suspected Pompe disease and their first-degree relatives. In this cross-sectional study, GAA enzyme activity assay was assessed using tandem mass spectrometry. Polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing were performed for GAA analysis. GAA enzyme activity was significantly decreased in patients compared to the normal range (P = 0.02). Two individuals showed ten alterations in the GAA sequence, in which one of them (c. 1650del G) has not been previously described in the literature. A single Guanine deletion (del-G) was detected at codon 551 in exon 12. According to the literature, the detected change is a novel mutation. We hypothesized that the discovered deletion in the GAA might lead to a reduced activity of the gene product.

  5. State of the art on epitaxial GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.C. [Laboratoire des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: guocsun@ccr.jussieu.fr; Manez, N. [Laboratoire des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Zazoui, M. [Laboratoire des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Al-Ajili, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Davidson, D.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); O' Shea, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Quarati, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Smith, K.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Chambellan, D. [LIST/DIMRI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gal, O. [LIST/DIMRI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Pillot, Ph. [LIST/DIMRI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lenoir, M. [Hospital Armand Trousseau, 26 Avenue du Docteur Arnold Netter, 75571 Paris (France); Montagne, J.P. [Hospital Armand Trousseau, 26 Avenue du Docteur Arnold Netter, 75571 Paris (France); Bchetnia, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie (Tunisia); Bourgoin, J.C. [GESEC R and D, 68 Avenue de la Foret, 77210 Avon (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first briefly review the performances for X-ray detection which are obtained using thin epitaxial GaAs layers. We then show that good detectors can be realized on thick and large area epitaxial GaAs layers which are now available, making them suitable for X-ray imaging. We finally discuss the main limitation imposed by the epitaxial nature of this new material and ways to overcome it.

  6. Atomic Layer Epitaxial Growth of Gaas on Porous Silicon Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Lajnef; Afrah Bardaoui; Isabelle Sagne; Radwan Chtouroua; Hatem Ezzaouia

    2008-01-01

    GaAs thin film has been grown on porous silicon by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) for different growth temperatures using atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) technique. The morphology of GaAs layer was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of growth temperature is studied using photoluminescence measurements (PL).The photoluminescence spectra revealed a dissymmetry form toward high energies attributed to strain effect resulting from the lattice mismatch between Ga...

  7. Novel GAA mutations in patients with Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaça, Lauro Thiago; de Faria, Douglas Oliveira Soares; Kyosen, Sandra Obikawa; Teixeira, Valber Dias; Motta, Fabiana Louise; Pessoa, Juliana Gilbert; Rodrigues E Silva, Marina; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; D'Almeida, Vânia; Munoz Rojas, Maria Verônica; Martins, Ana Maria; Pesquero, João Bosco

    2015-04-25

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder linked to GAA gene that leads to a multi-system intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen. Mutation identification in the GAA gene can be very important for early diagnosis, correlation between genotype-phenotype and therapeutic intervention. For this purpose, peripheral blood from 57 individuals susceptible to Pompe disease was collected and all exons of GAA gene were amplified; the sequences and the mutations were analyzed in silico to predict possible impact on the structure and function of the human protein. In this study, 46 individuals presented 33 alterations in the GAA gene sequence, among which five (c.547-67C>G, c.547-39T>G, p.R437H, p.L641V and p.L705P) have not been previously described in the literature. The alterations in the coding region included 15 missense mutations, three nonsense mutations and one deletion. One insertion and other 13 single base changes were found in the non-coding region. The mutation p.G611D was found in homozygosis in a one-year-old child, who presented low levels of GAA activity, hypotonia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Two patients presented the new mutation p.L705P in association with c.-32-13T>G. They had low levels of GAA activity and developed late onset Pompe disease. In our study, we observed alterations in the GAA gene originating from Asians, African-Americans and Caucasians, highlighting the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population. Considering that Pompe disease studies are not very common in Brazil, this study will help to better understand the potential pathogenic role of each change in the GAA gene. Furthermore, a precise and early molecular analysis improves genetic counseling besides allowing for a more efficient treatment in potential candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Progressive GAA.TTC repeat expansion in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditch, Scott; Sammarco, Mimi C; Banerjee, Ayan; Grabczyk, Ed

    2009-10-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansion is the genetic basis for a sizeable group of inherited neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by GAA.TTC repeat expansion in the first intron of the FXN gene. The expanded repeat reduces FXN mRNA expression and the length of the repeat tract is proportional to disease severity. Somatic expansion of the GAA.TTC repeat sequence in disease-relevant tissues is thought to contribute to the progression of disease severity during patient aging. Previous models of GAA.TTC instability have not been able to produce substantial levels of expansion within an experimentally useful time frame, which has limited our understanding of the molecular basis for this expansion. Here, we present a novel model for studying GAA.TTC expansion in human cells. In our model system, uninterrupted GAA.TTC repeat sequences display high levels of genomic instability, with an overall tendency towards progressive expansion. Using this model, we characterize the relationship between repeat length and expansion. We identify the interval between 88 and 176 repeats as being an important length threshold where expansion rates dramatically increase. We show that expansion levels are affected by both the purity and orientation of the repeat tract within the genomic context. We further demonstrate that GAA.TTC expansion in our model is independent of cell division. Using unique reporter constructs, we identify transcription through the repeat tract as a major contributor to GAA.TTC expansion. Our findings provide novel insight into the mechanisms responsible for GAA.TTC expansion in human cells.

  9. Experimental demonstration of strained Si nanowire GAA n-TFETs and inverter operation with complementary TFET logic at low supply voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, G. V.; Strangio, S.; Tiedemannn, A.; Lenk, S.; Trellenkamp, S.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mantl, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, strained Si (sSi) nanowire array of n-TFETs with gates all around (GAA) yielding ON-currents of 5 μA/μm at a supply voltage Vdd = 0.5 V are presented. Tilted ion implantation with BF2+ into NiSi2 dopant has been used to form a highly doped pocket for the source to channel tunneling junction. These devices indicate sub-threshold slopes (SS) below 60 mV/dec for Id GAA NW C-TFET inverter. In spite of ambipolar behavior, the voltage transfer curves (VTC) indicate wide and constant noise margin levels with steep transitions offering a voltage gain of 25 at Vdd = 1 V.

  10. GAA repeat polymorphism in Turkish Friedreich's ataxia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M Bertan; Koç, A Filiz; Kasap, Halil; Güzel, A Irfan; Sarica, Yakup; Süleymanova, Dilara

    2006-05-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common subtype of early onset hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by unstable GAA tri-nucleotide expansions in the first intron of FRDA gene located at 9q13-q21.1 position. Results of GAA repeat polymorphism in 80 Turkish SCA patients and 38 family members of 11 typical FRDA patients were reported. GAA triplet repeat size ranged from approximately 7 to 34 in normal alleles and from approximately 66 to 1300 in mutant alleles. Twenty six patients were homozygous for GAA expansion and size of expanded alleles differed from approximately 425 to 1300 repeats. Children 2 and 6 years old (showing no ataxia symptoms) of one family had homozygous GAA expansions reaching approximately 925 repeats. All 11 families studied had at least 1 afflicted child and 9 parents and 2 siblings were carrier (heterozygous) with mutant alleles ranging from 66 to 850 repeats. Family studies confirmed the meiotic instability and stronger effect of expansion in the smaller alleles on phenotype and a negative correlation between GAA repeat expansion size and onset-age of the disease.

  11. Characteristics of a GaAs metal- n+- v- δ ( p+)- v- n+ switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Der-Feng; Yih, Shiu-Ren; Liang, Jing-Tong; Liu, Wen-Chau

    1994-02-01

    A new GaAs switching device consisting of a metal- n+- v- δ( p+)- v- n+ structure has been fabricated and demonstrated. An InGaAs delta-doped quantum well was employed to provide the potential barrier for carrier transport and improve the confinement effect of holes. When sufficient anode-to-cathode voltage VAK was applied to this device, an interestingly double S-shaped negative-differential-resistance (NDR) characteristic was obtained at the temperature lower than -40°C. This was caused by the sequential avalanche multiplications in the n--GaAs ( v) layer near the anode electrode and the Schottky-semiconductor (M-S) junction. However, only a single S-shaped NDR phenomenon was observed at higher temperatures due to the poor carrier confinement effect of holes in the delta-doped quantum well. The influence of temperature on the device performance was also investigated. From experimental results, it is known that the environmental temperature plays an important role on the NDR performances. Consequently, if device parameters are appropriately adjusted, this device shows a good potenital for multiple-value logic circuit applications.

  12. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  13. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  14. PHEMT device for microwave power applications based on a double delta doped heterostructure with a stop etch layer

    OpenAIRE

    Brinciotti, A.; Di Maio, G.; Ravasi, G.; Bianchi, S.; Castelli, A.; Scopelliti, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we have compared the DC and RF performances of two different PHEMT devices both based on a double D doped AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained Single Quantum Well , with the gate evaporated either on an AlGaAs surface or on a GaAs one. In the last case an AlAs stop etch layer was introduced in the vertical structure. The effects on the stability of the RF performances during the device RF operation when the gate evaporation was performed either on GaAs or on AlGaAs were investigated too.

  15. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 3-D GaAs radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, A R; Ledingham, Kenneth W D; Marsh, J H; Mathieson, K; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of GaAs radiation detector featuring a 3-D array of electrodes that penetrate through the detector bulk is described. The development of the technology to fabricate such a detector is presented along with electrical and radiation source tests. Simulations of the electrical characteristics are given for detectors of various dimensions. Laser drilling, wet chemical etching and metal evaporation were used to create a cell array of nine electrodes, each with a diameter of 60 mu m and a pitch of 210 mu m. Electrical measurements showed I-V characteristics with low leakage currents and high breakdown voltages. The forward and reverse I-V measurements showed asymmetrical characteristics, which are not seen in planar diodes. Spectra were obtained using alpha particle illumination. A charge collection efficiency of 50% and a S/N ratio of 3 : 1 were obtained. Simulations using the MEDICI software package were performed on cells with various dimensions and were comparable with experimental results. Simulati...

  17. Diffusion in Intrinsic and Highly Doped III-V Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Stolwijk, N

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\Diffusion plays a key role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The diffusion of atoms in crystals is mediated by intrinsic point defects. Investigations of the diffusion behaviour of self- and solute atoms on the Ga sublattice of gallium arsenide led to the conclusion that in intrinsic and n-type material charged Ga vacancies are involved in diffusion processes whereas in p-type material diffusion if governed by charged Ga self-interstitials. Concerning the As sublattice of gallium arsenide there is a severe lack of reliable diffusion data. The few available literature data on intrinsic GaAs are not mutually consistent. A systematic study of the doping dependence of diffusion is completely missing. The most basic diffusion process - self-diffusion of As and its temperature and doping dependence - is practically not known. For GaP a similar statement holds.\\\\ \\\\The aim of the present project is to perform a systematic diffusion study of As diffusion in intrinsic and doped GaAs and in GaP. P...

  18. Phase composition of microdefects in heavily doped n-GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletkildeev, N.A., E-mail: dna@omsu.r [Omsk Dostoevsky State University, 55a, Mira pr., Omsk 644077 (Russian Federation); Nukenov, M.M.; Sologub, N.V. [Omsk Dostoevsky State University, 55a, Mira pr., Omsk 644077 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    The phase composition of the microdefects in Te-doped GaAs single crystals grown by the Czochralski technique with a free carrier density n{sub 0}=5x10{sup 17}-5x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} was investigated. Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase reflections appeared in the X-ray diffraction patterns. Nonmonotonic dependences of the relative volume fraction and the coherent scattering domain size of Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Te doping level were obtained. The possible causes of the nonmonotonic variation in the structural parameters of the Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase with increase of Te concentration in GaAs are discussed.

  19. Detection of interruptions in the GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FXN gene of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Timothy P; Rowley, Simone M; Delatycki, Martin B; Sarsero, Joseph P

    2011-03-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a GAA trinucleotide repeat sequence within the first intron of the FXN gene. Interruptions in the GAA repeat may serve to alleviate the inhibitory effects of the GAA expansion on FXN gene expression and to decrease pathogenicity. We have developed a simple and rapid PCR- and restriction enzyme-based assay to assess the purity of GAA repeat sequences.

  20. Muons for spintronics: Photo-induced conduction electron polarization in n-type GaAs observed by the muonium method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K., E-mail: koji.yokoyama@email.ucr.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Nagamine, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Atomic Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0191 (Japan); Shimomura, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tom, H.W.K.; Kawakami, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Bakule, P.; Matsuda, Y. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0191 (Japan); Pratt, F.L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Torikai, E. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kohu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The spin-dependent exchange scattering between the muonium (Mu) electron and polarized conduction electrons excited by circularly polarized 831 nm laser light was observed in n-type GaAs with 3.6x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} Si doping at low temperature by measuring a change in the polarization of Mu against the conduction electron polarization (CEP) direction. Correct signal response was confirmed with respect to the laser power. These results are encouraging for the Mu technique to be applied to probe CEP in various spintronics material systems.

  1. InGaAsN Solar Cells with 1.0eV Bandgap, Lattice Matched to GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allerman, A.A.; Banas, J.J.; Gee, J.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1998-11-24

    The design, growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and processing of an In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}As{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} solar Al, with 1.0 ev bandgap, lattice matched to GaAs is described. The hole diffusion length in annealed, n-type InGaAsN is 0.6-0.8 pm, and solar cell internal quantum efficiencies > 70% arc obwined. Optical studies indicate that defects or impurities, from InGAsN doping and nitrogen incorporation, limit solar cell performance.

  2. Semiconductor GaAs: electronic paramagnetic resonance new data; GaAs semi-isolant: nouvelles donnees de resonance paramagnetique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchiguer, T.

    1994-04-01

    The topic of this study was to put to the fore, thanks to our electron spin resonance experiments, one charge transfer process, which was optically induced between the deep donor As{sup +}{sub G}a and the different acceptors, which were present in the material. We described these processes through a theoretical model, which we named charge transfer model. With this latter, we were able to trace a graph network, representing the As{sup +}{sub G}a concentration kinetics. Then we verified the compatibility of our model with one transport experiment. One experimental verification of our model were delivered, thanks to neutronic transmutation doping. The following stage was the study of defects, induced by thermal strains, to which the crystal was submitted during the cooling phase. At last we wanted to get round the non solved super hyperfine structure problem for GaAs by studying another III-V material for which she was resolved, namely gallium phosphide. (MML). 150 refs., 72 figs., 16 tabs., 3 annexes.

  3. Doped semiconductors and semiconductor devices as model systems for fundamental condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, K.-F.

    1983-02-01

    Doped semiconductors and semiconductor devices are discussed with emphasis on fundamental physical phenomena. It is argued that such systems are ideal model systems for condensed matter physics in general. This view point is illustrated by a few examples such as the amorphous antiferromagnetism associated with non-metallic Si:P and effects of weak localization in metallic Si:P and a GaAs field effect transistor.

  4. Preparation and properties of thick not intentionally doped GaInP(As)/GaAs layers

    CERN Document Server

    Nohavica, D; Zdansky, K

    1999-01-01

    We report on liquid-phase epitaxial growth of thick layers of GaInP(As), lattice matched to GaAs. Layers with thicknesses up to 10 mu m were prepared in a multi-melt bin, step-cooling, one-phase configuration. Unintentionally doped layers, grown from moderate purity starting materials, show a significant decrease in the residual impurity level when erbium is added to the melt. Fundamental electrical and optical properties of the layers were investigated. (author)

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program... AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 7 Operation under current GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia Program. In order to adapt the provisions of NSA Order 35 (OPR-2) to the particular circumstances of the present GAA/MSTS Southeast Asia...

  6. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid(gaa supplementation in rats with chronic renal failure(crf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Tsubakihara

    2012-06-01

    *; p<0.05 vs Sham $; p<0.05 vs GAA 0In conclusion, we demonstrated a deficiency of GAA and CRT, and muscle weekness in CRF rats. However, oral GAA supplementation could recover muscle content of CRT and muscle capabilities in these rats.

  7. Intrinsic spin lifetimes in GaAs (110) quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Georg; Roemer, Michael; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GaAs(110) quantum wells attract great attention due to the long spin lifetime for electron spins along the growth axis and are, therefore, of interest for future spin based optoelectronic devices. At low temperatures, optical injection of a finite spin polarization yields strongly enhanced spin dephasing due to the Bir Aronov Pikus mechanism that arises from the exchange interaction between electrons and holes. Thus, the intrinsic spin lifetime in GaAs(110) quantum wells has been unknown. In this work, the non-demolition technique of spin noise spectroscopy, which only relies on statistical spin fluctuations, is applied to GaAs(110) quantum wells in order to measure the intrinsic spin lifetimes. Furthermore, the Brownian motion of the electrons modifies the linewidth of the measured spin noise spectra due to time of flight broadening. This effect uniquely allows to study electronic motion at thermal equilibrium.

  8. Radiation annealing of gallium arsenide implanted with sulphur

    CERN Document Server

    Ardyshev, V M

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur ions were implanted in a semi-insulating GaAs. Photon annealing (805 deg C/(10-12) s) and the thermal one (800 deg C/30 min) were conducted under SiO sub 2 -films coating obtained by different ways. Contents of GaAs components in films were determined from Rutherford backscattering spectra; concentration profiles of electrons were measured by the voltage-capacitance method. Diffusion of sulfur was shown to go in two directions - to the surface and into bulk of GaAs. The first process was induced by vacancies that had been formed near the surface of semiconductors during the dielectric coating. The coefficient of the bulk-diffusion and diffusion-to-surface of sulfur ions under photon annealing was twice as much as that under thermal one. The doping efficiency was also larger

  9. Modulation Doped Field-Effect Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Murilo Araujo

    1995-01-01

    The dissertation is concerned with the modeling and characterization of MODFETs (Modulation Doped Field -Effect Transistors) as photodetectors. Analytical derivation revealed that the dominant photodetection mechanism in the devices is the internal photovoltaic effect, caused by hole accumulation in the GaAs layer. The illumination acts as an additional terminal, producing a shift in the gate to source bias point, through which the device can be controlled. The MODFET photoresponse is characterized by a logarithmic dependence on light intensity and extremely high optical gain at low optical power levels. A responsivity in excess of 10^5 A/W was measured. The response speed of currently available devices is limited to the MHz range. Several device structures, designed to extend the electrical bandwidth while preserving gain over conventional photodiodes, are proposed. The experimentally observed negative photoresponse mechanism is explained and the optical control of a MODFET oscillator is demonstrated.

  10. GaAs Nanowire pn-Junctions Produced by Low-Cost and High-Throughput Aerotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrigón, E; Hultin, O; Lindgren, D; Yadegari, F; Magnusson, M H; Samuelson, L; Johansson, L I M; Björk, M T

    2018-02-14

    Semiconductor nanowires could significantly boost the functionality and performance of future electronics, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, realizing this potential requires growth methods that enable high-throughput and low-cost production of nanowires with controlled doping. Aerotaxy is an aerosol-based method with extremely high growth rate that does not require a growth substrate, allowing mass-production of high-quality nanowires at a low cost. So far, pn-junctions, a crucial element of solar cells and light-emitting diodes, have not been realized by Aerotaxy growth. Here we report a further development of the Aerotaxy method and demonstrate the growth of GaAs nanowire pn-junctions. Our Aerotaxy system uses an aerosol generator for producing the catalytic seed particles, together with a growth reactor with multiple consecutive chambers for growth of material with different dopants. We show that the produced nanowire pn-junctions have excellent diode characteristics with a rectification ratio of >10 5 , an ideality factor around 2, and very promising photoresponse. Using electron beam induced current and hyperspectral cathodoluminescence, we determined the location of the pn-junction and show that the grown nanowires have high doping levels, as well as electrical properties and diffusion lengths comparable to nanowires grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Our findings demonstrate that high-quality GaAs nanowire pn-junctions can be produced using a low-cost technique suitable for mass-production, paving the way for industrial-scale production of nanowire-based solar cells.

  11. Visualization of carrier dynamics in p(n)-type GaAs by scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongweon; Hwang, Taek Yong; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2014-02-11

    Four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy is used to investigate doping- and carrier-concentration-dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics of the in situ cleaved single-crystalline GaAs(110) substrates. We observed marked changes in the measured time-resolved secondary electrons depending on the induced alterations in the electronic structure. The enhancement of secondary electrons at positive times, when the electron pulse follows the optical pulse, is primarily due to an energy gain involving the photoexcited charge carriers that are transiently populated in the conduction band and further promoted by the electron pulse, consistent with a band structure that is dependent on chemical doping and carrier concentration. When electrons undergo sufficient energy loss on their journey to the surface, dark contrast becomes dominant in the image. At negative times, however, when the electron pulse precedes the optical pulse (electron impact), the dynamical behavior of carriers manifests itself in a dark contrast which indicates the suppression of secondary electrons upon the arrival of the optical pulse. In this case, the loss of energy of material's electrons is by collisions with the excited carriers. These results for carrier dynamics in GaAs(110) suggest strong carrier-carrier scatterings which are mirrored in the energy of material's secondary electrons during their migration to the surface. The approach presented here provides a fundamental understanding of materials probed by four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy, and offers possibilities for use of this imaging technique in the study of ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in heterogeneously patterned micro- and nanostructured material surfaces and interfaces.

  12. Pilot experiment for muonium photo ionization in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, K; Nishiyama, K; Nagamine, K [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Bakule, P; Pratt, F L [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Ohishi, K; Ishida, K; Watanabe, I [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0191 (Japan); Matsuda, Y [Graduate School of Arts and Science, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Torikai, E, E-mail: koichiro.shimomura@kek.j [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi, 400-8511 (Japan)

    2010-04-01

    Direct observation of muonium photo ionization in GaAs was tried for the first time, with wide range wave length from 1325nm to 800nm lasers in n-type GaAs at 15 K. Recently, Lichti et al. determined the energy levels in the band gap of T center muonium (as an acceptor) and BC muonium (as a donor) by reanalysis of the existing data obtained by various {mu}SR techniques for several semiconductors like Si, Ge, GaAs, GaP etc. In these semiconductors, GaAs is the best sample to apply the muonium photo ionization method for the first time, because the energy level of T center muonium is above 0.54 eV from the valence band, therefore the ionization energy for Mu{sub T}{sup -} {yields} Mu{sub T}{sup 0}+e{sup -} is 0.98eV (corresponding laser wave length is 1260nm), which is within the region of present OPO laser system produced, which was installed RIKEN-RAL

  13. High purity, low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth techniques for producing undoped, high resistivity, low dislocation material suitable for device applications is described. Technique development resulted in reduction of dislocation densities in 3 inch GaAs crystals. Control over the melt stoichiometry was determined to be of critical importance for the reduction of twinning and polycrystallinity during growth.

  14. High-Q optomechanical GaAs nanomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Usami, K.; Naesby, A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that suspended single-crystal GaAs nanomembranes exhibit mechanical Q-factors exceeding 2 × 106 at room temperature, which makes them a very promising platform for optomechanics. Because of the completely removed substrate and their millimeter-scale lateral size, the membranes can...

  15. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D'’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    —In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...

  16. Venemaa gaas - kas lahendus Euroopa energiavajadusele? / Kaupo Pollisinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pollisinski, Kaupo, 1952-2014

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa energiavarustus ja energiapoliitika on viimastel aastatel pälvinud nii tipppoliitikute kui asjatundjate tähelepanu, riskide maandamiseks tuleb mitmekesistada nii kütuseliikide valikut kui energiatarnete geograafiat. Venemaa gaas Euroopas, Gazpromi ambitsioonikad plaanid. Naftajuhtmete uusprojektid, naftaekspordi ümbersuunamise kava. Lisatud graafikud, skeemid. Ilmunud ka: Kroon & Economy, nr. 4, 2007, lk. 28-41

  17. Stark shift of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sk. Md.; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas

    2018-02-01

    Present study makes a punctilious investigation of the profiles of Stark shift (SS) of doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) under the supervision of Gaussian white noise. A few physical parameters have been varied and the consequent variations in the SS profiles have been monitored. The said physical parameters comprise of magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential, noise strength, aluminium concentration (only for AlxGa1-x As alloy QD), position-dependent effective mass (PDEM), position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF), anisotropy, hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature. The SS profiles unfurl interesting features that heavily depend upon the particular physical quantity concerned, presence/absence of noise and the manner (additive/multiplicative) noise enters the system. The study highlights feasible means of maximizing SS of doped QD in presence of noise by suitable adjustment of several control parameters. The study deems importance in view of technological applications of QD devices where noise plays some prominent role.

  18. An empirical determination of upper operational frequency limits of transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN through ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, S.; van Zyl, R. R.; Perold, W. J.

    2015-08-01

    The ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulation technique is used to determine the upper operational frequency limit of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN empirically. This mechanism manifests as a decrease in the average velocity of the electrons in the bulk material with an increase in the electric field bias, which yields the characteristic negative slope in the velocity-field curves of these materials. A novel approach is proposed whereby the hysteresis in the simulated dynamic, high-frequency velocity-field curves is exploited. The upper operational frequency limit supported by the material is defined as that frequency, where the average gradient of the dynamic characteristic curve over a radio frequency cycle approaches zero. Effects of temperature and doping level on the operational frequency limit are reported. The frequency limit thus obtained is also useful to predict the highest fundamental frequency of operation of transferred electron devices, such as Gunn diodes, which are based on materials that support the transferred electron mechanism. Based on the method presented here, the upper operational frequency limits of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN are 80 and 255 GHz, respectively, at typical doping levels and operating temperatures of Gunn diodes.

  19. Spin dynamics in GaAs and (110)-GaAs heterostructures; Spindynamik in GaAs und (110)-GaAs-Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    This thesis investigates the spin dynamics in both bulk GaAs and (llO)GaAs heterostructures using time- and polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. In bulk GaAs the spin relaxation t ime is measured for the first time in the high temperature regime from 280 K to 400 K and is compared to numerical calculations. The numerical calculations are based on the spin relaxation theory of the Dyakonov-Perel mechanism effected by momentum scattering with polar optical phonons and electron-electron scattering and are in good agreement with the experimental results. Measurements of the dependence on the electron density serve to determine the energy dependent proportional factor between the electron density and the effective electron-electron scattering time. Also in bulk GaAs the interaction between the electron spin system and the nuclear spin system is investigated. The measured electron Lande g-factor under the influence of the nuclear magnetic field is used as an indicator to monitor the temporal evolution of the nuclear magnetic field under sustained dynamic nuclear polarization. Measurements with polarization modulated excitation enable the determination of the relevant time scale at which dynamic nuclear polarization takes place. Furthermore, the temporal evolution of the measured electron Lande g-factor shows the complex interplay of the dynamic nuclear polarization, the nuclear spin diffusion and the nuclear spin relaxation. In symmetric (110)-GaAs quantum wells the dependence of the inplane anisotropy of the electron Lande g-factor on the quantum well thickness is determined experimentally. The measurements are in very good agreement with calculations based upon k . p-theory and reveal a maximum of the anisotropy at maximum carrier localization in the quantum well. The origin of the anisotropy that is not present in symmetric (001) quantum wells is qualitatively described by means of a simplified model based on fourth-order perturbation theory. A

  20. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Te Riele, Hein; Pook, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of mouse models for other trinucleotide repeat (TNR) disorders have revealed an important role of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in TNR instability. To explore the potential role of MMR proteins on intergenerational GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed the transmission of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and contractions, but also increases GAA repeat mutability (expansions and/or contractions) in the offspring. This indicates that Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 and Pms2 proteins are not the cause of intergenerational GAA expansions or contractions, but act in their canonical MMR capacity to protect against GAA repeat instability. We further identified differential modes of action for the four MMR proteins. Thus, Msh2 and Msh3 protect against GAA repeat contractions, while Msh6 protects against both GAA repeat expansions and contractions, and Pms2 protects against GAA repeat expansions and also promotes contractions. Furthermore, we detected enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins downstream of the FXN expanded GAA repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches that would otherwise produce intergenerational GAA contractions. These findings reveal substantial differences in the intergenerational dynamics of expanded GAA repeat sequences compared with expanded CAG/CTG repeats, where Msh2 and Msh3 are thought to actively promote repeat expansions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Photo-Induced conductivity of heterojunction GaAs/Rare-Earth doped SnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Freitas Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth doped (Eu3+ or Ce3+ thin layers of tin dioxide (SnO2 are deposited by the sol-gel-dip-coating technique, along with gallium arsenide (GaAs films, deposited by the resistive evaporation technique. The as-built heterojunction has potential application in optoelectronic devices, because it may combine the emission from the rare-earth-doped transparent oxide, with a high mobility semiconductor. Trivalent rare-earth-doped SnO2 presents very efficient emission in a wide wavelength range, including red (in the case of Eu3+ or blue (Ce3+. The advantage of this structure is the possibility of separation of the rare-earth emission centers, from the electron scattering, leading to an indicated combination for electroluminescence. Electrical characterization of the heterojunction SnO2:Eu/GaAs shows a significant conductivity increase when compared to the conductivity of the individual films. Monochromatic light excitation shows up the role of the most external layer, which may act as a shield (top GaAs, or an ultraviolet light absorber sink (top RE-doped SnO2. The observed improvement on the electrical transport properties is probably related to the formation of short conduction channels in the semiconductors junction with two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG behavior, which are evaluated by excitation with distinct monochromatic light sources, where the samples are deposited by varying the order of layer deposition.

  2. Paramagnetic Mn impurities on Ge and GaAs surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, P.; Brune, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Bencok, P.; Krishnakumar, S. R.; Gardonio, S.; Veronese, M.; Grazioli, C.; Carbone, C.

    2005-07-01

    Individual Mn impurities deposited on Ge(100), Ge(111), and GaAs(110) substrates present magnetic moments significantly larger compared to the average Mn magnetization in bulklike Ga1-xMnxAs and MnxGe1-x dilute magnetic semiconductors. The Mn magnetic moment is shown to change considerably going from Ge(100), to GaAs(110), and Ge(111). Independently of the substrate, the Mn per atom moment decreases with increasing coverage owing to the formation of antiferromagnetic Mn clusters. We observe no evidence of magnetically ordered surface layers down to a temperature of 5K . The comparison of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism line shapes with that of a pure Mn d5 configuration reveals the partial delocalization of the Mn d states.

  3. Failure Mechanisms of GaAs Transistors - A Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Orito et al, Large Size Dislocation-Free Gallium Arsenide Single Crystals for LSI Applications, GaAs IC Symposium, October 1986, Technical Digest 1986...the channel resistance is modulated by the channel dimensions and the transconductance is degraded by the parasitic resistance. gn = gmo /(l+Rs gmo ...gm is the terminal transconductance, gmo is the internal (Rs=0 ) transconductance and Rs is the parasitic source resistance. It’s obvious that it’s

  4. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  5. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  6. Identification a novel mononucleotide deletion mutation in GAA in pompe disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ebrahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mutations in the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA gene usually lead to reduced GAA activity. In this study, we analyzed the mutations of GAA and GAA enzyme activity from one sibling suspected Pompe disease and their first-degree relatives. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, GAA enzyme activity assay was assessed using tandem mass spectrometry. Polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing were performed for GAA analysis. Results: GAA enzyme activity was significantly decreased in patients compared to the normal range (P = 0.02. Two individuals showed ten alterations in the GAA sequence, in which one of them (c. 1650del G has not been previously described in the literature. A single Guanine deletion (del-G was detected at codon 551 in exon 12. Conclusion: According to the literature, the detected change is a novel mutation. We hypothesized that the discovered deletion in the GAA might lead to a reduced activity of the gene product.

  7. GAA triplet-repeats cause nucleosome depletion in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Xing, Yongqiang; Liu, Guoqing; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Xiujuan; Li, Guohong; Cai, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Although there have been many investigations into how trinucleotide repeats affect nucleosome formation and local chromatin structure, the nucleosome positioning of GAA triplet-repeats in the human genome has remained elusive. In this work, the nucleosome occupancy around GAA triplet-repeats across the human genome was computed statistically. The results showed a nucleosome-depleted region in the vicinity of GAA triplet-repeats in activated and resting CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the A-tract was frequently adjacent to the upstream region of GAA triplet-repeats and could enhance the depletion surrounding GAA triplet-repeats. In vitro chromatin reconstitution assays with GAA-containing plasmids also demonstrated that the inserted GAA triplet-repeats destabilized the ability of recombinant plasmids to assemble nucleosomes. Our results suggested that GAA triplet-repeats have lower affinity to histones and can change local nucleosome positioning. These findings may be helpful for understanding the mechanism of Friedreich's ataxia, which is associated with GAA triplet-repeats at the chromatin level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gate Drain Underlapped-PNIN-GAA-TFET for Comprehensively Upgraded Analog/RF Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jaya; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-02-01

    This work integrates the merits of gate-drain underlapping (GDU) and N+ source pocket on cylindrical gate all around tunnel FET (GAA-TFET) to form GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET. It is analysed that the source pocket located at the source-channel junction narrows the tunneling barrier width at the tunneling junction and thereby enhances the ON-state current of GAA-TFET. Further, it is obtained that the GDU resists the extension of carrier density (built-up under the gated region) towards the drain side (under the underlapped length), thereby suppressing the ambipolar current and reducing the parasitic capacitances of GAA-TFET. Consequently, the amalgamated merits of both engineering schemes are obtained in GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET that thus conquers the greatest challenges faced by TFET. Thus, GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET results in an up-gradation in the overall performance of GAA-TFET. Moreover, it is realised that the RF figure of merits FOMs such as cut-off frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fMAX) are also considerably improved with integration of source pocket on GAA-TFET. Thus, the improved analog and RF performance of GDU-PNIN-GAA-TFET makes it ideal for low power and high-speed applications.

  9. Hyperexpansion of GAA repeats affects post-initiation steps of FXN transcription in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunah; Napierala, Marek; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2011-10-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by biallelic expansion of GAA repeats leading to the transcriptional silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene. The exact molecular mechanism of inhibition of FXN expression is unclear. Herein, we analyze the effects of hyperexpanded GAA repeats on transcription status and chromatin modifications proximal and distal to the GAA repeats. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR we detected significant changes in the chromatin landscape in FRDA cells relative to control cells downstream of the promoter, especially in the vicinity of the GAA tract. In this region, hyperexpanded GAAs induced a particular constellation of histone modifications typically associated with heterochromatin-like structures. Similar epigenetic changes were observed in GFP reporter construct containing 560 GAA repeats. Furthermore, we observed similar levels of FXN pre-mRNA at a region upstream of hyperexpanded GAA repeats in FRDA and control cells, indicating similar efficiency of transcription initiation. We also demonstrated that histone modifications associated with hyperexpanded GAA repeats are independent of initiation and progression of transcription. Our data provide strong evidence that FXN deficiency in FRDA patients results from a block of transition from initiation to a productive elongation of FXN transcription due to heterochromatin-like structures formed in the proximity of the hyperexpanded GAAs.

  10. Wavelength dependent laser-induced etching of Cr–O doped GaAs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/032/01/0031-0035 ... Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi 110 025, India; Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Department of ...

  11. Temperature- and doping-concentration-dependent characteristics of junctionless gate-all-around polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Chia-Tsung; Liu, Tung-Yu; Pan, Fu-Ming; Sheu, Jeng-Tzong

    2017-04-01

    The temperature effects of both gate-all-around polycrystalline silicon nanowire (GAA poly-Si NW) junctionless (JL) and inversion mode (IM) transistor devices at various temperatures (77-410 K) were investigated. The electrical characteristics of these devices, such as subthreshold swing (SS), threshold voltage (V th), and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), were also characterized and compared in this study. Moreover, JL devices with different doping concentrations at various temperatures were also discussed. Both V th and I on showed significant doping concentration dependences for JL devices with doping concentrations of 1 × 1019 and 5 × 1019 cm-3. However, the electrical characteristics of JL devices showed less thermal sensitivity when the doping concentration reached 1020 cm-3.

  12. Impact of silicon doping on InAs nanowires grown by selective area MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladek, Kamil; Penz, Andreas; Wirths, Stephan; Weis, Karl; Lenk, Steffi; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Schaepers, Thomas; Gruetzmacher, Detlev [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1), Juelich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Luysberg, Martina [Institute of Solid State Research and Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    InAs nanowires are an attractive candidate for the realization of high-speed and low-power electronic devices due to the material's very high room temperature mobility. However, as recently reported by Dayeh et al. their conductivity could be influenced negatively by often observed stacking faults. In this contribution, we have investigated the influence of Si-doping during growth with the aim to tune nanowire conductivity and crystalline structure. The nanowires were deposited by selective area MOVPE on (111)B GaAs masked substrates. The samples were characterized structurally by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We observed that above a certain partial pressure ratio, doping has an influence on morphology. The nanowires exhibit higher uniformity and specific conductance, but decreasing height vs. diameter aspect ratio as the partial pressure ratio increases. This leads to the question, whether the incorporation of doping atoms or a structural change has the main influence on conductivity.

  13. 8-9 and 14-15 meu Two-Color 640x486 GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Array Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanapala, S.; Bandara, S.; Singh, A.; Liu, J.; Rafol, S.; Luong, E.; Mumolo, J.; Tran, N.; Vincent, J.; Shott, C.; hide

    1999-01-01

    An optimized long-wavelength two-color Quantum Well Infrared Phototdetector (QWIP) device structure has been designed. This device structure was grown on a three-inch semi-insulating GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).

  14. X-ray diffraction from single GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas

    2012-11-12

    In recent years, developments in X-ray focussing optics have allowed to produce highly intense, coherent X-ray beams with spot sizes in the range of 100 nm and below. Together with the development of new experimental stations, X-ray diffraction techniques can now be applied to study single nanometer-sized objects. In the present work, X-ray diffraction is applied to study different aspects of the epitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires. Besides conventional diffraction methods, which employ X-ray beams with dimensions of several tens of {mu}m, special emphasis lies on the use of nanodiffraction methods which allow to study single nanowires in their as-grown state without further preparation. In particular, coherent X-ray diffraction is applied to measure simultaneously the 3-dimensional shape and lattice parameters of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. It is observed that due to a high density of zinc-blende rotational twins within the nanowires, their lattice parameter deviates systematically from the bulk zinc-blende phase. In a second step, the initial stage in the growth of GaAs nanowires on Si (1 1 1) surfaces is studied. This nanowires, obtained by Ga-assisted growth in molecular beam epitaxy, grow predominantly in the cubic zinc-blende structure, but contain inclusions of the hexagonal wurtzite phase close to their bottom interface. Using nanodiffraction methods, the position of the different structural units along the growth axis is determined. Because the GaAs lattice is 4% larger than silicon, these nanowires release their lattice mismatch by the inclusion of dislocations at the interface. Whereas NWs with diameters below 50 nm are free of strain, a rough interface structure in nanowires with diameters above 100 nm prevents a complete plastic relaxation, leading to a residual strain at the interface that decays elastically along the growth direction. Finally, measurements on GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowire heterostructures are presented

  15. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-03-28

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and

  16. Doping in competition or doping in sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, competitive athletes have been familiar with the use of ergogenic aids and they will probably continue to use unfair and harmful substances in future, because their inclination to victory, along with the mirage of glory and money, will probably overcome health and legal risks. We searched PubMed using the term doping over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. By literature searching, it emerges that the phenomenon of doping is complex and multifaceted. It involves a number of causes and factors that do not originate solely in the athletic field, making universality its main feature. It is in fact observed in all ages and levels of competition, and it concerns all sports, even the most unpredictable. The high number of athletes testing positive for anti-doping controls attests that the current strategy might be analytically adequate to unmask most (but not all) doping practices, but it is probably ineffective to prevent athletes to dope and modify this upsetting trend. Growing points As doping parallels the use of medications, food supplements, alcohol and social drugs, a reinforced preventive policy is advisable. The current anti-doping policy should be replaced with a more efficient and practical strategy to identify and monitor abnormal and harmful deviations of the biochemical and haematological profiles.

  17. Thin-film GaAs epitaxial life-off solar cells for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, J.J.; Mulder, P.; Bauhuis, G.J.; Larsen, P.K.; Oomen, G.; Bongers, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work the space compatibility of thin-film GaAs solar cells is studied. These cells are separated from their GaAs substrate by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique and mounted behind a CMG cover glass which at the same time serves as a stable carrier for the thin film cells. In the

  18. Image processing by four-wave mixing in photorefractive GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheen, Gregory; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1987-01-01

    Three image processing experiments were performed by degenerate four-wave mixing in photorefractive GaAs. The experiments were imaging by phase conjugation, edge enhancement, and autocorrelation. The results show that undoped, semiinsulating, liquid-encapsulated Czochralski-grown GaAs crystals can be used as effective optical processing media despite their small electrooptic coefficient.

  19. Implementation and Performance of GaAs Digital Signal Processing ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William D.; Buchanan, Jeffrey R.; Burke, Gary R.; Chow, Terrance W.; Graham, J. Scott; Kowalski, James E.; Lam, Barbara; Siavoshi, Fardad; Thompson, Matthew S.; Johnson, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of performing high speed digital signal processing in GaAs gate array technology has been demonstrated with the successful implementation of a VLSI communications chip set for NASA's Deep Space Network. This paper describes the techniques developed to solve some of the technology and implementation problems associated with large scale integration of GaAs gate arrays.

  20. Amateurism in an Age of Professionalism: An Empirical Examination of an Irish Sporting Culture: The GAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Keeler

    2013-07-01

    This research study recommends that the GAA adopt an innovative approach, through strategic decision-making, to allow the GAA to maintain its amateur ethos, and, yet, successfully compete in the professional sporting market. The strong links with the community must be both nurtured and enhanced. The GAA and Gaelic games must embrace the challenges that the branding success of foreign sports has brought. Player welfare issues for the elite players must be addressed while continuing to protect the club and its amateur structures. The study looks at the key metrics that are required to evolve the GAA. This entails not only focusing on the perceived importance of the amateur ethos to the GAA, but also developing the marketing, branding and profiling of Gaelic games to enhance the performance of an amateur sporting organization in an era of increased professionalism in sport.

  1. Prediction of dislocation generation during Bridgman growth of GaAs crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. T.; Yao, M. W.; Chait, Arnon

    1992-01-01

    Dislocation densities are generated in GaAs single crystals due to the excessive thermal stresses induced by temperature variations during growth. A viscoplastic material model for GaAs, which takes into account the movement and multiplication of dislocations in the plastic deformation, is developed according to Haasen's theory. The dislocation density is expressed as an internal state variable in this dynamic viscoplastic model. The deformation process is a nonlinear function of stress, strain rate, dislocation density and temperature. The dislocation density in the GaAs crystal during vertical Bridgman growth is calculated using a nonlinear finite element model. The dislocation multiplication in GaAs crystals for several temperature fields obtained from thermal modeling of both the GTE GaAs experimental data and artificially designed data are investigated.

  2. Design rules for modulation-doped AlAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Kamburov, D.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    Owing to their multivalley, anisotropic, energy band structure, two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) in modulation-doped AlAs quantum wells (QWs) provide a unique platform to investigate electron interaction physics and ballistic transport. Indeed, a plethora of phenomena unseen in other 2DESs have been observed over the past decade. However, a foundation for sample design is still lacking for AlAs 2DESs, limiting the means to achieve optimal quality samples. Here, we present a systematic study on the fabrication of modulation-doped AlAs and GaAs QWs over a wide range of AlxGa1 -xAs barrier alloy compositions. Our data indicate clear similarities in modulation doping mechanisms for AlAs and GaAs, and provide guidelines for the fabrication of very high quality AlAs 2DESs. We highlight the unprecedented quality of the fabricated AlAs samples by presenting the magnetotransport data for low-density (≃1 ×1011cm-2 ) AlAs 2DESs that exhibit high-order fractional quantum Hall signatures.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of non-equilibrium holes in p-type modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hagir Mohammed; Sun, Yun; Balkan, Naci; Amann, Andreas; Sopanen, Markku

    2011-03-02

    Nonlinear charge transport parallel to the layers of p-modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results show that at low temperature, T = 13 K, the presence of an applied electric field of about 6 kV/cm leads to the heating of the high mobility holes in the GaInNAs QWs, and their real-space transfer (RST) into the low-mobility GaAs barriers. This results in a negative differential mobility and self-generated oscillatory instabilities in the RST regime. We developed an analytical model based upon the coupled nonlinear dynamics of the real-space hole transfer and of the interface potential barrier controlled by space-charge in the doped GaAs layer. Our simulation results predict dc bias-dependent self-generated current oscillations with frequencies in the high microwave range.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of non-equilibrium holes in p-type modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amann Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear charge transport parallel to the layers of p-modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results show that at low temperature, T = 13 K, the presence of an applied electric field of about 6 kV/cm leads to the heating of the high mobility holes in the GaInNAs QWs, and their real-space transfer (RST into the low-mobility GaAs barriers. This results in a negative differential mobility and self-generated oscillatory instabilities in the RST regime. We developed an analytical model based upon the coupled nonlinear dynamics of the real-space hole transfer and of the interface potential barrier controlled by space-charge in the doped GaAs layer. Our simulation results predict dc bias-dependent self-generated current oscillations with frequencies in the high microwave range.

  5. A GaAs MESFET Mixer with Very Low Intermodulation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    HESS, GM-15 IMOTE Project Officer Director, AFSTC West Coast Office SD/CWX AFSTC/WCO OL-AB ’ V .-’ -- a.. -a- -"- "."- ’ " -"- ."-2."r...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wheni Data Entered) ....... ’p V1111,11,illilillil PREFACE The author would like to thank R. Gowin f’or...FIGURES 1. I/ V characteristic of an Avantek AT1O650-5 GaAs MESFET in its linear region .................................................. 10 2

  6. Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

  7. Konstruksjon av GaAs MMIC effektforsterker med integrert linearisering

    OpenAIRE

    Kippernes, Frank Åge

    2009-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg linearisering av GaAs MMIC effektforsterkere. Det er brukt en pHEMT-prosess og senterfrekvensen ligger på 2,45 GHz. Effektforsterkerne som er konstruert kan levere utgangseffekter i størrelsesorden 1 W. Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS) ble brukt til konstruksjon og simulering. Moderne modulasjonsteknikker med varierende envelope krever lineære forsterkere for å fungere. Ulinearitetene i forsterkeren vil forvrenge signalet og skape støy både i og utenfor båndet...

  8. Influence of Friedreich ataxia GAA noncoding repeat expansions on pre-mRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralle, Marco; Pastor, Tibor; Bussani, Erica; Pagani, Franco

    2008-07-01

    The intronic GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin (FXN) gene causes the hereditary neurodegenerative disorder Friedreich ataxia. Although it is generally believed that GAA repeats block transcription elongation, direct proof in eukaryotic systems is lacking. We tested in hybrid minigenes the effect of GAA and TTC repeats on nascent transcription and pre-mRNA processing. Unexpectedly, disease-causing GAA(100) repeats did not affect transcriptional elongation in a nuclear HeLa Run On assay, nor did they affect pre-mRNA transcript abundance. However, they did result in a complex defect in pre-mRNA processing. The insertion of GAA but not TTC repeats downstream of reporter exons resulted in their partial or complete exclusion from the mature mRNAs and in the generation of a variety of aberrant splicing products. This effect of GAA repeats was observed to be position and context dependent; their insertion at different distances from the reporter exons had a variable effect on splice-site selection. In addition, GAA repeats bind to a multitude of different splicing factors and induced the accumulation of an upstream pre-mRNA splicing intermediate, which is not turned over into mature mRNA. When embedded in the homologous frataxin minigene system, the GAA repeats did not affect the pre-mRNA transcript abundance but did significantly reduce the splicing efficiency of the first intron. These data indicate an association between GAA noncoding repeats and aberrant pre-mRNA processing because binding of transcribed GAA repeats to a multitude of trans-acting splicing factors can interfere with normal turnover of intronic RNA and thus lead to its degradation and a lower abundance of mature mRNA.

  9. Disruption of the gaa Gene in Zebrafish Fails to Generate the Phenotype of Classical Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Yang, Yi; Sun, Chengjun; Sun, Shaoyang; Li, Qiang; Yao, Yuxiao; Fei, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Chang, Zhuo; Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Xu; Luo, Feihong

    2017-01-01

    The underlying pathogenic lesions of glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II) and the diversity of this disease among different species are still under exploration. Thus, we created an acid alpha-glucosidase (gaa) gene-mutated zebrafish model of GSD II and examined the sequential pathogenic changes. gaa mRNA and protein expression, enzymatic activity, and lysosomal glycogen accumulation were assessed, and the phenotypic changes were compared between wild-type (WT) and gaa-mutated zebrafish. The presence of a Δ13 frameshift mutation in the gaa gene was confirmed at both the DNA and transcribed mRNA levels by Sanger sequencing. The relative amount of gaa mRNA was decreased before 2 days postfertilization (dpf), after which it unexpectedly increased in the mutant compared with the WT zebrafish. Consistent with the mRNA expression, the Gaa enzymatic activity in the mutant was downregulated before 3 dpf, while the Gaa protein level was slightly decreased at 4 dpf and was maintained at a consistent level in the adult gaa mutant muscle tissue. However, more than half of the adult mutant zebrafish exhibited excessive glycogen accumulation in the liver and muscles, along with the presence of autophagosomes, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Thus, we have successfully generated a frameshift mutation in the gaa gene in zebrafish. The unique gaa gene expression changes and mild GSD II features during the adult stage strongly indicate the existence of species-specific differences, as well as an underlying compensatory network, which may warrant further examination.

  10. Highly conductive homoepitaxial Si-doped Ga2O3 films on (010) β-Ga2O3 by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedy, Kevin D.; Chabak, Kelson D.; Vasilyev, Vladimir; Look, David C.; Boeckl, John J.; Brown, Jeff L.; Tetlak, Stephen E.; Green, Andrew J.; Moser, Neil A.; Crespo, Antonio; Thomson, Darren B.; Fitch, Robert C.; McCandless, Jonathan P.; Jessen, Gregg H.

    2017-07-01

    Si-doped Ga2O3 thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on semi-insulating (010) β-Ga2O3 and (0001) Al2O3 substrates. Films deposited on β-Ga2O3 showed single crystal, homoepitaxial growth as determined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Corresponding films deposited on Al2O3 were mostly single phase, polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 with a preferred (20 1 ¯ ) orientation. An average conductivity of 732 S cm-1 with a mobility of 26.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a carrier concentration of 1.74 × 1020 cm-3 was achieved for films deposited at 550 °C on β-Ga2O3 substrates as determined by Hall-Effect measurements. Two orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity were measured using native substrates versus Al2O3. A high activation efficiency was obtained in the as-deposited condition. The high carrier concentration Ga2O3 thin films achieved by pulsed laser deposition enable application as a low resistance ohmic contact layer in β-Ga2O3 devices.

  11. Analysis of the active layer in SI GaAs Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFM, Bologna (Italy); Canali, C. [INFM and Dipartimento di Scienze dell`Ingegneria, Universita` di Modena, Via Campi 213/B, Modena (Italy); Nava, F. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita` di Modena, Via Campi 213/A, Modena (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    The behavior of the active region width W of semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes versus reverse biasing has been investigated by optical beam induced current and surface potential techniques. It has been found that at low applied voltages, W follows the square root law peculiar to a Schottky barrier while, for a bias higher than 20 V, the active layer increases linearly with the voltage applied. To go deeper into this matter, the spatial distribution of the electric field has been analyzed in a wide range of bias voltages and it has been observed that at high voltages a plateau occurs, followed by a linear decrease down to a quasi-zero value. In terms of space charge distribution this means that there is a box-shaped space charge region moving towards the ohmic contact at increasing bias. (orig.) 21 refs.

  12. Six-fold hexagonal symmetric nanostructures with various periodic shapes on GaAs substrates for efficient antireflection and hydrophobic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Song, Young Min; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-12-02

    We fabricated various periodic nanostructures with a six-fold hexagonal symmetry on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates using simple process steps, together with a theoretical analysis of their antireflective properties. Elliptical photoresist (PR) nanopillars, which are inevitably generated by the asymmetric intensity distribution of the laser interference, were converted to rounded lens-like patterns by a thermal reflow process without any additional complex optic systems, thus leading to an exact six-fold hexagonal symmetry. Various shaped periodic nanostructures including nanorods, cones, truncated cones, and even parabolic patterns were obtained under different etching conditions using the rounded lens-like PR patterns formed by the reflow process. For the parabolic structure, the calculated lowest average reflectance of ∼ 2.3% was obtained. To achieve better antireflection characteristics, an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) film was deposited on the GaAs parabolas, which forms an AZO/GaAs parabolic nanostructure. The structure exhibited a low average reflectance of ∼ 1.2% over a wide wavelength region of 350-1800 nm and a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of θ(c) ∼ 115°. The calculated reflectances were reasonably consistent with the measured results.

  13. Surface plasmon enhanced SWIR absorption at the ultra n-doped substrate/PbSe nanostructure layer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Vladimir; Rosenblit, Michael; Sarusi, Gabby

    2017-08-01

    This work presents simulation results of the plasmon enhanced absorption that can be achieved in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR - 1200 nm to 1800 nm) spectral range at the interface between ultra-heavily doped substrates and a PbSe nanostructure non-epitaxial growth absorbing layer. The absorption enhancement simulated in this study is due to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation at the interface between these ultra-heavily n-doped GaAs or GaN substrates, which are nearly semimetals to SWIR light, and an absorption layer made of PbSe nano-spheres or nano-columns. The ultra-heavily doped GaAs or GaN substrates are simulated as examples, based on the Drude-Lorentz permittivity model. In the simulation, the substrates and the absorption layer were patterned jointly to forma blazed lattice, and then were back-illuminated using SWIR with a central wavelength of 1500 nm. The maximal field enhancement achieved was 17.4 with a penetration depth of 40 nm. Thus, such architecture of an ultra-heavily doped semiconductor and infrared absorbing layer can further increase the absorption due to the plasmonic enhanced absorption effect in the SWIR spectral band without the need to use a metallic layer as in the case of visible light.

  14. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...

  15. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  16. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  17. Thermal stress cycling of GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, B. K.; Francis, R. W.; Wendt, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal cycling experiment was performed on GaAs solar cells to establish the electrical and structural integrity of these cells under the temperature conditions of a simulated low-Earth orbit of 3-year duration. Thirty single junction GaAs cells were obtained and tests were performed to establish the beginning-of-life characteristics of these cells. The tests consisted of cell I-V power output curves, from which were obtained short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and cell efficiency, and optical micrographs, spectral response, and ion microprobe mass analysis (IMMA) depth profiles on both the front surfaces and the front metallic contacts of the cells. Following 5,000 thermal cycles, the performance of the cells was reexamined in addition to any factors which might contribute to performance degradation. It is established that, after 5,000 thermal cycles, the cells retain their power output with no loss of structural integrity or change in physical appearance.

  18. Picosecond relaxation of X-ray excited GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Victor; Medvedev, Nikita; Lipp, Vladimir; Ziaja, Beata

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we present the current status of our theoretical studies on ultrafast relaxation of X-ray/XUV excited gallium arsenide. First, we discuss our previous approach, the unified model based on rate equations, two-temperature model and the extended Drude approach. By fitting the model to the available experimental data, we obtained realistic estimates on transient electronic temperature and electron-lattice thermalization timescale. Next, we make a step towards a rigorous description of the relaxation process with our hybrid code, XTANT. We extend the XTANT to include the band-specific effect of the suppression of collisional processes in GaAs, and perform dedicated simulations. We find that the extended model correctly describes the predicted transient non-isothermality of conduction and valence bands, however, currently, it cannot reproduce the experimentally observed reflectivity overshooting at 5 - 10 ps. The reason for this discrepancy is that the electron-phonon coupling rate implemented in XTANT, although successfully applied for diamond and silicon, clearly underestimates the strength of this coupling in GaAs. The outline for a respective model improvement is discussed.

  19. High-efficiency nanostructured window GaAs solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Cui, Yi; Harris, James S

    2013-10-09

    Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary optical properties. In most nanostructured cells, high short circuit current has been obtained due to enhanced light absorption. However, most of them suffer from lowered open circuit voltage and fill factor. One of the main challenges is formation of good junction and electrical contact. In particular, nanostructures in GaAs only have shown unsatisfactory performances (below 5% in energy conversion efficiency) which cannot match their ideal material properties and the record photovoltaic performances in industry. Here we demonstrate a completely new design for nanostructured solar cells that combines nanostructured window layer, metal mesa bar contact with small area, high quality planar junction. In this way, we not only keep the advanced optical properties of nanostructures such as broadband and wide angle antireflection, but also minimize its negative impact on electrical properties. High light absorption, efficient carrier collection, leakage elimination, and good lateral conductance can be simultaneously obtained. A nanostructured window cell using GaAs junction and AlGaAs nanocone window demonstrates 17% energy conversion efficiency and 0.982 V high open circuit voltage.

  20. SAC-B GaAs solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, L.; Caon, A.; Contini, R.; D'Accolti, G.; Rossi, E.; Verzeni, G.; Flores, C.; Paletta, F.; Pedrazzoli, G.; Grattarola, M.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the electrical and mechanical design of the GaAs solar array of SAC-B, an Argentinian scientific satellite, planned for launch in 1995 into a 550-km circular orbit by Pegasus vehicle. The solar array is made up of four deployable wings, embodying approximately 1000 LPE GaAs solar cells, (30 x 41 sq mm), capable of providing about 215 W at 28 V at EOL. The mechanical structure of each panel comprises an aluminum honeycomb structure with carbon fiber skins; the active facesheet is covered with an insulating layer of kapton/fiberglass. Each panel is attached via a pair of hinges to the spacecraft body while a restraint/release mechanism holds the other panel edge to the spacecraft. Different considerations have been taken into account for the electrical and mechanical design of the solar array: geometrical constraints of the Pegasus static envelope and the satellite for the panel dimensioning, mission degradation factors, minimization of the magnetic moment, and realiability requirements. Several environmental tests (including thermal vacuum and vibration) are foreseen at panel and/or satellite level to verify performances during the mission.

  1. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A. E-mail: anna.cavallini@bo.infn.it; Polenta, L.; Canali, C.; Nava, F

    1999-04-21

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  2. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldini, A; Polenta, L; Canali, C; Nava, F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  3. Friedreich's ataxia-associated GAA repeats induce replication-fork reversal and unusual molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follonier, Cindy; Oehler, Judith; Herrador, Raquel; Lopes, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Expansion of GAA/TTC repeats is the causative event in Friedreich's ataxia. GAA repeats have been shown to hinder replication in model systems, but the mechanisms of replication interference and expansion in human cells remained elusive. To study in vivo replication structures at GAA repeats, we designed a new plasmid-based system that permits the analysis of human replication intermediates by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and EM. We found that replication forks transiently pause and reverse at long GAA/TTC tracts in both orientations. Furthermore, we identified replication-associated intramolecular junctions, located between GAA/TTC repeats and other homopurine-homopyrimidine tracts, that were associated with breakage of the plasmid fork not traversing the repeats. Finally, we detected postreplicative, sister-chromatid hemicatenanes on control plasmids, which were replaced by persistent homology-driven junctions at GAA/TTC repeats. These data prove that GAA/TTC tracts interfere with replication in humans and implicate postreplicative mechanisms in trinucleotide repeat expansion.

  4. Characterization of a Ga-assisted GaAs nanowire array solar cell on si substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; Wood, B.

    2016-01-01

    A single-junction core-shell GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cell on Si (1 1 1) substrates is presented. A Ga-assisted vapor–liquid–solid growth mechanism was used for the formation of a patterned array of radial p-i-n GaAs NWs encapsulated in AlInP passivation. Novel device fabrication utilizing facet......-dependent properties to minimize passivation layer removal for electrical contacting is demonstrated. Thorough electrical characterization and analysis of the cell is reported. The electrostatic potential distribution across the radial p-i-n junction GaAs NW is investigated by off-axis electron holography....

  5. GaAs preamplifier and LED driver for use in cryogenic and highly irradiated environments

    CERN Document Server

    Christoforou, Y

    1999-01-01

    A low-power dissipation, fast response and reasonable noise performance GaAs MESFETs preamplifier, able to work at low temperatures (89 K) and under high radiation doses, is presented. Attention is given to noise modeling for an application to particle detectors front-end electronics. Noise optimization can be achieved through careful layout design of the preamplifier's input transistor. This preamplifier is intended to be followed by a GaAs LED driver both working under the same physical conditions. A GaAs preamplifier and LED driver circuit has been designed and test results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Arsenic ambient conditions preventing surface degradation of GaAs during capless annealing at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C. H.; Kondo, K.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-05-01

    Changes in surface morphology and composition caused by capless annealing of GaAs were studied as a function of annealing temperature, T(GaAs), and the ambient arsenic pressure controlled by the temperature, T(As), of an arsenic source in the annealing ampul. It was established that any degradation of the GaAs surface morphology could be completely prevented, providing that T(As) was more than about 0.315T(GaAs) + 227 C. This empirical relationship is valid up to the melting point temperature of GaAs (1238 C), and it may be useful in some device-processing steps.

  7. Structures of dislocations in GaAs and their modification by impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Stich, P.; Jones, R.; Öberg, Sven; Heggie, M I

    1994-01-01

    Local density functional theory is used to show that both α and β dislocations in GaAs are reconstructed. This is done by relaxing large 158-atom H-terminated clusters of GaAs containing 90° partial dislocations. The reconstruction is strongly influenced by impurities: acceptor pairs destroy the reconstruction of β partials but strengthen it for α dislocations. Donors have opposite effects. The implication of these results for the pinning of dislocations in GaAs is discussed. Local density...

  8. To dope or not to dope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Knudsen, Mette Lykke; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    tAim: This study aims to examine the circumstances which athletes say affect their (hypothetical) consid-erations of whether to dope or not and explore the differences between athletes of different gender, ageand sport type.Methods: 645 elite athletes (mean age: 22.12; response rate: 43%) represe......tAim: This study aims to examine the circumstances which athletes say affect their (hypothetical) consid-erations of whether to dope or not and explore the differences between athletes of different gender, ageand sport type.Methods: 645 elite athletes (mean age: 22.12; response rate: 43......%) representing 40 sports completed aweb-based questionnaire. Participants were asked to imagine themselves in a situation in which theyhad to decide whether to dope or not to dope and then evaluate how different circumstances would affecttheir decisions.Results: Multiple circumstances had an effect on athletes......’ hypothetical decisions. The most effective deter-rents were related to legal and social sanctions, side-effects and moral considerations. Female athletesand younger athletes evaluated more reasons as deterrents than older, male athletes. When confrontedwith incentives to dope, the type of sport was often...

  9. [Doping and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G

    1999-09-01

    Doping is widely known as the use of banned substances and practices by athletes in an attempt to improve sporting performances. The term doping likely derives from "dope", an ancient expression referred to a primitive alcoholic drink that was used as a stimulant in South African ceremonial dances; gradually, the term was extended and finally adopted his current significance. There are at least two essential reasons to support the fight against doping: the potential harmful effects on athletes and the depth corruption of the fair competition. An exhaustive list of banned substances and methods has been drawn by the International Olympic Committee and further accepted by other International Sport Authorities and Federations. This list, regularly updated, is basically divided into doping substances (stimulants, narcotic analgesics, anabolic agents, diuretics, peptide and glycoprotein hormones and analogues), doping methods (blood doping, pharmacological, chemical and physical manipulation) and drugs subjected to certain restrictions (alcohol, marijuana, local anesthetics, corticosteroids and beta-blockers). Although there might be some medical conditions, which could legitimate the need of these substances or methods, there is no place for their use in sport. Thus, an athlete's consume of any of these substances or methods will result in disqualification. Aim of the present review is to provide a synthetic description of both the desirable effects and the potentially harmful consequences of the use of some of the major doping substances and methods.

  10. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in LT-GaAs doped with Si delta layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusyainov, D. I.; Dekeyser, C.; Buryakov, A. M.; Mishina, E. D.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Klochkov, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    We characterized the ultrafast properties of LT-GaAs doped with silicon δ-layers and introduced delta-doping (δ-doping) as efficient method for enhancing the properties of GaAs-based structures which can be useful for terahertz (THz) antenna, ultrafast switches and other high frequency applications. Low temperature grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) became one of the most promising materials for ultrafast optical and THz devices due to its short carrier lifetime and high carrier mobility. Low temperature growth leads to a large number of point defects and an excess of arsenic. Annealing of LT-GaAs creates high resistivity through the formation of As-clusters, which appear due to the excess of arsenic. High resistivity is very important for THz antennas so that voltage can be applied without the risk of breakdown. With δ-Si doping, control of As-clusters is possible, since after annealing, clusters align in the plane where the δ-doping occurs. In this paper, we compare the properties of LT-GaAs-based planar structures with and without δ-Si doping and subsequent annealing. We used pump-probe transient reflectivity as a probe for ultrafast carrier dynamics in LT-GaAs. The results of the experiment were interpreted using the Ortiz model and show that the δ-Si doping increases deep donor and acceptor concentrations and decreases the photoinduced carrier lifetime as compared with LT-GaAs with same growth and annealing temperatures, but without doping.

  11. The Design and Optimization of GaAs Single Solar Cells Using the Genetic Algorithm and Silvaco ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Attari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-junction solar cells are the most available in the market and the most simple in terms of the realization and fabrication comparing to the other solar devices. However, these single-junction solar cells need more development and optimization for higher conversion efficiency. In addition to the doping densities and compromises between different layers and their best thickness value, the choice of the materials is also an important factor on improving the efficiency. In this paper, an efficient single-junction solar cell model of GaAs is presented and optimized. In the first step, an initial model was simulated and then the results were processed by an algorithm code. In this work, the proposed optimization method is a genetic search algorithm implemented in Matlab receiving ATLAS data to generate an optimum output power solar cell. Other performance parameters such as photogeneration rates, external quantum efficiency (EQE, and internal quantum efficiency (EQI are also obtained. The simulation shows that the proposed method provides significant conversion efficiency improvement of 29.7% under AM1.5G illumination. The other results were Jsc = 34.79 mA/cm2, Voc = 1 V, and fill factor (FF = 85%.

  12. Interface designed MoS2/GaAs heterostructure solar cell with sandwich stacked hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shisheng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Shengjiao; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Chen, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    MoS2 is a layered two-dimensional semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV. The MoS2/bulk semiconductor system offers a new platform for solar cell device design. Different from the conventional bulk p-n junctions, in the MoS2/bulk semiconductor heterostructure, static charge transfer shifts the Fermi level of MoS2 toward that of bulk semiconductor, lowering the barrier height of the formed junction. Herein, we introduce hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into MoS2/GaAs heterostructure to suppress the static charge transfer, and the obtained MoS2/h-BN/GaAs solar cell exhibits an improved power conversion efficiency of 5.42%. More importantly, the sandwiched h-BN makes the Fermi level tuning of MoS2 more effective. By employing chemical doping and electrical gating into the solar cell device, PCE of 9.03% is achieved, which is the highest among all the reported monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide based solar cells. PMID:26458358

  13. Deep Levels in p-Type InGaAsN Lattice Matched to GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allerman, A.A.; Jones, E.D.; Kaplar, R.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kwon, D.; Ringel, S.A.

    1999-03-02

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were utilized to investigate deep level defects in metal-organic chemical deposition (MOCVD)-grown unintentionally doped p-type InGaAsN films lattice matched to GaAs. The as-grown material displayed a high concentration of deep levels distributed within the bandgap, with a dominant hole trap at E{sub v} + 0.10 eV. Post-growth annealing simplified the deep level spectra, enabling the identification of three distinct hole traps at 0.10 eV, 0.23 eV, and 0.48 eV above the valence band edge, with concentrations of 3.5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, 3.8 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, and 8.2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. A direct comparison between the as-grown and annealed spectra revealed the presence of an additional midgap hole trap, with a concentration of 4 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} in the as-grown material. The concentration of this trap is sharply reduced by annealing, which correlates with improved material quality and minority carrier properties after annealing. Of the four hole traps detected, only the 0.48 eV level is not influenced by annealing, suggesting this level may be important for processed InGaAsN devices in the future.

  14. Prismatic quantum heterostructures on MBE grown GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are believed to play a decisive role in the electronic and optoelectronic devices of the XXI century. Their synthesis is a rapidly expanding field, due to the expectations that nanoscale objects and their associated phenomena have to offer to basic and applied science. Here we report on a new method for the growth of GaAs nanowires and related prismatic quantum heterostructures using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), by avoiding the use of gold as seed for the nanowires. The use of Molecular Beam Epitaxy presents an additional interest, as this technique allows us to produce ultra-pure nanowires and quantum heterostructures on the nanowire facets with very high crystalline quality and atomically sharp interfaces. This new versatility of MBE in the growth of nanostructures opens great possibilities for the generation of novel devices with additional optical and electronic functionalities, as it has been previously shown in planar structures.

  15. Anharmonicity in light scattering by optical phonons in GaAs1-xBix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshya, R. S.; Rajaji, V.; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Mascarenhas, A.; Kini, R. N.

    2016-05-01

    We present a Raman spectroscopic study of GaAs1-xBix epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We have investigated the anharmonic effect on the GaAs-like longitudinal optical phonon mode ( LOGaAs' ) of GaAs1-xBix for different Bi concentrations at various temperatures. The results are analyzed in terms of the anharmonic damping effect induced by thermal and compositional disorder. We have observed that the anharmonicity increases with Bi concentration in GaAs1-xBix as evident from the increase in the anharmonicity constants. In addition, the anharmonic lifetime of the optical phonon decreases with increasing Bi concentration in GaAs1-xBix.

  16. The apparent effect of sample surface damage on the dielectric parameters of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)], E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za; Hashe, N.G. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Hillie, K.T. [CSIR-NML Laboratory, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Claassens, C.H. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2007-12-15

    The dielectric and optical parameters determined by infrared reflectance spectroscopy and computer simulation of a set of GaAs substrates of various surface topologies are reported. The influence of surface damage on the parameters is noted.

  17. Development of GaAs Detectors for Physics at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Chu, Zhonghua; Krais, R; Rente, C; Syben, O; Tenbusch, F; Toporowsky, M; Xiao, Wenjiang; Cavallini, A; Fiori, F; Edwards, M; Geppert, R; Goppert, R; Haberla, C; Hornung, M F; Irsigler, R; Rogalla, M; Beaumont, S; Raine, C; Skillicorn, I; Margelevicius, J; Meshkinis, S; Smetana, S; Jones, B; Santana, J; Sloan, T; Zdansky, K; Alexiev, D; Donnelly, I J; Canali, C; Chiossi, C; Nava, F; Pavan, P; Kubasta, J; Tomiak, Z; Tchmil, V; Tchountonov, A; Tsioupa, I; Dogru, M; Gray, R; Hou, Yuqian; Manolopoulos, S; Walsh, S; Aizenshtadt, G; Budnitsky, D L; Gossen, A; Khludkov, S; Koretskaya, O B; Okaevitch, L; Potapov, A; Stepanov, V E; Tolbanov, O; Tyagev, A; Matulionis, A; Pozela, J; Kavaliauskiene, G; Kazukauskas, V; Kiliulis, R; Rinkevicius, V; Slenys, S; Storasta, J V

    2002-01-01

    % RD-8 Development of GaAs Detectors for Physics at the LHC \\\\ \\\\The aims of the collaboration are to investigate the available material options, performance and limitations of simple pad, pixel and microstrip GaAs detectors for minimum ionising particles with radiation hardness and speed which are competitive with silicon detectors. This new technology was originally developed within our university laboratories but now benefits from increasing industrial interest and collaboration in detector fabrication. Initial steps have also been taken towards the fabrication of GaAs preamplifiers to match the detectors in radiation hardness. The programme of work aims to construct a demonstration detector module for an LHC forward tracker based on GaAs.

  18. CMOS compatible route for GaAs based large scale flexible and transparent electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible electronics using gallium arsenide (GaAs) for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. Here we describe a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible batch fabrication process of transforming traditional electronic circuitry into large-area flexible, semitransparent platform. We show a simple release process for peeling off 200 nm of GaAs from 200 nm GaAs/300 nm AlAs stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes which contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelength) observed.

  19. Pulsed laser heating of silicon-nitride capped GaAs: Optical properties at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A.; Yao, H. D.; Compaan, A.; Horak, A.; Rys, A.

    1988-09-01

    The optical properties of silicon nitride and gallium arsenide were studied at temperatures up to and beyond the melting point of GaAs by means of laser heating. XeCl excimer and pulsed dye laser pulses, ˜10 ns in duration, were used to heat the semiconductor under nitride capping layers of varying thickness. The transient reflectivity response at 514.5 nm was used together with a multilayer interference analysis to obtain the optical constants of solid and molten GaAs and of solid Si3N4 near the 1513-K melting point of GaAs. In addition, we report the melt duration as a function of laser pulse energy for GaAs with and without capping layers.

  20. High Purity GaAs Far IR Photoconductor With Enhanced Quantum Efficieny Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative concept aimed to significantly enhance the quantum efficiency of a far-infrared GaAs photoconductor and achieve sensitivity...

  1. Friedreich's ataxia (GAA)n•(TTC)n repeats strongly stimulate mitotic crossovers in Saccharomyces cerevisae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Dominska, Margaret; Greenwell, Patricia W; Harvanek, Zachary; Lobachev, Kirill S; Kim, Hyun-Min; Narayanan, Vidhya; Mirkin, Sergei M; Petes, Thomas D

    2011-01-13

    Expansions of trinucleotide GAA•TTC tracts are associated with the human disease Friedreich's ataxia, and long GAA•TTC tracts elevate genome instability in yeast. We show that tracts of (GAA)(230)•(TTC)(230) stimulate mitotic crossovers in yeast about 10,000-fold relative to a "normal" DNA sequence; (GAA)(n)•(TTC)(n) tracts, however, do not significantly elevate meiotic recombination. Most of the mitotic crossovers are associated with a region of non-reciprocal transfer of information (gene conversion). The major class of recombination events stimulated by (GAA)(n)•(TTC)(n) tracts is a tract-associated double-strand break (DSB) that occurs in unreplicated chromosomes, likely in G1 of the cell cycle. These findings indicate that (GAA)(n)•(TTC)(n) tracts can be a potent source of loss of heterozygosity in yeast.

  2. A small molecule affecting the replication of trinucleotide repeat d(GAA)n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanping; Hagihara, Masaki; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2009-10-12

    A newly designed ligand, methylcarbamoylnaphthyridine dimer (MCND), was synthesized and characterized. Ligand binding to d(GAA)(10) was investigated by UV thermal denaturation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and cold-spray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results indicated that MCND bound to the d(GAA)(n) repeat to form a stable hairpin structure with a major binding stoichiometry of 3:1. The most likely binding site was identified as the G-G mismatch in the AGA/AGA triad. The polymerase stop assay showed that MCND binding to the d(GAA)(n) repeat effectively interfered with the extension of the primer at the first two GAA sites on the template with both prokaryotic Taq DNA polymerase and human DNA polymerase alpha.

  3. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: rrestre@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.

  4. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  5. Computer simulation of GaAs and SOI devices using TCAD tools: an REU project

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashok; Bergstrom, Sarah; Mojica-Campbell, Aleli

    1999-01-01

    An undergraduate research project is outlined whose goal was to use the TCAD tools to simulate the performances of GaAs- and SOI-based devices and to compare them with the corresponding silicon-based devices. Students used the Silvaco Corporation's "Virtual Wafer Fab" (VWF) package consisting of process simulation software called ATHENA, device layout software called DevEdit and device simulation software called ATLAS to simulate GaAs, SOI as well as conventional silicon devices. They explore...

  6. Local modification of GaAs nanowires induced by laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazji, S; Zardo, I; Soini, M; Fontcuberta i Morral, A; Abstreiter, G [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Postorino, P, E-mail: ilaria.zardo@wsi.tum.de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2011-08-12

    GaAs nanowires were heated locally under ambient air conditions by a focused laser beam which led to oxidation and formation of crystalline arsenic on the nanowire surface. Atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed on the same single GaAs nanowires in order to correlate their structural and optical properties. We show that the local changes of the nanowires act as a barrier for thermal transport which is of interest for thermoelectric applications.

  7. Suppression of Spontaneous Emission for Two-Dimentional GaAs photonic Crystal Microavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous emission in two-dimentional photonic crystals in modelled through the concept of the position-dependent desity-of-state, and numerical results for a GaAs photoniccrystal microcavity are presented.......Spontaneous emission in two-dimentional photonic crystals in modelled through the concept of the position-dependent desity-of-state, and numerical results for a GaAs photoniccrystal microcavity are presented....

  8. Vapor phase epitaxial liftoff of GaAs and silicon single crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Kao, C.P.; Pike, G.A.; Slone, J.A.; Yablonovitch, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1594 (United States)

    1999-06-10

    Among the technologies for integrating GaAs devices with Si VLSI chips, epitaxial liftoff (ELO) is conspicuous for maintaining the quality of the single crystal epitaxial GaAs films. Traditionally, ELO is implemented in aqueous HF solution. It would be cleaner and simpler if ELO could be implemented in a vapor process. In this article, we will present the potential improvements in the ELO process by using a vapor phase etch to undercut thin films

  9. A novel GAA-repeat-expansion-based mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjomani Virmouni, Sara; Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Chutake, Yogesh; Pook, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene, resulting in reduced levels of frataxin protein. We have previously reported the generation of human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic FRDA mouse models containing 90-190 GAA repeats, but the presence of multiple GAA repeats within these mice is considered suboptimal. We now describe the cellular, molecular and behavioural characterisation of a newly developed YAC transgenic FRDA mouse model, designated YG8sR, which we have shown by DNA sequencing to contain a single pure GAA repeat expansion. The founder YG8sR mouse contained 120 GAA repeats but, due to intergenerational expansion, we have now established a colony of YG8sR mice that contain ~200 GAA repeats. We show that YG8sR mice have a single copy of the FXN transgene, which is integrated at a single site as confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We have identified significant behavioural deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8sR FRDA mice compared with control Y47R and wild-type (WT) mice. We have also detected increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the brain and cerebellum of YG8sR mice, together with significantly reduced expression of FXN, FAST-1 and frataxin, and reduced aconitase activity, compared with Y47R mice. Furthermore, we have confirmed the presence of pathological vacuoles within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of YG8sR mice. These novel GAA-repeat-expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mice, which exhibit progressive FRDA-like pathology, represent an excellent model for the investigation of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Epitaxial growth of Bi ultra-thin films on GaAs by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abuin, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada IQFR(CSIC)-UCM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Mascaraque, A., E-mail: arantzazu.mascaraque@fis.ucm.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada IQFR(CSIC)-UCM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gonzalez-Barrio, M.A. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada IQFR(CSIC)-UCM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Perez, L. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrodeposition of Bi films on GaAs substrates with different orientations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultra thin films - 50 nm - are continuous and smooth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi always grows with (0 1 L) orientations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial growth onto As terminated surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed model based on structural and chemical considerations. - Abstract: We report on the growth of thin bismuth films on GaAs substrates with different orientations by means of electrochemical deposition. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the films are continuous and exhibit low roughness when they are grown under the appropriate overpotential. {omega}-2{theta} X-ray diffraction scans only show reflections that can be indexed as (0 1 L), meaning that Bi grows onto GaAs only in combinations of the (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) orientations. The matching between the GaAs substrate and the Bi layer has been studied by asymmetric X-ray scans, finding that Bi grows epitaxially on GaAs(1 1 0) and GaAs(1 1 1)B, both As-terminated surfaces. We explain these results by structural and chemical considerations.

  11. InAs quantum dots nucleation on (100) and anisotropic (631)-oriented GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio-López, E.; Lopez-Lopez, M.; Gorbatchev, A. Yu.; Espinosa-Vega, L. I.; Cortes-Mestizo, I. E.; Mercado-Ornelas, C. A.; Del Rı´o-De Santiago, A.; Méndez-García, Victor H.

    2018-01-01

    Different mechanisms of adatoms nucleation are studied for the self-assembling of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on smooth and nanoscale faceted GaAs surface morphologies. The experiments were performed on GaAs(100) and GaAs(631), and prior to the arrival of InAs the GaAs surface morphology was intentionally altered by changing the growth temperature of the buffer layer, TBL. For the reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) analysis, an equilibrium interlayer mass transport model is proposed through which, the critical thickness (Hc) and the InAs diffusion length can be estimated. For InAs growth on (100) substrates the Hc did not show significant dependence on TBL, but the adatoms diffusion length slightly reduced as TBL increases, which is in agreement with the changes on QDs density as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For samples grown on GaAs (631)-oriented substrates it was found that both the nucleation mode of InAs and the Hc depends on TBL. The changes are associated to the growth of InAs on GaAs surface faceted corrugation that allows the self-organizing InAs QDs along [-113].

  12. Effects of Friedreich's ataxia (GAA)n*(TTC)n repeats on RNA synthesis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikova, Maria M; Kireeva, Maria L; Petrovic, Vladimir; Knijnikova, Nelli; Kashlev, Mikhail; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2007-01-01

    Expansions of (GAA)n repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene reduce its expression, resulting in a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, Friedreich's ataxia. While it is generally believed that expanded (GAA)n repeats block transcription elongation, fine mechanisms responsible for gene repression are not fully understood. To follow the effects of (GAA)n*(TTC)n repeats on gene expression, we have chosen E. coli as a convenient model system. (GAA)n*(TTC)n repeats were cloned into bacterial plasmids in both orientations relative to a promoter, and their effects on transcription and RNA stability were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Expanded (GAA)n repeats in the sense strand for transcription caused a significant decrease in the mRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. This decrease was likely due to the tardiness of the RNA polymerase within expanded (GAA)n runs but was not accompanied by the enzyme's dissociation and premature transcription termination. Unexpectedly, positioning of normal- and carrier-size (TTC)n repeats into the sense strand for transcription led to the appearance of RNA transcripts that were truncated within those repetitive runs in vivo. We have determined that these RNA truncations are consistent with cleavage of the full-sized mRNAs at (UUC)n runs by the E. coli degradosome.

  13. Creatine prevents the inhibition of energy metabolism and lipid peroxidation in rats subjected to GAA administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Janaína; Wyse, Angela T S

    2010-09-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is an inherited neurometabolic disorder, biochemically characterized by the tissue accumulation of guanidinoacetate (GAA). Affected patients present epilepsy and mental retardation whose etiopathogeny is unclear. Previous reports have shown that GAA alters brain energy metabolism and that creatine, which is depleted in patients with GAMT deficiency, can act as a neuroprotector; as such, in the present study we investigated the effect of creatine administration on some of the altered parameters of energy metabolism (complex II, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and creatine kinase) and lipid peroxidation caused by intrastriatal administration of GAA in adult rats. Animals were pretreated for 7 days with daily intraperitonial administrations of creatine. Subsequently, these animals were divided into two groups: Group 1 (sham group), rats that suffered surgery and received saline; and group 2 (GAA-treated). Thirty min after GAA or saline, the animals were sacrificed and the striatum dissected out. Results showed that the administration of creatine was able to reverse the activities of complex II, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and creatine kinase, as well as, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that the energy metabolism deficit caused by GAA may be prevented by creatine, which probably acts as an antioxidant since it was able to prevent lipid peroxidation. These data may contribute, at least in part, to a better understanding of the mechanisms related to the energy deficit and oxidative stress observed in GAMT deficiency.

  14. Development of a feasible assay for the detection of GAA mutations in patients with Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Tze-Kiong; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Liang, Wen-Chen; Kan, Tzu-Min; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2014-02-15

    Pompe disease is an inherited autosomal recessive deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) and is due to pathogenic sequence variants in the corresponding GAA gene. While the analysis of enzyme activity remains the diagnostic test of choice for individuals with Pompe disease, mutation analysis remains for establishing a definitive diagnosis. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was performed to screen GAA mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the two patients with Pompe disease and 250 normal controls. Exons 2 through 20 of the GAA gene were screened by the HRM analysis. The results were subsequently confirmed by direct sequencing. This assay proved to be feasible in detecting seven known (c.2T>C, c.1726G>A, c.1845G>A, c.1935C>A, c.1958C>A, c.2238G>C, and c.2815_2816del) GAA mutations. Each mutation could be readily and accurately identified in the difference plot curves. We estimated the carrier frequency of the most common mutation, c.1935G>A (p.D645E), in the Taiwanese population to be 0.2%. In clinical practice, we suggest that HRM analysis is assumed as a fast and reliable method for screening GAA gene mutations especially the most common mutations which are responsible for Pompe disease among the Taiwanese populations. © 2013.

  15. GaAs FET Logic at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    this program. Epitaxial growth was done in a previously described reactor system.1 The doping concentration of the active layer encompassed the low...semi-log graph paper, a straight line should result. The extrap - olated value of the forward current at VF = 0 gives the saturation current, IS, * from

  16. Structural Evolution During Formation and Filling of Self-patterned Nanoholes on GaAs (100 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanohole formation on an AlAs/GaAs superlattice gives insight to both the “drilling” effect of Ga droplets on AlAs as compared to GaAs and the hole-filling process. The shape and depth of the nanoholes formed on GaAs (100 substrates has been studied by the cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The Ga droplets “drill” through the AlAs layer at a much slower rate than through GaAs due to differences in activation energy. Refill of the nanohole results in elongated GaAs mounds along the [01−1] direction. As a result of capillarity-induced diffusion, GaAs favors growth inside the nanoholes, which provides the possibility to fabricate GaAs and AlAs nanostructures.

  17. Deficiency of RecA-dependent RecFOR and RecBCD pathways causes increased instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Laura M; Chutake, Yogesh K; Rindler, Paul M; Bidichandani, Sanjay I

    2007-01-01

    The most common mutation in Friedreich ataxia is an expanded (GAA*TTC)n sequence, which is highly unstable in human somatic cells and in the germline. The mechanisms responsible for this genetic instability are poorly understood. We previously showed that cloned (GAA*TTC)n sequences replicated in Escherichia coli are more unstable when GAA is the lagging strand template, suggesting erroneous lagging strand synthesis as the likely mechanism for the genetic instability. Here we show that the increase in genetic instability when GAA serves as the lagging strand template is seen in RecA-deficient but not RecA-proficient strains. We also found the same orientation-dependent increase in instability in a RecA+ temperature-sensitive E. coli SSB mutant strain (ssb-1). Since stalling of replication is known to occur within the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template, we hypothesized that genetic stability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence may require efficient RecA-dependent recombinational restart of stalled replication forks. Consistent with this hypothesis, we noted significantly increased instability when GAA was the lagging strand template in strains that were deficient in components of the RecFOR and RecBCD pathways. Our data implicate defective processing of stalled replication forks as a mechanism for genetic instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence.

  18. Charge carrier relaxation in InGaAs-GaAs quantum wire modulation-doped heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, S. V.; Iliash, S. A.; Mazur, Yu I.; Kunets, V. P.; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.

    2017-09-01

    The time dependencies of the carrier relaxation in modulation-doped InGaAs-GaAs low-dimensional structures with quantum wires have been studied as functions of temperature and light excitation levels. The photoconductivity (PC) relaxation follows a stretched exponent with decay constant, which depends on the morphology of InGaAs epitaxial layers, presence of deep traps, and energy disorder due to inhomogeneous distribution of size and composition. A hopping model, where electron tunnels between bands of localized states, gives appropriate interpretation for temperature-independent PC decay across the temperature range 150-290 K. At low temperatures (T InGaAs quantum wires (QWRs), sub-bands of two-dimensional electron gas of modulation-doped n-GaAs spacers, as well as defect states in the GaAs environment are the dominant relaxation mechanism. The PC and photoluminescence transients for samples with different morphologies of the InGaAs nanostructures are compared. The relaxation rates are found to be largely dependent on energy disorder due to inhomogeneous distribution of strain, nanostructure size and composition, and piezoelectric fields in and around nanostructures, which have a strong impact on efficiency of carrier exchange between bands of the InGaAs QWRs, GaAs spacers, or wetting layers; presence of local electric fields; and deep traps.

  19. Photoreflectance Characterization of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimnathwala, Hemant Ghanshyamdas

    Photoreflectance technique has been used as a non-destructive probe of surface photo-voltage in doped and semi-insulating semiconductors. A system used to measure the photoreflectance spectra near the fundamental gap of GaAs and InP has been described. Measurements as a function of pump intensity on n and p type GaAs were used to infer the carrier dynamics leading to change in the surface electric field. Measurements indicate that the surface of GaAs consists of hole traps at the surface in addition to recombination states. This is confirmed by spectroscopic studies carried out by varying the pump modulation frequency at fixed temperatures and the measurements show that the hole trap has an activation energy of 0.29 eV and has an emission time of 0.175 +/- 0.002 msec. at room temperature. In semi-insulating GaAs, it is expected that there is no surface electric field at equilibrium due to pinning at the surface and large concentration of deep defect EL2. Electromodulation, in this case proceeds via preferential trapping of holes at the surface. This is supported by measurements carried out as a function of pump intensity and on wafers having different carbon concentrations. Analysis of carrier dynamics in semi-insulating GaAs is much simplified by use of Nd:YAG laser (instead of a HeNe laser) as a source of pump beam. A sub-band -gap excitation generates mainly excess electrons and the Poisson's equation can be integrated once to find the surface electric field. Numerical integration yields the surface photovoltage. It is shown that this technique is sensitive to the the surface state density and relatively insensitive to bulk properties. It has been applied to study the effect of various chemical reactants on the surface state density. In many PR spectra, features at energies less than the gap energy are observed. These are ascribed to shallow acceptors unrelated to carbon, which was the dominant acceptor in these materials. It is proposed that the electric field

  20. Estudio de la naturaleza y distribucion de defectos en obleas de GaAs mediante tecnicas de inyeccion de haces

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez Martín, Bianchi

    1991-01-01

    Los estudios realizados sobre el gaas presentados en esta memoria aportan información acerca de la naturaleza de defectos (dislocaciones y defectos puntuales) en obleas de gaas semiconductor y gaas semiaislante. El empleo de la catodoluminiscencia (cl) y la microscopia electroacustica de barrido (meab) de forma combinada nos ha permitido obtener resultados nuevos tanto acerca de las posibilidades de aplicación de estas tecnicas a semiconductores III-v como sobre la caracterización de las oble...

  1. Aluminum Doped Parahydrogen Solids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Mario

    2001-01-01

    ...) solids doped with large (- 1 %) concentrations of Al atoms. We incorporated into our apparatus a commercially available effusive Al atom source capable of delivering Al atom fluxes in excess of 10(exp 17...

  2. Disruption of Higher Order DNA Structures in Friedreich's Ataxia (GAA)(n) Repeats by PNA or LNA Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, Helen; Rocha, Cristina S. J.; Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich’s ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated with epigen......Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich’s ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated...

  3. Influence of substrate orientation on the structural quality of GaAs nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Shi, Sui-Xing; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of substrate orientation on the structural quality of Au-catalyzed epitaxial GaAs nanowires grown by a molecular beam epitaxy reactor has been investigated. It was found that the substrate orientations can be used to manipulate the nanowire catalyst composition and the catalyst surface energy and, therefore, to alter the structural quality of GaAs nanowires grown on different substrates. Defect-free wurtzite-structured GaAs nanowires grown on the GaAs (110) substrate have been achieved under our growth conditions.

  4. Hyperexpansion of GAA repeats affects post-initiation steps of FXN transcription in Friedreich’s ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunah; Napierala, Marek; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2011-01-01

    Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by biallelic expansion of GAA repeats leading to the transcriptional silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene. The exact molecular mechanism of inhibition of FXN expression is unclear. Herein, we analyze the effects of hyperexpanded GAA repeats on transcription status and chromatin modifications proximal and distal to the GAA repeats. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR we detected significant changes in the chromatin landscape in FRDA cells relative to control cells downstream of the promoter, especially in the vicinity of the GAA tract. In this region, hyperexpanded GAAs induced a particular constellation of histone modifications typically associated with heterochromatin-like structures. Similar epigenetic changes were observed in GFP reporter construct containing 560 GAA repeats. Furthermore, we observed similar levels of FXN pre-mRNA at a region upstream of hyperexpanded GAA repeats in FRDA and control cells, indicating similar efficiency of transcription initiation. We also demonstrated that histone modifications associated with hyperexpanded GAA repeats are independent of initiation and progression of transcription. Our data provide strong evidence that FXN deficiency in FRDA patients results from a block of transition from initiation to a productive elongation of FXN transcription due to heterochromatin-like structures formed in the proximity of the hyperexpanded GAAs. PMID:21745819

  5. Fully deleted adenovirus persistently expressing GAA accomplishes long-term skeletal muscle glycogen correction in tolerant and nontolerant GSD-II mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Anne; Hartman, Zachary C; Liao, Shaoxi; Xu, Fang; Serra, Delila; Palmer, Donna J; Ng, Philip; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II) patients manifest symptoms of muscular dystrophy secondary to abnormal glycogen storage in cardiac and skeletal muscles. For GSD-II, we hypothesized that a fully deleted adenovirus (FDAd) vector expressing hGAA via nonviral regulatory elements (PEPCK promoter/ApoE enhancer) would facilitate long-term efficacy and decrease propensity to generate anti-hGAA antibody responses against hepatically secreted hGAA. Intravenous delivery of FDAdhGAA into GAA-tolerant or nontolerant GAA-KO mice resulted in long-term hepatic secretion of hGAA. Specifically, nontolerant mice achieved complete reversal of cardiac glycogen storage and near-complete skeletal glycogen correction for at least 180 days and tolerant mice for minimally 300 days coupled with the preservation of muscle strength. Anti-hGAA antibody levels in both mouse strains were significantly less relative to those previously generated by CMV-driven hGAA expression in nontolerant GAA-KO mice. However, plasma GAA levels decreased in nontolerant GAA-KO mice despite long-term intrahepatic GAA expression from the persistent vector. This intriguing result is discussed in light of other examples of "tolerance" induction by gene-transfer-based approaches.

  6. Transcriptome assessment of the Pompe (Gaa-/-) mouse spinal cord indicates widespread neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S M F; Falk, D J; Byrne, B J; Fuller, D D

    2016-11-01

    Pompe disease, caused by deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), leads to widespread glycogen accumulation and profound neuromuscular impairments. There has been controversy, however, regarding the role of central nervous system pathology in Pompe motor dysfunction. We hypothesized that absence of GAA protein causes progressive activation of neuropathological signaling, including pathways associated with cell death. To test this hypothesis, genomic data (Affymetrix Mouse Gene Array 2.0ST) from the midcervical spinal cord in 6 and 16 mo old Pompe (Gaa(-/-)) mice were evaluated (Broad Institute Molecular Signature Database), along with spinal cord histology. The midcervical cord was selected because it contains phrenic motoneurons, and phrenic-diaphragm dysfunction is prominent in Pompe disease. Several clinically important themes for the neurologic etiology of Pompe disease emerged from this unbiased genomic assessment. First, pathways associated with cell death were strongly upregulated as Gaa(-/-) mice aged, and motoneuron apoptosis was histologically verified. Second, proinflammatory signaling was dramatically upregulated in the Gaa(-/-) spinal cord. Third, many signal transduction pathways in the Gaa(-/-) cervical cord were altered in a manner suggestive of impaired synaptic function. Notably, glutamatergic signaling pathways were downregulated, as were "synaptic plasticity pathways" including genes related to neuroplasticity. Fourth, many genes and pathways related to cellular metabolism are dysregulated. Collectively, the data unequivocally confirm that systemic absence of GAA induces a complex neuropathological cascade in the spinal cord. Most importantly, the results indicate that Pompe is a neurodegenerative condition, and this underscores the need for early therapeutic intervention capable of targeting the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Friedreich ataxia: Detection of GAA repeat expansions and frataxin point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FA) is an autosomal-recessive disease primarily characterized by progressive neurological disability. A significant proportion of patients also present with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which may, in some cases, cause premature death. FA is caused by insufficient levels of the protein, frataxin, which is involved in mitochondrial iron metabolism. All patients carry at least one copy of an intronic GAA triplet-repeat expansion that interferes with frataxin transcription. Normal chromosomes contain up to 35 to 40 GAA triplets in an Alu sequence localized in the first intron of the frataxin gene; FA chromosomes carry from approx 70 to more than 1000 GAA triplets. The molecular diagnosis of FA is, therefore, based on the detection of this expansion, which is present in homozygosity in more than 95% of the cases. The remaining patients are heterozygous for the GAA expansion and carry a frataxin point mutation as the other pathogenic allele. The expanded GAA triplet repeat may be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. In our hands, carefully performed PCR testing, in particular, if fragment detection is enhanced by hybridization with a GAA oligonucleotide probe, is as effective in identifying patients and carriers as is Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, and allows a more accurate sizing of the repeat. Furthermore, in the case of smaller expansions, the amplified fragment may be directly sequenced to identify very rare nonpathogenic variant repeats, such as GAAGGA. Sequence analysis of the five coding exons of the frataxin gene should be performed in clinically affected individuals who are heterozygous for an expanded GAA repeat to identify point mutations.

  8. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  9. High temperature GaAs X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Whitaker, M. D. C.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa X-ray photodiodes were characterized for their electrical and photon counting X-ray spectroscopic performance over the temperature range of 100 °C to -20 °C. The devices had 10 μm thick i layers with different diameters: 200 μm (D1) and 400 μm (D2). The electrical characterization included dark current and capacitance measurements at internal electric field strengths of up to 50 kV/cm. The determined properties of the two devices were compared with previously reported results that were made with a view to informing the future development of photon counting X-ray spectrometers for harsh environments, e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces in high temperature environments. The best energy resolution obtained (Full Width at Half Maximum at 5.9 keV) decreased from 2.00 keV at 100 °C to 0.66 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D1, and from 2.71 keV at 100 °C to 0.71 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D2. Dielectric noise was found to be the dominant source of noise in the spectra, apart from at high temperatures and long shaping times, where the main source of photopeak broadening was found to be the white parallel noise.

  10. Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, M. B.; Blau, P.; Pearl, S.; Katz, M.

    2012-02-01

    Orientation patterned GaAs waveguides for parametric conversion from near to mid-infrared have been fabricated by MOCVD growth on OPGaAs templates. A monolithic OPO cavity was formed by dielectric facet coating. Parametric oscillation characteristics were investigated using a pulsed source tunable in the range of 1.98-2.05μm. Type I and II parametric interactions have been observed, differing in QPM wavelength. OPO threshold power of 7W, using a pulsed pump, and 5.7W using a CW laser was obtained in a 13mm long waveguide of 39μm period. Overall Parametric peak power of 0.6W at pulsed pump peak power of 11.6W was generated at signal & idler wavelengths of 3.6μm & 4.5μm respectively and pump wavelength of 2.015μm. Tuning curves for Type I and type II parametric operation in OPGaAs WGs have been calculated and verified by the measured signal and idler wavelengths.

  11. GaAs integrated circuits and heterojunction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlis, Colin

    1986-06-01

    The state of the art of GaAs technology in the U.S. as it applies to digital and analog integrated circuits is examined. In a market projection, it is noted that whereas analog ICs now largely dominate the market, in 1994 they will amount to only 39 percent vs. 57 percent for digital ICs. The military segment of the market will remain the largest (42 percent in 1994 vs. 70 percent today). ICs using depletion-mode-only FETs can be constructed in various forms, the closest to production being BFL or buffered FET logic. Schottky diode FET logic - a lower power approach - can reach higher complexities and strong efforts are being made in this direction. Enhancement type devices appear essential to reach LSI and VLSI complexity, but process control is still very difficult; strong efforts are under way, both in the U.S. and in Japan. Heterojunction devices appear very promising, although structures are fairly complex, and special fabrication techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD, are necessary. High-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) devices show significant performance advantages over MESFETs at low temperatures. Initial results of heterojunction bipolar transistor devices show promise for high speed A/D converter applications.

  12. Optically pumped room-temperature GaAs nanowire lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Dhruv; Mokkapati, Sudha; Parkinson, Patrick; Jiang, Nian; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared lasers are important for optical data communication, spectroscopy and medical diagnosis. Semiconductor nanowires offer the possibility of reducing the footprint of devices for three-dimensional device integration and hence are being extensively studied in the context of optoelectronic devices. Although visible and ultraviolet nanowire lasers have been demonstrated widely, progress towards room-temperature infrared nanowire lasers has been limited because of material quality issues and Auger recombination. (Al)GaAs is an important material system for infrared lasers that is extensively used for conventional lasers. GaAs has a very large surface recombination velocity, which is a serious issue for nanowire devices because of their large surface-to-volume ratio. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature lasing in core-shell-cap GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires by properly designing the Fabry-Pérot cavity, optimizing the material quality and minimizing surface recombination. Our demonstration is a major step towards incorporating (Al)GaAs nanowire lasers into the design of nanoscale optoelectronic devices operating at near-infrared wavelengths.

  13. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in MoS2/GaAs Heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lanzhong; Liu, Yunjie; Han, Zhide; Xu, Zhijie; Zhu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoscaled films are deposited on GaAs substrates via magnetron sputtering technique, and MoS2/GaAs heterojunctions are fabricated. The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) of the fabricated MoS2/GaAs heterojunctions is investigated. The results show that a large LPE can be obtained in the MoS2/ n-GaAs heterojunction. The LPE exhibits a linear dependence on the position of the laser illumination and the considerably high sensitivity of 416.4 mV mm- 1. This sensitivity is much larger than the values in other reported MoS2-based devices. Comparatively, the LPE in the MoS2/ p-GaAs heterojunction is much weaker. The mechanisms to the LPE are unveiled by constructing the energy-band alignment of the MoS2/GaAs heterojunctions. The excellent LPE characteristics make MoS2 films combined with GaAs semiconductors promising candidates for the application of high-performance position-sensitive detectors.

  14. High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kwong, Anthony; Jung, Daehwan; Faucher, Joseph; Biswas, Roshni; Shen, Lang; Kang, Dongseok; Lee, Minjoo Larry; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-10-27

    Due to their favorable materials properties including direct bandgap and high electron mobilities, epitaxially grown III-V compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) provide unmatched performance over silicon in solar energy harvesting. Nonetheless, their large-scale deployment in terrestrial photovoltaics remains challenging mainly due to the high cost of growing device quality epitaxial materials. In this regard, reducing the thickness of constituent active materials under appropriate light management schemes is a conceptually viable option to lower the cost of GaAs solar cells. Here, we present a type of high efficiency, ultrathin GaAs solar cell that incorporates bifacial photon management enabled by techniques of transfer printing to maximize the absorption and photovoltaic performance without compromising the optimized electronic configuration of planar devices. Nanoimprint lithography and dry etching of titanium dioxide (TiO2) deposited directly on the window layer of GaAs solar cells formed hexagonal arrays of nanoscale posts that serve as lossless photonic nanostructures for antireflection, diffraction, and light trapping in conjunction with a co-integrated rear-surface reflector. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties and photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling, quantitatively describe the optimal design rules for ultrathin, nanostructured GaAs solar cells and their integrated modules.

  15. Ab initio structural and vibrational properties of GaAs diamondoids and nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide diamondoids structural and vibrational properties are investigated using density functional theory at the PBE/6-31(d level and basis including polarization functions. Variation of energy gap as these diamondoids increase in size is seen to follow confinement theory for diamondoids having nearly equiaxed dimensions. Density of energy states transforms from nearly single levels to band structure as we reach larger diamondoids. Bonds of surface hydrogen with As atoms are relatively localized and shorter than that bonded to Ga atoms. Ga-As bonds have a distribution range of values due to surface reconstruction and effect of bonding to hydrogen atoms. Experimental bulk Ga-As bond length (2.45 Å is within this distribution range. Tetrahedral and dihedral angles approach values of bulk as we go to higher diamondoids. Optical-phonon energy of larger diamondoids stabilizes at 0.037 eV (297 cm-1 compared to experimental 0.035 eV (285.2 cm-1. Ga-As force constant reaches 1.7 mDyne/Å which is comparable to Ga-Ge force constant (1.74 mDyne/Å. Hydrogen related vibrations are nearly constant and serve as a fingerprint of GaAs diamondoids while Ga-As vibrations vary with size of diamondoids.

  16. Surface-plasma interactions in GaAs subjected to capacitively coupled RF plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Surdu-Bob, C C

    2002-01-01

    Surface compositional changes in GaAs due to RF plasmas of different gases have been investigated by XPS and etch rates were measured using AFM. Angular Resolved XPS (ARXPS) was also employed for depth analysis of the composition of the surface layers. An important role in this study was determination of oxide thickness using XPS data. The study of surface - plasma interaction was undertaken by correlating results of surface analysis with plasma diagnosis. Different experiments were designed to accurately measure the BEs associated with the Ga 3d, Ga 2p sub 3 sub / sub 2 and LMM peaks using XPS analysis and propose identification in terms of the oxides of GaAs. Along with GaAs wafers, some reference compounds such as metallic Ga and Ga sub 2 O sub 3 powder were used. A separate study aiming the identification of the GaAs surface oxides formed on the GaAs surface during and after plasma processing was undertaken. Surface compositional changes after plasma treatment, prior to surface analysis are considered, wi...

  17. High-efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells, phase2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Thin GaAs epi-layers with good crystallographic quality were grown using a (100) Si-substrate on which a thin Ge epi-interlayer was grown by CVD from germane. Both antireflection-coated metal oxide semiconductor (AMOS) and n(+)/p homojunction structures were studied. The AMOS cells were fabricated on undoped-GaAs epi-layers deposited on bulk poly-Ge substrates using organo-metallic CVD film-growth, with the best achieved AM1 conversion efficiency being 9.1%. Both p-type and n(+)-type GaAs growth were optimized using 50 ppm dimethyl zinc and 1% hydrogen sulfide, respectively. A direct GaAs deposition method in fabricating ultra-thin top layer, epitaxial n(+)/p shallow homojunction solar cells on (100) GaAs substrates (without anodic thinning) was developed to produce large area (1 sq/cm) cells, with 19.4% AM1 conversion efficiency achieved. Additionally, an AM1 conversion efficiency of 18.4% (17.5% with 5% grid coverage) was achieved for a single crystal GaAs n(+)/p cell grown by OM-CVD on a Ge wafer.

  18. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-02

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure-specific recognition of Friedreich's ataxia (GAA)n repeats by benzoquinoquinoxaline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Helen; Nikravesh, Abbas; Fernández, Raquel Domingo; Larsson, Veronica; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Good, Liam; Zain, Rula

    2009-11-02

    Expansion of GAA triplet repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene reduces frataxin expression and causes Friedreich's ataxia. (GAA)n repeats form non-B-DNA structures, including triple helix H-DNA and higher-order structures (sticky DNA). In the proposed mechanisms of frataxin gene silencing, central unanswered questions involve the characterization of non-B-DNA structure(s) that are strongly suggested to play a role in frataxin expression. Here we examined (GAA)n binding by triplex-stabilizing benzoquinoquinoxaline (BQQ) and the corresponding triplex-DNA-cleaving BQQ-1,10-phenanthroline (BQQ-OP) compounds. We also examined the ability of these compounds to act as structural probes for H-DNA formation within higher-order structures at pathological frataxin sequences in plasmids. DNA-complex-formation analyses with a gel-mobility-shift assay and sequence-specific probing of H-DNA-forming (GAA)n sequences by single-strand oligonucleotides and triplex-directed cleavage demonstrated that a parallel pyrimidine (rather than purine) triplex is the more stable motif formed at (GAA)n repeats under physiologically relevant conditions.

  20. Homozygotic intronic GAA mutation in three siblings with late-onset Pompe's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Shinjo, Sueli Mieko Oba; da Silva, Roseli; Machado, Marcela; Galera, Marcial Francis; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-04-01

    Pompe's disease (PD) is a metabolic myopathy caused by the accumulation of lysosomal glycogen, secondary to acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme deficiency. Childhood and late-onset forms are described, differing by the age of onset and symptoms. In this study were analyzed affected siblings with Pompe's disease (PD) and their distinct clinical and pathological presentations. Diagnosis was performed by the clinical presentation of limb-girdle dystrophies and respiratory compromise. Confirmatory diagnoses were conducted by muscle biopsy, GAA activity measurement and by GAA gene genotyping. The findings suggested muscular involvement due to GAA deficiency. GAA genotyping showed they are homozygous for the c.-32-3C>A mutation. Herein we reported a family where three out of five siblings were diagnosed with late-onset PD, although it is a rare metabolic disease inherited in an autossomal recessive manner. We emphasize the importance of including this presentation within the differential diagnoses of the limb-girdle dystrophies once enzyme replacement therapy is available.

  1. Theoretical utmost performance of the (1 0 0) long-wave HgCdTe Auger suppressed photodetectors grown on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Rogalski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The vast majority of HgCdTe detectors designed to detect long wavelength (8-14 μm) infrared radiation must be cooled to achieve the required performance. It must be stressed that cooling requirement is both expensive and bulky and the main objective is to reach higher operating temperature condition preserving near background limited performance and high speed response. In order to reach that goal the thermal generation rate needs to be reduced below the photon generation rate. Except Auger 7, p-type HgCdTe active layers are mostly limited by technology dependent Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination processes. One of the ways to reduce of the trap density is a growth of the (1 0 0) HgCdTe epilayers on GaAs substrates. In addition, that orientation allows reaching lower carrier concentration in comparison to the commonly used (1 1 1) orientation (5 × 1015-1016 cm-3). In this paper we report on theoretical utmost performance of (1 0 0) HgCdTe Auger suppressed photodetectors grown on GaAs substrates. (1 0 0) HgCdTe orientation allows to reduce p-type doping to the level of ∼5 × 1014 cm-3 in analyzed long wavelength range. In addition Shockley-Read-Hall traps could be reduced to the level of ∼4.4 × 108 cm-3 resulting in suppression of the dark current by nearly two orders of magnitude within the range ∼20 ÷ 0.31 A/cm2 and detectivity, ∼1010-1011 cmHz1/2/W at temperature 230 K, voltage 200 mV.

  2. Origin of the suppression in low frequency terahertz conductivity in dilute GaAs nitride and bismide alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocker, Tylor; Lu, Xianfeng; Cooke, David

    We have performed time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on GaAs1-xBix (x=7%) and observed a low-frequency suppression of the real conductivity previously seen only in dilute GaAs nitrides. We have developed a modified Drude model with a frequency-dependent scattering time that provides excellent a...

  3. Photoluminescence of Undoped, Semi-Insulating, and Mg-Implanted Indium Phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    valence band. The hole can easily drift away from the magnesium impurity site since neig ’ boring electrons migrate to the site to fill the third...York: John Wiley and Sons , 1974. 10. Casasent, David. Electronic Circuits. New York: Quantum Publishers, Inc., 1973. 11. Kittel, C. Introduction to...Solid State Physics. New York: John Wiley and Sons , Inc., 1976. 12. Pankove, Jacques I. Optical Processes in Semiconductors. Englewood Cliffs NJ

  4. Tidal and subtidal flow patterns o a tropical continental shelf semi-insulated by coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarya, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vegt, van der M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study sets out to describe the tidal and subtidal water motion at the Berau coastal shelf, which represents a tropical continental shelf area of variable width hosting a complex of barrier reefs along its oceanic edge. Moored and shipboard measurements on currents and turbulence were

  5. Semi-insulating Sn-Zr-O: Tunable resistance buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Perkins, Craig L.

    2015-03-01

    Highly resistive and transparent (HRT) buffer layers are critical components of solar cells and other opto-electronic devices. HRT layers are often undoped transparent conducting oxides. However, these oxides can be too conductive to form an optimal HRT. Here, we present a method to produce HRT layers with tunable electrical resistivity, despite the presence of high concentrations of unintentionally or intentionally added dopants in the film. This method relies on alloying wide-bandgap, high-k dielectric materials (e.g., ZrO2) into the host oxide to tune the resistivity. We demonstrate SnxZr1-xO2:F films with tunable resistivities varying from 0.001 to 10 Ω cm, which are controlled by the Zr mole fraction in the films. Increasing Zr suppresses carriers by expanding the bandgap almost entirely by shifting the valence-band position, which allows the HRT layers to maintain good conduction-band alignment for a low-resistance front contact.

  6. Electronic and optical properties of HEMT heterostructures with δ-Si doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum rings — quantum well system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirmovsky, Y. D.; Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N.; Zhigunov, D. M.; Eremin, I. S.; Kolentsova, O. S.; Safonov, D. A.; Kargin, N. I.

    2017-11-01

    Samples of δ-Si doped AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT heterostructures with GaAs quantum rings (QRs) on top of the quantum well (QW) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and their properties were compared to the reference samples without QRs. The thickness of the QW was 6 – 10 nm for the samples with QRs and 20 nm for the reference samples. Photoluminescence measurements at low temperatures for all samples show at least two distinct lines in addition to the bulk GaAs line. The Hall effect and low temperature magnetotransport measurements at 4 – 320 K show that conductivity with and without illumination decreases significantly with QRs introduction, however the relative photoconductivity increases. Samples with 6 nm QW are insulating, which could be caused by the strong localization of the charge carriers in the QRs.

  7. A detailed model for defect concentration and dopant activation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Defects in semi-insulating (SI) GaAs are especially critical in determining the properties of devices in which dopants are introduced by ion-implantation. The defects in GaAs are native to the material and their concentrations are subsequently modified after ion-implantation and annealing. In this work, we have extended the ...

  8. Ultrathin MgO diffusion barriers for ferromagnetic electrodes on GaAs(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Wang, Shibo; Grafeneder, Wolfgang; Arndt, Martin; Koch, Reinhold

    2015-04-24

    Ultrathin MgO(100) films serving as a diffusion barrier between ferromagnetic electrodes and GaAs(001) semiconductor templates have been investigated. Using Fe as an exemplary ferromagnetic material, heterostructures of Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) were prepared at 200 °C with the MgO thickness ranging from 1.5 to 3 nm. Structural characterization reveals very good crystalline ordering in all layers of the heterostructure. Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profiling and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy evidence diffusion of Fe into MgO and-for too thin MgO barriers-further into GaAs(001). Our results recommend a MgO barrier thickness larger than or equal to 2.6 nm for its application as a reliable diffusion barrier on GaAs(001) in spintronics devices.

  9. Spectrally resolved localized states in GaAs1- x Bi x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Theresa M.; Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel A.; Fluegel, Brian; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The role of localized states and their influence on the broader band structure remains a crucial question in understanding the band structure evolution in GaAs1- x Bi x . In this work, we present clear spectroscopic observations of recombination at several localized states in GaAs1- x Bi x . Sharp and recognizable photoluminescence features appear in multiple samples and redshift as a function of GaBi fraction between x = 0.16% and 0.4% at a linearized rate of 34 meV per % Bi, weaker than the redshift associated with band-to-band recombination. Interpreting these results in terms of radiative recombination between localized holes and free electrons sheds light on the relative movement of the conduction band minimum and the characteristics of localized bismuth-related trap states in GaAs1- x Bi x alloys.

  10. Tensile GaAs(111) quantum dashes with tunable luminescence below the bulk bandgap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerino, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.yerino@yale.edu; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Simmonds, Paul J.; Liang, Baolai [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Ware, Morgan E.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J. [Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Huffaker, Diana L. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Strain-based band engineering in quantum dots and dashes has been predominantly limited to compressively strained systems. However, tensile strain strongly reduces the bandgaps of nanostructures, enabling nanostructures to emit light at lower energies than they could under compressive strain. We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of dislocation-free GaAs quantum dashes on an InP(111)B substrate, using a 3.8% tensile lattice-mismatch. Due to the high tensile strain, the GaAs quantum dashes luminesce at 110–240 meV below the bandgap of bulk GaAs. The emission energy is readily tuned by adjusting the size of the quantum dashes via deposition thickness. Tensile self-assembly creates new opportunities for engineering the band alignment, band structure, and optical properties of epitaxial nanostructures.

  11. Nanoscale Footprints of Self-Running Gallium Droplets on GaAs Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Li, Alvason Z.; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Shibin; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001) surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems. PMID:21673965

  12. Improvement of Porous GaAs (100 Structure through Electrochemical Etching Based on DMF Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ikram Md Taib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of porous GaAs (100 using three different acids, H2SO4, HF, and HCl, diluted in DMF based solutions. The mixture of H2SO4 with DMF showed the best porous structures in comparison to other acids. The concentration of the DMF solution was then varied for a fixed concentration of H2SO4. It was apparent that the different concentration of the DMF solvent gave different types of morphology of the porous GaAs. Furthermore, a higher current density improved the uniformity of the pores distribution. The best porous GaAs exhibited well-defined circular shaped pores with high uniformity. To the best of our knowledge, such structure produced in such manner has never been reported so far. Finally, the optimum etching conditions of the pores were proposed.

  13. Electric characterization of GaAs deposited on porous silicon by electrodeposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnef, M.; Chtourou, R.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2010-03-01

    GaAs thin films were synthesized on porous Si substrate by the electrodeposition technique. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the as-grown films were crystallised in mixed phase nature orthorhombic and cubic of GaAs. The GaAs film was then electrically characterized using current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) techniques by the way of Al/GaAs Shottky junctions. The electric analysis allowed us to determine the n factor and the barrier height Фb0 parameters of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The ( C- V) characteristics were recorded at frequency signal 1 MHz in order to identify the effect of the surface states on the behaviour of the capacitance of the device.

  14. Electric characterization of GaAs deposited on porous silicon by electrodeposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajnef, M., E-mail: Mohamed.lajnef@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semi-conducteurs, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Chtourou, R.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semi-conducteurs, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2010-03-01

    GaAs thin films were synthesized on porous Si substrate by the electrodeposition technique. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the as-grown films were crystallised in mixed phase nature orthorhombic and cubic of GaAs. The GaAs film was then electrically characterized using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques by the way of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The electric analysis allowed us to determine the n factor and the barrier height {phi}{sub b0} parameters of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The (C-V) characteristics were recorded at frequency signal 1 MHz in order to identify the effect of the surface states on the behaviour of the capacitance of the device.

  15. XPS study of chemically etched GaAs and InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1982-03-01

    The surface composition of p-type GaAs etched in HCl or Br2 in methanol, and n-type InP etched in HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 or Br2 in methanol were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface compositions of GaAs and the binding energy of the surface As atoms vary with the etching solution and with the extent of oxidation of the surface. The full width at half-maximum of the Ga(3p) photoelectron peak increases upon exposure of etched GaAs to air. The XPS results are compared with Schottky barrier heights previously measured for similarly prepared surfaces with Pb contacts. The amount of oxidized P on InP surfaces is higher after an HNO3 etch than after HCl, H2SO4, of Br2/methanol treatments. An HCl etch leaves an unoxidized slightly In-rich surface.

  16. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R., E-mail: lapierr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  17. Nanoscale footprints of self-running gallium droplets on GaAs surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    Full Text Available In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001 surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems.

  18. Spin lifetimes of electrons injected into GaAs and GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Newman, Nathan

    2003-09-01

    The spin relaxation times of electrons in GaAs and GaN are determined with a model that includes momentum scattering by phonons and ionized impurities, and spin scattering by the Elliot-Yafet, D'yakonov-Perel, and Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms. Accurate bands generated using a long-range tight-binding Hamiltonian obtained from empirical pseudopotentials are used. The inferred temperature dependence of the spin relaxation lifetime agrees well with measured values in GaAs. We further show that the spin lifetimes decrease rapidly with injected electron energy and reach a local maximum at the longitudinal optical phonon energy. Our calculation predicts that electron spin lifetime in pure GaN is about three orders of magnitude longer than in GaAs at all temperatures, primarily as a result of the lower spin-orbit interaction and higher conduction band density of states.

  19. Excision of Expanded GAA Repeats Alleviates the Molecular Phenotype of Friedreich's Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Polak, Urszula; Bhalla, Angela D; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Lynch, David R; Dent, Sharon Y R; Napierala, Marek

    2015-06-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by expansions of guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) repeats in intron 1 of the frataxin (FXN) gene. The expansion results in significantly decreased frataxin expression. We report that human FRDA cells can be corrected by zinc finger nuclease-mediated excision of the expanded GAA repeats. Editing of a single expanded GAA allele created heterozygous, FRDA carrier-like cells and significantly increased frataxin expression. This correction persisted during reprogramming of zinc finger nuclease-edited fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells and subsequent differentiation into neurons. The expression of FRDA biomarkers was normalized in corrected patient cells and disease-associated phenotypes, such as decreases in aconitase activity and intracellular ATP levels, were reversed in zinc finger nuclease corrected neuronal cells. Genetically and phenotypically corrected patient cells represent not only a preferred disease-relevant model system to study pathogenic mechanisms, but also a critical step towards development of cell replacement therapy.

  20. [Asthma drugs and doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, F; Rolland, Y; Rivière, D

    1999-11-01

    Some drugs regularly used in the treatment of asthma (beta-agonists and corticosteroids) are registered on the list of drugs forbidden in sport, because they have a doping action. To avoid penalizing asthmatic sportsmen, some beta-agonists (Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline) and corticosteroids are allowed only in inhaled form, with written notification from the prescribing physician, a pneumologist or the team doctor. Considering the increase of doping with increasing involvement of physicians, good and up to date notions about the current rules of prescription in asthmatic sportsmen are needed.

  1. Solid phase epitaxial regrowth of (100)GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almonte, Marlene Isabel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1996-02-01

    This thesis showed that low temperature (250°C) SPE of stoichiometrically balanced ion implanted GaAs layers can yield good epitaxial recovery for doses near the amorphization threshold. For 250°C anneals, most of the regrowth occurred in the first 10 min. HRTEM revealed much lower stacking fault density in the co-implanted sample than in the As-only and Ga-only samples with comparable doses. After low temp annealing, the nonstoichiometric samples had a large number of residual defects. For higher dose implants, very high temperatures (700°C) were needed to remove residual defects for all samples. The stoichiometrically balanced layer did not regrow better than the Ga-only and As-only samples. The co-implanted sample exhibited a thinner amorphous layer and a room temperature (RT) annealing effect. The amorphous layer regrew about 5 nm, suggesting that stoichiometrically balanced amorphous layers can regrow even at RT. Mechanisms for solid phase crystallization in (100)GasAs is discussed: nucleation and growth of randomly oriented crystallites and SPE. These two mechanisms compete in compound semiconductors at much lower temperatures than in Si. For the low dose As-only and Ga-only samples with low-temp anneals, both mechanisms are active. For this amorphization threshold dose, crystallites remain in the amorphous layer for all as-implants. 250°C annealing showed recrystallization from the surface and bulk for these samples; for the co-implant, the mechanism is not evident.

  2. Production of nanometer-size GaAs nanocristals by nanosecond laser ablation in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrafi, Kamal; Jiménez, Ernesto; Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I; Ibáñez, Rafael; Chirvony, Vladimir; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the formation and characterization of spherical GaAs quantum dots obtained by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in a liquid (ethanol or methanol). The produced bare GaAs nanoparticles demonstrate rather narrow size distribution which depends on the applied laser power density (from 4.25 to 13.9 J/cm2 in our experiments) and is as low as 2.5 nm for the highest power used. The absolute value of the average diameter also decreases significantly, from 13.7 to 8.7 nm, as the laser power increases in this interval. Due to the narrow nanoparticle size dispersion achieved at the highest laser powers two absorption band edges are clearly distinguishable at about 1.72 and 3.15 eV which are ascribed to E0 and E1 effective optical transitions, respectively. A comparison of the energies with those known for bulk GaAs allows one to conclude that an average diameter of the investigated GaAs nanoparticles is close to 10 nm, i.e., they are quantum dots. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images show that the bare GaAs nanoparticles are nanocrystalline, but many of them exhibit single/multiple twin boundary defects or even polycrystallinity. The formation of the GaAs crystalline core capped with a SiO2 shell was demonstrated by HRTEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Effective band edges can be better distinguished in SiO2 capped nanoparticles than in bare ones, In both cases the band edges are correlated with size quantum confinement effect.

  3. Identification and Functional Characterization of GAA Mutations in Colombian Patients Affected by Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Mónica Yasmín; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Fonseca, Dora Janeth; Kroos, Marian A; Ospina, Sandra Yaneth; Mejía, Juan Fernando; Uribe, Jesús Alfredo; Reuser, Arnold J J; Laissue, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pompe disease (PD) is a recessive metabolic disorder characterized by acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency, which results in lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues, especially in skeletal muscles. PD clinical course is mainly determined by the nature of the GAA mutations. Although ~400 distinct GAA sequence variations have been described, the genotype-phenotype correlation is not always evident.In this study, we describe the first clinical and genetic analysis of Colombian PD patients performed in 11 affected individuals. GAA open reading frame sequencing revealed eight distinct mutations related to PD etiology including two novel missense mutations, c.1106 T > C (p.Leu369Pro) and c.2236 T > C (p.Trp746Arg). In vitro functional studies showed that the structural changes conferred by both mutations did not inhibit the synthesis of the 110 kD GAA precursor form but affected the processing and intracellular transport of GAA. In addition, analysis of previously described variants located at this position (p.Trp746Gly, p.Trp746Cys, p.Trp746Ser, p.Trp746X) revealed new insights in the molecular basis of PD. Notably, we found that p.Trp746Cys mutation, which was previously described as a polymorphism as well as a causal mutation, displayed a mild deleterious effect. Interestingly and by chance, our study argues in favor of a remarkable Afro-American and European ancestry of the Colombian population. Taken together, our report provides valuable information on the PD genotype-phenotype correlation, which is expected to facilitate and improve genetic counseling of affected individuals and their families.

  4. Involvement of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Galacturonate Tripartite ATP-Independent Periplasmic (TRAP) Transporter GaaPQM in Virulence Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlei; Binns, Andrew N

    2015-12-04

    Monosaccharides capable of serving as nutrients for the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens are also inducers of the vir regulon present in the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of this plant pathogen. One such monosaccharide is galacturonate, the predominant monomer of pectin found in plant cell walls. This ligand is recognized by the periplasmic sugar binding protein ChvE, which interacts with the VirA histidine kinase that controls vir gene expression. Although ChvE is also a member of the ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter involved in the utilization of many neutral sugars, it is not involved in galacturonate utilization. In this study, a putative tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter, GaaPQM, is shown to be essential for the utilization of galacturonic acid; we show that residue R169 in the predicted sugar binding site of the GaaP is required for activity. The gene upstream of gaaPQM (gaaR) encodes a member of the GntR family of regulators. GaaR is shown to repress the expression of gaaPQM, and the repression is relieved in the presence of the substrate for GaaPQM. Moreover, GaaR is shown to bind putative promoter regions in the sequences required for galacturonic acid utilization. Finally, A. tumefaciens strains carrying a deletion of gaaPQM are more sensitive to galacturonate as an inducer of vir gene expression, while the overexpression of gaaPQM results in strains being less sensitive to this vir inducer. This supports a model in which transporter activity is crucial in ensuring that vir gene expression occurs only at sites of high ligand concentration, such as those at a plant wound site. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Disruption of Higher Order DNA Structures in Friedreich's Ataxia (GAA)n Repeats by PNA or LNA Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Helen; Rocha, Cristina S J; Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Rutland, Mark W; Smith, C I Edvard; Good, Liam; Nielsen, Peter E; Zain, Rula

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich's ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated with epigenetic modifications. With the aim of interfering with higher order H-DNA (like) DNA structures within pathological (GAA)n expansions, we examined sequence-specific interaction of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with (GAA)n repeats of different lengths (short: n=9, medium: n=75 or long: n=115) by chemical probing of triple helical and single stranded regions. We found that a triplex structure (H-DNA) forms at GAA repeats of different lengths; however, single stranded regions were not detected within the medium size pathological repeat, suggesting the presence of a more complex structure. Furthermore, (GAA)4-PNA binding of the repeat abolished all detectable triplex DNA structures, whereas (CTT)5-PNA did not. We present evidence that (GAA)4-PNA can invade the DNA at the repeat region by binding the DNA CTT strand, thereby preventing non-canonical-DNA formation, and that triplex invasion complexes by (CTT)5-PNA form at the GAA repeats. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides also inhibited triplex formation at GAA repeat expansions, and atomic force microscopy analysis showed significant relaxation of plasmid morphology in the presence of GAA-LNA. Thus, by inhibiting disease related higher order DNA structures in the Frataxin gene, such PNA and LNA oligomers may have potential for discovery of drugs aiming at recovering Frataxin expression.

  6. Disruption of Higher Order DNA Structures in Friedreich’s Ataxia (GAA)n Repeats by PNA or LNA Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Helen; Rocha, Cristina S. J.; Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Rutland, Mark. W.; Smith, C. I. Edvard; Good, Liam; Nielsen, Peter E.; Zain, Rula

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich’s ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated with epigenetic modifications. With the aim of interfering with higher order H-DNA (like) DNA structures within pathological (GAA)n expansions, we examined sequence-specific interaction of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with (GAA)n repeats of different lengths (short: n=9, medium: n=75 or long: n=115) by chemical probing of triple helical and single stranded regions. We found that a triplex structure (H-DNA) forms at GAA repeats of different lengths; however, single stranded regions were not detected within the medium size pathological repeat, suggesting the presence of a more complex structure. Furthermore, (GAA)4-PNA binding of the repeat abolished all detectable triplex DNA structures, whereas (CTT)5-PNA did not. We present evidence that (GAA)4-PNA can invade the DNA at the repeat region by binding the DNA CTT strand, thereby preventing non-canonical-DNA formation, and that triplex invasion complexes by (CTT)5-PNA form at the GAA repeats. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides also inhibited triplex formation at GAA repeat expansions, and atomic force microscopy analysis showed significant relaxation of plasmid morphology in the presence of GAA-LNA. Thus, by inhibiting disease related higher order DNA structures in the Frataxin gene, such PNA and LNA oligomers may have potential for discovery of drugs aiming at recovering Frataxin expression. PMID:27846236

  7. A 600-MHz median-type digital filter on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainjo, Olli; Sundaram, Mani; Long, Stephen I.; Neuvo, Yrjo

    1992-01-01

    A single-chip GaAs implementation of an FIR-median hybrid filter is presented. The very high-speed digital filter combines linear averaging structures to a median selector. The filter operates on 5-b samples with ECL-compatible I/O interfaces. The 1500-transistor LSI device with 3.6-sq mm chip size was processed with a 1.0-micron GaAs depletion-mode (D-mode) MESFET process. The filter demonstrates 600-MHz sample rate when operated in test mode utilizing special built-in feedback.

  8. Measurement of the Thermal Diffusivity of GaAs by Pulsed Photothermal Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, G. L.; Vyas, Reeta; Gupta, R.; Ang, S.; Brown, W. D.

    1997-03-01

    Pulsed photothermal spectroscopy has been used to measure thermal diffusivity of GaAs. In this technique, a short pulse of radiation from a Ti-Sapphire laser is used to produce local heating on a sample of GaAs wafer. The heating of the sample is monitored by deflection of a weak cw laser beam (probe beam). The thermal diffusivity of the sample is deduced from the time evolution of the deflection of the probe beam. Results of the latest measurements will be presented.

  9. Hopping conduction in GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Shimogishi, F.; Mukai, K; Fukushima, S; Otsuka, N.

    2002-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures was studied by using the van der Pauw method. The electrical conductivity of thick GaAs layers grown at temperatures above 200 °C changes with the concentration of antisite As atoms following the nearest-neighbor hopping model. From the dependence of the conductivity on the average spacing of antisite As atoms, the Bohr radius of the donor wave function in the hydrogen like model was estimated to be...

  10. Periodically oriented GaAs templates and waveguide structures for frequency conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, M. B.; Shusterman, S.; Blau, P.

    2008-02-01

    Material preparation methods and device fabrication technologies for realization of low loss periodically oriented GaAs waveguides are reported. Planar waveguide structures were grown by MOCVD on periodically patterned templates prepared by wafer bonding and selective layer removal. Ridge waveguides were designed and fabricated from the planar structures with emphasis on waveguide loss minimization. Record low losses of 2.0db/cm in periodically oriented waveguides and 0.95db/cm in single domain waveguides were measured. Routes for further loss reduction in patterned GaAs waveguides are discussed and initial results from further work to reduce waveguide corrugation are presented.

  11. Resonant behaviour of GaAs LO phonons in a GaAs-AlAs superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulin; T, A. Gant; M, Delaney; M, V. Klein; J, Klem; H, Morkoc

    1988-03-01

    Resonant Raman scattering from GaAs LO phonons in a 59Å GaAs/20Å AlAs superlattice was studied. The relevant intersubband energies were determined. The results suggest that all of the exciton transitions from the hole subbands HH1, LH1, HH2, HH3, LH2 and HH4 to the electron subbands CB1 and CB2 in the energy region covered by our incident dye laser were observed and a justificative analysis may involve effects due to valence band mixing and to 3D electronic miniband structure.

  12. Anomalous Coulomb drag between bilayer graphene and a GaAs electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Pauline; Hennel, Szymon; Overweg, Hiske; Steinacher, Richard; Eich, Marius; Pisoni, Riccardo; Lee, Yongjin; Märki, Peter; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    We report on Coulomb drag experiments between a bilayer graphene flake and a GaAs two-dimensional electron gas, where the charge-carrier densities of both systems can be tuned independently. For both p- and n-type graphene charge carriers, we observe that the Coulomb drag unexpectedly changes direction when the temperature is lowered. We find this phenomenon to be dominant when the Fermi wave vector in graphene is larger than in GaAs. At temperatures above ≈ 70 {{K}}, the drag signal is consistent with momentum exchange. In all discussed regimes, the Onsager relation is respected.

  13. Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane for spatial light modulator applications utilizing GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Kolluru, Rathna; Pyburn, Dana; Leon, Roberto; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Testorf, Markus; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Drehman, Alvin; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John

    2006-04-01

    The fabrication and characterization of an optically addressable deformable mirror for a spatial light modulator is described. Device operation utilizes an electrostatically driven pixellated aluminized polymeric membrane mirror supported above an optically controlled photoconductive GaAs substrate. A 5 μm thick grid of patterned photoresist supports the 2 μm thick aluminized Mylar membrane. A conductive ZnO layer is placed on the back side of the GaAs wafer. A standard Michelson interferometer is used to measure mirror deformation data as a function of illumination, applied voltage, and frequency. A simplified analysis of device operation is also presented.

  14. Super-Lattice Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDS) on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    epitaxial growth to expose the underlying GaAs crystal . This process must be done carefully when growing on an integrated circuit (IC) susceptible to...relaxed, GaSb layers must first be grown on GaAs. When a relaxed layer forms, stress should ideally be relieved with 90° or Lomar dislocations which...characterization,” J. Crystal Growth 111, 683 (1991). [6] I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, C.A. Hoffman, D. Redfern, J. Antoszewski, L. Faraone, and J. R

  15. Complexes between two GAA Repeats within DNA introduced into Cos-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikova, Maria M

    2012-11-01

    We have recently shown that GAA repeats severely impede replication elongation during the first replication cycle of transfected DNA wherein the chromatin is still at the formation stage.(1) Here we extend this study by showing that two GAA repeats located within the same plasmid in the direct orientation can form complexes upon transient transfection of mammalian Cos-1 cells. However, these complexes do not form in DNA that went through several replication rounds in mammalian cells. We suggest that formation of such complexes in mammalian genomes can contribute to genomic instability.

  16. Dipole moment and polarizability of impurity doped quantum dots driven by noise: Influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2017-06-01

    Present study examines the pattern of variation of electric dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (αp) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dots (QDs) under combined presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature and in presence of noise. Noise term carries a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. Profiles of μ and αp have been monitored against the variations of hydrostatic pressure (HP), temperature and the noise strength. Under a given condition of HP and temperature, application of noise prominently influences the above two properties. However, the extent of influence depends on the noise strength and the pathway through which noise is introduced. The findings divulge feasible routes to control the dipole moment and polarizability of doped QD system through the interplay between HP, temperature and noise.

  17. Influence of electron irradiation on the electronic transport mechanisms during the conductive AFM imaging of InAs/GaAs quantum dots capped with a thin GaAs layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyon, M.; Smaali, K.

    2008-06-01

    We have used conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) to study the electronic transport mechanisms through InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on an n-type GaAs(001) substrate and covered with a 5 nm thick GaAs cap layer. The study is performed with a conductive atomic force microscope working inside a scanning electron microscope. Electric images can be obtained only if the sample is preliminarily irradiated with an electron probe current sufficiently high to generate strong electron beam induced current. In these conditions holes are trapped in QDs and surface states, so allowing the release of the Fermi level pinning and thus conduction through the sample. The electronic transport mechanism depends on the type of AFM probe used; it is explained for a metal (Co/Cr) coated probe and p-doped diamond coated probe with the aid of energy band diagrams. The writing (charge trapping) and erasing (untrapping) phenomena is conditioned by the magnitude of the electron probe current. A strong memory effect is evidenced for the sample studied.

  18. doped stable clusters a

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT DUTTA

    2018-01-30

    ., showed that Ru-doped. Rh6 cluster is a better catalyst for the activation of methanol compared to pure Rh6. It may be noted that methanol activation occurs via O–H bond dissociation rather than C–H bond.25 Rhodium nano ...

  19. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the ...

  20. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  1. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  2. High-performance Photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar energy converters with AlxGa1-x As / GaAs cathode under multilevel built-in electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Fu, Rongguo; Wang, Guiyuan; Tran, HongCam; Chang, BenKang; Yang, Liu

    2017-11-01

    A transmission mode AlxGa1-x As / GaAs photocathode consisting of a composition-graded window layer and an exponential-doping emission layer is proposed to improve the performance of photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) solar energy converters. The theoretical model with this complex photocathode is deduced based on one-dimensional continuity equations to analyze the characteristics of the device. It is found the multilevel built-in electric fields can effectively enhance the conversion efficiency and response of the entire spectrum in contrast to other photocathode structures. Because of less heterojunction interface recombination losses and greater transport capacity of photoelectrons toward emissive surface. Moreover, the effect of Al proportion variation in the window layer and the thickness of the window layer and emission layer on performance is discussed. The model would provide theoretical guidance for better performance of PETE device.

  3. Production of a functional human acid maltase in tobacco seeds: biochemical analysis, uptake by human GSDII cells, and in vivo studies in GAA knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Frank; Reggi, Serena; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N; Busconi, Matteo; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-10-01

    Genetic deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) results in glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) or Pompe's disease. To investigate whether we could generate a functional recombinant human GAA enzyme (tobrhGAA) in tobacco seeds for future enzyme replacement therapy, we subcloned the human GAA cDNA into the plant expression plasmid-pBI101 under the control of the soybean β-conglycinin seed-specific promoter and biochemically analyzed the tobrhGAA. Tobacco seeds contain the metabolic machinery that is more compatible with mammalian glycosylation-phosphorylation and processing. We found the tobrhGAA to be enzymatically active was readily taken up by GSDII fibroblasts and in white blood cells from whole blood to reverse the defect. The tobrhGAA corrected the enzyme defect in tissues at 7 days after a single dose following intraperitoneal (IP) administration in GAA knockout (GAA(-/-)) mice. Additionally, we could purify the tobrhGAA since it bound tightly to the matrix of Sephadex G100 and can be eluted by competition with maltose. These data demonstrate indirectly that the tobrhGAA is fully functional, predominantly proteolytically cleaved and contains the minimal phosphorylation and mannose-6-phosphate residues essential for biological activity.

  4. Reflectance-anisotropy study of the dynamics of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs and InGaAs on GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi. Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Balderas-Navarro, R.E. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi. Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi. Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Reflectance-Anisotropy (RA) observations during the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth of zincblende semiconductors films were carried out using the E{sub 1} optical transition as a probe. We follow the kinetics of the deposition of GaAs and In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As on GaAs(001) at growth rates of 0.2 and 0.25 ML/s, respectively. During growth we used a constant As{sub 4} or As{sub 2} flux pressure of 5 x 10{sup -6} Torr. Clear RA-oscillations were observed during growth with a period that nearly coincides with the growth period for a Ga-As bilayer. RHEED was used as an auxiliary technique in order to obtain a correlation between RHEED and RA oscillations. On the basis of our results, we argue that RAS oscillations are mainly associated to periodic changes in surface atomic structure. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. GAA Deficiency in Pompe Disease Is Alleviated by Exon Inclusion in iPSC-Derived Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Erik; Bergsma, Atze J; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn L M; Zaehres, Holm; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Schöler, Hans R; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2017-06-16

    Pompe disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by deficiency of the acid α-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme and results in progressive wasting of skeletal muscle cells. The c.-32-13T>G (IVS1) GAA variant promotes exon 2 skipping during pre-mRNA splicing and is the most common variant for the childhood/adult disease form. We previously identified antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) that promoted GAA exon 2 inclusion in patient-derived fibroblasts. It was unknown how these AONs would affect GAA splicing in skeletal muscle cells. To test this, we expanded induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived myogenic progenitors and differentiated these to multinucleated myotubes. AONs restored splicing in myotubes to a similar extent as in fibroblasts, suggesting that they act by modulating the action of shared splicing regulators. AONs targeted the putative polypyrimidine tract of a cryptic splice acceptor site that was part of a pseudo exon in GAA intron 1. Blocking of the cryptic splice donor of the pseudo exon with AONs likewise promoted GAA exon 2 inclusion. The simultaneous blocking of the cryptic acceptor and cryptic donor sites restored the majority of canonical splicing and alleviated GAA enzyme deficiency. These results highlight the relevance of cryptic splicing in human disease and its potential as therapeutic target for splicing modulation using AONs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Replication in mammalian cells recapitulates the locus-specific differences in somatic instability of genomic GAA triplet-repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Rindler, Paul; Clark, Rhonda M; Pollard, Laura M; De Biase, Irene; Bidichandani, Sanjay I

    2006-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is caused by an expanded (GAA.TTC)n sequence in intron 1 of the FXN gene. Small pool PCR analysis showed that pure (GAA.TTC)44+ sequences at the FXN locus are unstable in somatic cells in vivo, displaying both expansions and contractions. On searching the entire human and mouse genomes we identified three other genomic loci with pure (GAA.TTC)44+ sequences. Alleles at these loci showed mutation loads of GAA.TTC)n sequences. Repeat instability was evaluated following replication of a (GAA.TTC)115 sequence in transfected COS1 cells under the control of the SV40 origin of replication located at one of five different distances from the repeat. Indeed, depending on the location of the SV40 origin relative to the (GAA.TTC)n sequence, we noted either no instability, predominant expansion or both expansion and contraction. These data suggest that mammalian DNA replication is a possible mechanism underlying locus-specific differences in instability of GAA triplet-repeat sequences.

  7. Enhanced charge recombination due to surfaces and twin defects in GaAs nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Evan; Sheng, Chunyang; Nakano, Aiichiro [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-07

    Power conversion efficiency of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire (NW) solar cells is severely limited by enhanced charge recombination (CR) at sidewall surfaces, but its atomistic mechanisms are not well understood. In addition, GaAs NWs usually contain a high density of twin defects that form a twin superlattice, but its effects on CR dynamics are largely unknown. Here, quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations reveal the existence of an intrinsic type-II heterostructure at the (110) GaAs surface. Nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics (NAQMD) simulations show that the resulting staggered band alignment causes a photoexcited electron in the bulk to rapidly transfer to the surface. We have found orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the CR rate at the surface compared with the bulk value. Furthermore, QMD and NAQMD simulations show unique surface electronic states at alternating (111)A and (111)B sidewall surfaces of a twinned [111]-oriented GaAs NW, which act as effective CR centers. The calculated large surface recombination velocity quantitatively explains recent experimental observations and provides microscopic understanding of the underlying CR processes.

  8. A new structure for comparing surface passivation materials of GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface recombination velocity (S sub rec) for bare GaAs is typically as high as 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power cm/sec, which dramatically lowers the efficiency of GaAs solar cells. Early attempts to circumvent this problem by making an ultra thin junction (xj less than .1 micron) proved unsuccessful when compared to lowering S sub rec by surface passivation. Present day GaAs solar cells use an GaAlAs window layer to passivate the top surface. The advantages of GaAlAs in surface passivation are its high bandgap energy and lattice matching to GaAs. Although GaAlAs is successful in reducing the surface recombination velocity, it has other inherent problems of chemical instability (Al readily oxidizes) and ohmic contact formation. The search for new, more stable window layer materials requires a means to compare their surface passivation ability. Therefore, a device structure is needed to easily test the performance of different passivating candidates. Such a test device is described.

  9. Electromagnetic modelling of GaAs membrane supported mm-wave receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neculoiu, D [IMT Bucharest, 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae str., 72996, Bucharest (Romania); Electronics Department, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, 1-3 Iuliu Maniu Av., 061071 Bucharest (Romania); Muller, A [IMT Bucharest, 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae str., 72996, Bucharest (Romania); Konstantinidis, G [MRG-IESL-FORTH Heraklion, PO Box 1527, Crete (Greece)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a new electromagnetic modelling approach for the design of GaAs membrane supported monolithically integrated mm-wave receivers. The receivers structures are divided into membrane supported sections and bulk GaAs supported sections. Each block is modelled and designed using the full-wave electromagnetic simulation software Zeland IE3D. The Schottky diode is included in the model using the internal port feature. The design steps include the Schottky diode experimental characterization, design and measurements of membrane supported antenna demonstrators and linear/nonlinear simulations of the final receiver structures. The fabrication processes is based on GaAs micromachining. Two types of video detection receivers were designed, fabricated and tested: a 38 GHz double folded slot antenna receivers and a 45 GHz Yagi-Uda antenna receiver. Both circuits monolithically integrated the antenna with the Schottky diode on the same 2.2 {mu}m thin semiinsulating GaAs membrane. The experimental results demonstrate an isotropic voltage sensitivity of 3000 mV/mW at 38 GHz and 6000 mV/mW at 45 GHz, respectively. The measurements validate the modelling approach and open a window of opportunity for the development of innovative RF MEMS architectures operating at higher frequency, up to the sub-millimetre wave frequency range.

  10. Electromagnetic modelling of GaAs membrane supported mm-wave receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neculoiu, D.; Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a new electromagnetic modelling approach for the design of GaAs membrane supported monolithically integrated mm-wave receivers. The receivers structures are divided into membrane supported sections and bulk GaAs supported sections. Each block is modelled and designed using the full-wave electromagnetic simulation software Zeland IE3D. The Schottky diode is included in the model using the internal port feature. The design steps include the Schottky diode experimental characterization, design and measurements of membrane supported antenna demonstrators and linear/nonlinear simulations of the final receiver structures. The fabrication processes is based on GaAs micromachining. Two types of video detection receivers were designed, fabricated and tested: a 38 GHz double folded slot antenna receivers and a 45 GHz Yagi-Uda antenna receiver. Both circuits monolithically integrated the antenna with the Schottky diode on the same 2.2 µm thin semiinsulating GaAs membrane. The experimental results demonstrate an isotropic voltage sensitivity of 3000 mV/mW at 38 GHz and 6000 mV/mW at 45 GHz, respectively. The measurements validate the modelling approach and open a window of opportunity for the development of innovative RF MEMS architectures operating at higher frequency, up to the sub-millimetre wave frequency range.

  11. The Creation of Multimedia Resources to Support the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) Coach Education Programme (CEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Yvonne; D'Arcy, Jimmy; Sweeney, David

    2016-01-01

    The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is an Irish amateur sporting and cultural organisation. It represents in excess of 20,000 teams nationwide and is committed to supporting the development of players and coaches through its Coach Education Programme (CEP). A strategic goal of the CEP is to supplement the traditional field based coach education…

  12. Transition from ballistic to drift motion in high-field transport in GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With strong THz pulses, we measure ultrafast transport of electrons, holes, and an electron-hole plasma in GaAs. The transition from ballistic to drift-like transport is strongly influenced by electron-hole scattering.

  13. Insight into the epitaxial growth of high optical quality GaAs1-xBix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Alberi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The ternary alloy GaAs1-xBix is a potentially important material for infrared light emitting devices, but its use has been limited by poor optical quality. We report on the synthesis of GaAs1-xBix epi-layers that exhibit narrow, band edge photoluminescence similar to other ternary GaAs based alloys, e.g., InyGa1-yAs. The measured spectral linewidths are as low as 14 meV and 37 meV at low temperature (6 K) and room temperature, respectively, and are less than half of previously reported values. The improved optical quality is attributed to the use of incident UV irradiation of the epitaxial surface and the presence of a partial surface coverage of bismuth in a surfactant layer during epitaxy. Comparisons of samples grown under illuminated and dark conditions provide insight into possible surface processes that may be altered by the incident UV light. The improved optical quality now opens up possibilities for the practical use of GaAs1-xBix in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance...

  15. Tuning single GaAs quantum dots in resonance with a rubidium vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akopian, N.; Perinetti, U.; Wang, L.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We study single GaAs quantum dots with optical transitions that can be brought into resonance with the widely used D2 transitions of rubidium atoms. We achieve resonance by Zeeman or Stark shifting the quantum dot levels. We discuss an energy stabilization scheme based on the absorption of quantum

  16. Temperature and 8 MeV electron irradiation effects on GaAs solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... GaAs solar cells hold the record for the highest single band-gap cell efficiency. Successful application of these cells in advanced space-borne systems demand characterization of cell properties like dark current under different ambient conditions and the stability of the cells against particle irradiation in ...

  17. Optically controlled current filamentation in GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutavern, F.J.; Baca, A.; Helgeson, W.D.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Loubriel, G.M.; McLaughlin, D.L.; O`Malley, M.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of focused laser beams and fiber optics to control the location and density of current filaments in GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) is described in this paper. An intensified CCD camera is used to monitor the infrared photoluminescence of the filaments during fast initiation of high gain switching for several sizes of lateral GaAs PCSS (e. g. 0.5{times}5, 1{times}5, 2.5{times}5, 2{times}30, and 15{times}20 mm{sup 2}). The switches are triggered with either a focused, mode-locked, Nd:YAG laser (532 and 1064 nm) or fiber-optically coupled semiconductor laser diodes ({approximately}900 nm). The dependencies of the size, location, and density of the current filaments on the optical trigger, switch voltage, and switch current will be discussed. The impact of optically controlled current filaments on device design and lifetime is emphasized. Electro-optical switching amplification is demonstrated using the high gain switching mode of GaAs (lock-on). A single semiconductor laser diode is used to trigger a small GaAs PCSS. This PCSS is used to drive a 15-element laser diode array. Both electrical and optical pulse compression, sharpening, and amplification are achieved. Estimates for electrical and optical power gains are 8000 and 750 respectively.

  18. 1 GHz GaAs Buck Converter for High Power Amplifier Modulation Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busking, E.B.; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated 1 GHz buck converter output stage, including on-chip inductor and DC output filtering has been realized, in a standard high-voltage breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. This is a significant step forward in designing highspeed power control of supply-modulated HPAs (high power

  19. simulation of a nonlinear gaas mesfet model for use in the design of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program has been developed that performs a large-signal simulation of a GaAs. Metal-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor. (MESFET) using the Curtice-Ettenberg model fl]. The model is then used to desig11 11011-linear microwave circuits such as frequency multipliers a11d power amplifiers. The simulation ...

  20. Simulation of a Nonlinear GaAs MESFET Model for use in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program has been developed that performs a large-signal simulation of a GaAs Metal-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MESFET) using the Curtice-Ettenberg model [1]. The model is then used to design non-linear microwave circuits such as frequency multipliers and power amplifiers. The simulation ...

  1. Modification of the Absorption Edge of GaAs Arising from Hot-Electron Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGroddy, J. C.; Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    We have observed a large enhancement of the electric-field-induced optical absorption arising from hot-electron effects in n-type GaAs at 77 K. The magnitude and field dependence of the enhancement can be approximately accounted for by a theory attributing the effect to broadening of the final...

  2. The role of proximity caps during the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. C.; Biesinger, M. C.; LaPierre, R. R.; Kruse, P.

    2007-06-01

    This study provides a deeper insight into the chemistry and physics of the common engineering practice of using a proximity cap, while annealing compound semiconductors such as GaAs. We have studied the cases of a GaAs proximity cap, a Si proximity cap, and no proximity cap. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been found that annealing increases the gallium to arsenic ratio in the oxide layer in all cases. During the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs, it has been observed that GaAs proximity caps also serve as a sacrificial layer to accelerate the desorption of oxide species. In all cases surface deterioration due to pit formation has been observed, and the depth of pits is found to depend on the effective role played by the capping material. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis provides additional evidence that pits mainly consist of elemental As and gallium oxide, with most of the elemental As situated at the pit-substrate interface. Deposition of a thin layer of gold and subsequent annealing to 500°C for 300s under different capping conditions shows the use of a proximate cap to be practically insignificant in annealing Au deposited films.

  3. Twins and strain relaxation in zinc-blende GaAs nanowires grown on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Araújo, D.; Pastore, C.E.; Gutierrez, M. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Frigeri, C. [Istituto CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010, Parma (Italy); Benali, A.; Lelièvre, J.F.; Gendry, M. [INL-Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, UMR 5270 Ecole Centrale de Lyon 36, Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134, Ecully Cedex (France)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A TEM-HREM study of GaAs nanowires, growth over Si, is presented. • Misfit dislocations are detected in the Si/GaAs magma interface. • The study demonstrates strain relaxation through twin formation in some nanowires. - Abstract: To integrate materials with large lattice mismatch as GaAs on silicon (Si) substrate, one possible approach, to improve the GaAs crystalline quality, is to use nanowires (NWs) technology. In the present contribution, NWs are grown on <111> oriented Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses show that NWs are mainly grown alternating wurtzite and zinc blend (ZB) phases, and only few are purely ZB. On the latter, High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) evidences the presence of twins near the surface of the NW showing limited concordance with the calculations of Yuan (2013) [1], where {111} twin planes in a <111>-oriented GaAs NW attain attractive interactions mediated by surface strain. In addition, such twins allow slight strain relaxation and are probably induced by the local huge elastic strain observed by HREM in the lattice between the twin and the surface. The latter is attributed to some slight bending of the NW as shown by the inversion of the strain from one side to the other side of the NW.

  4. X-ray diffraction study on pressure-induced phase transformation in nanocrystalline GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. S.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that the onset and transition pressures of the GaAs I --> II transition are 17 GPa and 20 GPa, respectively, for both bulk and nanophase material. The observed gradual change in resistivity of nanophase GaAs,at the semiconductor-to-metal transition is explained by the two...

  5. Free Carrier Induced Spectral Shift for GaAs Filled Metallic Hole Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison , and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range...absorption coefficient, is expressed as Eq. (3), where P indicates the principal value of the integral [20]. For intrinsic GaAs bulk, the absorption

  6. Ultralow-power GaAs MESFET MSI circuits using two-phase dynamic FET logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Peter Stuhr; Long, S. I.; Nary, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Two-phase dynamic FET logic (TDFL) gates are used in GaAs MESFET MSI circuits to implement very low power 4-b ripple carry adders and a variable modulus (2 to 31) prescaler. Operation of the adders is demonstrated at 500 MHz with an associated power dissipation of less than 1.0 mW and at 750 MHz...

  7. Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Ole

    1976-01-01

    Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...

  8. Energy Band Structure Studies Of Zinc-Blende GaAs and InAs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-consistent calculation of the structural and electronic properties of zinc blende GaAs and InAs has been carried out. The calculations were done using the full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation energy used is the ...

  9. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high speed GaAs ATM Mux Demur ASIC (AMDA) which is the key element in a high speed ATM Add-Drop unit. This unit is used in a new distributed ATM multiplexing-demultiplexing architecture for broadband switching systems. The Add-Drop unit...

  10. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core...

  11. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernykh, S.V., E-mail: chsv_84@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chernykh, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Didenko, S.I.; Baryshnikov, F.M. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Burtebayev, N. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Britvich, G.I. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A.P. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guly, V.G.; Glybin, Yu.N. [LLC “SNIIP Plus”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zholdybayev, T.K.; Burtebayeva, J.T.; Nassurlla, M. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-11

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm{sup 2} detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm{sup 2} detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of {sup 238}Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron–hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs. - Highlights: • VPE GaAs particle detectors with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} were fabricated. • 120 Å ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier was used as a rectifying contact. • The obtained FWHM of 14.2 keV ({sup 238}Pu) is at the level of Si spectrometric detectors. • Various components of the total energy resolution were analyzed. • It was shown that obtained energy resolution is close to its limit for VPE GaAs.

  12. Cavity Optomechnics with 150nm-thick GaAs Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usami, K.; Melholt Nielsen, B.; Naesby, A.

    2010-01-01

    semiconductor integrated devices further. To investigate the optomechanical properties of a fabricated 150nm-thick intrinsic GaAs membrane (1.3mm1.9mm) a 975nm-laser (below band gap) is used to probe the mechanical resonances via beam deflection method. An 810nmlaser (above band gap), which is mode...

  13. Etching of GaAs substrates to create As-rich surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several different cleaning procedures for GaAs (100) substrates are compared using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical microscopy. This work emphasizes the effect of the last etching step: using either HCl, HF–ethanol (5%) or static deionized water after HCl cleaning. All the procedures except HCl solution (1 ...

  14. Variations in first principles calculated defect energies in GaAs and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. There is an abundant literature on calculations of formation and ionization energies of point defects in GaAs. Since most of these energies, especially the formation energies, are difficult to measure, the calculations are primary means of obtaining their values. However, based on the assumptions of the calcula-.

  15. Variations in first principles calculated defect energies in GaAs and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is an abundant literature on calculations of formation and ionization energies of point defects in GaAs. Since most of these energies, especially the formation energies, are difficult to measure, the calculations are primary means of obtaining their values. However, based on the assumptions of the calculations, the ...

  16. Direct determination of sizes of excitations from optical measurements on ion-implanted GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspnes, D.E.; Kelso, S.M.; Olson, C.G.; Lynch, D.W.

    1982-06-28

    Using a simple model that describes the decrease of the amplitudes of optical structures in ion-implanted crystals, projected areas of several valence and core excitons in GaAs are determined. The last remnant of crystal-related optical structure vanishes for crystallite areas less than (16 A)/sup 2/.

  17. Temperature and 8 MeV electron irradiation effects on GaAs solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. GaAs solar cells hold the record for the highest single band-gap cell efficiency. Successful application of these cells in advanced space-borne systems demand character- ization of cell properties like dark current under different ambient conditions and the stability of the cells against particle irradiation in space.

  18. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of GaAs ion-implanted structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privalov E. N.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A noniterative numerical method is proposed to calculate the barrier capacitance of GaAs ion-implanted structures as a function of the Schottky barrier bias. The features of the low- and high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures which are due to the presence of deep traps are elucidated.

  19. Transient four-wave mixing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Gislason, Hannes; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    The binding energy of excitons and biexcitons and the exciton dephasing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires is investigated by transient four-wave mixing. The T-shaped structure is fabricated by cleaved-edge overgrowth, and its geometry is engineered to optimize the one-dimensional confinement...

  20. Performance of a wideband GaAs low-noise amplifier at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toncich, S. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Chen, T. K.; Claspy, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The gain and noise figure performance of a GaAs amplifier at cryogenic temperatures has been studied. Results obtained indicate that a lower noise figure and a higher gain are induced by decreasing the temperature, while no significant change in the input 1-dB compression point is observed. Repeated temperature cycling had no adverse effect on the amplifier performance.

  1. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance simulation with Angelov HEMT model in Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS) and by chip measurement results.

  2. Role of wave functions in electromagnetism : RAS from GaAs (110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.M.J.; de Boeij, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    We have calculated the reflectance anisotropy for the GaAs (110) surface using the discrete cellular method. This method extends the range of application of standard discrete dipole calculations by incorporating nonlocal polarizabilitites. The method adds a second quantum mechanical channel of

  3. Chromosome fragility at GAA tracts in yeast depends on repeat orientation and requires mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Narayanan, Vidhya; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Petes, Thomas D; Krasilnikova, Maria M; Mirkin, Sergei M; Lobachev, Kirill S

    2008-11-05

    Expansion of triplex-forming GAA/TTC repeats in the first intron of FXN gene results in Friedreich's ataxia. Besides FXN, there are a number of other polymorphic GAA/TTC loci in the human genome where the size variations thus far have been considered to be a neutral event. Using yeast as a model system, we demonstrate that expanded GAA/TTC repeats represent a threat to eukaryotic genome integrity by triggering double-strand breaks and gross chromosomal rearrangements. The fragility potential strongly depends on the length of the tracts and orientation of the repeats relative to the replication origin, which correlates with their propensity to adopt triplex structure and to block replication progression. We show that fragility is mediated by mismatch repair machinery and requires the MutSbeta and endonuclease activity of MutLalpha. We suggest that the mechanism of GAA/TTC-induced chromosomal aberrations defined in yeast can also operate in human carriers with expanded tracts.

  4. Effects of Friedreich's ataxia GAA repeats on DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandok, Gurangad S; Patel, Mayank P; Mirkin, Sergei M; Krasilnikova, Maria M

    2012-05-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a common hereditary degenerative neuro-muscular disorder caused by expansions of the (GAA)n repeat in the first intron of the frataxin gene. The expanded repeats from parents frequently undergo further significant length changes as they are passed on to progeny. Expanded repeats also show an age-dependent instability in somatic cells, albeit on a smaller scale than during intergenerational transmissions. Here we studied the effects of (GAA)n repeats of varying lengths and orientations on the episomal DNA replication in mammalian cells. We have recently shown that the very first round of the transfected DNA replication occurs in the lack of the mature chromatin, does not depend on the episomal replication origin and initiates at multiple single-stranded regions of plasmid DNA. We now found that expanded GAA repeats severely block this first replication round post plasmid transfection, while the subsequent replication cycles are only mildly affected. The fact that GAA repeats affect various replication modes in a different way might shed light on their differential expansions characteristic for FRDA.

  5. Neuropathology in respiratory-related motoneurons in young Pompe (Gaa(-/-)) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sara M F; Hoyt, Aaron K; ElMallah, Mai K; Falk, Darin J; Byrne, Barry J; Fuller, David D

    2016-06-15

    Respiratory and/or lingual dysfunction are among the first motor symptoms in Pompe disease, a disorder resulting from absence or dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). Here, we histologically evaluated the medulla, cervical and thoracic spinal cords in 6 weeks old asymptomatic Pompe (Gaa(-/-)) mice to determine if neuropathology in respiratory motor regions has an early onset. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining indicated glycogen accumulation was exclusively occurring in Gaa(-/-) hypoglossal, mid-cervical and upper thoracic motoneurons. Markers of DNA damage (Tunel) and ongoing apoptosis (Cleaved Caspase 3) did not co-localize with PAS staining, but were prominent in a medullary region which included the nucleus tractus solitarius, and also in the thoracic spinal dorsal horn. We conclude that respiratory-related motoneurons are particularly susceptible to GAA deficiency and that neuronal glycogen accumulation and neurodegeneration may occur independently in early stage disease. The data support early therapeutic intervention in Pompe disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Doping Induced Solubility Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ian Edward

    Polymeric semiconductors are promising class of materials, which combine many of the electrical properties of inorganic semiconductors with the mechanical flexibility and chemical processability of organic materials. Semiconducting polymers can be deposited from solution over large areas at low cost, and may find applications in displays, photovoltaics, and sensor arrays. Unfortunately, these materials are generally mutually soluble with other organics, preventing solution-based deposition of complex patterned structures using standard photolithographic techniques. Here, we present an entirely new method for patterning conductive polymers utilizing a change in polymer solubility upon p-type doping. Many polymer : molecular dopant systems, including the extensively studied system poly-(3-hexylthiophene) : 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (P3HT : F4TCNQ), are rendered insoluble in a wide range solvents by p-type doping at only a few mol%. By sequentially doping and dedoping films, polymer solubility can be switched on an off at will. We find that doped films can be easily prepared in a two-step process, by first coating the polymer (P3HT), then exposing the film to an orthogonal solvent containing the dopant (F4TCNQ). Dedoping is achieved by means of a chemical reaction that deactivates F4TCNQ, allowing it to be removed by an orthogonal solvent in a single step. This process allows for fully quantitative dedoping, in some cases leaving films with an even lower free carrier density than as cast films by removing intrinsic p-type defects. In addition, we have also identified a photochemical reaction between F4TCNQ and solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), which similarly yields a non-doping product. By immersing films in THF and exposing them to light, this reaction allows for direct, optical patterning of P3HT films. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), we demonstrate direct write topographic patterning of arbitrary structures with in

  7. Nonlinear THz spectroscopy on n-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaal, Peter

    2008-06-23

    In this thesis, the ultrafast dynamics of conduction band electrons in semiconductors are investigated by nonlinear terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. In particular, n-doped gallium arsenide samples with doping concentrations in the range of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} are studied. A novel source for the generation of intense THz radiation is developed which yields single-cycle THz transients with field amplitudes of more then 400 kV/cm. The THz source uses ultrashort optical laser pulses provided by a Ti:sapphire oscillator. In addition, a two-color THz-pump mid-infrared-probe setup is implemented, which allows for two-dimensional time-resolved experiments in the far-infrared wavelength range. Field ionization of neutral shallow donors in gallium arsenide with intense, ultrashort THz pulses and subsequent coherent radiative recombination of electrons to impurity ground states is observed at room temperature. The superradiant decay of the nonlinear polarization results in the emission of a coherent signal with picosecond lifetimes. Such nonlinear signals, which exhibit a lifetime ten times longer than in the linear regime are observed for the first time. At low temperatures and THz field strengths below 5 kV/cm, Rabi flopping on shallow donor transitions is demonstrated. For the first time, the polar electron-LO phonon interaction is directly measured in the quantum kinetic transport regime. Quasi-instantaneous acceleration of conduction band electrons in the polar gallium arsenide lattice by the electric field of intense THz pulses and subsequent probing of the mid-infrared transmission reveals a modulation of the transmission along the THz-mid-infrared delay coordinate with the frequency of the LO phonon. These modulations directly display the relative phase between the electron motion and its surrounding virtual phonon cloud. Quantum kinetic model calculations fully account for the observed phenomena. (orig.)

  8. Doped Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs)/Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch (PCSS) Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-27

    test devices without anti- reflection (AR) protection caps but now serve as duplicate devices to combat fabrication yield issues. The columns of...step. 2. Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures 2.1 Alignment Marks Due to the negligible effect the n-type dopant annealing has on the surface of the...A-1 of the Appendix, photoresist makes an adequate mask for this short plasma etch. The etch is a simple boron trichloride (BCl3) and argon (Ar

  9. Luminescence and Electroluminescence of Nd, Tm and Yb Doped GaAs and some II-Vi Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    2 .4f9𔃿s 25p6 0.99 1.59 1.22’ Holmium 4f" 15s25p66s’ 4f 0 5s 25p6 0.97 1.58 1.23a Erbium 4f 125s 25p66s2 4f t5s2Vp 0.96 1.57 1.24’ Thulium 4f...10] to explain the photo quenching spectra of Fe"÷ ESR signal with onset at 0.75 eV, 1.0 S-T0mp. 1.0 (C) Fe (1E) 0.8 a2h SLhuy : 4) (dlA 2O.. 0.35 eV

  10. Carbon, oxygen, boron, hydrogen and nitrogen in the LEC growth of SI GaAs: a thermochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, J.; Flade, T.; Jurisch, M.; Köhler, A.; Reinhold, Th; Weinert, B.

    1999-03-01

    The ChemSage code [Eriksson and Hack, Metall. Trans. B 12 (1990) 1013] to minimize the total Gibbs free energy was used to calculate phase equilibria in the complex thermochemical system representing LEC GaAs crystal growth which comprises the growth atmosphere, the liquid boron oxide, the GaAs melt and solid phases including the GaAs crystal. The behaviour of C, B, O, N and H in the crystal growth melt at 1509.42 K is investigated in dependence on relevant technological parameters.

  11. Solvent-mediated self-assembly of hexadecanethiol on GaAs (0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaohuan; Dubowski, Jan J., E-mail: jan.j.dubowski@usherbrooke.ca

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Outstanding quality hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers (HDT SAM) produced on GaAs (0 0 1) due to the mediated role of water in an alcoholic environment. • HDT SAM formed in chloroform exhibit excellent electronic passivation properties in contrast to their structural characteristics. • Low dielectric constant solvents do not necessary provide conditions advantageous for the formation of high quality alkanethiol SAM. • Photoluminescence emitting materials allow to investigate the mechanisms of both electronic and chemical passivation and, thus, they are an excellent platform for studying the mechanisms of SAM formation on solid substrates. - Abstract: We have investigated the influence of solvents on the quality of hexadecanethiol (HDT) self-assembled monolayers (SAM) formed on GaAs (0 0 1) in chloroform, ethanol and ethanol/water 1:1 characterized by their increasing dielectric constants from 4.8 (chloroform) to 24.5 (ethanol) and water (80.1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the incubation in ethanol/water 1:1 solution creates conditions favouring inter-molecular interaction leading to the formation of an outstanding quality HDT SAM on GaAs (0 0 1). Incubation in low-dielectric constant solvents is not offering advantageous conditions for growing HDT SAM on GaAs. The chloroform environment, while weakening the thiol–thiol interaction, induces the oxidation of the GaAs surface and, in particular, formation of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This reduces the concentration of surface defects responsible for non-radiative recombination and leads to an enhanced photoluminescence emission, despite the fact that HDT SAM formed in chloroform are highly disordered, exhibiting the worst chemical passivation among the investigated samples.

  12. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  13. Alleviating GAA Repeat Induced Transcriptional Silencing of the Friedreich's Ataxia Gene During Somatic Cell Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Urszula; Li, Yanjie; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Napierala, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. This severe neurodegenerative disease is caused by an expansion of guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) repeats located in the first intron of the frataxin (FXN) gene, which represses its transcription. Although transcriptional silencing is associated with heterochromatin-like changes in the vicinity of the expanded GAAs, the exact mechanism and pathways involved in transcriptional inhibition are largely unknown. As major remodeling of the epigenome is associated with somatic cell reprogramming, modulating chromatin modification pathways during the cellular transition from a somatic to a pluripotent state is likely to generate permanent changes to the epigenetic landscape. We hypothesize that the epigenetic modifications in the vicinity of the GAA repeats can be reversed by pharmacological modulation during somatic cell reprogramming. We reprogrammed FRDA fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the presence of various small molecules that target DNA methylation and histone acetylation and methylation. Treatment of FRDA iPSCs with two compounds, sodium butyrate (NaB) and Parnate, led to an increase in FXN expression and correction of repressive marks at the FXN locus, which persisted for several passages. However, prolonged culture of the epigenetically modified FRDA iPSCs led to progressive expansions of the GAA repeats and a corresponding decrease in FXN expression. Furthermore, we uncovered that differentiation of these iPSCs into neurons also results in resilencing of the FXN gene. Taken together, these results demonstrate that transcriptional repression caused by long GAA repeat tracts can be partially or transiently reversed by altering particular epigenetic modifications, thus revealing possibilities for detailed analyses of silencing mechanism and development of new therapeutic approaches for FRDA.

  14. Comparison of Two Different PCR-based Methods for Detection of GAA Expansions in Frataxin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezam, Mona; Amirfiroozi, Akbar; Togha, Mansoureh; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats is the molecular basis of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Precise detection of the GAA expansion repeat in frataxin gene has always been a challenge. Different molecular methods have been suggested for detection of GAA expansion, including; short-PCR, long-PCR, Triplet repeat primed-PCR (TP-PCR) and southern blotting. The aim of study was to evaluate two PCR-based methods, TP-PCR and long-PCR, and to explore the use of TP-PCR accompanying with long-PCR for accurate genotyping of FRDA patients. Blood samples were collected from six Iranian patients suspected to FRDA, who referred to the Department of Medical Genetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the year 2014. For one of these patients' four asymptomatic members of the family were also recruited for the analysis. DNA extraction was performed by two different methods. TP-PCR and long-PCR were carried out in all samples. The type of this study is assessment / investigation of methods. Using a combination of the above methods, the genotypes of all samples were confirmed as five homozygous mutants (expanded GAA repeats), two heterozygous and three homozygous normal (normal repeat size). The results obtained by TP-PCR are consistent with long-PCR results. The presence or absence of expanded alleles can be identified correctly by TP-PCR. Performing long-PCR and Fluorescent-long-PCR enables accurate genotyping in all samples. This approach is highly reliable. It could be successfully used for detection of GAA expansion repeats.

  15. ERYTHROPOIETIN AS DOPING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the use of prohibited substances and/or methods that improve the abilities of athletes. Erythropoietin (EPO, the kidney hormone, belongs to a group of substances that are classified as blood doping, and it can be found on the list of banned substances from 1990. year. Its application leads to an increase in the number of red blood cells, which enables better supply of oxygen, and thus improve the aerobic performance of athletes. Because of that, EPO is very popular in sports where the endurance is predominantly required like a marathon, cycling, triathlon, nordic skiing. Erythropoietin can cause some adverse events, primarily to increase blood viscosity, which is associated with a higher risk of various thromboembolic complications. In detection of EPO use two groups of tests are available, through a urine sample (direct method and blood sample (indirect method.

  16. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  17. Synchronous Photoinjection Using a Frequency-Doubled Gain-Switched Fiber-Coupled Seed Laser and ErYb-Doped Fiber Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Hansknecht; Benard Poelker

    2006-06-01

    Light at 1.56 um from a gain-switched fiber-coupled diode laser and ErYb-doped fiber amplifier was frequency doubled to obtain over 2W average power at 780 nm with {approx} 40ps pulses and pulse repetition rate of 499 MHz. This light was used to drive the 100kV DC high voltage GaAs photoemission gun at CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory to produce a high average current beam (100uA) of highly spin-polarized electrons (>80%). This new drive laser system represents a significant advance over laser systems used previously, providing significantly higher power and enhanced reliability.

  18. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  19. Direct observation of doping incorporation pathways in self-catalytic GaMnAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, T., E-mail: tk@cen.dtu.dk; Yazdi, S. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Thuvander, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Siusys, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Gontard, L. C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), C/Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Kovács, A.; Duchamp, M.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gustafsson, A. [Solid State Physics and the Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Sadowski, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02-668 Warszawa (Poland); MAX-IV Laboratory, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-07

    Doping mechanisms of Mn in GaAs nanowires (NWs) that have been grown self-catalytically at 600 °C by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated using advanced electron microscopy techniques and atom probe tomography. Mn is found to be incorporated primarily in the form of non-magnetic tetragonal Ga{sub 0.82}Mn{sub 0.18} nanocrystals in Ga catalyst droplets at the ends of the NWs, while trace amounts of Mn (22 ± 4 at. ppm) are also distributed randomly in the NW bodies without forming clusters or precipitates. The nanocrystals are likely to form after switching off the reaction in the MBE chamber, since they are partially embedded in neck regions of the NWs. The Ga{sub 0.82}Mn{sub 0.18} nanocrystals and the low Mn concentration in the NW bodies are insufficient to induce a ferromagnetic phase transition, suggesting that it is difficult to have high Mn contents in GaAs even in 1-D NW growth via the vapor-liquid-solid process.

  20. Monitoring the Fermi-level position within the bandgap on a single nanowire: A tool for local investigations of doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanetti, M.; Ambrosini, S.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Abyaneh, M. K.; Franciosi, A.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.; Rubini, S.

    2013-10-01

    The control of the doping in nanowires (NWs) is of fundamental importance for the implementation of NW-based devices. A method is presented to obtain local information about doping by monitoring the Fermi-energy position within the bandgap at the surface along single NWs through spatially resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The experimental results are complemented by theoretical simulations of the carrier profile, taking into account the presence of electronic surface states and quantifying the impact of carrier depletion at the NW surface. This combined approach allows to determine the effect of the incorporation of Si dopants in GaAs NWs following different growth protocols, such as vapor-liquid-solid axial growth or vapor-solid radial growth, and in the resulting core-shell structures and axial junctions. The method also revelaed the strong dependence of the resulting doping on the morphology of the single NW (orientation, shell thickness). This approach can be easily applied to other nanoscale objects, allowing the direct observation of how doping (or junctions, or adsorbates,…) may locally affect the position of the Fermi level at the surface, which is a crucial factor in several application fields, such as photovoltaic and photocatalysis.

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of doped quantum dots: Interplay between noise and carrier density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas

    2017-07-01

    Present work explores the profiles of a few nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) with special emphasis on the role played by the carrier density under the aegis of noise. Noise term maintains a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. A change of carrier density principally affects the peak height of the NLO properties. Incorporation of noise leads to some remarkable changes in the profiles of NLO properties during the variation of carrier density. These changes, however, depend on the pathway by which noise has been applied and also on the noise strength. The interplay between carrier density and noise produces some interesting outcomes that bear relevance in the related field of research.

  2. Direct observation of the E- resonant state in GaA s1 -xB ix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bismuth-derived resonant states with T2 symmetry are detected in the valence band of GaA s1 -xB ix using electromodulated reflectance. A doublet is located 42 meV below the valence-band edge of GaAs that is split by local strain around isolated Bi impurity atoms. A transition associated with a singlet is also observed just above the GaAs spin-orbit split-off band. These states move deeper into the valence band with increasing Bi concentration but at a much slower rate than the well-known giant upward movement of the valence-band edge in GaA s1 -xB ix . Our results provide key insight for clarifying the mechanisms by which isovalent impurities alter the band structure of the host semiconductor.

  3. Growth and Photovoltaic Properties of High-Quality GaAs Nanowires Prepared by the Two-Source CVD Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying Wang; Zaixing Yang; Xiaofeng Wu; Ning Han; Hanyu Liu; Shuobo Wang; Jun Li; WaiMan Tse; SenPo Yip; Yunfa Chen; Johnny C Ho

    2016-01-01

    .... In this work, highly crystalline, dense, and long GaAs NWs are successfully synthesized using a two-source method on non-crystalline SiO2 substrates by a simple solid-source chemical vapor deposition method...

  4. Influence of GaAs Substrate Orientation on InAs Quantum Dots: Surface Morphology, Critical Thickness, and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang BL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInAs/GaAs heterostructures have been simultaneously grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, GaAs (100 with a 2° misorientation angle towards [01−1], and GaAs (n11B (n = 9, 7, 5 substrates. While the substrate misorientation angle increased from 0° to 15.8°, a clear evolution from quantum dots to quantum well was evident by the surface morphology, the photoluminescence, and the time-resolved photoluminescence, respectively. This evolution revealed an increased critical thickness and a delayed formation of InAs quantum dots as the surface orientation departed from GaAs (100, which was explained by the thermal-equilibrium model due to the less efficient of strain relaxation on misoriented substrate surfaces.

  5. Detection of a novel mutation in the GAA gene in an Iranian child with glycogen storage disease type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehdari, Hamid; Emami, Mozhgan; Mohammadian, Gholamreza; Khodadadi, Ali; Azmoon, Somayeh; Baradaran, Masumeh

    2013-02-01

    Glycogen storage disease II (GSDII or Pompe disease, OMIM # 232300) is an autosomal recessive hereditary lysosomal disorder. Mutations in the GAA gene usually lead to reduced acid α-glucosidase (acid maltase, GAA, OMIM *606800, EC 3.1.26.2) activity, which results in impaired degradation and subsequent accumulation of glycogen within lysosomes. We present an Iranian boy, who was diagnosed with GSDII based upon clinical and biochemical findings. A single adenine insertion (insA) was detected at codon 693 that leads to a predicted premature stop codon at codon 736 in the GAA gene. The parents were heterozygous for the same change. According to the human genome mutation database (www.hgmd.org) and lecture reviews, the detected change is a novel mutation. We suppose that the discovered insertion in the GAA gene might lead to a reduced activity of the gene product. This assumption is in agreement with biochemical and clinical signs in the patient.

  6. Above 8GHz Static T-Flip-Flop Operation using FT=22.9GHz GaAs MESFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, J; Danielsen, Per Lander

    1992-01-01

    A static SCFL Toggle Flip-Flop GaAs IC having maximum operating frequency of Fdiv=8.25GHz has been designed using a commercially available GaAs MESFET foundry service. The average Ft for the present wafer is Ft=22.9GHz giving a very high Fdiv/Ft-ratio of Fdiv/Ft=0.36. In addition output voltage...

  7. Effects of capacitance at crossover wirings in power GaAs M.E.S.F.E.T.s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Y.; Higashisaka, A.; Hasegawa, F.

    1980-05-01

    Power GaAs FETs with an air-bridge crossover were compared with those of SiO2 crossover to find the effect of the capacitance at the crossover points. The capacitance of SiO2 crossover points is much smaller than that of the gate pad or the gate busbar in power GaAs FETs, and deterioration of the microwave performance due to that capacitance is negligible.

  8. Scaling behavior of GaAs and GaMnAs quantum rings grown by droplet epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, E. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata,' via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy (Italy); Arciprete, F.; Balzarotti, A.; Patella, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata,' via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy (Italy)

    2012-10-01

    The transition from the liquid phase of Ga droplets to the formation of GaAs and GaMnAs quantum rings has been studied as a function of temperature. We show that different aggregation processes involve the GaAs (GaMnAs) island and the droplet formation. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the islands exhibits an anomalous scaling law related to a tendency to aggregate in the vertical direction.

  9. Direct Growth of High-Quality InP Layers on GaAs Substrates by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Yarn

    2003-01-01

    group V partial pressure, growth rate and V/III ratios. A mirror-like, uniform surface and high crystal quality of the metamorphic buffer layer directly grown on a GaAs substrate can be achieved. Finally, to investigate the performance of the metamorphic microwave devices, we also fabricate the InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic HEMT on GaAs substrates.

  10. A GAA repeat expansion reporter model of Friedreich's ataxia recapitulates the genomic context and allows rapid screening of therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufino, Michele M P; Silva, Ana M; Németh, Andrea H; Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier; Russell, Angela J; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2013-12-20

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by large GAA expansions in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN), which lead to reduced FXN expression through a mechanism not fully understood. Understanding such mechanism is essential for the identification of novel therapies for FRDA and this can be accelerated by the development of cell models which recapitulate the genomic context of the FXN locus and allow direct comparison of normal and expanded FXN loci with rapid detection of frataxin levels. Here we describe the development of the first GAA-expanded FXN genomic DNA reporter model of FRDA. We modified BAC vectors carrying the whole FXN genomic DNA locus by inserting the luciferase gene in exon 5a of the FXN gene (pBAC-FXN-Luc) and replacing the six GAA repeats present in the vector with an ∼310 GAA repeat expansion (pBAC-FXN-GAA-Luc). We generated human clonal cell lines carrying the two vectors using site-specific integration to allow direct comparison of normal and expanded FXN loci. We demonstrate that the presence of expanded GAA repeats recapitulates the epigenetic modifications and repression of gene expression seen in FRDA. We applied the GAA-expanded reporter model to the screening of a library of novel small molecules and identified one molecule which up-regulates FXN expression in FRDA patient primary cells and restores normal histone acetylation around the GAA repeats. These results suggest the potential use of genomic reporter cell models for the study of FRDA and the identification of novel therapies, combining physiologically relevant expression with the advantages of quantitative reporter gene expression.

  11. co-doped zinc oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and TEM analyses indicated the presence of nanocrystal- lites aggregated in different shape particles. The band gap decreases in the case of the doped ZnO samples. Regarding the doped samples, the highest average visible transmittance of 89% and the lowest resistivity of 6.7 × 10−3 cm. PL spectra of the nanopowder ...

  12. Anti-phase boundaries-Free GaAs epilayers on "quasi-nominal" Ge-buffered silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogumilowicz, Y.; Hartmann, J. M.; Cipro, R.; Alcotte, R.; Martin, M.; Bassani, F.; Moeyaert, J.; Baron, T.; Pin, J. B.; Bao, X.; Ye, Z.; Sanchez, E.

    2015-11-01

    We have obtained Anti-Phase Boundary (APB) free GaAs epilayers on "quasi-nominal" (001) silicon substrates, while using a thick germanium strain relaxed buffer between the GaAs layer and the silicon substrate in order to accommodate the 4% lattice mismatch between the two. As silicon (001) substrates always have a small random offcut angle from their nominal surface plane, we call them "quasi-nominal." We have focused on the influence that this small (≤0.5°) offcut angle has on the GaAs epilayer properties, showing that it greatly influences the density of APBs. On 0.5° offcut substrates, we obtained smooth, slightly tensile strained (R = 106%) GaAs epilayers that were single domain (e.g., without any APB), showing that it is not necessary to use large offcut substrates, typically 4° to 6°, for GaAs epitaxy on silicon. These make the GaAs layers more compatible with the existing silicon manufacturing technology that uses "quasi-nominal" substrates.

  13. Superconducting NbN single-photon detectors on GaAs with an AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ekkehart; Merker, Michael; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    GaAs is the material of choice for photonic integrated circuits. It allows the monolithic integration of single-photon sources like quantum dots, waveguide based optical circuits and detectors like superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) onto one chip. The growth of high quality NbN films on GaAs is challenging, due to natural occurring surface oxides and the large lattice mismatch of about 27%. In this work, we try to overcome these problems by the introduction of a 10 nm AlN buffer layer. Due to the buffer layer, the critical temperature of 6 nm thick NbN films was increased by about 1.5 K. Furthermore, the critical current density at 4.2 K of NbN flim deposited onto GaAs with AlN buffer is 50% higher than of NbN film deposited directly onto GaAs substrate. We successfully fabricated NbN SNSPDs on GaAs with a AlN buffer layer. SNSPDs were patterned using electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. Results on the study of detection efficiency and jitter of a NbN SNSPD on GaAs, with and without AlN buffer layer will be presented and discussed.

  14. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  15. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  16. Role Models on Dope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Gleaves, John

    2014-01-01

    Compared to football-players cyclists are virtuous role models. Yes, Lance Armstrong, Michael Rasmussen and other riders have doped, and because of this they have received the predicate as the most immoral athletes in the sporting world. But if morality is not only a question of whether a person...... has enhanced his or hers performances by the use of various drugs (and lied about it), but also is about human beings’ relations and interactions, then cycling isn’t as depraved as we like to tell each other. Football is much worse....

  17. Studies in the growth of ZnSe on GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, J. [La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Wolfframm, D.; Evans, A. [North East Wales Institute, Plas Coch, Wrexham, (United Kingdom). Department of Physics; Westwood, D. [University of Wales Cardiff, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Department of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-12-31

    Full text: This paper reports a study of the Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) growth of ZnSe on GaAs substrates using elemental sources. Growth rates of ZnSe as a function of Zn:Se flux ratio for constant Zn flux were determined over a wider range of values than previously reported. Careful measurements of atomic fluxes and sample thickness lead to a determination of the sticking coefficients of Zn and Se which are at variance with many previously reported values. The temperature dependence of the sticking coefficients of Zn and Se have been measured carefully and provide evidence for a greater desorption of As from the growing surface that previously thought, an effect which persists at low growth temperatures. Measurements at high flux ratio supports the use of a precursor model to describe MBE growth of ZnSe on GaAs substrates

  18. Coherent control and charge echo in a GaAs charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Chuan; Chen, Bao-Bao; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-03-01

    In fulfilling the non-adiabatic requirement of pulse sequences, it is challenging to perform multi-pulse quantum control of a charge qubit. By optimizing our charge qubit and pulse parameters, we experimentally demonstrate the coherent control and echo process of a GaAs charge qubit. We firstly employed a single non-adiabatic voltage pulse to perform the Larmor oscillation experiment and determine the optimal σx operation pulses. Then, we produced Ramsey fringes using two σx=π/2 pulses and extracted the decoherence time T2\\ast∼ 112 \\text{ps} from the Ramsey fringes. More importantly, we successfully applied a charge echo pulse sequence to increase the extracted inhomogeneous dephasing time to ∼1360 ps. Our results show that the low-frequency noise is the important dephasing limiter of the coherence time of the charge qubit in the GaAs system.

  19. Structural analysis of the indium-stabilized GaAs(001)-c(8×2) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, T.-L.; Kumpf, C.; Kazimirov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The indium-stabilized GaAs(001)-c(8x2) surface was investigated by surface x-ray diffraction and x-ray standing waves. We find that the reconstruction closely resembles the c(8x2) structure described by the recently proposed unified model for clean III-V semiconductor surfaces [Kumpf , Phys. Rev...... different due to the lateral strain induced by the lattice mismatch. This structural difference explains why the ladder-type pattern observed previously by scanning tunneling microscopy only appears for the In/GaAs(001) and InAs/GaAs(001) surfaces, but not for the InAs clean surface. The structural model we...... propose for the In-stabilized GaAs(001)-c(8x2) surface, which fully agrees with the scanning tunneling microscopy results, should therefore generally apply to strained InAs(001) surfaces....

  20. Electrons, holes, and excitons in GaAs polytype quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climente, Juan I.; Segarra, Carlos; Rajadell, Fernando; Planelles, Josep, E-mail: josep.planelles@uji.es [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080 Castelló (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Single and multi-band k⋅p Hamiltonians for GaAs crystal phase quantum dots are used to assess ongoing experimental activity on the role of such factors as quantum confinement, spontaneous polarization, valence band mixing, and exciton Coulomb interaction. Spontaneous polarization is found to be a dominating term. Together with the control of dot thickness [Vainorius et al., Nano Lett. 15, 2652 (2015)], it enables wide exciton wavelength and lifetime tunability. Several new phenomena are predicted for small diameter dots [Loitsch et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2195 (2015)], including non-heavy hole ground state, strong hole spin admixture, and a type-II to type-I exciton transition, which can be used to improve the absorption strength and reduce the radiative lifetime of GaAs polytypes.

  1. Strain-driven growth of GaAs(111) quantum dots with low fine structure splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerino, Christopher D.; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry, E-mail: minjoo.lee@yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Simmonds, Paul J. [Departments of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L. [California NanoSystems Institute and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Schneider, Christian; Unsleber, Sebastian; Vo, Minh; Kamp, Martin [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-22

    Symmetric quantum dots (QDs) on (111)-oriented surfaces are promising candidates for generating polarization-entangled photons due to their low excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS). However, (111) QDs are difficult to grow. The conventional use of compressive strain to drive QD self-assembly fails to form 3D nanostructures on (111) surfaces. Instead, we demonstrate that (111) QDs self-assemble under tensile strain by growing GaAs QDs on an InP(111)A substrate. Tensile GaAs self-assembly produces a low density of QDs with a symmetric triangular morphology. Coherent, tensile QDs are observed without dislocations, and the QDs luminescence at room temperature. Single QD measurements reveal low FSS with a median value of 7.6 μeV, due to the high symmetry of the (111) QDs. Tensile self-assembly thus offers a simple route to symmetric (111) QDs for entangled photon emitters.

  2. Position control of self-catalyzed MBE-grown GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Benedikt; Rudolph, Andreas; Weiss, Dieter; Schuh, Dieter; Soda, Marcello; Zweck, Josef; Reiger, Elisabeth [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Institut des Materiaux, EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Nanowires grown in bottom-up processes are regarded as possible building blocks of future electronic devices. For integrating them into conventional electronic circuits controlling the position and diameter of the nanowires is inevitable. We report on position controlled GaAs nanowires grown via self-catalyzed growth using MBE. Starting with a GaAs (111)B substrate covered by a thin SiO{sub 2} layer we use E-beam lithography in combination with wet chemical etching to define arrays of holes with diameters of 100 nm and varying interhole distances between 200 and 2000 nm. These holes in the SiO{sub 2} layer act as nucleation sites for nanowire growth. The nanowires are oriented in the [111] direction and are restricted to the patterned areas. SEM/TEM characterizations show that the nanowires have a hexagonal shape with {l_brace}110{r_brace} side facets and zinc blende as dominant crystal structure.

  3. The miniband spectrum in (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111)

    CERN Document Server

    Karavaev, G F; Egunov, R M

    2002-01-01

    The electron states for energies in the conduction band of (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111) superlattices with M >= N (N < 10) are considered. The properties of such superlattices are mainly determined by electrons of X-valley in AlAs and L-valley in GaAs. The calculations are carried out on the basis of the envelope-function model of interface band mixing. Miniband spectra, symmetry and localization of wave functions, and also probabilities of the interminiband infrared absorption are defined and analyzed. It is shown that the latter have a significant magnitude not only at light polarization along the superlattice growth axis, but also at normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has been normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has shown the importance of consideration of X sub 5 -states belonging to the valence band for infrared absorption

  4. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  5. Diffusion of $^{56}$Co in GaAs and SiGe alloys

    CERN Multimedia

    Koskelo, O K

    2007-01-01

    Following our previous diffusion studies performed with the modified radiotracer technique, we propose to determine the diffusion of cobalt in GaAs and SiGe alloys under intrinsic conditions. In the literature only three previous studies for Co diffusion in GaAs may be found and the results differ by over four orders of magnitude from each other. For Co diffusion in SiGe alloys no previous data is available in the literature. For Co diffusion in Ge one study may be found but the results have been obtained with material having increased dislocation density. For dislocation-free material no previous measurements are available. For such experiments we ask for two runs of 3 shifts (total of 6 shifts) with $^{56}$Co$^{+}$ ion beam.

  6. The role of titanium at the SrTiO3/GaAs epitaxial interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, B.; Bachelet, R.; Grenet, G.; Botella, C.; Regreny, P.; Largeau, L.; Penuelas, J.; Saint-Girons, G.

    2016-01-01

    We study the role of a Ti surface treatment applied to the As-terminated GaAs (001) substrate surface prior to SrTiO3 (STO) epitaxial growth by comparing STO/GaAs samples prepared with and without Ti interlayers. Reflection high energy electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to assess the structural and chemical properties of the layers and interfaces. Without Ti interlayer, a polycrystalline TiGa compound is formed near the interface. It significantly degrades STO structural properties. A Ti interlayer efficiently prevents the formation of this unwanted compound by limiting As desorption from the GaAs substrate during STO growth. It improves significantly the structural quality of the oxide layer.

  7. Optical anisotropy induced by mechanical strain around the fundamental gap of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Balderas-Navarro, R.E. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on a theoretical-experimental study of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) of GaAs (001) crystals under uniaxial stress. The study was carried out in the energy region around the fundamental transition. RAS spectra in the energy range from 1.2-1.7 eV were measured with a photoelastic-modulator-based spectrometer. To induce an optical anisotropy, the GaAs crystals were thinned down to 400 {mu}m and an calibrated uniaxial stress was applied by deflection. RAS showed a line shape consisting of an oscillation at around E{sub 0}. On the basis of a perturbative approach employing the Pikus-Bir Hamiltonian, we calculated the RAS line shape and found a close agreement with the experimental spectra. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vaisman, Michelle [Yale University; Li, Qiang [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Lau, Kei May [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    2017-08-31

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  9. LEED and AES characterization of the GaAs(110)-ZnSe interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, D.-W.; Kahn, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a study is conducted of the composition and structure of epitaxial ZnSe films grown by congruent evaporation on GaAs(110) at a rate of 2 A/min. It is found that the films grown on 300 C GaAs are nearly stoichiometric and form an abrupt interface with the substrate. Films grown at higher temperature (T greater than 350-400 C) are Se rich. The crystallinity of films grown at 300 C is good and their surface atomic geometry is identical to that of a ZnSe crystal. The GaAs-ZnSe interface geometry seems to be dominated by the Se-substrate bonds. The adsorption of Se, during the formation of very thin ZnSe films (2-3 A), produces a (1 x 2) LEED pattern and modifications of the LEED I-V profiles, which probably indicate a change in the substrate atomic relaxation.

  10. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-11-13

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  11. Residual Carbon and Oxygen Surface Contamination of Chemically Etched GaAs (001) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliètes, A.; Massies, J.; Contour, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Several different cleaning procedures for GaAs (001) substrates are compared using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This work emphasizes the effect of the last etching step: HCl-, HF-ethanol (10%), bromine-methanol (1%), performed on a spinner (3000 rpm) operated in a nitrogen dry box, and running deionized water (RDIW). These four etchants lead to deoxidized surfaces, although RDIW leaves a fractional coverage of sligthly bounded oxygen species (≃0.15 monolayer). The residual carbon contamination is around 0.2 monolayer whatever the etchant used and is removable by flash heating at 400°C under ultrahigh vacuum. RDIW, HCl- and HF-ethanol do not produce any significant etching of the GaAs matrix whereas bromine-methanol (1%) removes ≃0.2 μm per cm3 of solution.

  12. Photoassisted MOVPE grown (n)ZnSe/(p +)GaAs heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, D. W.; Rodriguez, A.; Ayers, J. E.; Jain, F. C.

    2003-04-01

    We report the electrical characteristics of (n)ZnSe/(p +)GaAs heterostructure solar cells grown by depositing an n-type ZnSe epilayer using photoassisted metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on p + type GaAs (1 0 0) substrates. A study of the solar cell efficiency as a function of ZnSe epilayer thickness is also presented. Our preliminary results show that an epilayer thickness of 1.5 μm produced the highest efficiency for the cells tested, (4.27% under AM1.5 conditions, no anti-reflective coating). We also demonstrate a method to pattern ZnSe/GaAs structures with an inexpensive methanol/bromine etch process.

  13. The design and fabrication of anisotropically-etched GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, P. M.; Roedel, R. J.

    Anisotropically-etched GaAs solar cells have been designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The cells, which have a regular array of surface serrations, V-shaped or U-shaped in cross-section, show dramatic improvement in performance over conventional planar devices. These devices were fabricated using bromine-methanol etching to form the grooves and shallow Zn diffusion to form the junction in GaAs substrate material. The efficiency and short circuit current in the best serrated device were 6.7 percent and 16.5 mA/sq cm; planar devices were approximately 50 percent lower in both cases. A ray-tracing and metallization pattern model shows good qualitative agreement with these results.

  14. Mechanism analysis of Gen Ⅲ LLL image intensifier GaAs cathode photoelectric emission disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Yan, Lei; Cheng, Yaojin; Han, Kunye; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Taimin

    2013-08-01

    The focus of the third generation image intensifier photocathode sensitivity decreases in the GaAs are analyzed, and proposed solutions,experimental results show that the tube microchannel plate(mcp), screen GaAs cathode discharge gas is caused by decreased sensitivity of the main reasons. Paper used two-layer model, and even negative electron affinity(NET) interface barrier theory of the photoelectric cathode drop mechanism was discussed , when the photocathode emission levels of CO adsorption and other harmful gas, chemical adsorption layer of ionic bond formation will lead to production of cathode surface barrier interfaces. Cathode surface adsorption of the pollutants more ,the interface barrier becomes thicker, the smaller the electron surface escape probability, when the cathode interface thicker barrier to the electron surface escape is zero, the cathode photoemission end of life.

  15. A GaAs phase digitizing and summing system for microwave signal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tho T.; Hattis, James M.

    1989-02-01

    The analysis, design, and development of a microwave signal storage prototype system using phase-quantization sampling are described. A GaAs 4-bit D/A converter has been demonstrated in a 3-bit DRFM prototype system with digital Si emitter-coupled logic (ECL) and RF microwave components at a sample rate of 200 MHz and exhibiting typically a -17-dBc harmonic suppression. A monolithic GaAs A/D and D/A converter has been demonstrated within an RF signal acquisition system. Performance data on the monolithic sampler reveal that the 3-bit quantization system exhibits signal reconstruction with harmonic supression exceeding 25 dB across an IF bandwidth of greater than 900 MHz.

  16. Deep Level Defects In Ion Implanted Laser Annealed Bulk GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlodlo, Mqhele E.; Rys, Andrzej; Ahmed, Akhter U.; Edgar, James H.

    1990-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the carrier activation and deep level crystal defects in pulsed excimer laser (A = 308 nm) anealed samples of GaAs implanted with Si and Se to a dose ranging from 2.2 x 1012 to 6.0 x 10" cm'. The residual defects in the pulsed-laser annealed GaAs have been investigated by means of photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PITS). The electron concentration and carrier mobility were studied by Hall effect and Van der Pauw measurements. Although the implanted layer recrystallization was good and the sheet carrier concentration was high, the electron mobility was low. The correlation between deep traps, the carrier concentration, the electron mobility, and laser light intensity is presented.

  17. Anisotropy of mosaic structure of GaAsP layers grown on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, T. [Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3, Takiharu-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan); Kato, T. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30, Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8545 (Japan); Jin, X.G.; Tanioku, M.; Ujihara, T.; Takeda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yamamoto, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Mano, A.; Okumi, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakanishi, T. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Horinaka, H.; Matsuyama, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuen-cho, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yasue, T.; Koshikawa, T. [Fundamental Electronics Research Institute, Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8, Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa 572-8530 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The crystalline structure of GaAsP layers grown on GaAs and GaP(001) substrates, used for spin polarized photocathodes, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. The layers on the GaAs substrate possess a mosaic structure observable by X-ray topography and consist of many large blocks. The mosaicity is anisotropic and the distribution of the mosaic is restricted within the (110) plane, and the blocks zigzag around the [110] direction. The layer grown on the GaP substrate was uniform and no mosaic was observed in the topographs. The results indicate that different mechanisms of strain release occur in GaAsP layers for tensile and compressive strains. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Absorption from Neutral Acceptors in GaAs and GaP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    We present a new calculation of the absorption due to transitions of holes between neutral acceptors and the various valence-band sublevels in GaAs and GaP. The acceptor wave function was approximated by a previously suggested expression for ground-state wave functions appropriate to complicated ...... band extrema. Numerical calculations of the absorption from intervalence-band transitions of free holes and neutral acceptors have been performed. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained....

  19. Propagation of surface acoustic waves in n-type GaAs films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chhi-Chong; Tsai, Jensan

    1983-05-01

    The effect of nonparabolicity on the amplification of surface acoustic waves in n-type GaAs films is investigated quantum mechanically in the GHz frequency region. Numerical results show that the amplification coefficient for the nonparabolic band structure is enhanced due to the nonlinear nature of the energy band in semiconductors. Moreover, the amplification coefficients in semiconductors depend on the temperature, the electronic screening effect, the frequency of sound waves, the applied electric field, and the thickness of the semiconductor film.

  20. Growth of ZnO thin films on GaAs by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, V.; Elders, J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Geretovsky, J.; Boyd, Ian W.

    1995-01-01

    ZnO thin films have been grown on GaAs substrates using the pulsed laser deposition technique with or without a photodeposited SiO2 buffer layer. The presence of the SiO2 layer has a beneficial effect on the crystalline quality of the grown ZnO films. Highly c-axis oriented ZnO films having a full

  1. Spin-orbit splitting of the cyclotron resonance in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, P.; Lipparini, E.

    2004-08-01

    We have studied the relevance of spin-orbit coupling to the splitting of the cyclotron resonance of electron space-charge layers in GaAs recently observed by Manger [Phys. Rev. B 63, 121203R (2001)]. We show that the spin-orbit interaction couples density and spin-density excitations in the long-wavelength limit and is able to explain all the features observed in the experiment.

  2. Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.

  3. The characterisation of selective proton damage on GaAs solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyu, Y.H. (School of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Wales Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom)); Morgan, D.V. (School of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Wales Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom)); Bunce, R.W. (School of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Wales Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-16

    Selective ion bombardment damage was induced on n/n[sup +] GaAs Schottky barrier solar cell structure using several proton energies and doses. The damage in the surface, interface, and the bulk regions were characterised by I-V, C-V, and thermally stimulated current technique (TSC). A correlation between the selective damages and the nature of the defects and their location was obtained. (orig.)

  4. Modeling of chemical vapor deposition. II. Gas phase epitaxy of (100) GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korec, J.; Heyen, M.

    1982-12-01

    The approach described in part I of this paper is applied here to model the CVD of GaAs in a halide transport system. A quantitative description of the effect of growth temperature on the growth rate is obtained. Also the effect of GaCl and arsenic vapor pressure on the growth rate is described. The theoretical estimate of the transition point between etching and growth is close to the experimental value.

  5. Perubahan Sel Imun Pulpitis Akibat Biomodulasi Laser GaA1As

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrohowati Nugrohowati

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to disclose the effect of GaA1As laser biomodulation on pulpitis immune response. The use of laser is still disputable, because of the biomodulation effect of laser remains unclear, particularly on immune response of pulpitis. Laser is  astressor because it produces stress wave that may cause stress on pulp. Modulation of immune system occurred in each variable of immune system component was considred to be GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome). The applied design ...

  6. Self-pumped and double phase conjugation in GaAs with applied dc electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Liu, D. T. H.; Cheng, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Self-pumped and double phase conjugation are first demonstrated in undoped GaAs with applied dc electric field at 1.06 micron wavelength. Phase-conjugate reflectivities of up to 3 percent and 0.5 percent, respectively, are obtained and other dependences are reported. Reported values of the self-pumped phase-conjugate reflectivity are compared with those of InP.

  7. Surface passivation of GaAs nanowires by the atomic layer deposition of AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtrom, I. V., E-mail: igorstrohm@mail.ru; Bouravleuv, A. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Samsonenko, Yu. B.; Khrebtov, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Soshnikov, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Reznik, R. R.; Cirlin, G. E., E-mail: cirlin@beam.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Dhaka, V.; Perros, A.; Lipsanen, H. [Aalto University (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    It is shown that the atomic layer deposition of thin AlN layers can be used to passivate the surface states of GaAs nanowires synthesized by molecular-beam epitaxy. Studies of the optical properties of samples by low-temperature photoluminescence measurements shows that the photoluminescence-signal intensity can be increased by a factor of up to five by passivating the nanowires with a 25-Å-thick AlN layer.

  8. Smart Power Devices and ICs Using GaAs and Wide and Extreme Bandgap Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, T. Paul; Omura, Ichiro; Higashiwaki, Masataka; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Pala, Vipindas

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate and compare the performance and potential of GaAs and of wide and extreme bandgap semiconductors (SiC, GaN, Ga2O3, diamond), relative to silicon, for power electronics applications. We examine their device structures and associated materials/process technologies and selectively review the recent experimental demonstrations of high voltage power devices and IC structures of these semiconductors. We discuss the technical obstacles that still need to be addressed and overcome before ...

  9. Formation of arsenic sulfide on GaAs surface under illumination in acidified thiourea electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khader, Mahmoud M., E-mail: mmkhader@qu.edu.qa [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. 2713, Doha (Qatar); AlJaber, Amina S. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. 2713, Doha (Qatar)

    2011-10-15

    The present article reports the formation of arsenic sulfide films on GaAs by the potentiodynamic polarization in acidified thiourea (TU) electrolytes under photo-illumination. Oxidation of TU competes with the oxidation of GaAs itself and leads to the formation of surface arsenic-sulfide films. Surface chemical composition is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), demonstrating the formation of As-sulfide as the XPS peaks at binding energies of 42.6 and 162.5 eV for As 3d and S 2p, respectively, are observed. XPS results also show diminishing of Ga species from the surface while As-sulfide is forming. Though, As-sulfide is predominantly formed on the surface, but the inductive coupling plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis still shows a preferential dissolution of As ions into electrolytes. These results indicate that Ga ions diffuse into the bulk of the electrode material. The formation of As-sulfide, initially, enhances the photocurrent generation; presumably, due to suppressing electron-hole recombination processes. Further deposition of As-sulfide deteriorates GaAs photoactivity due to retarding light absorptivity because of depositing a thick As-sulfide film. The morphology of the As-sulfide film is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that shows the formation of smooth and nonporous films in TU electrolytes acidified by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of concentration {>=}0.2 M. Electrochemical impedance measurements show that GaAs corrosion is limited by the growth and oxidation of the sulfide layer.

  10. Technique for producing 'good' GaAs solar cells using poor-quality substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovel, H. J.; Wooddall, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Relatively good GaAs solar cells can be made from poor-quality substrates by making the junction deep (greater than 1 micron) instead of shallow and by 'leaching' both the pGaAs and nGaAs regions during the growth process. AM0 efficiencies of 14.7% (19% AM1) have been obtained from substrates with starting substrate diffusion lengths of 0.6 micron.

  11. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T., E-mail: thierry.melin@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR8520, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, CNRS-UMR7647, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  12. Superconducting doped topological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi, E-mail: sasaki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mizushima, Takeshi, E-mail: mizushima@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Studies on both normal- and SC-state properties of doped topological materials. • Odd-parity pairing systems with the time-reversal-invariance. • Robust superconductivity in the presence of nonmagnetic impurity scattering. • We propose experiments to identify the existence of Majorana fermions in these SCs. - Abstract: Recently, the search for Majorana fermions (MFs) has become one of the most important and exciting issues in condensed matter physics since such an exotic quasiparticle is expected to potentially give rise to unprecedented quantum phenomena whose functional properties will be used to develop future quantum technology. Theoretically, the MFs may reside in various types of topological superconductor materials that is characterized by the topologically protected gapless surface state which are essentially an Andreev bound state. Superconducting doped topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators are promising candidates to harbor the MFs. In this review, we discuss recent progress and understanding on the research of MFs based on time-reversal-invariant superconducting topological materials to deepen our understanding and have a better outlook on both the search for and realization of MFs in these systems. We also discuss some advantages of these bulk systems to realize MFs including remarkable superconducting robustness against nonmagnetic impurities.

  13. Quantum efficiency of transmission-mode AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathodes with graded-composition and exponential-doping structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Yijun; Qian, Yunsheng; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinxin; Jiao, Gangcheng

    2016-06-01

    A transmission-mode AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode with the combination of composition-graded AlxGa1-xAs window layer and exponential-doping GaAs emission layer is developed to maximize the cathode performance. The theoretical quantum efficiency model with this complex structure containing twofold built-in electric fields is deduced by solving the one dimensional continuity equations combined with the three-step model. By comparison of spectral characteristics of photocathodes with different composition and doping structures, and through analysis of cathode structure parameters, it is found that the twofold built-in electric fields can effectively improve photoemission performance of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode, which is related to Al proportion variation range and thicknesses of window layer and emission layer. The quantum efficiency model would provide theoretical guidance for better design of transmission-mode graded bandgap photocathodes.

  14. Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Daniel; Panciera, Federico; Tersoff, Jerry; Reuter, Mark C.; Lehmann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Stephan; Dick, Kimberly A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-01

    Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.

  15. Epitaxial lift-off technology of GaAs multijunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyps, P.; Dumiszewska, E.; Kaszub, W.; Przewłoka, A.; Strupinski, W.

    2016-12-01

    Epitaxial lift-off (ELO) is a process which enables the removal of solar cell structures (one junction GaAs, two junction GaAs/InGaP or three junction GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP) from the substrate on which they are grown and their transfer onto lightweight carriers such as metal or polymeric insulator films. The said solar cells exhibit superior power conversion efficiency compared with alternative single-junction photovoltaic cell designs such as those based on crystalline Si, copper indium gallium sulfide (CIGS) or CdTe. The major advantage of ELO solar cells is the potential for wafer reuse, which can enable significant manufacturing cost reduction by minimizing the consumption of expensive wafers. Here in this work we have grown one junction GaAs solar cells on GaAs (100) substrates. A 10 nm thick AlAs layer has been used as a release layer, which has been selectively etched in HF solution. We have investigated different methods of transferring thin films onto polymer and copper foils, including the usage of temporary mounting adhesives and electro-conductive pastes. Lift-off has been demonstrated to be a very promising technique for producing affordable solar cells with a very high efficiency of up to 30%.

  16. Ga-assisted MBE grown GaAs nanowires and related quantum heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Nanowires represent model systems for studying a variety of low dimensional phenomena as well as building blocks for the future generation of nanoscale devices. The most exploited nanowire growth technique is the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method, which employs gold as a seed for the growth. Synthesis of nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and without using gold as a catalyst gives the opportunity to study nanowires produced in extremely clean conditions and correlate it with optical and electronic properties. We present the method for growing GaAs nanowires by MBE without using gold as a catalyst. By changing the growth conditions we have managed to obtain high quality radial and axial heterostructures. For the latter, nanowires with atomically sharp zinc-blende/wurtzite heterostructures have been obtained. These structures exhibit novel optical properties for a pure GaAs material. In particular, we show how the emission of the nanowire can be tuned from 1.51 eV down to 1.43 eV. Theoretical calculations of the band alignment between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs are presented to explain the results. Finally, novel applications enabled by these types of quantum heterostructures are also briefly discussed.

  17. Degradation mechanism(s) of GaAs solar cells with Cu contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leest, R H; de Kleijne, K; Bauhuis, G J; Mulder, P; Cheun, H; Lee, H; Yoon, W; van der Heijden, R; Bongers, E; Vlieg, E; Schermer, J J

    2016-04-21

    Substrate-based GaAs solar cells having a dense Au/Cu front contact grid with 45% surface coverage were exposed to accelerated life testing at temperatures between 200 and 300 °C. TEM analysis of the front contacts was used to gain a better understanding of the degradation process. During accelerated life testing at 200 °C only intermixing of the Au and Cu in the front contact occurs, without any significant influence on the J-V curve of the cells, even after 1320 h (55 days) of accelerated life testing. At temperatures ≥250 °C a recrystallization process occurs in which the metals of the contact and the GaAs front contact layer interact. Once the grainy recrystallized layer starts to approach the window, diffusion via grain boundaries to the window and into the active region of the solar cells occurs, causing a decrease in Voc due to enhanced non-radiative recombination via Cu trap levels introduced in the active region of the solar cell. To be a valid simulation of space conditions the accelerated life testing temperature should be future experiments, in order to avoid recrystallization of the metals with the GaAs contact layer.

  18. Properties of a Light-Modified-Breakdown Detector in GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, J M; Baukus, J P; Lavin, J M

    1973-10-01

    The properties of a bulk-effect millimeter-wave detector made from high-purity epitaxial GaAs are discussed. The devices are operated at 4.2 K in a new light-modified-breakdown (LMB) mode with dc bias above avalanche breakdown. When operated in the LMB mode as a direct video detector, circuit-limited response time (10-90% pulse) less than 20 nsec is observed, which is an order of magnitude faster than the response of bulk GaAs and InSb mixers. NEP values of less than 10(-10) W (D* on the order of 10(10)) in the video detector mode have been measured over the 10-70 GHz frequency range. The dependence of detector performance on operating parameters and frequency is given and compared with the predictions of hot-electron theory developed for InSb detectors. Its performance is also compared with that of microwave-biased InSb, thermal, pyroelectric, and photoionized-impurity GaAs detectors and with point contact, Schottky barrier, and MOM (tunneling) diodes and is shown to provide significant advantages of either burnout resistance, risetime, or noise over competitors in the millimeter spectral region.

  19. ECR plasma synthesis of silicon nitride films on GaAs and InSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J.C.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Howard, A.J.; Custer, J.S.; Shul, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Growth of high-quality dielectric films from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas provides for low-temperature surface passivation of compound semiconductors. Silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) films were grown at temperatures from 30 to 250 C on GaAs substrates. Stress in films was measured as a function of bias applied during growth (varied from 0 to 200 V), and of sample annealing treatments. Composition profiles of the samples were measured using ion beam analysis. The GaAs photoluminescence (PL) signal after SiN{sub x} growth without an applied bias (ion energy {congruent}30 eV) was twice as large as the PL signal from the cleaned GaAs substrate. The PL signal from samples biased at -50 and -100 V indicated that damage degraded the passivation quality, while atomic force microscopy of these samples showed a three fold increase in rms surface roughness relative to unbiased samples. The sample grown with a bias of -200 V showed the largest reduction in film stress but also the smallest PL signal.

  20. Characterization of photon recycling in thin crystalline GaAs light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, M. P.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Melloch, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Gallium arsenide light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using molecular beam epitaxial films on GaAs substrates and removed by epitaxial lift-off (ELO). Lifted off devices were then mounted on a Si wafer using a Pd/Au/Cr contact layer, which also served as a back surface reflector. Devices were characterized by electrical and optical measurements, and the results for devices on the GaAs substrate were compared to those for ELO devices. ELO LEDs coated with a ZnS/MgF2 antireflection coating exhibited an optical output that was up to six times that of LEDs on GaAs substrates. At the same time, the measured current-voltage characteristics of the ELO devices displayed a lower n=1 current component. ELO LEDs with efficiencies up to 12.5% were realized. We attribute these results to photon recycling enhanced by the back-surface reflector in the ELO LEDs. The luminescence versus current and current versus voltage characteristics of the LEDs were analyzed to obtain the nonradiative minority carrier lifetimes and the photon recycling factors. The results demonstrate that the measured characteristics are well described by photon recycling theory. ELO LEDs may prove useful for characterizing recombination processes in LEDs, and thin-crystalline structures could provide substantial efficiency enhancements for LEDs and solar cells.